WorldWideScience

Sample records for relativistic geodetic precession

  1. What forces act in relativistic gyroscope precession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, Oldrich

    1996-11-01

    The translation of the relativistic motion into the language of forces, proposed by the author (1995, Nuovo Cimento B 110 973), is employed to interpret the gyroscope precession in general relativity. The precession is referred to the comoving Frenet triad built up along the projection of the gyroscope's trajectory onto the 3-space of the local hypersurface-orthogonal observer. The contributions of the centrifugal, the gravitational and the dragging + Coriolis forces are identified respectively with the Thomas, the geodetic, and the gravitomagnetic components of precession. Explicit expressions are given for several simple types of motion in the Kerr (or simpler) field in order to show that the general formulae obtained are not only very simple, but also yield clear results in accord with intuition in concrete situations.

  2. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Shahid-Saless, B.

    1990-01-01

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism

  3. Solutions to the relativistic precession model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, A.; Motta, S.

    2014-01-01

    The relativistic precession model (RPM) can be used to obtain a precise measurement of the mass and spin of a black hole when the appropriate set of quasi-periodic oscillations is detected in the power-density spectrum of an accreting black hole. However, in previous studies, the solution of the RPM

  4. Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea

    2008-07-04

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.

  5. Self-force correction to geodetic spin precession in Kerr spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Sarp

    2017-08-01

    We present an expression for the gravitational self-force correction to the geodetic spin precession of a spinning compact object with small, but non-negligible mass in a bound, equatorial orbit around a Kerr black hole. We consider only conservative backreaction effects due to the mass of the compact object (m1), thus neglecting the effects of its spin s1 on its motion; i.e., we impose s1≪G m12/c and m1≪m2, where m2 is the mass parameter of the background Kerr spacetime. We encapsulate the correction to the spin precession in ψ , the ratio of the accumulated spin-precession angle to the total azimuthal angle over one radial orbit in the equatorial plane. Our formulation considers the gauge-invariant O (m1) part of the correction to ψ , denoted by Δ ψ , and is a generalization of the results of Akcay et al. [Classical Quantum Gravity 34, 084001 (2017), 10.1088/1361-6382/aa61d6] to Kerr spacetime. Additionally, we compute the zero-eccentricity limit of Δ ψ and show that this quantity differs from the circular orbit Δ ψcirc by a gauge-invariant quantity containing the gravitational self-force correction to general relativistic periapsis advance in Kerr spacetime. Our result for Δ ψ is expressed in a manner that readily accommodates numerical/analytical self-force computations, e.g., in the radiation gauge, and paves the way for the computation of a new eccentric-orbit Kerr gauge invariant beyond the generalized redshift.

  6. Predicting Mercury's precession using simple relativistic Newtonian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Y.; Steiner, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new simple relativistic model for planetary motion describing accurately the anomalous precession of the perihelion of Mercury and its origin. The model is based on transforming Newton's classical equation for planetary motion from absolute to real spacetime influenced by the gravitational potential and introducing the concept of influenced direction.

  7. MOONLIGHT: A NEW LUNAR LASER RANGING RETROREFLECTOR AND THE LUNAR GEODETIC PRECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR arrays (developed by the University of Maryland, UMD supplied almost all significant tests of General Relativity (Alley et al., 1970; Chang et al., 1971; Bender et al.,1973: possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy, weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. The LNF group, in fact, has just completed a new measurement of the lunar geodetic precession with Apollo array, with accuracy of 9 × 10−3, comparable to the best measurement to date. LLR has also provided significant information on the composition and origin of the moon. This is the only Apollo experiment still in operation. In the 1970s Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the project MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-accuracy Tests, in 2006 INFN-LNF joined UMD in the development and test of a new-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100mm diameter unaffected by the effect of librations. With MoonLIGHT CCRs the accuracy of the measurement of the lunar geodetic precession can be improved up to a factor 100 compared to Apollo arrays. From a technological point of view, INFN-LNF built and is operating a new experimental apparatus (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facility, SCF and created a new industry-standard test procedure (SCF-Test to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of CCRs in accurately laboratory-simulated space conditions, for industrial and scientific applications. Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP and the

  8. Larmor precession and dwell time of a relativistic particle scattered by a rectangular quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z J; Liang, J J; Liang, J Q

    2003-01-01

    The Larmor precession of a relativistic neutral spin particle in a uniform constant magnetic field confined to the region of a one-dimensional rectangular potential well is investigated. The spin precession serves as a clock to measure the time spent by a quantum particle dwelling at a potential well. With the help of a general spin coherent state it is explicitly shown that the spin precession time is equal to the dwell time in the first-order approximation of the infinitesimal field limit. The comparison of the time in a potential well with that in free space shows apparent superluminality.

  9. Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.

    2005-01-01

    High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields

  10. Classical relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment: The precession of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Cruz, M.G.

    1993-05-01

    The theory of classical relativistic spinning particles with c-number internal spinor variables, modelling accurately the Dirac electron, is generalized to particles with anomalous magnetic moments. The equations of motion are derived and the problem of spin precession is discussed and compared with other theories of spin. (author). 32 refs

  11. Change in General Relativistic precession rates due to Lidov-Kozai oscillations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David J.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Two well known phenomena associated with low perihelion distance bodies in orbital dynamics are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations. The accurate prediction of the perihelion shift of Mercury in accord with real observations is one of the significant triumphs of the general theory of relativity developed by Einstein. The Lidov-Kozai mechanism was first proposed and derived by Kozai and independently by Lidov explaining the periodic exchange between eccentricities e and inclinations i thereby increasing or decreasing the perihelion distance q secularly in the orbiting body. Co-existence of GR Precession and LK Oscillations: In this work, we were interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK oscillations and being GR active at the same time. Of all the bodies we checked from the IAU-Minor Planet Center, and Marsden plus Kracht families from the comet catalogue, 96P/Machholz 1 stands out because it shows all these trends in the near future. LK leads to secular lowering of q which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of argument of pericentre. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the e,i and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show the continuum nature between GR precession domi-nant and LK mechanism dominant regimes. Results and Discussion: We have shown that there are bodies in the solar system in which both GR precession and LK mechanism can co-exist at the same time and for which these effects can be measured and identified using analytical and numerical techniques. Thus there is a continuum of bodies encompassing, firstly GR precession dominant, secondly GR precession plus LK mechanism co-existing and finally LK mechanism dominant states which are all

  12. Gyro precession and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, P.

    1979-01-01

    The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)

  13. X-Ray Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Lense–Thirring Precession Model. I. Variability of Relativistic Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bei; Bursa, Michal; Życki, Piotr T.

    2018-05-01

    We develop a Monte Carlo code to compute the Compton-scattered X-ray flux arising from a hot inner flow that undergoes Lense–Thirring precession. The hot flow intercepts seed photons from an outer truncated thin disk. A fraction of the Comptonized photons will illuminate the disk, and the reflected/reprocessed photons will contribute to the observed spectrum. The total spectrum, including disk thermal emission, hot flow Comptonization, and disk reflection, is modeled within the framework of general relativity, taking light bending and gravitational redshift into account. The simulations are performed in the context of the Lense–Thirring precession model for the low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations, so the inner flow is assumed to precess, leading to periodic modulation of the emitted radiation. In this work, we concentrate on the energy-dependent X-ray variability of the model and, in particular, on the evolution of the variability during the spectral transition from hard to soft state, which is implemented by the decrease of the truncation radius of the outer disk toward the innermost stable circular orbit. In the hard state, where the Comptonizing flow is geometrically thick, the Comptonization is weakly variable with a fractional variability amplitude of ≤10% in the soft state, where the Comptonizing flow is cooled down and thus becomes geometrically thin, the fractional variability of the Comptonization is highly variable, increasing with photon energy. The fractional variability of the reflection increases with energy, and the reflection emission for low spin is counterintuitively more variable than the one for high spin.

  14. Geodetic methods to determine the relativistic redshift at the level of 10^{-18} in the context of international timescales: a review and practical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Heiner; Timmen, Ludger; Voigt, Christian; Weyers, Stefan; Peik, Ekkehard; Margolis, Helen S.; Delva, Pacôme; Wolf, Peter; Petit, Gérard

    2017-12-01

    The frequency stability and uncertainty of the latest generation of optical atomic clocks is now approaching the one part in 10^{18} level. Comparisons between earthbound clocks at rest must account for the relativistic redshift of the clock frequencies, which is proportional to the corresponding gravity (gravitational plus centrifugal) potential difference. For contributions to international timescales, the relativistic redshift correction must be computed with respect to a conventional zero potential value in order to be consistent with the definition of Terrestrial Time. To benefit fully from the uncertainty of the optical clocks, the gravity potential must be determined with an accuracy of about 0.1 m2 s^{-2} , equivalent to about 0.01 m in height. This contribution focuses on the static part of the gravity field, assuming that temporal variations are accounted for separately by appropriate reductions. Two geodetic approaches are investigated for the derivation of gravity potential values: geometric levelling and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/geoid approach. Geometric levelling gives potential differences with millimetre uncertainty over shorter distances (several kilometres), but is susceptible to systematic errors at the decimetre level over large distances. The GNSS/geoid approach gives absolute gravity potential values, but with an uncertainty corresponding to about 2 cm in height. For large distances, the GNSS/geoid approach should therefore be better than geometric levelling. This is demonstrated by the results from practical investigations related to three clock sites in Germany and one in France. The estimated uncertainty for the relativistic redshift correction at each site is about 2 × 10^{-18}.

  15. Thomas precession: a kinematic effect of the algebra of Einstein's velocity addition law. Comments on 'Deriving relativistic momentum and energy: II. Three-dimensional case'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungar, Abraham A

    2006-01-01

    The authors of a recently published paper (Sonego S and Pin M 2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 851-6) have erroneously asserted that Einstein's velocity addition law is associative. Moreover, they have attributed the alleged associativity of Einstein's velocity addition law to 'The relativity principle[, which] requires that [Einstein's velocity addition] gives the composition law of a group'. Accordingly, we note that Einstein's velocity addition is non-associative and demonstrate that the breakdown of associativity and commutativity in Einstein's velocity addition law results from the presence of Thomas precession. (letters and comments)

  16. Geodetic Control Points - National Geodetic Survey Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  17. Impeller in Precessing Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Yoshida

    2001-01-01

    destabilizing in the region of negative precessing speed ratio (-0.3<Ω/ω<0, at the design flow rate; (2 At reduced flow rate, the destabilizing fluid force moments occurred at small positive precessing speed ratio (0.2<Ω/ω<0.4; (3 From the comparison of direct measured fluid force moments with those estimated from the unsteady pressure measured on the front and back casing walls, it was found that the destabilizing moments in the backward precession are mainly caused by the fluid forces on the front surface of the present impeller, where there is large clearance between the back shroud and casing.

  18. The precession of mercury's perihelion via perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, M.H.; Castro-Quilantan, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Perturbation theory is used to solve the problem of the precession of Mercury's perihelion, this phenomenon being a relativistic effect. The expansion parameter appears naturally when the orbit equation is written in an appropriate form and it completely justifies the use of the first order approximation. (author)

  19. Gyroscope precession in special and general relativity from basic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Rickard M.

    2007-05-01

    In special relativity a gyroscope that is suspended in a torque-free manner will precess as it is moved along a curved path relative to an inertial frame S. We explain this effect, which is known as Thomas precession, by considering a real grid that moves along with the gyroscope, and that by definition is not rotating as observed from its own momentary inertial rest frame. From the basic properties of the Lorentz transformation we deduce how the form and rotation of the grid (and hence the gyroscope) will evolve relative to S. As an intermediate step we consider how the grid would appear if it were not length contracted along the direction of motion. We show that the uncontracted grid obeys a simple law of rotation. This law simplifies the analysis of spin precession compared to more traditional approaches based on Fermi transport. We also consider gyroscope precession relative to an accelerated reference frame and show that there are extra precession effects that can be explained in a way analogous to the Thomas precession. Although fully relativistically correct, the entire analysis is carried out using three-vectors. By using the equivalence principle the formalism can also be applied to static spacetimes in general relativity. As an example, we calculate the precession of a gyroscope orbiting a static black hole.

  20. Thomas precession in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, J.

    1983-01-01

    A Thomas precession mechanism is described which would become effective in a symmetric six-dimensional space-time if the time vector of a particle would rotate uniformly. For the effect a discrepancy of the decay time of particles in flight, proportional to their kinetic energy would be characteristic

  1. Larmor precession reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauter, H.J.; Toperverg, B.P.; Lauter-Pasyuk, V.; Petrenko, A.; Aksenov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Larmor precession phase encoding is applied to modulate TOF reflection spectra measured from a polymer multilayer and from an Fe/Cr multilayer. It is proposed that decoding of the spectra can be used to extract the small-angle scattering signal from the polymer film-embedded nanoparticles. The second example is directed to demonstrate one of the plausible realizations of the vector polarization analysis in reflectometry of magnetic systems. This would allow to unambiguously reconstruct the transverse and lateral distribution of the magnetization vectors throughout the multilayered superlattices

  2. RELATIVISTIC MEASUREMENTS FROM TIMING THE BINARY PULSAR PSR B1913+16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, J. M.; Huang, Y., E-mail: jweisber@carleton.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We present relativistic analyses of 9257 measurements of times-of-arrival from the first binary pulsar, PSR B1913+16, acquired over the last 35 years. The determination of the “Keplerian” orbital elements plus two relativistic terms completely characterizes the binary system, aside from an unknown rotation about the line of sight, leading to a determination of the masses of the pulsar and its companion: 1.438 ± 0.001 M {sub ☉} and 1.390 ± 0.001 M {sub ☉}, respectively. In addition, the complete system characterization allows for the creation of relativistic gravitation test by comparing measured and predicted sizes of various relativistic phenomena. We find that the ratio of the observed orbital period decrease caused by gravitational wave damping (corrected by a kinematic term) to the general relativistic prediction is 0.9983 ± 0.0016, thereby confirms the existence and strength of gravitational radiation as predicted by general relativity. For the first time in this system, we have also successfully measured the two parameters characterizing the Shapiro gravitational propagation delay, and found that their values are consistent with general relativistic predictions. For the first time in any system, we have also measured the relativistic shape correction to the elliptical orbit, δ {sub θ} , although its intrinsic value is obscured by currently unquantified pulsar emission beam aberration. We have also marginally measured the time derivative of the projected semimajor axis, which, when improved in combination with beam aberration modeling from geodetic precession observations, should ultimately constrain the pulsar’s moment of inertia.

  3. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames including PPN effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid-Saless, B.

    1986-01-01

    In this dissertation they use the concept of a generalized Fermi frame to describe the relativistic effects on a body placed in a local inertial frame of reference due to local and distant sources of gravitation. They have considered, in particular, a model, consisted of two spherically symmetric gravitating sources, moving in circular orbits around a common barycenter where one of the bodies is chosen to be the local and the other the distant one. This has been done in the Parametrized-Post-Newtonian formalism using the slow motion, weak field approximation. The PPN parameters used are γ, β, zeta 1 and zeta 2 . They show that the main relativistic effect on a local satellite is described by the Schwarzchild field of the local body and the nonlinear term corresponding to the self-interaction of the local source itself. There are also much smaller terms that are proportional to the product of the potentials of local and distant bodies and distant body's self interactions. The spatial axis of the local frame undergoes Geodetic precession. Effects involving the parameters zeta 1 and zeta 2 seem to be slightly too small to be observable at the present time. In addition they have found accelerations that vanish in the general relativity limit

  4. Geodetic Survey Water Level Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one million images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) forms captured from microfiche. Tabular forms and charts...

  5. Improved Models for Precession and Nutation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathews, P. M

    2000-01-01

    .... Such a fit is provided by the MHB2000 nutation series (Mathews et al., 2000) based on geophysical theory with a few basic Earth parameters estimated by a fit to nutation-precession data, and its accompanying precession rate...

  6. Toroidal Precession as a Geometric Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Burby and H. Qin

    2012-09-26

    Toroidal precession is commonly understood as the orbit-averaged toroidal drift of guiding centers in axisymmetric and quasisymmetric configurations. We give a new, more natural description of precession as a geometric phase effect. In particular, we show that the precession angle arises as the holonomy of a guiding center's poloidal trajectory relative to a principal connection. The fact that this description is physically appropriate is borne out with new, manifestly coordinate-independent expressions for the precession angle that apply to all types of orbits in tokamaks and quasisymmetric stellarators alike. We then describe how these expressions may be fruitfully employed in numerical calculations of precession.

  7. Modified geodetic brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín

    2012-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)

  8. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames including parametrized-post-Newtonian effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid-Saless, B.; Ashby, N.

    1988-01-01

    We use the concept of a generalized Fermi frame to describe relativistic effects, due to local and distant sources of gravitation, on a body placed in a local inertial frame of reference. In particular we have considered a model of two spherically symmetric gravitating point sources, moving in circular orbits around a common barycenter where one of the bodies is chosen to be the local and the other the distant one. This has been done using the slow-motion, weak-field approximation and including four of the parametrized-post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. The position of the classical center of mass must be modified when the PPN parameter zeta 2 is included. We show that the main relativistic effect on a local satellite is described by the Schwarzschild field of the local body and the nonlinear term corresponding to the self-interaction of the local source with itself. There are also much smaller terms that are proportional, respectively, to the product of the potentials of local and distant bodies and to the distant body's self-interactions. The spatial axes of the local frame undergo geodetic precession. In addition we have an acceleration of the order of 10/sup -11/ cm sec -2 that vanish in the case of general relativity, which is discussed in detail

  9. Thomas precession for dressed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Blagoje

    2018-03-01

    We consider a particle dressed with boundary gravitons in three-dimensional Minkowski space. The existence of BMS transformations implies that the particle’s wavefunction picks up a Berry phase when subjected to changes of reference frames that trace a closed path in the asymptotic symmetry group. We evaluate this phase and show that, for BMS superrotations, it provides a gravitational generalization of Thomas precession. In principle, such phases are observable signatures of asymptotic symmetries.

  10. Geodesy introduction to geodetic datum and geodetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhiping; Qiao, Shubo

    2014-01-01

    A full introduction to geodetic data and systems written by well-known experts in their respective fields, this book is an ideal text for courses in geodesy and geomatics covering everything from coordinate and gravimetry data to geodetic systems of all types.

  11. Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect). (methodological notes)

  12. Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I

    2009-01-01

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect). (methodological notes)

  13. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I.

    2009-08-01

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect).

  14. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  15. Bistable flows in precessing spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cébron, D, E-mail: david.cebron@ujf-grenoble.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, ISTerre, Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-15

    Precession driven flows are found in any rotating container filled with liquid, when the rotation axis itself rotates about a secondary axis that is fixed in an inertial frame of reference. Because of its relevance for planetary fluid layers, many works consider spheroidal containers, where the uniform vorticity component of the bulk flow is reliably given by the well-known equations obtained by Busse (1968 J. Fluid Mech. 33 739–51). So far however, no analytical result for the solutions is available. Moreover, the cases where multiple flows can coexist have not been investigated in detail since their discovery by Noir et al (2003 Geophys. J. Int. 154 407–16). In this work we aim at deriving analytical results for the solutions, aiming in particular at first estimating the ranges of parameters where multiple solutions exist, and second studying quantitatively their stability. Using the models recently proposed by Noir and Cébron (2013 J. Fluid Mech. 737 412–39), which are more generic in the inviscid limit than the equations of Busse, we analytically describe these solutions, their conditions of existence, and their stability in a systematic manner. We then successfully compare these analytical results with the theory of Busse (1968). Dynamical model equations are finally proposed to investigate the stability of the solutions, which describe the bifurcation of the unstable flow solution. We also report for the first time the possibility that time-dependent multiple flows can coexist in precessing triaxial ellipsoids. Numerical integrations of the algebraic and differential equations have been efficiently performed with the dedicated script FLIPPER (supplementary material). (paper)

  16. National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Geodetic Control Stations, (Horizontal and/or Vertical Control), March 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  17. National Geodetic Control Stations, Geographic NAD83, NGS (2004) [geodetic_ctrl_point_la_NGS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  18. Relativistic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1986-01-01

    Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs

  19. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Will, C. M.; Ni, W.

    1971-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are presented, including the definition of metric theory, evidence for its existence, and response of matter to gravity with test body trajectories, gravitational red shift, and stressed matter responses. Parametrized post-Newtonian framework and interpretations are reviewed. Gamma, beta and gamma, and varied other parameters were measured. Deflection of electromagnetic waves, radar time delay, geodetic gyroscope precession, perihelion shifts, and periodic effects in orbits are among various studies carried out for metric theory experimentation.

  20. National Geodetic Survey's Airport Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly part of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, has been performing Aeronautical surveys since the 1920's. NGS, in...

  1. Precession effects on a liquid planetary core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Li-Gang

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the desire to understand the rich dynamics of precessionally driven flow in a liquid planetary core, we investigate, through numerical simulations, the precessing fluid motion in a rotating cylindrical annulus, which simultaneously possesses slow precession. The same problemhas been studied extensively in cylinders, where the precessing flow is characterized by three key parameters: the Ekman number E, the Poincaré number Po and the radius-height aspect ratio Γ. While in an annulus, there is another parameter, the inner-radius-height aspect ratio ϒ, which also plays an important role in controlling the structure and evolution of the flow. By decomposing the nonlinear solution into a set of inertial modes, we demonstrate the properties of both weakly and moderately precessing flows. It is found that, when the precessional force is weak, the flow is stable with a constant amplitude of kinetic energy. As the precessional force increases, our simulation suggests that the nonlinear interaction between the boundary effects and the inertial modes can trigger more turbulence, introducing a transitional regime of rich dynamics to disordered flow. The inertial mode u 111, followed by u 113 or u 112, always dominates the precessing flow when 0.001 ≤ Po ≤ 0.05, ranging from weak to moderate precession. Moreover, the precessing flow in an annulus shows more stability than in a cylinder which is likely to be caused by the effect of the inner boundary that restricts the growth of resonant and non-resonant inertial modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of triadic resonance is not found in the transitional regime from a laminar to disordered flow.

  2. A flat space-time relativistic explanation for the perihelion advance of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Harihar; Naik, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    Starting with the flat space-time relativistic versions of Maxwell-Heaviside's toy model vector theory of gravity and introducing the gravitational analogues for the electromagnetic Lienard-Wiechert potentials together with the notion of a gravitational Thomas Precession; the observed anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury's orbit is here explained as a relativistic effect in flat (Minkowski) space-time, unlike Einstein's curved space-time relativistic explanation. In this new explanation fo...

  3. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity

  4. A Precessing Jet in the CH Cyg Symbiotic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Hack, Warren; Raymond, John C.; Lee, Nicholas P.

    2010-02-01

    Jets have been detected in only a few symbiotic binaries to date, and CH Cyg is one of them. In 2001, a non-relativistic jet was detected in CH Cyg for the first time in X-rays. We carried out coordinated Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and VLA observations in 2008 to study the propagation of this jet and its interaction with the circumbinary medium. We detected the jet with Chandra and HST and determined that the apex has expanded to the south from ~300 AU to ~1400 AU, with the shock front propagating with velocity <100 km s-1. The shock front has significantly slowed down since 2001. Unexpectedly, we also discovered a powerful jet in the NE-SW direction, in the X-ray, optical and radio. This jet has a multi-component structure, including an inner jet and a counterjet at ~170 AU, and a SW component ending in several clumps extending out to ~750 AU. The structure of the jet and the curvature of the outer portion of the SW jet suggest an episodically powered precessing jet or a continuous precessing jet with occasional mass ejections or pulses. We carried out detailed spatial mapping of the X-ray emission and correlation with the optical and radio emission. X-ray spectra were extracted from the central source, inner NE counterjet, and the brightest clump at a distance of ~500 AU from the central source. We discuss the initial results of our analyses, including the multi-component spectral fitting of the jet components and of the central source.

  5. A PRECESSING JET IN THE CH Cyg SYMBIOTIC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovska, Margarita; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Raymond, John C.; Lee, Nicholas P.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Hack, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Jets have been detected in only a few symbiotic binaries to date, and CH Cyg is one of them. In 2001, a non-relativistic jet was detected in CH Cyg for the first time in X-rays. We carried out coordinated Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and VLA observations in 2008 to study the propagation of this jet and its interaction with the circumbinary medium. We detected the jet with Chandra and HST and determined that the apex has expanded to the south from ∼300 AU to ∼1400 AU, with the shock front propagating with velocity -1 . The shock front has significantly slowed down since 2001. Unexpectedly, we also discovered a powerful jet in the NE-SW direction, in the X-ray, optical and radio. This jet has a multi-component structure, including an inner jet and a counterjet at ∼170 AU, and a SW component ending in several clumps extending out to ∼750 AU. The structure of the jet and the curvature of the outer portion of the SW jet suggest an episodically powered precessing jet or a continuous precessing jet with occasional mass ejections or pulses. We carried out detailed spatial mapping of the X-ray emission and correlation with the optical and radio emission. X-ray spectra were extracted from the central source, inner NE counterjet, and the brightest clump at a distance of ∼500 AU from the central source. We discuss the initial results of our analyses, including the multi-component spectral fitting of the jet components and of the central source.

  6. Brown dwarfs in retrogradely precessing cataclysmic variables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of retrogradely precessing accretion disks that have a white dwarf primary and a main sequence secondary with observational data and with theory on retrograde precession via tidal torques like those by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth [1, 2]. Assuming the primary does not accrete much of the mass lost from the secondary, we identify the theoretical low mass star/brown dwarf boundary. We find no observational candidates in our study that could qualify as brown dwarfs.

  7. Spinor approach to gravitational motion and precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, D.

    1986-01-01

    The translational and rotational equations of motion for a small rigid body in a gravitational field are combined in a single spinor equation. Besides its computational advantages, this unifies the description of gravitational interaction in classical and quantum theory. Explicit expressions for gravitational precession rates are derived. (author)

  8. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  9. Geodetic Control Information on Passive Marks: Horizontal and Vertical Geodetic Control Data for the United States - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Geodetic Control Information on Passive Marks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a set of geodetic control stations maintained by the National Geodetic Survey. Each geodetic control station in this dataset has either a precise...

  10. A covariant formalism of spin precession with respect to a reference congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    We derive an effectively three-dimensional relativistic spin precession formalism. The formalism is applicable to any spacetime where an arbitrary timelike reference congruence of worldlines is specified. We employ what we call a stopped spin vector which is the spin vector that we would get if we momentarily make a pure boost of the spin vector to stop it relative to the congruence. Starting from the Fermi transport equation for the standard spin vector we derive a corresponding transport equation for the stopped spin vector. Employing a spacetime transport equation for a vector along a worldline, corresponding to spatial parallel transport with respect to the congruence, we can write down a precession formula for a gyroscope relative to the local spatial geometry defined by the congruence. This general approach has already been pursued by Jantzen et al (see e.g. Jantzen R T, Carini P and Bini D 1992 Ann. Phys. 215 1-50), but the algebraic form of our respective expressions differs. We are also applying the formalism to a novel type of spatial parallel transport introduced in Jonsson (2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1), as well as verifying the validity of the intuitive approach of a forthcoming paper (Jonsson 2006 forthcoming) where gyroscope precession is explained entirely as a double Thomas type of effect. We also present the resulting formalism in explicit three-dimensional form (using the boldface vector notation), and give examples of applications

  11. Gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the likely detectability of gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars. We begin by presenting a neutron star model of sufficient complexity to take into account both the elasticity and fluidity of a realistic neutron star. We then examine the effect of internal dissipation (i.e. heat generation within the star) and gravitational radiation reaction on the wobble. This is followed by an examination of various astrophysical scenarios where some mechanism might pump the precessional motion. We estimate the gravitational wave amplitude in these situations. Finally, we conclude that gravitational radiation from freely precessing neutron stars is almost certainly limited to a level undetectable by a LIGO II detector by internal dissipation. (author)

  12. Evidence for free precession in a pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs; Lyne; Shemar

    2000-08-03

    Pulsars are rotating neutron stars that produce lighthouse-like beams of radio emission from their magnetic poles. The observed pulse of emission enables their rotation rates to be measured with great precision. For some young pulsars, this provides a means of studying the interior structure of neutron stars. Most pulsars have stable pulse shapes, and slow down steadily (for example, see ref. 20). Here we report the discovery of long-term, highly periodic and correlated variations in both the pulse shape and the rate of slow-down of the pulsar PSR B1828-11. The variations are best described as harmonically related sinusoids, with periods of approximately 1,000, 500 and 250 days, probably resulting from precession of the spin axis caused by an asymmetry in the shape of the pulsar. This is difficult to understand theoretically, because torque-free precession of a solitary pulsar should be damped out by the vortices in its superfluid interior.

  13. Concise CIO based precession-nutation formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P. T.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The IAU 2000/2006 precession-nutation models have precision goals measured in microarcseconds. To reach this level of performance has required series containing terms at over 1300 frequencies and involving several thousand amplitude coefficients. There are many astronomical applications for which such precision is not required and the associated heavy computations are wasteful. This justifies developing smaller models that achieve adequate precision with greatly reduced computing costs. Aims: We discuss strategies for developing simplified IAU 2000/2006 precession-nutation procedures that offer a range of compromises between accuracy and computing costs. Methods: The chain of transformations linking celestial and terrestrial coordinates comprises frame bias, precession-nutation, Earth rotation and polar motion. We address the bias and precession-nutation (NPB) portion of the chain, linking the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) with the Celestial Intermediate Reference System (CIRS), the latter based on the Celestial Intermediate Pole (CIP) and Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO). Starting from direct series that deliver the CIP coordinates X,Y and (via the quantity s + XY/2) the CIO locator s, we look at the opportunities for simplification. Results: The biggest reductions come from truncating the series, but some additional gains can be made in the areas of the matrix formulation, the expressions for the nutation arguments and by subsuming long period effects into the bias quantities. Three example models are demonstrated that approximate the IAU 2000/2006 CIP to accuracies of 1 mas, 16 mas and 0.4 arcsec throughout 1995-2050 but with computation costs reduced by 1, 2 and 3 orders of magnitude compared with the full model. Appendices A to G are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Fast and Slow Precession of Gaseous Debris Disks around Planet-accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2018-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of some metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs), believed to be polluted by planetary material, reveal the presence of compact gaseous metallic disks orbiting them. The observed variability of asymmetric, double-peaked emission-line profiles in about half of such systems could be interpreted as the signature of precession of an eccentric gaseous debris disk. The variability timescales—from decades down to 1.4 year (recently inferred for the debris disk around HE 1349–2305)—are in rough agreement with the rate of general relativistic (GR) precession in the test-particle limit. However, it has not been demonstrated that this mechanism can drive such a fast, coherent precession of a radially extended (out to 1 {R}ȯ ) gaseous disk mediated by internal stresses (pressure). Here, we use the linear theory of eccentricity evolution in hydrodynamic disks to determine several key properties of eccentric modes in gaseous debris disks around WDs. We find a critical dependence of both the precession period and radial eccentricity distribution of the modes on the inner disk radius, r in. For small inner radii, {r}in}≲ (0.2{--}0.4) {R}ȯ , the modes are GR-driven, with periods of ≈1–10 year. For {r}in}≳ (0.2{--}0.4) {R}ȯ , the modes are pressure dominated, with periods of ≈3–20 year. Correspondence between the variability periods and inferred inner radii of the observed disks is in general agreement with this trend. In particular, the short period of HE 1349–2305 is consistent with its small r in. Circum-WD debris disks may thus serve as natural laboratories for studying the evolution of eccentric gaseous disks.

  15. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  16. Relativistic astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, R H

    1993-01-01

    Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two specific areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.

  17. Relativistic Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  18. Relativistic Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)

  19. Precession feature extraction of ballistic missile warhead with high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huixia

    2018-04-01

    This paper establishes the precession model of ballistic missile warhead, and derives the formulas of micro-Doppler frequency induced by the target with precession. In order to obtain micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile warhead with precession, micro-Doppler bandwidth estimation algorithm, which avoids velocity compensation, is presented based on high-resolution time-frequency transform. The results of computer simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Photospheric Emission from Collapsar Jets in 3D Relativistic Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Jin; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Warren, Donald C.; Barkov, Maxim V.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the photospheric emission from a relativistic jet breaking out from a massive stellar envelope based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations and post-process radiation transfer calculations in three dimensions. To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) dynamics on the emission, two models of injection conditions are considered for the jet at the center of the progenitor star: one with periodic precession and another without precession. We show that structures developed within the jet due to the interaction with the stellar envelope, as well as due to the precession, have a significant imprint on the resulting emission. Particularly, we find that the signature of precession activity by the central engine is not smeared out and can be directly observed in the light curve as a periodic signal. We also show that non-thermal features, which can account for observations of gamma-ray bursts, are produced in the resulting spectra even though only thermal photons are injected initially and the effect of non-thermal particles is not considered.

  1. Legacy and future of Kilauea's geodetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Miklius, A.

    2011-12-01

    Because of its extensive and detailed history of geodetic measurements, Kilauea is one of the best-studied if not also best-understood volcanic systems in the world. Hawaiian volcanoes have a long history of deformation observations. These observations range from native legends of Pele's underground travels, through initial measurements made by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and finally to current ground-based and satellite observations. Many questions still remain, relating to Kilauea's dynamics, where geodetic measurements could offer fundamental insights. For example, new geodetic experiments could lead to a better understanding of the degree of magmatic and tectonic interaction, the geometries of faults at depth, the extent of offshore deformation, and the magmatic plumbing system. While it is possible to design many experiments to address these issues, we focus on three deformation targets where geodetic improvements, including finer sampling in space and time, could yield significant advancements toward understanding Kilauea's dynamics. First, by scrutinizing spatially-dense space-borne geodetic data for signs of upper east rift zone deformation and incorporating gravity and seismic data in a high resolution tomographic model, the hydraulic connection between Kilauea's summit and the rift zone could be imaged, which would provide insight into the pathways that transport magma out to the rift zones. Second, a combination of geodetic and seismic data could be used to determine the nature of possible relationships and interactions between the Hilina fault system and Kilauea's basal decollement. Such a study would have important implications for assessments of future earthquake and sector collapse hazards. Lastly, by adding seafloor geodetic measurements and seismic data to the current geodetic network on Kilauea, we could delimit the offshore extent of transient and episodic decollement deformation. In addition to multidisciplinary approaches, future geodetic

  2. Book Review: Precession, Nutation, and Wobble of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Dehant, V.; Mathews, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    This great book describes and explains observational and computational aspects of three apparently tiny changes in the Earth's motion and orientation, viz., precession, nutation, and wobble. The three introductory chapters of this book present fundamental definitions, elementary geodetic theory, and celestial/terrestrial reference systems - including transformations between reference frames. The next chapter on observational techniques describes the principle of accurate measurements of the orientation of the Earth's axis, as obtained from measurements of extra-galactic radio sources using Very Long Baseline Interferometry and GPS observations. Chapter 5 handles precession and nutation of the rigid Earth (i.e., a celestial body that cannot, by definition, deform) and the subsequent chapter takes deformation into consideration, viz., the effect of a centrifugal force caused by a constant-rate rotation that causes the Earth's shape and structure to become ellipsoidal. Deformations caused by external solar-system bodies are discussed in terms of deformability parameters. The next three chapters handle additional complex deviations: non-rigid Earth and more general Earth models, anelastic Earth parameters, and the effects of the fluid layers (i.e., ocean and atmosphere) on Earth rotation. Chapter 10 complements Chapter 7 with refinements that take into account diverse small effects such as the effect of a thermal conductive layer at the top of the core, Core Mantle and Inner Boundary coupling effects on nutation, electromagnetic coupling, and so-called topographic coupling. Chapter 11 covers comparison of observation and theory, and tells us that the present-date precision of the nutation theory is at the level of milliarcseconds in the time domain, and of a tenth of a microsecond in the frequency domain (with some exceptions). This chapter is followed by a 25-page chapter of definitions of equator, equinox, celestial intermediate pole and origin, stellar angle

  3. Relativistic klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi

    1994-01-01

    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  5. Relativistic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, R.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of a relativisic klystron; i.e. a high-relativistic bunched electron beam which is sent through a succession of tuned cavities and has its energy replenished by periodic induction accelerator units. Parameters are given for a full-size device and for an experimental device using the FEL at the ETA; namely the ELF Facility. 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Stability of Global Geodetic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, T.

    The precision of global geodetic techniques has reached unprecedented levels. Sys- tems capable of millimeter level horizontal and several millimeter vertical precisions are now deployed. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has the most deployed continuously-operating receivers with several hundred providing data through the in- ternet for analysis. However, the satellite system used with GPS evolves with time as new generations of GPS satellites are launched. During the 1990's, the constellation evolved from Block I to Block II and IIA with the most recent generation being Block IIR. There are considerable differences in the size and antenna configurations in the different generations of satellites. The antenna configuration specifically could cause systematic changes in the terrestrial reference system. Results from the ITRF2000 combinations suggest that there are significant time variations in the scale of GPS system possibly due to phase center variations in GPS transmission antennas. These variations could result in height changes of up to 3 mm/yr. We will investigate the stability of the GPS system through combination of GPS results with results from VLBI and SLR. All components of the transformation between the systems, rotation, translation and scale will be investigated.

  7. Precession electron diffraction – a topical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Midgley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 20 years since precession electron diffraction (PED was introduced, it has grown from a little-known niche technique to one that is seen as a cornerstone of electron crystallography. It is now used primarily in two ways. The first is to determine crystal structures, to identify lattice parameters and symmetry, and ultimately to solve the atomic structure ab initio. The second is, through connection with the microscope scanning system, to map the local orientation of the specimen to investigate crystal texture, rotation and strain at the nanometre scale. This topical review brings the reader up to date, highlighting recent successes using PED and providing some pointers to the future in terms of method development and how the technique can meet some of the needs of the X-ray crystallography community. Complementary electron techniques are also discussed, together with how a synergy of methods may provide the best approach to electron-based structure analysis.

  8. Development of a nuclear precession magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgens Alves, J.G. das.

    1983-12-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a proton precession magnetometer for geophysical prospecting and base stations. The proton procession magnetometer measures the total magnetic fields intensity. It operates on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance by determining the processing frequency of protons of a non viscous liquid in the terrestrial magnetic fields. The instrument was tested in field to evaluate signal/noise ratio, supportable gradient and battery consumption. Application test was carried out to take diurnal variation data and, reconnaissance and detail surveys data on an archaeological site in the Marajo Island-Pa. The test results were confronted with two commercial magnetometers-GP-70, McPhar e G-816, Geometric - and, with data from Observatorio Magnetico Ilha de Tatuoca as well. For all cases, the data comparison showed a good performance of the magnetometer tested. (author)

  9. A QSO with precessing jets: 2300 - 189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunstead, R.W.; Murdoch, H.S.; Phillips, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The QSO 2300-189 (z = 0.1287) is found to have a faint companion galaxy at the same redshift. The separation is 6.8 arcsec on the sky. A spectrum of the fuzz around the QSO shows absorption features typical of late-type stars, which argues for its occurence in a normal disc or E galaxy. Radio maps obtained with the VLA at 1465 MHz and 4885 MHz show inversion (or S-shaped) symmetry, which is explained as due to the ejection of jets along an axis which is precessing, probably due to the tidal influence of the nearby galaxy. Several kinematic parameters are deduced including an upper limit for the jet velocity. Further support for tidal interaction comes from the detection of extensive region of low-brightness optical emission in the vicinity of the QSO. (author)

  10. Thomas precession: correct and incorrect solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykin, Grigorii B

    2006-01-01

    A wealth of different expressions for the frequency of the Thomas precession (TP) can be found in the literature, with the consequence that this issue has been discussed over a long period of time. It is shown that the correct result was obtained in the works of several authors, which were published more than forty years ago but remained unnoticed against the background of numerous erroneous works. Several TP-related physical paradoxes formulated primarily to disprove the special relativity theory are shown to be fallacious. Different techniques for deriving the correct expression are considered and the reasons for the emergence of the main incorrect expressions for the TP frequency are analyzed. (from the history of physics)

  11. A PULSED, PRECESSING JET IN CEPHEUS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Nathaniel J.; Moeckel, Nickolas; Bally, John

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared H 2 , radio CO, and thermal infrared observations of the nearby massive star-forming region Cepheus A (Cep A). From H 2 bow shocks arranged along four distinct jet axes, we infer that the massive protostellar source HW2 drives a pulsed, precessing jet that has changed its orientation by about 45 deg. in roughly 10 4 years. The current HW2 radio jet represents the most recent event in this time series of eruptions. This scenario is consistent with the recent discovery of a disk around HW2, perpendicular to the current jet orientation, and with the presence of companions at projected distances comparable to the disk radius. We propose that the Cep A system formed by the disk-assisted capture of a sibling star by HW2. We present a numerical model of a 15 M sun star with a circumstellar disk, orbited by a companion in an inclined, eccentric orbit. Close passages of the companion through or near the disk result in periods of enhanced accretion and mass loss, as well as forced precession of the disk and associated orientation changes in the jet. The observations reveal a second powerful outflow that emerges from radio source HW3c or HW3d. This flow is associated with blueshifted CO emission and a faint H 2 bow shock to the east, and with HH 168 to the west. A collision between the flows from HW2 and HW3c/d may be responsible for X-ray and radio continuum emission in Cep A West.

  12. Relativistic rotation and the anholonomic object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to call attention to the conceptual economy provided by the object of anholonomity for the theory of relativity. This geometric object expresses certain consequences of relativity theory and provides a single, simple framework for discussing a variety of phenomena. It particularly clarifies the description of relativistic rotation. The relativistic rotational transformation of the four coordinate differentials of flat space--time generates a set of anholonomic, or inexact differentials, whose duals are an orthogonal set of basis vectors. How should a rotating observer interpret physical events referred to such orthogonal, but anholonomic frames The answer to this question rests upon the origin and physical significance of the object of anholonomity. It is demonstrated that not only is the rotational Lorentz transformation an anholonomic transformation, but that the intrinsic anholonomic effects are essential to interpreting rotational phenomena. In particular, the Sagnac effect may be interpreted as the physical manifestation of temporal anholonomity under rotation. The Thomas precession of a reference axis may be interpreted as a consequence of the spatial anholonomity of the rotating frame. Further, the full four-dimensional covariance of Maxwellian electrodynamics, under a relativistic Lorentz rotation, is possible only with the inclusion of anholonomic effects. The anholonomic approach clarifies the distinction between the physically different operations of source rotation and observer rotation in a flat space--time. It is finally concluded that a consistant theory of relativistic rotation, satisfying the principle of general covariance, inherently requires the presence of the object of anholonomity

  13. Numerical relativity simulations of precessing binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    We present the first set of numerical relativity simulations of binary neutron mergers that include spin precession effects and are evolved with multiple resolutions. Our simulations employ consistent initial data in general relativity with different spin configurations and dimensionless spin magnitudes ˜0.1 . They start at a gravitational-wave frequency of ˜392 Hz and cover more than 1 precession period and about 15 orbits up to merger. We discuss the spin precession dynamics by analyzing coordinate trajectories, quasilocal spin measurements, and energetics, by comparing spin aligned, antialigned, and irrotational configurations. Gravitational waveforms from different spin configuration are compared by calculating the mismatch between pairs of waveforms in the late inspiral. We find that precession effects are not distinguishable from nonprecessing configurations with aligned spins for approximately face-on binaries, while the latter are distinguishable from nonspinning configurations. Spin precession effects are instead clearly visible for approximately edge-on binaries. For the parameters considered here, precession does not significantly affect the characteristic postmerger gravitational-wave frequencies nor the mass ejection. Our results pave the way for the modeling of spin precession effects in the gravitational waveform from binary neutron star events.

  14. Relativistic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang

    2018-02-01

    The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.

  15. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2017-05-02

    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  16. Explicitly computing geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huaien

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new form of quartic equation based on Lagrange's extremum law and a Groebner basis under the constraint that the geodetic height is the shortest distance between a given point and the reference ellipsoid. A very explicit and concise formulae of the quartic equation by Ferrari's line is found, which avoids the need of a good starting guess for iterative methods. A new explicit algorithm is then proposed to compute geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates. The convergence region of the algorithm is investigated and the corresponding correct solution is given. Lastly, the algorithm is validated with numerical experiments.

  17. Larmor-precession based neutron scattering instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Larmor precession of the neutron spin in a magnetic field allows the attachment of a Larmor clock to every neutron. Such Larmor labelling opens the possibility for the development of unusual neutron scattering techniques, where the energy (momentum) resolution does not require the initial and final states to be well selected. This principally allows for achievement of very high energy (momentum) resolution that is not feasible at all with conventional neutron scattering techniques, because the required neutron beam monochromatization (collimation) will result in intolerable intensity losses. Such decoupling of resolution and collimation allows, for example, for a significant increase in the luminosity of small-angle scattering or high-resolution diffractometers; the fact that opens new perspectives for their implementation at middle flux neutron sources. Different kinds of Larmor clock-based instrumentation, particularly two alternative NSE techniques using rotating and time-gradient magnetic field arrangements, which can be considered as inexpensive and affordable alternatives to present day NSE techniques, will be discussed and results of simulations and first experiments will be presented. (author)

  18. Vortex precession in thin elliptical ferromagnetic nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaspel, C.E., E-mail: craig.zaspel@umwestern.edu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A general form for the magnetostatic energy is calculated for the vortex state in a ferromagnetic ellipse. • The ellipse magnetostatic energy is minimized by conformal mapping the circular disk onto the ellipse. • The gyrotropic precession frequency is obtained in general for a range of ellipticities. - Abstract: The magnetostatic energy is calculated for a magnetic vortex in a noncircular elliptical nanodisk. It is well-known that the energy of a vortex in the circular disk is minimized though an ansatz that eliminates the magnetostatic charge at the disk edge. Beginning with this ansatz for the circular disk, a conformal mapping of a circle interior onto the interior of an ellipse results in the magnetization of the elliptical disk. This magnetization in the interior of an ellipse also has no magnetostatic charge at the disk edge also minimizing the magnetostatic energy. As expected the energy has a quadratic dependence on the displacement of the vortex core from the ellipse center, but reflecting the lower symmetry of the ellipse. Through numerical integration of the magnetostatic integral a general expression for the energy is obtained for ellipticity values from 1.0 to about 0.3. Finally a general expression for the gyrotropic frequency as described by the Thiele equation is obtained.

  19. Numerical simulation of a precessing vortex breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, P.; Sinigersky, A.; Hehle, M.; Schaefer, O.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the results of time-dependent numerical predictions of a turbulent symmetry breaking vortex breakdown in a realistic gas turbine combustor. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved by using the k-ε two-equation model as well as by a full second-order closure using the Reynolds stress model of Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski (SSG). The results for a Reynolds number of 5.2 x 10 4 , a swirl number of 0.52 and an expansion ratio of 5 show that the flow is emerging from the swirler as a spiral gyrating around a zone of strong recirculation which is also asymmetric and precessing. These flow structures which are typical for the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown have been confirmed by PIV and local LDA measurements in a corresponding experimental setup. Provided that high resolution meshes are employed the calculations with both turbulence models are capable to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of the flow

  20. New General Relativistic Contribution to Mercury's Perihelion Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford M.

    2018-05-01

    We point out the existence of a new general relativistic contribution to the perihelion advance of Mercury that, while smaller than the contributions arising from the solar quadrupole moment and angular momentum, is 100 times larger than the second-post-Newtonian contribution. It arises in part from relativistic "crossterms" in the post-Newtonian equations of motion between Mercury's interaction with the Sun and with the other planets, and in part from an interaction between Mercury's motion and the gravitomagnetic field of the moving planets. At a few parts in 1 06 of the leading general relativistic precession of 42.98 arcseconds per century, these effects are likely to be detectable by the BepiColombo mission to place and track two orbiters around Mercury, scheduled for launch around 2018.

  1. New General Relativistic Contribution to Mercury's Perihelion Advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford M

    2018-05-11

    We point out the existence of a new general relativistic contribution to the perihelion advance of Mercury that, while smaller than the contributions arising from the solar quadrupole moment and angular momentum, is 100 times larger than the second-post-Newtonian contribution. It arises in part from relativistic "crossterms" in the post-Newtonian equations of motion between Mercury's interaction with the Sun and with the other planets, and in part from an interaction between Mercury's motion and the gravitomagnetic field of the moving planets. At a few parts in 10^{6} of the leading general relativistic precession of 42.98 arcseconds per century, these effects are likely to be detectable by the BepiColombo mission to place and track two orbiters around Mercury, scheduled for launch around 2018.

  2. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  3. Geodetic alignment of laser power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtorm, V.V.; Gostev, A.M.; Drobikov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Main problems occuring in applied geodesy under initial alignment of laser power installation optical channel are considered. Attention is paid to alignment of lens beamguide telescopic pairs and alignment quality control. Methods and means of geodetic measurements under alignment are indicated. Conclusions are made about the degree of working through certain aspects of the problem

  4. New precession expressions, valid for long time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrák, J.; Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P.

    2011-10-01

    Context. The present IAU model of precession, like its predecessors, is given as a set of polynomial approximations of various precession parameters intended for high-accuracy applications over a limited time span. Earlier comparisons with numerical integrations have shown that this model is valid only for a few centuries around the basic epoch, J2000.0, while for more distant epochs it rapidly diverges from the numerical solution. In our preceding studies we also obtained preliminary developments for the precessional contribution to the motion of the equator: coordinates X,Y of the precessing pole and precession parameters ψA,ωA, suitable for use over long time intervals. Aims: The goal of the present paper is to obtain upgraded developments for various sets of precession angles that would fit modern observations near J2000.0 and at the same time fit numerical integration of the motions of solar system bodies on scales of several thousand centuries. Methods: We used the IAU 2006 solutions to represent the precession of the ecliptic and of the equator close to J2000.0 and, for more distant epochs, a numerical integration using the Mercury 6 package and solutions by Laskar et al. (1993, A&A, 270, 522) with upgraded initial conditions and constants to represent the ecliptic, and general precession and obliquity, respectively. From them, different precession parameters were calculated in the interval ± 200 millennia from J2000.0, and analytical expressions are found that provide a good fit for the whole interval. Results: Series for the various precessional parameters, comprising a cubic polynomial plus from 8 to 14 periodic terms, are derived that allow precession to be computed with an accuracy comparable to IAU 2006 around the central epoch J2000.0, a few arcseconds throughout the historical period, and a few tenths of a degree at the ends of the ± 200 millennia time span. Computer algorithms are provided that compute the ecliptic and mean equator poles and the

  5. The relativistic virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.

    1989-11-01

    The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)

  6. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  7. Numerical simulations of bistable flows in precessing spheroidal shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormann, J.; Hansen, U.

    2018-05-01

    Precession of the rotation axis is an often neglected mechanical driving mechanism for flows in planetary interiors, through viscous coupling at the boundaries and topographic forcing in non-spherical geometries. We investigate precession-driven flows in spheroidal shells over a wide range of parameters and test the results against theoretical predictions. For Ekman numbers down to 8.0 × 10-7, we see a good accordance with the work of Busse, who assumed the precession-driven flow to be dominated by a rigid rotation component that is tilted to the main rotation axis. The velocity fields show localized small-scale structures for lower Ekman numbers and clear signals of inertial waves for some parameters. For the case of moderate viscosity and strong deformation, we report the realization of multiple solutions at the same parameter combination, depending on the initial condition.

  8. Rotation Detection Using the Precession of Molecular Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-11-01

    We present a method to detect the rotation by using the precession of molecular electric dipole moment in a static electric field. The molecular electric dipole moments are polarized under the static electric field and a nonzero electric polarization vector emerges in the molecular gas. A resonant radio-frequency pulse electric field is applied to realize a 90° flip of the electric polarization vector of a particular rotational state. After the pulse electric field, the electric polarization vector precesses under the static electric field. The rotation induces a shift in the precession frequency which is measured to deduce the angular velocity of the rotation. The fundamental sensitivity limit of this method is estimated. This work is only a proposal and does not involve experimental results.

  9. Bounce Precession Fishbones in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Fredrickson; Liu Chen; Roscoe White Eric Fredrickson; Liu Chen; Roscoe White

    2003-01-01

    Bursting modes are observed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], which are identified as bounce-precession-frequency fishbone modes. They are predicted to be important in high-current, low-shear discharges with a significant population of trapped particles with a large mean-bounce angle, such as produced by near-tangential beam injection into a large aspect-ratio device. Such a distribution is often stable to the usual precession-resonance fishbone mode. These modes could be important in ignited plasmas, driven by the trapped-alpha-particle population

  10. Non-resonant precession of the neutron magnetic moment in antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblin, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the magnetic moment of a neutron moving in an antiferromagnet with a spiral-order magnetic field slowly precesses. Precession pitch strongly depends on the value and direction of the neutron velocity. 4 refs

  11. Pseudo Steady-State Free Precession for MR-Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Jakob; Glaser, Steffen J; Hennig, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    This article discusses the signal behavior in the case the flip angle in steady-state free precession sequences is continuously varied as suggested for MR-fingerprinting sequences. Flip angle variations prevent the establishment of a steady state and introduce instabilities regarding to magnetic field inhomogeneities and intravoxel dephasing. We show how a pseudo steady state can be achieved, which restores the spin echo nature of steady-state free precession. Based on geometrical considerations, relationships between the flip angle, repetition and echo time are derived that suffice to the establishment of a pseudo steady state. The theory is tested with Bloch simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments. A typical steady-state free precession passband can be restored with the proposed conditions. The stability of the pseudo steady state is demonstrated by comparing the evolution of the signal of a single isochromat to one resulting from a spin ensemble. As confirmed by experiments, magnetization in a pseudo steady state can be described with fewer degrees of freedom compared to the original fingerprinting and the pseudo steady state results in more reliable parameter maps. The proposed conditions restore the spin-echo-like signal behavior typical for steady-state free precession in fingerprinting sequences, making this approach more robust to B 0 variations. Magn Reson Med 77:1151-1161, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Satellite Orbital Precessions Caused by the Octupolar Mass Moment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I consider a satellite moving around a non-spherical body of mass M and equatorial radius R, and calculate its orbital precessions caused by the body's octupolar mass moment J4. I consider only the effects averaged over one orbital period T of the satellite. I give exact for- mulas, not restricted to any special values ...

  13. Sparse representations of gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela; Galley, Chad R; Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-07-11

    Many relevant applications in gravitational wave physics share a significant common problem: the seven-dimensional parameter space of gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binary inspirals and coalescences is large enough to prohibit covering the space of waveforms with sufficient density. We find that by using the reduced basis method together with a parametrization of waveforms based on their phase and precession, we can construct ultracompact yet high-accuracy representations of this large space. As a demonstration, we show that less than 100 judiciously chosen precessing inspiral waveforms are needed for 200 cycles, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and spin magnitudes ≤0.9. In fact, using only the first 10 reduced basis waveforms yields a maximum mismatch of 0.016 over the whole range of considered parameters. We test whether the parameters selected from the inspiral regime result in an accurate reduced basis when including merger and ringdown; we find that this is indeed the case in the context of a nonprecessing effective-one-body model. This evidence suggests that as few as ∼100 numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences may accurately represent the seven-dimensional parameter space of precession waveforms for the considered ranges.

  14. Resonant spin-flavor precession constraints on the neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 61; Issue 1. Resonant spin-flavor precession constraints on the neutrino parameters and the twisting structure of the solar magnetic fields from the solar neutrino data. S Dev Jyoti Dhar Sharma U C Pandey S P Sud B C Chauhan. Research Articles Volume 61 Issue 1 ...

  15. Comparing Post-Newtonian and Numerical-Relativity Precession Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Lawrence; Ossokine, Sergei; Boyle, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Binary black-hole systems are expected to be important sources of gravitational waves for upcoming gravitational-wave detectors. If the spins are not colinear with each other or with the orbital angular momentum, these systems exhibit complicated precession dynamics that are imprinted on the gravitational waveform. We develop a new procedure to match the precession dynamics computed by post-Newtonian (PN) theory to those of numerical binary black-hole simulations in full general relativity. For numerical relativity (NR) simulations lasting approximately two precession cycles, we find that the PN and NR predictions for the directions of the orbital angular momentum and the spins agree to better than ~1° with NR during the inspiral, increasing to 5° near merger. Nutation of the orbital plane on the orbital time-scale agrees well between NR and PN, whereas nutation of the spin direction shows qualitatively different behavior in PN and NR. We also examine how the PN equations for precession and orbital-phase evolution converge with PN order, and we quantify the impact of various choices for handling partially known PN terms.

  16. Precessing rotating flows with additional shear: stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, A; Cambon, C

    2009-03-01

    We consider unbounded precessing rotating flows in which vertical or horizontal shear is induced by the interaction between the solid-body rotation (with angular velocity Omega(0)) and the additional "precessing" Coriolis force (with angular velocity -epsilonOmega(0)), normal to it. A "weak" shear flow, with rate 2epsilon of the same order of the Poincaré "small" ratio epsilon , is needed for balancing the gyroscopic torque, so that the whole flow satisfies Euler's equations in the precessing frame (the so-called admissibility conditions). The base flow case with vertical shear (its cross-gradient direction is aligned with the main angular velocity) corresponds to Mahalov's [Phys. Fluids A 5, 891 (1993)] precessing infinite cylinder base flow (ignoring boundary conditions), while the base flow case with horizontal shear (its cross-gradient direction is normal to both main and precessing angular velocities) corresponds to the unbounded precessing rotating shear flow considered by Kerswell [Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 72, 107 (1993)]. We show that both these base flows satisfy the admissibility conditions and can support disturbances in terms of advected Fourier modes. Because the admissibility conditions cannot select one case with respect to the other, a more physical derivation is sought: Both flows are deduced from Poincaré's [Bull. Astron. 27, 321 (1910)] basic state of a precessing spheroidal container, in the limit of small epsilon . A Rapid distortion theory (RDT) type of stability analysis is then performed for the previously mentioned disturbances, for both base flows. The stability analysis of the Kerswell base flow, using Floquet's theory, is recovered, and its counterpart for the Mahalov base flow is presented. Typical growth rates are found to be the same for both flows at very small epsilon , but significant differences are obtained regarding growth rates and widths of instability bands, if larger epsilon values, up to 0.2, are considered. Finally

  17. Jet Precession Driven by a Supermassive Black Hole Binary System in the BL Lac Object PG 1553+113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Motter, Juliana Cristina; Monteiro, Hektor

    2017-12-01

    The recent discovery of a roughly simultaneous periodic variability in the light curves of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at several electromagnetic bands represents the first case of such odd behavior reported in the literature. Motivated by this, we analyzed 15 GHz interferometric maps of the parsec-scale radio jet of PG 1553+113 to verify the presence of a possible counterpart of this periodic variability. We used the Cross-entropy statistical technique to obtain the structural parameters of the Gaussian components present in the radio maps of this source. We kinematically identified seven jet components formed coincidentally with flare-like features seen in the γ-ray light curve. From the derived jet component positions in the sky plane and their kinematics (ejection epochs, proper motions, and sky position angles), we modeled their temporal changes in terms of a relativistic jet that is steadily precessing in time. Our results indicate a precession period in the observer’s reference frame of 2.24 ± 0.03 years, compatible with the periodicity detected in the light curves of PG 1553+113. However, the maxima of the jet Doppler boosting factor are systematically delayed relative to the peaks of the main γ-ray flares. We propose two scenarios that could explain this delay, both based on the existence of a supermassive black hole binary system in PG 1553+113. We estimated the characteristics of this putative binary system that also would be responsible for driving the inferred jet precession.

  18. Ostrogradski Hamiltonian approach for geodetic brane gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2010-01-01

    We present an alternative Hamiltonian description of a branelike universe immersed in a flat background spacetime. This model is named geodetic brane gravity. We set up the Regge-Teitelboim model to describe our Universe where such field theory is originally thought as a second order derivative theory. We refer to an Ostrogradski Hamiltonian formalism to prepare the system to its quantization. This approach comprize the manage of both first- and second-class constraints and the counting of degrees of freedom follows accordingly.

  19. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  20. Relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1983-01-01

    on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  1. Relativistic tests with lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Müller, J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the recent version of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) analysis model at the Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover and highlights a few tests of Einstein’s theory of gravitation using LLR data. Investigations related to a possible temporal variation of the gravitational constant, the equivalence principle, the PPN parameters β and γ as well as the geodetic precession were carried out. The LLR analysis model was updated by gravitational effects of the Sun and planets with the Moon as extended body. The higher-order gravitational interaction between Earth and Moon as well as effects of the solid Earth tides on the lunar motion were refined. The basis for the modeled lunar rotation is now a 2-layer core/mantle model according to the DE430 ephemeris. The validity of Einstein’s theory was studied using this updated analysis model and an LLR data set from 1970 to January 2015. Within the estimated accuracies, no deviations from Einstein’s theory are detected. A relative temporal variation of the gravitational constant is estimated as \\dot{G}/G_0=(7.1+/-7.6)×10-14~yr-1 , the test of the equivalence principle gives Δ(m_g/m_i)EM=(-3+/-5)×10-14 and the Nordtvedt parameter \

  2. Geodetic achievement and avoidance games for graphs | Haynes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let G = (V,E) be a nontrivial connected graph. For a subset S ⊆ V, the geodesic closure (S) of S is the set of all vertices on geodesics (shortest paths) between two vertices of S. We study the geodetic achievement and avoidance games defined by Buckley and Harary (Geodetic games for graphs, Quaestiones Math.

  3. MRS2016: Rigid Moon Rotation Series in the Relativistic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The rigid Moon rotation problem is studied for the relativistic (kinematical) case, in which the geodetic perturbations in the Moon rotation are taken into account. As the result of this research the high-precision Moon Rotation Series MRS2016 in the relativistic approximation was constructed for the first time and the discrepancies between the high-precision numerical and the semi-analytical solutions of the rigid Moon rotation were investigated with respect to the fixed ecliptic of epoch J2000, by the numerical and analytical methods. The residuals between the numerical solution and MRS2016 in the perturbing terms of the physical librations do not exceed 80 mas and 10 arc seconds over 2000 and 6000 years, respectively.

  4. Steady flow in a rotating sphere with strong precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    The steady flow in a rotating sphere is investigated by asymptotic analysis in the limit of strong precession. The whole spherical body is divided into three regions in terms of the flow characteristics: the critical band, which is the close vicinity surrounding the great circle perpendicular to the precession axis, the boundary layer, which is attached to the whole sphere surface and the inviscid region that occupies the majority of the sphere. The analytic expressions, in the leading order of the asymptotic expansion, of the velocity field are obtained in the former two, whereas partial differential equations for the velocity field are derived in the latter, which are solved numerically. This steady flow structure is confirmed by the corresponding direct numerical simulation.

  5. From the Kinematics of Precession Motion to Generalized Rabi Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danail S. Brezov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We use both vector-parameter and quaternion techniques to provide a thorough description of several classes of rotations, starting with coaxial angular velocity Ω of varying magnitude. Then, we fix the magnitude and let Ω precess at constant rate about the z-axis, which yields a particular solution to the free Euler dynamical equations in the case of axially symmetric inertial ellipsoid. The latter appears also in the description of spin precessions in NMR and quantum computing. As we show below, this problem has analytic solutions for a much larger class of motions determined by a simple condition relating the polar angle and z-projection of Ω (expressed in cylindrical coordinates, which are both time-dependent in the generic case. Relevant physical examples are also provided.

  6. Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-01

    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.

  7. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  8. Relativistic Coulomb Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.

  9. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  10. Precessing vortex core in a swirling wake with heat release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, A.; Klimov, A.; Molevich, N.; Moralev, I.; Porfiriev, D.; Sugak, S.; Zavershinskii, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Precessing vortex core is left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. • The precession frequency grows with the heat-source power. • Growth of the heat-source power decreases vortex core oscillations. • The left-handed bending mode is the most unstable mode in the low-density wake. - Abstract: Numerical simulation of the non-stationary three-dimensional swirling flow is presented for an open tube with a paraxial heat source. In the considered type of swirling flows, it is shown that a precessing vortex core (PVC) appears. The obtained PVC is a left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. The influence of the heat release enhancement on parameters of PVC is investigated. Using various turbulence models (the Spalart–Allmaras, k–ω and SST models), it is shown that an increase in the heat-source power leads to an increase in the PVC frequency and to a decrease in the amplitude of PVC oscillations. Moreover, we conduct the linear stability analysis of the simplified flow model with paraxial heating (the Rankine vortex with the piecewise axial flow and density) and demonstrate that its results correspond to the results of numerical simulations rather well. In particular, we prove that the left-handed bending mode (m = +1) is the most unstable one in the low-density wake and its frequency increases with a decrease of density ratio that is similar to the behavior of precession frequency with an increase of heat-source power.

  11. Reorientation precession measurements of quadrupole moments in 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelberg, A.; Herskind, B.; Kalish, R.; Neiman, M.

    1976-01-01

    The quadrupole moments of the 3/2 - and 5/2 - states in 103 Rh have been determined by measuring the precession of the gamma-ray angular distribution following Coulomb excitation; 16 O and 32 S beams have been used. The structure of the negative-parity states in 103 Rh is found to be in agreement with the model of Arima and Iachello. (orig.) [de

  12. Effect of precession on the mixing of a jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobes, D.S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Nathan, G.J. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The mixing of fuel and oxidant are fundamentally linked to the performance characteristics of a diffusion flame, including radiant emissions, flame stability, pollutant emissions and overall dimensions such as flame length and width. Modification of these characteristics through the mixing field can be achieved by appropriate nozzle design. One method is to precess the nozzle fluid which can be gained by fluidic or mechanical means. This paper described the effect of precession on the mixing field from a mechanical nozzle using a two-dimensional imaging technique based on Mie scattering. The paper discussed the experimental technique as well as the results and discussion. The effect of precessing the jet was to create a large scale helix in the near field that contained two counter-rotating vortices within it. This flow supplied high concentration fluid to a region above the nozzle exit that had low momentum and low shear. The resulting flow field had scale mixing larger than the local length scales of the flow in a region close to the nozzle exit. It was found that the flow field beyond this region had low rate of mixing similar to the far field of a jet. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Multi-geodetic characterization of the seasonal signal at the CERGA geodetic reference, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memin, A.; Viswanathan, V.; Fienga, A.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Boy, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Crustal deformations due to surface-mass loading account for a significant part of the variability in geodetic time series. A perfect understanding of the loading signal observed by geodetic techniques should help in improving terrestrial reference frame (TRF) realizations. Yet, discrepancies between crustal motion estimates from models of surface-mass loading and observations are still too large so that no model is currently recommended by the IERS for reducing the data. We investigate the discrepancy observed in the seasonal variations of the CERGA station, South of France.We characterize the seasonal motions of the reference geodetic station CERGA from GNSS, SLR and LLR. We compare the station motion observed with GNSS and SLR and we estimate changes in the station-to-the-moon distance using an improved processing strategy. We investigate the consistency between these geodetic techniques and compare the observed station motion with that estimated using models of surface-mass change. In that regard, we compute atmospheric loading effects using surface pressure fields from ECMWF, assuming an ocean response according to the classical inverted barometer (IB) assumption, considered to be valid for periods typically exceeding a week. We also used general circulation ocean models (ECCO and GLORYS) forced by wind, heat and fresh water fluxes. The continental water storage is described using GLDAS/Noah and MERRA-land models.Using the surface-mass models, we estimate the amplitude of the seasonal vertical motion of the CERGA station ranging between 5 and 10 mm with a maximum reached in August, mostly due to hydrology. The horizontal seasonal motion of the station may reach up to 3 mm. Such a station motion should induce a change in the distance to the moon reaching up to 10 mm, large enough to be detected in LLR time series and compared to GNSS- and SLR-derived motion.

  14. Introducing a New Software for Geodetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Geir Arne; Dähnn, Michael; Fausk, Ingrid; Kirkvik, Ann-Silje; Mysen, Eirik

    2017-04-01

    At the Norwegian Mapping Authority, we are currently developing Where, a new software for geodetic analysis. Where is built on our experiences with the Geosat software, and will be able to analyse and combine data from VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS. The software is mainly written in Python which has proved very fruitful. The code is quick to write and the architecture is easily extendable and maintainable, while at the same time taking advantage of well-tested code like the SOFA and IERS libraries. This presentation will show some of the current capabilities of Where, including benchmarks against other software packages, and outline our plans for further progress. In addition we will report on some investigations we have done experimenting with alternative weighting strategies for VLBI.

  15. A preliminary geodetic data model for geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Our ability to gather and assimilate integrated data collections from multiple disciplines is important for earth system studies. Moreover, geosciences data collection has increased dramatically, with pervasive networks of observational stations on the ground, in the oceans, in the atmosphere and in space. Contemporary geodetic observations from several space and terrestrial technologies contribute to our knowledge of earth system processes and thus are a valuable source of high accuracy information for many global change studies. Assimilation of these geodetic observations and numerical models into models of weather, climate, oceans, hydrology, ice, and solid Earth processes is an important contribution geodesists can make to the earth science community. Clearly, the geodetic observations and models are fundamental to these contributions. ESRI wishes to provide leadership in the geodetic community to collaboratively build an open, freely available content specification that can be used by anyone to structure and manage geodetic data. This Geodetic Data Model will provide important context for all geographic information. The production of a task-specific geodetic data model involves several steps. The goal of the data model is to provide useful data structures and best practices for each step, making it easier for geodesists to organize their data and metadata in a way that will be useful in their data analyses and to their customers. Built on concepts from the successful Arc Marine data model, we introduce common geodetic data types and summarize the main thematic layers of the Geodetic Data Model. These provide a general framework for envisioning the core feature classes required to represent geodetic data in a geographic information system. Like Arc Marine, the framework is generic to allow users to build workflow or product specific geodetic data models tailored to the specific task(s) at hand. This approach allows integration of the data with other existing

  16. Integration of space geodesy: A US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth E.

    2005-11-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the US, in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO). To launch this effort an international team will conduct a multi-year program of research into the technical issues of integrating SLR, VLBI, and GPS geodesy to produce a unified set of global geodetic products. The goal is to improve measurement accuracy by up to an order of magnitude while lowering the cost to current sponsors. A secondary goal is to expand and diversify international sponsorship of space geodesy. Principal benefits will be to open new vistas of research in geodynamics and surface change while freeing scarce NASA funds for scientific studies. NGO will proceed in partnership with, and under the auspices of, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) as an element of the Integrated Global Geodetic Observation System project. The collaboration will be conducted within, and will make full use of, the IAG's existing international services: the IGS, IVS, ILRS, and IERS. Seed funding for organizational activities and technical analysis will come from NASA's Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program. Additional funds to develop an integrated geodetic data system known as Inter-service Data Integration for Geodetic Operations (INDIGO), will come from a separate NASA program in Earth science information technology. INDIGO will offer ready access to the full variety of NASA's space geodetic data and will extend the GPS Seamless Archive (GSAC) philosophy to all space geodetic data types.

  17. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  18. Plasma relativistic microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru

  19. Geodetic Control Points - Multi-State Control Point Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The Multi-State Control Point Database (MCPD) is a database of geodetic and mapping control covering Idaho and Montana. The control were submitted by registered land...

  20. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  1. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  2. Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.

    2006-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.

  3. Relativistic Quantum Revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, P.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.

  4. Type-I superconductivity and neutron star precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2005-01-01

    Type-I proton superconducting cores of neutron stars break up in a magnetic field into alternating domains of superconducting and normal fluids. We examine two channels of superfluid-normal fluid friction where (i) rotational vortices are decoupled from the nonsuperconducting domains and the interaction is due to the strong force between protons and neutrons; (ii) the nonsuperconducting domains are dynamically coupled to the vortices and the vortex motion generates transverse electric fields within them, causing electronic current flow and Ohmic dissipation. The obtained dissipation coefficients are consistent with the Eulerian precession of neutron stars

  5. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  6. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  7. Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova

  8. Resonant spin-flavor precession of neutrino and the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Bychuk, O.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1989-01-01

    Resonant amplification of spin-flavor precession of neutrinos in solar matter is considered. Some possible consequences of the process are discussed. It is shown that resonant spin-flavor neutrino precession may account for the deficit of solar neutrinos in Davis' experiment and the anticorrelation between the rate of neutrino counting and solar activity. Experiments are considered which should make it possible to distinguish between spin-flavor neutrino precession and the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. A new restriction on the usual spin precession of solar neutrinos is derived

  9. Geodetic analysis of disputed accurate qibla direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Tono; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Sari, Zamah

    2018-04-01

    Muslims perform the prayers facing towards the correct qibla direction would be the only one of the practical issues in linking theoretical studies with practice. The concept of facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca during the prayers has long been the source of controversy among the muslim communities to not only in poor and developing countries but also in developed countries. The aims of this study were to analyse the geodetic azimuths of qibla calculated using three different models of the Earth. The use of ellipsoidal model of the Earth could be the best method for determining the accurate direction of Kaaba from anywhere on the Earth's surface. A muslim cannot direct himself towards the qibla correctly if he cannot see the Kaaba due to setting out process and certain motions during the prayer this can significantly shift the qibla direction from the actual position of the Kaaba. The requirement of muslim prayed facing towards the Kaaba is more as spiritual prerequisite rather than physical evidence.

  10. Equatorial insolation: from precession harmonics to eccentricity frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the paper by Hays et al. (1976, spectral analyses of climate proxy records provide substantial evidence that a fraction of the climatic variance is driven by insolation changes in the frequency ranges of obliquity and precession variations. However, it is the variance components centered near 100 kyr which dominate most Upper Pleistocene climatic records, although the amount of insolation perturbation at the eccentricity driven periods close to 100-kyr (mainly the 95 kyr- and 123 kyr-periods is much too small to cause directly a climate change of ice-age amplitude. Many attempts to find an explanation to this 100-kyr cycle in climatic records have been made over the last decades. Here we show that the double maximum which characterizes the daily irradiation received in tropical latitudes over the course of the year is at the origin in equatorial insolation of not only strong 95 kyr and 123 kyr periods related to eccentricity, but also of a 11-kyr and a 5.5-kyr periods related to precession.

  11. Post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid for relativistic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wenbiao; Mazurova, Elena

    2016-02-01

    We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference spacetime in relativistic geodesy for conducting a relativistic calculation of the geoid's undulation and the deflection of the plumb line from the vertical. We chose an axisymmetric ellipsoidal body made up of a perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis, as a source generating the reference geometry of the background manifold through Einstein's equations. We then reformulate and extend hydrodynamic calculations of rotating fluids done by a number of previous researchers for astrophysical applications to the realm of relativistic geodesy to set up algebraic equations defining the shape of the post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid. To complete this task, we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational field potentials inside the fluid body and represent them in terms of the elementary functions depending on the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. We fully explore the coordinate (gauge) freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and demonstrate that the fractional deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Maclaurin ellipsoid can be made much smaller than the previously anticipated estimate based on the astrophysical application of the coordinate gauge advocated by Bardeen and Chandrasekhar. We also derive the gauge-invariant relations of the post-Newtonian mass and the constant angular velocity of the rotating fluid with the parameters characterizing the shape of the post-Newtonian ellipsoid including its eccentricity, a semiminor axis, and a semimajor axis. We formulate the post-Newtonian theorems of Pizzetti and Clairaut that are used in geodesy to connect the geometric parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the physically measurable force of gravity at the pole and equator of the ellipsoid. Finally, we expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid to

  12. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  13. Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA

    2002-01-01

    We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic

  14. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1998-12-01

    These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)

  15. Relativistic solitons and pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N

    1975-05-01

    A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)

  16. Relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, Lawrence P

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...

  17. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  18. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjian

    2017-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  19. Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering

    2017-03-01

    This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.

  20. The gravitational wave spectrum of non-axisymmetric, freely precessing neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeck, Chris van den

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for free precession has been observed in the radio signature of several pulsars. Freely precessing pulsars radiate gravitationally at frequencies near the rotation rate and twice the rotation rate, which for rotation frequencies greater than ∼10 Hz is in the LIGO band. In older work, the gravitational wave spectrum of a precessing neutron star has been evaluated to first order in a small precession angle. Here, we calculate the contributions to second order in the wobble angle, and we find that a new spectral line emerges. We show that for reasonable wobble angles, the second-order line may well be observable with the proposed advanced LIGO detectors for precessing neutron stars as far away as the galactic centre. Observation of the full second-order spectrum permits a direct measurement of the star's wobble angle, oblateness and deviation from axisymmetry, with the potential to significantly increase our understanding of neutron star structure

  1. Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles

  2. Relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.

    1984-12-01

    An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)

  3. The Australian Geodetic Observing Program. Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G.; Dawson, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Australian government has through programs like AuScope, the Asia Pacific Reference Frame (APREF), and the Pacific Sea Level Monitoring (PSLM) Project made a significant contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Program. In addition to supporting the national research priorities, this contribution is justified by Australia's growing economic dependence on precise positioning to underpin efficient transportation, geospatial data management, and industrial automation (e.g., robotic mining and precision agriculture) and the consequent need for the government to guarantee provision of precise positioning products to the Australian community. It is also well recognised within Australia that there is an opportunity to exploit our near unique position as being one of the few regions in the world to see all new and emerging satellite navigation systems including Galileo (Europe), GPS III (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan) and IRNSS (India). It is in this context that the Australian geodetic program will build on earlier efforts and further develop its key geodetic capabilities. This will include the creation of an independent GNSS analysis capability that will enable Australia to contribute to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and an upgrade of key geodetic infrastructure including the national VLBI and GNSS arrays. This presentation will overview the significant geodetic activities undertaken by the Australian government and highlight its future plans.

  4. Relativistic particle in a box

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case

  5. Spin precession in inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.-H.; Chang, C.-R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical method to calculate the expectation value of spin in an inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional (2D) system with respect to an arbitrarily spin-polarized electron state, injected via an ideal point contact. The 2D system is confined in a [0 0 1]-grown quantum well, where both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are taken into account. The obtained analytical results allow more concrete description of the spatial behaviors of the spin precession caused individually by the Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. Applying the calculation on the Datta-Das spin-FET, whose original design considers only the Rashba effect inside the channel, we investigate the possible influence due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Concluded solution is the choice of ±[1±10], in particular [1 1 0], as the channel direction

  6. Resonant spin-flavour precession of neutrinos and pulsar velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, E.Kh.; Lanza, A.; Sciama, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    Young pulsars are known to exhibit large space velocities, up to 10 3 km/s. We propose a new mechanism for the generation of these large velocities based on an asymmetric emission of neutrinos during the supernova explosion. The mechanism involves the resonant spin-flavour precession of neutrinos with a transition magnetic moment in the magnetic field of the supernova. The asymmetric emission of neutrinos is due the distortion of the resonance surface by matter polarization effects in the supernova magnetic field. The requisite values of the field strengths and neutrino parameters are estimated for various neutrino conversions caused by their Dirac or Majorana-type transition magnetic moments. (author). 30 refs, 1 tab

  7. The equations of motion of a secularly precessing elliptical orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Bardella, M.

    2013-01-01

    The equations of motion of a secularly precessing ellipse are developed using time as the independent variable. The equations are useful when integrating numerically the perturbations about a reference trajectory which is subject to secular perturbations in the node, the argument of pericentre and the mean motion. Usually this is done in connection with Encke's method to ensure minimal rectification frequency. Similar equations are already available in the literature, but they are either given based on the true anomaly as the independent variable or in mixed mode with respect to time through the use of a supporting equation to track the anomaly. The equations developed here form a complete and independent set of six equations in time. Reformulations both of Escobal's and Kyner and Bennett's equations are also provided which lead to a more concise form.

  8. Relativistic impulse dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Stanley M

    2011-08-01

    Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.

  9. Non-relativistic supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)

  10. Relativistic stellar dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopoulos, G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)

  11. Relativistic Wigner functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bialynicki-Birula Iwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.

  12. The Relativistic Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  13. Relativistic few body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1988-01-01

    A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  14. Relativistic Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Bast, Radovan; Kongsted, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Most chemistry, including chemistry where relativistic effects are important, occurs in an environment, and in many cases, this environment has a significant effect on the chemistry. In nonrelativistic quantum chemistry, a lot of progress has been achieved with respect to including environments s...

  15. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  16. Relativistic Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, A.; Alder, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)

  17. Fundamental Relativistic Rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staruszkiewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)

  18. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, J-P

    2004-01-01

    The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic

  19. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Recent Activities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the basis on which future advances in geosciences can be built. By considering the Earth system as a whole (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere), monitoring Earth system components and their interactions by geodetic techniques and studying them from the geodetic point of view, the geodetic community provides the global geosciences community with a powerful tool consisting mainly of high-quality services, standards and references, and theoretical and observational innovations. The mission of GGOS is: (a) to provide the observations needed to monitor, map and understand changes in the Earth's shape, rotation and mass distribution; (b) to provide the global frame of reference that is the fundamental backbone for measuring and consistently interpreting key global change processes and for many other scientific and societal applications; and (c) to benefit science and society by providing the foundation upon which advances in Earth and planetary system science and applications are built. The goals of GGOS are: (1) to be the primary source for all global geodetic information and expertise serving society and Earth system science; (2) to actively promote, sustain, improve, and evolve the integrated global geodetic infrastructure needed to meet Earth science and societal requirements; (3) to coordinate with the international geodetic services that are the main source of key parameters and products needed to realize a stable global frame of reference and to observe and study changes in the dynamic Earth system; (4) to communicate and advocate the benefits of GGOS to user communities, policy makers, funding organizations, and society. In order to accomplish its mission and goals, GGOS depends on the IAG Services, Commissions, and Inter-Commission Committees. The Services provide the infrastructure and products on which all contributions

  20. Leveraging geodetic data to reduce losses from earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Langbein, John O.; Leith, William S.; Minson, Sarah E.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2018-04-23

    Seismic hazard assessments that are based on a variety of data and the best available science, coupled with rapid synthesis of real-time information from continuous monitoring networks to guide post-earthquake response, form a solid foundation for effective earthquake loss reduction. With this in mind, the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Mission Area (NHMA) engages in a variety of undertakings, both established and emergent, in order to provide high quality products that enable stakeholders to take action in advance of and in response to earthquakes. Examples include the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM), development of tools for improved situational awareness such as earthquake early warning (EEW) and operational earthquake forecasting (OEF), research about induced seismicity, and new efforts to advance comprehensive subduction zone science and monitoring. Geodetic observations provide unique and complementary information directly relevant to advancing many aspects of these efforts (fig. 1). EHP scientists have long leveraged geodetic data for a range of influential studies, and they continue to develop innovative observation and analysis methods that push the boundaries of the field of geodesy as applied to natural hazards research. Given the ongoing, rapid improvement in availability, variety, and precision of geodetic measurements, considering ways to fully utilize this observational resource for earthquake loss reduction is timely and essential. This report presents strategies, and the underlying scientific rationale, by which the EHP could achieve the following outcomes: The EHP is an authoritative source for the interpretation of geodetic data and its use for earthquake loss reduction throughout the United States and its territories.The USGS consistently provides timely, high quality geodetic data to stakeholders.Significant earthquakes are better characterized by incorporating geodetic data into USGS

  1. Inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a new precessing convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Gopakumar, Achamveedu

    2016-01-01

    It is customary to use a precessing convention, based on Newtonian orbital angular momentum L N , to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. A key feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a postNewtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum L , to evolve the L N -based precessing source frame. This motivated us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly use L to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the orbital phase and frequency evolution equations with respect to the usual L N -based implementation of the precessing convention. The implications of these additional terms are explored by computing the match between inspiral waveforms that employ L and L N -based precessing conventions. We found that the match estimates are smaller than the optimal value, namely 0.97, for a non-negligible fraction of unequal mass spinning compact binaries. (paper)

  2. An Electromagnet for Precession of the Polarization of Fast-Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspesund, O.; Bjorkman, J.; Trumpy, G.

    1965-05-01

    The advantages of using a transverse magnetic field for precessing the polarization of fast-neutrons are discussed. Design details of a powerful electromagnet supplying a transverse field of approximately 20 kGauss are given. Precession characteristics for polarized fast neutrons obtained at 50 deg (lab. syst.) from the Li 7 (p, n) Be 7 reaction are reported, using elastic scattering at 42 deg (lab. syst.) off natural carbon as an analyser. Correlation of the precession data with theoretical predictions presented elsewhere is made, and good agreement is found

  3. An Electromagnet for Precession of the Polarization of Fast-Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesund, O; Bjorkman, J; Trumpy, G

    1965-05-15

    The advantages of using a transverse magnetic field for precessing the polarization of fast-neutrons are discussed. Design details of a powerful electromagnet supplying a transverse field of approximately 20 kGauss are given. Precession characteristics for polarized fast neutrons obtained at 50 deg (lab. syst.) from the Li{sup 7} (p, n) Be{sup 7} reaction are reported, using elastic scattering at 42 deg (lab. syst.) off natural carbon as an analyser. Correlation of the precession data with theoretical predictions presented elsewhere is made, and good agreement is found.

  4. Precessed electron beam electron energy loss spectroscopy of graphene: Beyond channelling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yedra, Ll.; Estradé, S., E-mail: sestrade@ub.edu [LENS, MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM-MAT, CCiT, Universitat de Barcelona, Solé i Sabarís 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Torruella, P.; Eljarrat, A.; Peiró, F. [LENS, MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Darbal, A. D. [AppFive LLC, 1095 W Rio Salado Pkway, Suite 110, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); Weiss, J. K. [AppFive LLC, 1095 W Rio Salado Pkway, Suite 110, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); NanoMEGAS SPRL, Blvd. Edmond Machtens 79, B-1080 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-04

    The effects of beam precession on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) signal of the carbon K edge in a 2 monolayer graphene sheet are studied. In a previous work, we demonstrated the use of precession to compensate for the channeling-induced reduction of EELS signal when in zone axis. In the case of graphene, no enhancement of EELS signal is found in the usual experimental conditions, as graphene is not thick enough to present channeling effects. Interestingly, though it is found that precession makes it possible to increase the collection angle, and, thus, the overall signal, without a loss of signal-to-background ratio.

  5. The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David

    2004-01-01

    A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold

  6. Error Propagation in Geodetic Networks Studied by FEMLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Geodetic networks can be described by discrete models. The observations may be height differences, distances, and directions. Geodesists always make more observations than necessary and estimate the solution by using the principle of least squares. Contemporary networks often contain several thou...

  7. Verification of Positional Accuracy of ZVS3003 Geodetic Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International GPS Service (IGS) has provided GPS orbit products to the scientific community with increased precision and timeliness. Many users interested in geodetic positioning have adopted the IGS precise orbits to achieve centimeter level accuracy and ensure long-term reference frame stability. Positioning with ...

  8. The relativistic gravity train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Max

    2018-05-01

    The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.

  9. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  10. Relativistic studies in actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. Reinterpretation of the ''relativistic mass'' correction to the spin magnetic moment of a moving particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegstrom, R.A.; Lhuillier, C.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from a classical covariant equation of motion for the spin of a particle moving in a homogeneous electromagnetic field (the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation), we show that the ''relativistic mass'' correction to the electron spin magnetic moment, which has been obtained previously from relativistic quantum-mechanical treatments of the Zeeman effect, may be reinterpreted as the combination of three classical effects: (i) the difference in time scales in the electron rest frame vis-a-vis the lab frame, (ii) the Lorentz transformation of the magnetic field between the two frames, and (iii) the Thomas precession of the electron spin due to the acceleration of the electron produced by the magnetic field

  12. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  13. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D M

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Relativistic Ideal Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Bratek, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...

  15. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  17. Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.

  18. Spin precession experiments for light axionic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Kaplan, David E.; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Terrano, William A.; Trahms, Lutz; Wilkason, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Axionlike particles are promising candidates to make up the dark matter of the Universe, but it is challenging to design experiments that can detect them over their entire allowed mass range. Dark matter in general, and, in particular, axionlike particles and hidden photons, can be as light as roughly 10-22 eV (˜10-8 Hz ), with astrophysical anomalies providing motivation for the lightest masses ("fuzzy dark matter"). We propose experimental techniques for direct detection of axionlike dark matter in the mass range from roughly 10-13 eV (˜102 Hz ) down to the lowest possible masses. In this range, these axionlike particles act as a time-oscillating magnetic field coupling only to spin, inducing effects such as a time-oscillating torque and periodic variations in the spin-precession frequency with the frequency and direction of these effects set by the axion field. We describe how these signals can be measured using existing experimental technology, including torsion pendulums, atomic magnetometers, and atom interferometry. These experiments demonstrate a strong discovery capability, with future iterations of these experiments capable of pushing several orders of magnitude past current astrophysical bounds.

  19. Spinning gas clouds with precession: a new formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffet, B

    2010-01-01

    We consider Dyson's model (Dyson F J 1968 J. Math. Mech. 18 91) of an ellipsoidally stratified ideal gas cloud expanding adiabatically into a vacuum, in the Liouville integrable case where the gas is monatomic (γ = 5/3) and there is no vorticity (Gaffet B 2001a J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 2097; Paper I). In the cases of rotation about a fixed axis the separation of variables can be achieved, and the separable variables are linearly related to a set of three variables denoted by ρ, R, W (Gaffet B 2001b J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 9195; Paper II). We show in the present work that these variables admit a natural generalization to cases of rotation about a movable axis (precessing motion). The present study is restricted to the consideration of the so-called degenerate cases (see Gaffet B 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 99; Paper III), but we hope to generalize our results in the future to the non-degenerate ones as well. We also present a new, compact and generally valid formulation of one of the integrals of motion, of the sixth degree in the momenta, denoted by I 6 .

  20. Continuous Faraday measurement of spin precession without light shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, M.; Kewming, M. Â. J.; Fischer, S. Â. N.; Pakkiam, P.; Anderson, R. Â. P.; Turner, L. Â. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a dispersive Faraday optical probe of atomic spin which performs a weak measurement of spin projection of a quantum gas continuously for more than one second. To date, focusing bright far-off-resonance probes onto quantum gases has proved invasive due to strong scalar and vector light shifts exerting dipole and Stern-Gerlach forces. We show that tuning the probe near the magic-zero wavelength at 790 nm between the fine-structure doublet of 87Rb cancels the scalar light shift, and careful control of polarization eliminates the vector light shift. Faraday rotations due to each fine-structure line reinforce at this wavelength, enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio for a fixed rate of probe-induced decoherence. Using this minimally invasive spin probe, we perform microscale atomic magnetometry at high temporal resolution. Spectrogram analysis of the Larmor precession signal of a single spinor Bose-Einstein condensate measures a time-varying magnetic field strength with 1 μ G accuracy every 5 ms; or, equivalently, makes more than 200 successive measurements each at 10 pT /√{Hz } sensitivity.

  1. Precession and recession of the rock'n'roller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Peter; Bustamante, Miguel D

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherical rigid body that rocks and rolls on a plane under the effect of gravity. The distribution of mass is non-uniform and the centre of mass does not coincide with the geometric centre. The symmetric case, with moments of inertia I 1 = I 2 3 , is integrable and the motion is completely regular. Three known conservation laws are the total energy E, Jellett's quantity Q J and Routh's quantity Q R . When the inertial symmetry I 1 = I 2 is broken, even slightly, the character of the solutions is profoundly changed and new types of motion become possible. We derive the equations governing the general motion and present analytical and numerical evidence of the recession, or reversal of precession, that has been observed in physical experiments. We present an analysis of recession in terms of critical lines dividing the (Q R , Q J ) plane into four dynamically disjoint zones. We prove that recession implies the lack of conservation of Jellett's and Routh's quantities, by identifying individual reversals as crossings of the orbit (Q R (t), Q J (t)) through the critical lines. Consequently, a method is found to produce a large number of initial conditions so that the system will exhibit recession.

  2. Local Magnetic Fields in Ferromagnetics Studied by Positive Muon Precession

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Positive muons are used to study local magnetic fields in different materials. A polarized muon beam is employed with energies of 30-50 MeV, and the muons are stopped in the target being studied. During its lifetime the muon will precess in the magnetic fields present, and after the decay of the muon the emitted positron is detected in plastic scintillators. The time and angle of the detected positron is used to calculate the magnetic field at the position of the muon in the sample. \\\\ \\\\ The detector system consists of plastic scintillators. Most of the measurements are made in an applied magnetic field. A dilution cryostat is used to produce temperatures down to well below $ 1 ^0 $ K. \\\\ \\\\ The present line of experiments concern mainly: \\item a)~~~~Local magnetism in the paramagnetic state of the Lave's phase type REAl$_{2} $ and RENi$_{2} $ systems ~~~where RE is a rare-earth ion. \\item b)~~~~Local magnetic fields and critical behaviour of the magnetism in Gd metal. \\item c)~~~~Investigation of flux exclu...

  3. The Weyl non-Abelian gauge field and the Thomas precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.; Pestov, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    The connection between the Fermi-Walker transport and the Weyl non-Abelian gauge field is established. A theoretical possibility of detecting the Weyl gauge field caused by the Thomas precession of a gyroscope is discussed

  4. Transport Through a Precessing Spin Coupled to Noncollinearly Polarized Ferromagnetic Leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xianchao; Xin Zihua; Feng Liya

    2010-01-01

    The quantum electronic transport through a precessing magnetic spin coupled to noncollinearly polarized ferromagnetic leads (F-MS-F) has been studied in this paper. The nonequilibrium Green function approach is used to calculate local density of states (LDOS) and current in the presence of external bias. The characters of LDOS and the electronic current are obtained. The tunneling current is investigated for different precessing angle and different configurations of the magnetization of the leads. The investigation reveals that when the precessing angle takes θ < π/2 and negative bias is applied, the resonant tunneling current appears, otherwise, it appears when positive bias is applied. When the leads are totally polarized and the precessing angel takes 0, the tunneling current changes with the configuration of two leads; and it becomes zero when the two leads are antiparallel. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Implications of the Occurrence of Glitches in Pulsar Free Precession Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D I; Ashton, G; Prix, R

    2017-06-30

    The timing properties of radio pulsars provide a unique probe of neutron star interiors. Recent observations have uncovered quasiperiodicities in the timing and pulse properties of some pulsars, a phenomenon that has often been attributed to free precession of the neutron star, with profound implications for the distribution of superfluidity and superconductivity in the star. We advance this program by developing consistency relations between free precession and pulsars glitches, and we show that there are difficulties in reconciling the two phenomena in some precession candidates. This indicates that the precession model used here needs to be modified or some other phenomenon is at work in producing the quasiperiodicities, or even that there is something missing in terms of our understanding of glitches.

  6. Higher-order relativistic periastron advances and binary pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, T.; Schafer, G.

    1988-01-01

    The contributions to the periastron advance of a system of two condensed bodies coming from relativistic dynamical effects of order higher than the usual first post-Newtonian (1PN) equations of motion are investigated. The structure of the solution of the orbital second post-Newtonian (2PN) equations of motion is given in a simple parametrized form. The contributions to the secular pariastron advance, and the period, of orbital 2PN effects are then explicitly worked out by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method. The spin-orbit contribution to the secular precession of the orbit in space is rederived in a streamlined way by making full use of Hamiltonian methods. These results are then applied to the theoretical interpretation of the observational data of pulsars in close eccentric binary systems. It is shown that the higher-order relativistic contributions are already of theoretical and astophysical significance for interpreting the high-precision measurement of the secular periastron advance of PSR 1913+16 achived by Taylor and coworkers. The case of extremely fast spinning (millisecond) binary pulsars is also discussed, and shown to offer an easier ground for getting new tests of general relativity, and/or, a direct measurement of the moment of inertia of a neutron star

  7. Relativistic effects on earth satellites and their measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, B.

    1988-01-01

    There are three kinds of relativistic effects on earth satellites: those due post newtonian corrections in the field of the earth; the relativistic corrections in the field of the sun; and the precession of the local frames with respect to far away bodies. The authors point out that it is not possible to eliminate the second kind by decreasing the distance of the satellite and the earth; in other words, the effect of the sun is not entirely tidal and a generalized principle of equivalence does hold exactly. Concerning the third kind, the motion of the moon and the measurements of its distance from the earth by lunar laser ranging provides a way to establish experimentally the two connections between the three fundamental frames one should consider: the local frame, determined geometrically by parallel transport; the planetary dynamical frame; and the kinematical frame defined by extragalactic radio sources. According to general relativity the first two frames are related by de Sitter's precision; the last two coincide. It shown that the connections between the first two frames and the first and third frame are already hidden in the existing data

  8. Improved analysis of GW150914 using a fully spin-precessing waveform model

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents updated estimates of source parameters for GW150914, a binary black-hole coalescence event detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015 [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).]. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).] presented parameter estimation of the source using a 13-dimensional, phenomenological precessing-spin model (precessing IMRPhenom) and an 11-dimensional nonprecessing effective-one-body (EOB) mode...

  9. Simulation of stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin torque oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Houbing; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao

    2017-01-01

    We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4–7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress. - Highlights: • We proposed stress-modulated magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator. • The magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by in-plane stress. • The stress also can widen the magnetization frequency range 4.4–7.0 GHz. • The stress-modulated oscillation frequency can simplify STO devices.

  10. Are we close to putting the anomalous perihelion precessions from Verlinde's emergent gravity to the test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of the emergent gravity scenario by Verlinde, it was recently observed by Liu and Prokopec that, among other things, an anomalous pericenter precession would affect the orbital motion of a test particle orbiting an isolated central body. Here, it is shown that, if it were real, its expected magnitude for the inner planets of the Solar System would be at the same level of the present-day accuracy in constraining any possible deviations from their standard perihelion precessions as inferred from long data records spanning about the last century. The most favorable situation for testing the Verlinde-type precession seems to occur for Mars. Indeed, according to recent versions of the EPM and INPOP planetary ephemerides, non-standard perihelion precessions, of whatsoever physical origin, which are larger than some ≈ 0.02-0.11 milliarcseconds per century are not admissible, while the putative precession predicted by Liu and Prokopec amounts to 0.09 milliarcseconds per century. Other potentially interesting astronomical and astrophysical scenarios like, e.g., the Earth's LAGEOS II artificial satellite, the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B and the S-stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in Sgr A^* are, instead, not viable because of the excessive smallness of the predicted precessions for them.

  11. Improved Analysis of GW150914 Using a Fully Spin-Precessing Waveform Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, C.; Casentini, J.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gaebel, S.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; Vano-Vinuales, A.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Brügmann, B.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, M.; Haas, R.; Hemberger, D.; Hinder, I.; Kidder, L. E.; Kinsey, M.; Laguna, P.; Ossokine, S.; Pan, Y.; Röver, C.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents updated estimates of source parameters for GW150914, a binary black-hole coalescence event detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015 [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016).]. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).] presented parameter estimation of the source using a 13-dimensional, phenomenological precessing-spin model (precessing IMRPhenom) and an 11-dimensional nonprecessing effective-one-body (EOB) model calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations, which forces spin alignment (nonprecessing EOBNR). Here, we present new results that include a 15-dimensional precessing-spin waveform model (precessing EOBNR) developed within the EOB formalism. We find good agreement with the parameters estimated previously [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).], and we quote updated component masses of 35-3+5 M⊙ and 3 0-4+3 M⊙ (where errors correspond to 90% symmetric credible intervals). We also present slightly tighter constraints on the dimensionless spin magnitudes of the two black holes, with a primary spin estimate <0.65 and a secondary spin estimate <0.75 at 90% probability. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016).] estimated the systematic parameter-extraction errors due to waveform-model uncertainty by combining the posterior probability densities of precessing IMRPhenom and nonprecessing EOBNR. Here, we find that the two precessing-spin models are in closer agreement, suggesting that these systematic errors are smaller than previously quoted.

  12. Simulation of stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin torque oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Houbing, E-mail: hbhuang@ustb.edu.cn; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao, E-mail: xqma@sas.ustb.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4–7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress. - Highlights: • We proposed stress-modulated magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator. • The magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by in-plane stress. • The stress also can widen the magnetization frequency range 4.4–7.0 GHz. • The stress-modulated oscillation frequency can simplify STO devices.

  13. Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2001-04-01

    Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.

  14. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back

  15. Relativistic twins or sextuplets?

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, E S

    2003-01-01

    A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.

  16. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej

    Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  17. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  18. Localization of relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Relativistic wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corinaldesi, Ernesto

    1963-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat

  20. Relativistic quarkonium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, H.

    1985-06-01

    We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters

  1. Proton relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)

  2. Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures

  3. [Relativistic heavy ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described

  4. Charge as the Stereographic Projection of Geometric Precession on Pseudospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper geometric phases (Berry and Aharonov-Bohm) are generalized to nonlinear topological phase fields on pseudospheres, where the coordinate vector field is parallel transported along the signal/soliton vector field with Levi--Civita connection. Projective $PSL(2,{\\Bbb R})$ symmetry describes the relativistic self-interacting bosonic sine-Gordon field. A Coulomb potential can be induced as the stereographic projection of a harmonic oscillator potential mapping angles or phases to distances and vice versa resulting in mutual coupling with a generalized coupling constant given by a nonlinear iteration. With single-valuedness requirement in 137-gonal symmetry it fits within a few ppb uncertainty to the Sommerfeld fine structure constant.

  5. Relativistic approach to nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Giai; Bouyssy, A.

    1987-03-01

    Some recent works related with relativistic models of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock are recalled and illustrated by some examples. The problem of isoscalar current and magnetic moments of odd nuclei is discussed. The application of the relativistic model to the nuclear response function is examined

  6. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  7. Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2010-01-01

    Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.

  8. Influence of bad measurements in properties of GeodeticNnetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jakub

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In establishment of LGS (Local geodetic Net some given coordinated points from the relevant area are used, new points areestablished and the required distances and angles among the points are measured. If some measurements are defective, the netadjustment with the obtained values is depreciated, unacceptable. In the paper there is given an identification method of incorrectmeasurement results. The faulty results are eliminated in a new adjustment or the relevant defective measurements are repeated forobtaining correct values.

  9. Geodetic Volcano Monitoring Research in Canary Islands: Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Arjona, A.; Camacho, A. G.; Prieto, J. F.; Seco, A.; Tizzani, P.; Manzo, M. R.; Lanari, R.; Blanco, P.; Mallorqui, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Canarian Archipelago is an oceanic island volcanic chain with a long-standing history of volcanic activity (> 40 Ma). It is located off the NW coast of the African continent, lying over a transitional crust of the Atlantic African passive margin. At least 12 eruptions have been occurred on the islands of Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma in the last 500 years. Volcanism manifest predominantly as basaltic strombolian monogenetic activity (whole archipelago) and central felsic volcanism (active only in Tenerife Island). We concentrate our studies in the two most active islands, Tenerife and La Palma. In these islands, we tested different methodologies of geodetic monitoring systems. We use a combination of ground- and space-based techniques. At Tenerife Island, a differential interferometric study was performed to detect areas of deformation. DInSAR detected two clear areas of deformation, using this results a survey-based GPS network was designed and optimized to control those deformations and the rest of the island. Finally, using SBAS DInSAR results weak spatial long- wavelength subsidence signals has been detected. At La Palma, the first DInSAR analysis have not shown any clear deformation, so a first time series analysis was performed detecting a clear subsidence signal at Teneguia volcano, as for Tenerife a GPS network was designed and optimized taking into account stable and deforming areas. After several years of activities, geodetic results served to study ground deformations caused by a wide variety of sources, such as changes in groundwater levels, volcanic activity, volcano-tectonics, gravitational loading, etc. These results proof that a combination of ground-based and space-based techniques is suitable tool for geodetic volcano monitoring in Canary Islands. Finally, we would like to strength that those results could have serious implications on the continuous geodetic monitoring system design and implementation for the Canary Islands which is under

  10. Laws of motion and precession for black holes and other bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Hartle, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Laws of motion and precession are derived for a Kerr black hole or any other body which is far from all other sources of gravity (''isolated body'') and has multipole moments that change slowly with time. Previous work by D'Eath and others has shown that to high accuracy the body moves along a geodesic of the surrounding spacetime geometry, and Fermi-Walker transports its angular-momentum vector. This paper derives the largest corrections to the geodesic law of motion and Fermi-Walker law of transport. These corrections are due to coupling of the body's angular momentum and quadrupole moment to the Riemann curvature of the surrounding spacetime. The resulting laws of motion and precession are identical to those that have been derived previously, by many researchers, for test bodies with negligible self-gravity. However, the derivation given here is valid for any isolated body, regardless of the strength of its self-gravity. These laws of motion and precession can be converted into equations of motion and precession by combining them with an approximate solution to the Einstein field equations for the surrounding spacetime. As an example, the conversion is carried out for two gravitationally bound systems of bodies with sizes much less than their separations. The resulting equations of motion and precession are derived accurately through post/sup 1.5/-Newtonian order. For the special case of two Kerr black holes orbiting each other, these equations of motion and precession (which include couplings of the holes' spins and quadrupole moments to spacetime curvature) reduce to equations previously derived by D'Eath. The precession due to coupling of a black hole's quadrupole moment to surrounding curvature may be large enough, if the hole lives at the center of a very dense star cluster, for observational detection by its effects on extragalactic radio jets

  11. Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory

  12. An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

    2015-11-01

    The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

  13. Relativistic centrifugal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.

  14. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given

  15. A new approach for 3D reconstruction from bright field TEM imaging: Beam precession assisted electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebled, J.M.; Yedra, Ll.; Estrade, S.; Portillo, J.; Peiro, F.

    2011-01-01

    The successful combination of electron beam precession and bright field electron tomography for 3D reconstruction is reported. Beam precession is demonstrated to be a powerful technique to reduce the contrast artifacts due to diffraction and curvature in thin foils. Taking advantage of these benefits, Precession assisted electron tomography has been applied to reconstruct the morphology of Sn precipitates embedded in an Al matrix, from a tilt series acquired in a range from +49 o to -61 o at intervals of 2 o and with a precession angle of 0.6 o in bright field mode. The combination of electron tomography and beam precession in conventional TEM mode is proposed as an alternative procedure to obtain 3D reconstructions of nano-objects without a scanning system or a high angle annular dark field detector. -- Highlights: → Electron beam precession reduces spurious diffraction contrast in bright field mode. → Bend contour related contrast depends on precession angle. → Electron beam precession is combined with bright field electron tomography. → Precession assisted BF tomography allowed 3D reconstruction of a Sn precipitate.

  16. A new approach for 3D reconstruction from bright field TEM imaging: Beam precession assisted electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebled, J.M. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Yedra, Ll. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Estrade, S.; Portillo, J. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM-MAT, CCiT-UB, Sole i Sabaris 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Peiro, F., E-mail: francesca.peiro@ub.edu [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The successful combination of electron beam precession and bright field electron tomography for 3D reconstruction is reported. Beam precession is demonstrated to be a powerful technique to reduce the contrast artifacts due to diffraction and curvature in thin foils. Taking advantage of these benefits, Precession assisted electron tomography has been applied to reconstruct the morphology of Sn precipitates embedded in an Al matrix, from a tilt series acquired in a range from +49{sup o} to -61{sup o} at intervals of 2{sup o} and with a precession angle of 0.6{sup o} in bright field mode. The combination of electron tomography and beam precession in conventional TEM mode is proposed as an alternative procedure to obtain 3D reconstructions of nano-objects without a scanning system or a high angle annular dark field detector. -- Highlights: {yields} Electron beam precession reduces spurious diffraction contrast in bright field mode. {yields} Bend contour related contrast depends on precession angle. {yields} Electron beam precession is combined with bright field electron tomography. {yields} Precession assisted BF tomography allowed 3D reconstruction of a Sn precipitate.

  17. Stochastic Template Bank for Gravitational Wave Searches for Precessing Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Nathaniel; Haris, K.; Dal Canton, Tito; Fehrmann, Henning; Krishnan, Badri; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pai, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational wave searches to date have largely focused on non-precessing systems. Including precession effects greatly increases the number of templates to be searched over. This leads to a corresponding increase in the computational cost and can increase the false alarm rate of a realistic search. On the other hand, there might be astrophysical systems that are entirely missed by non-precessing searches. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing a template bank using stochastic methods for neutron star-black hole binaries allowing for precession, but with the restrictions that the total angular momentum of the binary is pointing toward the detector and that the neutron star spin is negligible relative to that of the black hole. We quantify the number of templates required for the search, and we explicitly construct the template bank. We show that despite the large number of templates, stochastic methods can be adapted to solve the problem. We quantify the parameter space region over which the non-precessing search might miss signals.

  18. Impact of a small ellipticity on the sustainability condition of developed turbulence in a precessing spheroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Yasufumi; Simonet-Davin, Gabriel; Katayama, Atsushi; Goto, Susumu

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally investigate the flow transition to developed turbulence in a precessing spheroid with a small ellipticity. Fully developed turbulence appears through a subcritical transition when we fix the Reynolds number (the spin rate) and gradually increase the Poincaré number (the precession rate). In the transitional range of the Poincaré number, two qualitatively different turbulent states (i.e., fully developed turbulence and quiescent turbulence with a spin-driven global circulation) are stable and they are connected by a hysteresis loop. This discontinuous transition is in contrast to the continuous transition in a precessing sphere, for which neither bistable turbulent states nor hysteresis loops are observed. The small ellipticity of the container makes the global circulation of the confined fluid more stable, and it requires much stronger precession of the spheroid, than a sphere, for fully developed turbulence to be sustained. Nevertheless, once fully developed turbulence is sustained, its flow structures are almost identical in the spheroid and sphere. The argument [Lorenzani and Tilgner, J. Fluid Mech. 492, 363 (2003), 10.1017/S002211200300572X; Noir et al., Geophys. J. Int. 154, 407 (2003), 10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01934.x] on the basis of the analytical solution [Busse, J. Fluid Mech. 33, 739 (1968), 10.1017/S0022112068001655] of the steady global circulation in a weak precession range well describes the onset of the fully developed turbulence in the spheroid.

  19. Elementary relativistic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemenov, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Coulomb interaction which occurs in the final state between two particles with opposite charges allows for creation of the bound state of these particles. In the case when particles are generated with large momentum in lab frame, the Lorentz factors of the bound state will also be much larger than one. The relativistic velocity of the atoms provides the opportunity to observe bound states of (π + μ - ), (π + π - ) and (π + K - ) with a lifetime as short as 10 -16 s, and to measure their parameters. The ultrarelativistic positronium atoms (A 2e ) allow us to observe the e.ect of superpenetration in matter, to study the effects caused by the formation time of A 2e from virtual e + e - pairs and to investigate the process of transformation of two virtual particles into the bound state

  20. Photoionization at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, D.C.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Soerensen, A.H.; Belkacem, A.

    2000-11-01

    At MeV energies and beyond the inner-shell vacancy production cross section associated with the photoelectric and Compton effect decrease with increasing photon energy. However, when the photon energy exceeds twice the rest energy of the electron, ionization of a bound electron may be catalyzed by the creation of an electron-positron pair. Distinctly different from all other known mechanisms for inner-shell vacancy production by photons, we show that the cross section for this ''vacuum-assisted photoionization'' increases with increasing photon energy and then saturates. As a main result, we predict that vacuum-assisted photoionization will dominate the other known photoionization mechanisms in the highly relativistic energy regime. (orig.)

  1. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  2. Relativistic heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given

  3. Relativistic plasma dispersion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived

  4. Relativistic Light Sails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, David, E-mail: dkipping@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  5. Relativistic Light Sails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipping, David

    2017-01-01

    One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.

  6. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1991-07-21

    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

  7. Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitsman, E. V.

    2007-01-01

    The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T 0 /√1 - v 2 /c 2 . Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived

  8. Spin-dynamics simulations of vortex precession in 2-D magnetic dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depondt, Ph.; Levy, J.-C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots of finite size. → A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly erratic ones. → Pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided. -- Abstract: Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots. The Landau-Lifshitz equation with exchange and dipolar interactions was integrated at a low temperature with initial conditions consisting in a single vortex situated aside from the central position. This vortex precesses around the center of the sample and either can be expelled or converges towards the center. These relaxation processes are systematically studied. A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly somewhat erratic ones. Intrinsic pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided.

  9. EELS signal enhancement by means of beam precession in the TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estradé, Sonia; Portillo, Joaquim; Yedra, Lluís; Rebled, José Manuel; Peiró, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    EELS is nowadays a most relevant characterization tool as it provides chemical and electronic information with an extraordinary spatial resolution. When a crystal is viewed in zone axis in the TEM, there is channelling of the electrons along the atom columns, which strongly reduce the EELS signal, so that it is generally advised to work slightly off the zone axis to collect EELS data, which may not always be possible or advantageous. In the present work, we demonstrate the use of precession to compensate for the reduction of EELS signal when in the zone axis. -- Highlights: ► Channelling compromises EELS signal in zone axis. ► Precession can be used to get rid of channelling effects. ► Use of precession to enhance EELS signal in the zone axis is demonstrated.

  10. Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)

  11. Predicting Precession Rates from Secular Dynamics for Extra-solar Multi-planet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa

    2015-12-01

    Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods and have used this to predict what range of pericenter precession (and nodal regression) rates the planets may have. One might have assumed that in any given system the planets with shorter periods would have faster precession rates, but I show that this is not necessarily the case. Planets that are 'loners' have narrow ranges of possible precession rates, while planets that are 'groupies' can have a wider range of possible precession rates. Several planets are expected to undergo significant precession on few-year timescales and many planets (though not the majority of planets) will undergo significant precession on decade timescales.

  12. Improved Analysis of GW150914 Using a Fully Spin-Precessing Waveform Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents updated estimates of source parameters for GW150914, a binary black-hole coalescence event detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO in 2015 [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 (2016.]. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016.] presented parameter estimation of the source using a 13-dimensional, phenomenological precessing-spin model (precessing IMRPhenom and an 11-dimensional nonprecessing effective-one-body (EOB model calibrated to numerical-relativity simulations, which forces spin alignment (nonprecessing EOBNR. Here, we present new results that include a 15-dimensional precessing-spin waveform model (precessing EOBNR developed within the EOB formalism. We find good agreement with the parameters estimated previously [Abbott et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016.], and we quote updated component masses of 35_{-3}^{+5} M_{⊙} and 30_{-4}^{+3} M_{⊙} (where errors correspond to 90% symmetric credible intervals. We also present slightly tighter constraints on the dimensionless spin magnitudes of the two black holes, with a primary spin estimate <0.65 and a secondary spin estimate <0.75 at 90% probability. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016.] estimated the systematic parameter-extraction errors due to waveform-model uncertainty by combining the posterior probability densities of precessing IMRPhenom and nonprecessing EOBNR. Here, we find that the two precessing-spin models are in closer agreement, suggesting that these systematic errors are smaller than previously quoted.

  13. The current state of the creation and modernization of national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All official data are currently integrated and harmonized in a spatial reference system. This paper outlines a national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland. The national geodetic and cartographic resources are an important part of the spatial information infrastructure in the European Community. They also provide reference data for other resources of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, including: main and detailed geodetic control networks, base maps, land and buildings registries, geodetic registries of utilities and topographic maps. This paper presents methods of producing digital map data and technical standards for field surveys, and in addition paper also presents some aspects of building Global and Regional SDI.

  14. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The high cost of acquiring geodetic data from the sea floor has limited the observations available to help us understand and model the behavior of seafloor geodetic processes. To address this problem, the Pacific GPS Facility at the University of Hawaii is developing a cost effective approach for accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure without the requirement for costly ship time. There is a recognized need to vastly increase our underwater geodetic observing capacity. Most of the largest recorded earthquakes and most devastating tsunamis are generated at subduction zones underwater. Similarly, many volcanoes are partly (e.g. Santorini) or completely (e.g. Loihi) submerged, and are not well observed and understood. Furthermore, landslide features ring many ocean basins, and huge debris deposits surround many volcanic oceanic islands. Our approach will lower the cost of collecting sea-floor geodetic data, reducing the barriers preventing us from acquiring the information we need to observe and understand these types of structures and provide a direct societal benefit in improving hazard assessment. The capability is being developed by equipping one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders with an integrated acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, processing unit, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the sea floor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data, but seafloor pressure data includes contribution from a variety of sources and on its own may not provide the accuracy required for geodetic investigations. Independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height can be used to remove these contributions from the observed sea floor pressure timeseries. We will integrate our seafloor pressure measurements with air

  15. First observation of magnetic moment precession of channeled particles in bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.; Albuquerque, I.F.; Baublis, V.V.; Bondar, N.F.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Cooper, P.S.; Lisheng, D.; Denisov, A.S.; Dobrovolsky, A.V.; Dubbs, T.; Endler, A.M.F.; Escobar, C.O.; Foucher, M.; Golovtsov, V.L.; Goritchev, P.A.; Gottschalk, H.; Gouffon, P.; Grachev, V.T.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Kuropatkin, N.P.; Lach, J.; Lang Pengfei; Lebedenko, V.N.; Li Chengze; Li Yunshan; Mahon, J.R.P.; McCliment, E.; Morelos, A.; Newsom, C.; Pommot Maia, M.C.; Samsonov, V.M.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Shi Huanzhang; Smith, V.J.; Sun, C.R.; Tang Fukun; Terentyev, N.K.; Timm, S.; Tkatch, I.I.; Uvarov, L.N.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Yan Jie; Zhao Wenheng; Zheng Shuchen; Zhong Yuanyuan

    1992-01-01

    Spin precession of channeled particles in bent crystals has been observed for the first time. Polarized Σ + were channeled using bent Si crystals. These crystals provided an effective magnetic field of 45 T which resulted in a measured spin precession of 60±17 degree. This agrees with the prediction of 62±2 degree using the world average of Σ + magnetic moment measurements. This new technique gives a Σ + magnetic moment of (2.40±0.46±0.40)μ N , where the quoted uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We see no evidence of depolarization in the channeling process

  16. On the precession of the optical star in the Cyg X-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, I.M.; Sokolov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Some results are analysed of previoUs spectroscopic investigation of the supergiant HDE 226868 (based on six-year observations at the 6-m telescope) with the puspose of searching for possible variations in the spectrum connected with the precession of the rotation axis of the star upper layers. It is noted that spectral type and HeI lambda 4471 line halfwidth show a coordinated behaviour with the phase of the 39-day period in the frame of the precession hypothesis. Nonuniform distribution of CNO anomalies over the star latitude seems to be possible

  17. The design and construction of a nuclear free-precession magnetometer; Etude et realisation d'un magnetometre a precession libre nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baconnier, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-10-15

    After presenting the advantages of nuclear magnetic resonance with respect to electromagnetic processes, as far as the measurement of the earths' magnetic field is concerned, we deal with the macroscopic theory for the Bloch model and analyse Packard and Varions' experiment. The development of a particular absolute free-precession magnetometer is studied, and the conditions are determined for obtaining a maximum amplitude signal as a function of the geometrical form of the detector coil, of the method of cut-off, and of the coupling between various parts of the system. After having described in detail the technology of amplifiers, we consider the problem of the measurement of the frequency of precession for which an original solution, of analogy form, is proposed and discussed. Complete plans of the equipment are given in an appendix. (author) [French] Apres avoir presente les avantages de la resonance magnetique nucleaire relativement aux procedes electromagnetiques, en ce qui concerne la mesure du champ magnetique terrestre, on traite de la theorie macroscopique dans le modele de Bloch et analyse l'experience de Packard et Varian. On etudie une realisation particuliere d'un magnetometre absolu a precession libre et determine les conditions d'obtention d'un signal d'amplitude maximale en fonction de la forme geometrique du bobinage detecteur, de la methode de coupure, et du couplage entre les differents elements du montage. Apres avoir decrit en detail la technologie des amplificateurs, on aborde le probleme de la mesure de la frequence de precession, pour laquelle une solution originale, sous forme analogique, est proposee et discutee. En annexe est joint un dossier complet des plans de la realisation. (auteur)

  18. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Relativistic description of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters

  20. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Relativistic heavy-ion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera Corral, G

    2010-01-01

    The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Geodetic Space Weather Monitoring by means of Ionosphere Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The term space weather indicates physical processes and phenomena in space caused by radiation of energy mainly from the Sun. Manifestations of space weather are (1) variations of the Earth's magnetic field, (2) the polar lights in the northern and southern hemisphere, (3) variations within the ionosphere as part of the upper atmosphere characterized by the existence of free electrons and ions, (4) the solar wind, i.e. the permanent emission of electrons and photons, (5) the interplanetary magnetic field, and (6) electric currents, e.g. the van Allen radiation belt. It can be stated that ionosphere disturbances are often caused by so-called solar storms. A solar storm comprises solar events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which have different effects on the Earth. Solar flares may cause disturbances in positioning, navigation and communication. CMEs can effect severe disturbances and in extreme cases damages or even destructions of modern infrastructure. Examples are interruptions to satellite services including the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), communication systems, Earth observation and imaging systems or a potential failure of power networks. Currently the measurements of solar satellite missions such as STEREO and SOHO are used to forecast solar events. Besides these measurements the Earth's ionosphere plays another key role in monitoring the space weather, because it responses to solar storms with an increase of the electron density. Space-geodetic observation techniques, such as terrestrial GNSS, satellite altimetry, space-borne GPS (radio occultation), DORIS and VLBI provide valuable global information about the state of the ionosphere. Additionally geodesy has a long history and large experience in developing and using sophisticated analysis and combination techniques as well as empirical and physical modelling approaches. Consequently, geodesy is predestinated for strongly supporting space weather monitoring via

  3. Determining Coastal Mean Dynamic Topography by Geodetic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianliang

    2017-11-01

    In geodesy, coastal mean dynamic topography (MDT) was traditionally determined by spirit leveling technique. Advances in navigation satellite positioning (e.g., GPS) and geoid determination enable space-based leveling with an accuracy of about 3 cm at tide gauges. Recent CryoSat-2, a satellite altimetry mission with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and SAR interferometric measurements, extends the space-based leveling to the coastal ocean with the same accuracy. However, barriers remain in applying the two space-based geodetic methods for MDT determination over the coastal ocean because current geoid modeling focuses primarily on land as a substitute to spirit leveling to realize the vertical datum.

  4. Research in Application of Geodetic GPS Receivers in Time Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, P.; Sun, Z.; Wang, F.; Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of satellite orbit and clock parameters accurately determining technology and the popularity of geodetic GPS receivers, Common-View (CV) which proposed in 1980 by Allan has gained widespread application and achieved higher accuracy time synchronization results. GPS Common View (GPS CV) is the technology that based on multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers located in different place and under the same common-view schedule to receiving same GPS satellite signal at the same time, and then calculating the time difference between respective local receiver time and GPST by weighted theory, we will obtain the difference between above local time of receivers that installed in different station with external atomic clock. Multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers have significant advantages such as higher stability, higher accuracy and more common-view satellites in long baseline time synchronization application over the single-channel geodetic GPS receivers. At present, receiver hardware delay and surrounding environment influence are main error factors that affect the accuracy of GPS common-view result. But most error factors will be suppressed by observation data smoothing and using of observation data from different satellites in multi-channel geodetic GPS receiver. After the SA (Selective Availability) cancellation, using a combination of precise satellite ephemeris, ionospheric-free dual-frequency P-code observations and accurately measuring of receiver hardware delay, we can achieve time synchronization result on the order of nanoseconds (ns). In this paper, 6 days observation data of two IGS core stations with external atomic clock (PTB, USNO distance of two stations about 6000 km) were used to verify the GPS common-view theory. Through GPS observation data analysis, there are at least 2-4 common-view satellites and 5 satellites in a few tracking periods between two stations when the elevation angle is 15°, even there will be at least

  5. RESEARCH IN APPLICATION OF GEODETIC GPS RECEIVERS IN TIME SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the development of satellite orbit and clock parameters accurately determining technology and the popularity of geodetic GPS receivers, Common-View (CV which proposed in 1980 by Allan has gained widespread application and achieved higher accuracy time synchronization results. GPS Common View (GPS CV is the technology that based on multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers located in different place and under the same common-view schedule to receiving same GPS satellite signal at the same time, and then calculating the time difference between respective local receiver time and GPST by weighted theory, we will obtain the difference between above local time of receivers that installed in different station with external atomic clock. Multi-channel geodetic GPS receivers have significant advantages such as higher stability, higher accuracy and more common-view satellites in long baseline time synchronization application over the single-channel geodetic GPS receivers. At present, receiver hardware delay and surrounding environment influence are main error factors that affect the accuracy of GPS common-view result. But most error factors will be suppressed by observation data smoothing and using of observation data from different satellites in multi-channel geodetic GPS receiver. After the SA (Selective Availability cancellation, using a combination of precise satellite ephemeris, ionospheric-free dual-frequency P-code observations and accurately measuring of receiver hardware delay, we can achieve time synchronization result on the order of nanoseconds (ns. In this paper, 6 days observation data of two IGS core stations with external atomic clock (PTB, USNO distance of two stations about 6000 km were used to verify the GPS common-view theory. Through GPS observation data analysis, there are at least 2–4 common-view satellites and 5 satellites in a few tracking periods between two stations when the elevation angle is 15°, even

  6. The University, the Market, and the Geodetic Engineer or

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    In Europe, universities have existed for more than 800 years. The university is the place in society for higher learning and related research. Through the ages, the universities have enjoyed a remarkably freedom relative to religious and secular powers. In recent years, the objectives and practises...... project, which concerned the education of geodetic engineers in Slovenia. The body of the paper presents a selection of ideas that shaped the university through the centuries, with a view to balance the present interest in advancing market-directed behaviour....

  7. An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.

  8. Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroschek, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)

  9. Precise measurement of magnetic field gradients from free spin precession signals of He-3 and Xe-129 magnetometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allmendinger, Fabian; Blümler, Peter; Doll, Michael; Grasdijk, Oliver; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus; Karpuk, Sergej; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhäuser, Andreas; Repetto, Maricel; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Yuri; Tullney, Kathlyne; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We report on precise measurements of magnetic field gradients extracted from transverse relaxation rates of precessing spin samples. The experimental approach is based on the free precession of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized He-3 and (12)9Xe atoms in a spherical cell inside a magnetic guiding field

  10. A complete solution for GP-B's gyroscopic precession by retarded gravitational theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keyun

    Mainstream physicists generally believe that Mercury’s Perihelion precession and GP-B’ gyroscopic precession are two of the strongest evidences supporting Einstein’ curved spacetime and general relativity. However, most classical literatures and textbooks (e.g. Ohanain: Gravitation and Spacetime) paint an incorrect picture of Mercury’s orbit anomaly, namely Mercury’s perihelion precessed 43 arc-seconds per century; a correct picture should be that Mercury rotated 43 arc-seconds per century more than along Newtonian theoretical orbit. The essence of Le Verrier’s and Newcomb’s observation and analysis is that the angular speed of Mercury is slightly faster than the Newtonian theoretical value. The complete explanation to Mercury’s orbit anomaly should include two factors, perihelion precession is one of two factors, in addition, the change of orbital radius will also cause a change of angular speed, which is another component of Mercury's orbital anomaly. If Schwarzschild metric is correct, then the solution of the Schwarzschild orbit equation must contain three non-ignorable items. The first corresponds to Newtonian ellipse; the second is a nonlinear perturbation with increasing amplitude, which causes the precession of orbit perihelion; this is just one part of the angular speed anomaly of Mercury; the third part is a linear perturbation, corresponding to a similar figure of the Newton's ellipse, but with a minimal radius; this makes no contribution to the perihelion precession of the Schwarzschild orbit, but makes the Schwarzschild orbital radius slightly smaller, leading to a slight increase in Mercury’s angular speed. All classical literatures of general relativity ignored this last factor, which is a gross oversight. If you correctly take all three factors into consideration, the final result is that the difference between the angles rotated along Schwarzschild’s orbit and the angle rotated along Newton’s orbit for one hundred years should

  11. Current status of the EPOS WG4 - GNSS and Other Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Bastos, Luisa; Bruyninx, Carine; D'Agostino, Nicola; Dousa, Jan; Ganas, Athanassios; Lidberg, Martin; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    WG4 - "EPOS Geodetic Data and Other Geodetic Data" is the Working Group of the EPOS project in charge of defining and preparing the integration of the existing Pan-European Geodetic Infrastructures that will support European Geosciences, which is the ultimate goal of the EPOS project. The WG4 is formed by representatives of the participating EPOS countries (23) but it is also open to the entire geodetic community. In fact, WG4 also already includes members from countries that formally are not integrating EPOS in this first step. The geodetic component of EPOS (WG4) is dealing essentially with Research Infrastructures focused on continuous operating GNSS (cGNSS) in the current phase. The option of concentrating the efforts on the presently most generalized geodetic tool supporting research on Solid Earth was decided in order to optimize the existing resources. Nevertheless, WG4 will continue to pursue the development of tools and methodologies that permit the access of the EPOS community to other geodetic information (e.g., gravimetry). Furthermore, although the focus is on Solid Earth applications, other research and technical applications (e.g., reference frames, meteorology, space weather) can also benefit from the efforts of WG4 EPOS towards the optimization of the geodetic resources in Europe. We will present and discuss the plans for the implementation of the thematic and core services (TCS) for geodetic data within EPOS and the related business plan. We will focus on strategies towards the implementation of the best solutions that will permit to the end-users, and in particular geo-scientists, to access the geodetic data, derived solutions, and associated metadata using transparent and uniform processes. Five pillars have been defined proposed for the TCS: Dissemination, Preservation, Monitoring, and Analysis of geodetic data plus the Support and Governance Infrastructure. Current proposals and remaining open questions will be discussed.

  12. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter

  13. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter

  14. Relativistic gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter

  15. Geodetic refraction effects of electromagnetic wave propagation through the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    With very few exceptions, geodetic measurements use electro­ magnetic radiation in order to measure directions, distances, time delays, and Doppler frequency shifts, to name the main ter­ restrial and space observables. Depending on the wavelength of the radiation and the purpose of the measurements, the follow­ ing parameters of the electromagnetic wave are measured: ampli­ tude, phase, angle-of-arrival, polarisation and frequency. Ac­ curate corrections have to be applied to the measurements in order to take into account the effects of the intervening medium between transmitter and receiver. The known solutions use at­ mospheric models, special observation programs, remote sensing techniques and instrumental methods. It has been shown that the effects of the earth's atmospheric envelope present a fundamental limitation to the accuracy and precision of geodetic measurements. This applies equally to ter­ restrial and space applications. Instrumental accuracies are al­ ready below the atmospherically i...

  16. Adjustment of positional geodetic networks by unconventional estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gašincová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper is the adjustment of positional geodetic networks by robust estimations. The techniques (basedon the unconventional estimations of repeated least-square method which have turned out to be suitable and applicable in the practisehave been demonstrated on the example of the local geodetic network, which was founded to compose this thesis. In the thesisthe following techniques have been chosen to compare the Method of least-squares with those many published in foreign literature:M-estimation of Biweight,M-estimation of Welsch and Danish method. All presented methods are based on the repeated least-squaremethod principle with gradual changing of weight of individual measurements. In the first stage a standard least-square method wascarried out in the following steps – iterations we gradually change individual weights according to the relevant instructions/ regulation(so-called weight function. Iteration process will be stopped when no deviated measurements are found in the file of measured data.MatLab programme version 5.2 T was used to implement mathematical adjustment.

  17. Geodetic and seismological investigation in the Ionian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riguzzi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic and seismic evidence of crustal deformations in the Ionian area are shown in this paper. The Ionian GPS network, composed of nine sites crossing the Ionian Sea from Calabria, Southern Italy, to Northwestern Greece, was established and surveyed in 1991, 1994, 1995 within the framework of the TYRGEONET project (Anzidei et al., 1996. In 1996 a return campaign was carried out after the occurrence of seismic activity in 1995. The displacement pattern obtained for the Greek side of the network agrees well with those previously displayed, both in magnitude and direction, confirming a mean displacement rate of about 1-2 cm1/yr. The same agreement is not found for the Italian side of the network, where no significant deformations were detected between 1994 and 1996. Seismic deformation was also studied for the same area, starting from the moment tensors of events which occurred in the last 20 years with magnitude greater than 5.0; evident similarity with the displacement field exhibited by the Greek side of the Ionian Sea by geodetic surveys was inferred. On the contrary, the motion detected for the Italian area cannot be simply related to seismic activity.

  18. Geodetic contributions to IWRM-projects in middle Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Günter

    2010-12-01

    The district of Gunung Kidul in middle Java is one of the poorest regions in Indonesia. The essential reason is the acute water scarcity in this karst region during the months of the dry season. As a consequence of the poor living conditions many people have migrated away and therefore the development of the region is stagnating. During the last few years two projects have been initiated under the theme “Integrated Water Resources Management” in order to improve the water supply situation, both funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and realized essentially by institutes of the University of Karlsruhe. Geodetic sub-projects are integrated into both projects. Special surveying activities had been, and have still to be, carried out to realise the geometrical basis for several other sub-projects. The particular contributions are 3D cave measurements for visualisation and planning, staking out of drilling points and construction axes, the definition of a common reference system, the surveying of the water distribution network and its technical facilities, the setting up and the management of a geographical information system (GIS), as well as special measurements such as dam monitoring or controlling of a vertical drilling machine. The paper reviews these projects and describes the geodetic activities.

  19. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  20. Report of the International Astronomical Union Division I working group on precession and the ecliptic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hilton, J. L.; Capitaine, N.; Chapront, J.; Ferrandiz, J.M.; Fienga, A.; Fukushima, T.; Getino, J.; Mathews, P. M.; Simon, J.-C.; Soffel, M.; Vondrák, Jan; Wallace, P.; Williams, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 3 (2006), s. 351-367 ISSN 0923-2958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : precession and the ecliptic * reference systems Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2006

  1. A neutron spin echo spectrometer with two optimal field shape coils for neutron spin precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Ito, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Yoshizawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and have been constructing at the C 2-2 cold neutron guide port of JRR-3M, JAERI, a neutron spin echo spectrometer (NSE) which is equipped with two optimal field shape (OFS) coils for neutron spin precession with the maximum field integral of 0.22 T m, an assembly of position sensitive detectors (PSD), a converging polarizer and a wide area analyzer. The dynamic range of scattering vector Q covers from 0.005 A -1 to 0.2 A -1 and that of energy hω from 10 neV to 30 μeV. Performance tests of the OFS coils show that the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field integral in the OFS coils with the spiral coils is so small that the NSE signal amplitude decreases little even for the neutron cross section of 30 mm diameter as the Fourier time t increases up to 25 ns, though the precession coils are close to iron covers of the neighboring neutron guide. This verifies that the OFS precession coils are appropriate for this NSE spectrometer. Another test experiment shows that the homogeneity condition of the precession magnet is loosened by use of PSD. (orig.)

  2. Free precession of neutron stars: some plain truths, cautionary remarks, and assorted speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1974-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of present understanding of free precession in neutron stars. Attention is called to some truths concerning such wobble motion and then one describes some current efforts to devise mechanisms for exciting neutron star wobble with particular attention to the Crab and Vela pulsars and to Her X-1. (U.S.)

  3. Light variations of a spherical star with two hot precessing spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyurkchieva, D.P.; Shkodrov, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    In one of the models of SS443, suggested by Lipunov and Shakura (1982), the second component of the double stellar system is considered a star with two hot spots on the surface. Since the gas jets forming the spots are precessing, the hot spots on the visible disk will do likewise. In this paper, the light variations of a spherical star with two precessing hot spots are analyzed under the following restrictive conditions: (I) the inclination of the precession axis toward the line of sight is i=π/2; (II) the visible disk of the spherical star is considered uniformly illuminated, i.e. the effect of the variation in intensity from the disk center to the limb is neglected. The time variations in the projection area of the precessing spots on the visible stellar disk are investigated. In the studies to follow, the same effect will be analyzed assuming: (1) inot=π/2; (2) the variation in intensity is estimated from center to the stellar boundary; (3) a case of ellipsoidal stars; (4) this effect added to the effect of darkening due to orbital movement in a double stellar system

  4. Extracting the orbital axis from gravitational waves of precessing binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We present a new method for extracting the instantaneous orbital axis only from gravitational wave strains of precessing binary systems observed from a particular observer direction. This method enables us to reconstruct the coprecessing frame waveforms only from observed strains for the ideal case with the high signal-to-noise ratio. Specifically, we do not presuppose any theoretical model of the precession dynamics and coprecessing waveforms in our method. We test and measure the accuracy of our method using the numerical relativity simulation data of precessing binary black holes taken from the SXS Catalog. We show that the direction of the orbital axis is extracted within ≈0.07 rad error from gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral phase. The coprecessing waveforms are also reconstructed with high accuracy; the mismatch (assuming white noise) between them and the original coprecessing waveforms is typically a few times 10-3 including the merger-ringdown phase, and can be improved by an order of magnitude focusing only on the inspiral waveform. In this method, the coprecessing frame waveforms are not only the purely technical tools for understanding the complex nature of precessing waveforms but also direct observables.

  5. Normal gravity field in relativistic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Vlasov, Igor; Han, Wen-Biao

    2018-02-01

    Modern geodesy is subject to a dramatic change from the Newtonian paradigm to Einstein's theory of general relativity. This is motivated by the ongoing advance in development of quantum sensors for applications in geodesy including quantum gravimeters and gradientometers, atomic clocks and fiber optics for making ultra-precise measurements of the geoid and multipolar structure of the Earth's gravitational field. At the same time, very long baseline interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and global navigation satellite systems have achieved an unprecedented level of accuracy in measuring 3-d coordinates of the reference points of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame and the world height system. The main geodetic reference standard to which gravimetric measurements of the of Earth's gravitational field are referred is a normal gravity field represented in the Newtonian gravity by the field of a uniformly rotating, homogeneous Maclaurin ellipsoid of which mass and quadrupole momentum are equal to the total mass and (tide-free) quadrupole moment of Earth's gravitational field. The present paper extends the concept of the normal gravity field from the Newtonian theory to the realm of general relativity. We focus our attention on the calculation of the post-Newtonian approximation of the normal field that is sufficient for current and near-future practical applications. We show that in general relativity the level surface of homogeneous and uniformly rotating fluid is no longer described by the Maclaurin ellipsoid in the most general case but represents an axisymmetric spheroid of the fourth order with respect to the geodetic Cartesian coordinates. At the same time, admitting a post-Newtonian inhomogeneity of the mass density in the form of concentric elliptical shells allows one to preserve the level surface of the fluid as an exact ellipsoid of rotation. We parametrize the mass density distribution and the level surface with two parameters which are

  6. Relativistic positioning systems: perspectives and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Bartolomé

    2013-11-01

    Relativistic positioning systems are interesting technical objects for applications around the Earth and in the Solar system. But above all else, they are basic scientific objects allowing developing relativity from its own concepts. Some past and future features of relativistic positioning sys- tems, with special attention to the developments that they suggest for an epistemic relativity (relativistic experimental approach to physics), are analyzed. This includes relativistic stereometry, which, together with relativistic positioning systems, allows to introduce the general relativistic notion of (finite) laboratory (space-time region able to perform experiments of finite size).

  7. Relativistic theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes

  8. Radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds under relativistic radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, J.

    2018-05-01

    We numerically investigate radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds from the central luminous object with mass M and luminosity L* under Newtonian gravity, special relativity, and relativistic radiative transfer. We solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double-iteration processes, to obtain the intensity and velocity fields simultaneously. We found that the momentum-driven winds with scattering are quickly accelerated near the central object to reach the terminal speed. The results of numerical solutions are roughly fitted by a relation of \\dot{m}=0.7(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2.6}, where \\dot{m} is the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical one, Γ* the central luminosity normalized by the critical one, τ* the typical optical depth, β* the initial flow speed at the central core of radius R*, and βout the terminal speed normalized by the speed of light. This relation is close to the non-relativistic analytical solution, \\dot{m} = 2(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2}, which can be re-expressed as β _out^2/2 = (Γ _*-1)GM/c^2 R_*. That is, the present solution with small optical depth is similar to that of the radiatively driven free outflow. Furthermore, we found that the normalized luminosity (Eddington parameter) must be larger than unity for the relativistic spherical wind to blow off with intermediate or small optical depth, i.e. Γ _* ≳ \\sqrt{(1+β _out)^3/(1-β _out)}. We briefly investigate and discuss an isothermal wind.

  9. Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bievre, S.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed

  10. Plate motions and deformations from geologic and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.

    1986-06-01

    Research effort on behalf of the Crustal Dynamics Project focused on the development of methodologies suitable for the analysis of space-geodetic data sets for the estimation of crustal motions, in conjunction with results derived from land-based geodetic data, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data. These methodologies were used to provide estimates of both global plate motions and intraplate deformation in the western U.S. Results from the satellite ranging experiment for the rate of change of the baseline length between San Diego and Quincy, California indicated that relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates over the course of the observing period during 1972 to 1982 were consistent with estimates calculated from geologic data averaged over the past few million years. This result, when combined with other kinematic constraints on western U.S. deformation derived from land-based geodesy, neo-tectonic studies, and other geophysical data, places limits on the possible extension of the Basin and Range province, and implies significant deformation is occurring west of the San Andreas fault. A new methodology was developed to analyze vector-position space-geodetic data to provide estimates of relative vector motions of the observing sites. The algorithm is suitable for the reduction of large, inhomogeneous data sets, and takes into account the full position covariances, errors due to poorly resolved Earth orientation parameters and vertical positions, and reduces baises due to inhomogeneous sampling of the data. This methodology was applied to the problem of estimating the rate-scaling parameter of a global plate tectonic model using satellite laser ranging observations over a five-year interval. The results indicate that the mean rate of global plate motions for that interval are consistent with those averaged over several million years, and are not consistent with quiescent or greatly accelerated plate motions. This methodology was also

  11. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.

  12. Encouraging Deep Approach to Learning in Civil and Geodetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Mrak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents activities and changes applied to the teaching process within selected courses offered by Faculty of civil and geodetic engineering, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Theoretical background, evaluated from the point of the technical education needs, is presented. It can be seen that special focus has to be made to the students' motivation for deep learning which guarantees optimal balance between acquisition of concepts and skills, information processing and integration of fragmented pieces of knowledge into complex structures. Three case studies used to test theoretical points of departure are presented. Results of the introduced novelties and changes have been evaluated through the assessment of knowledge, students' satisfaction and teaching staff evaluations. For conclusive results, monitoring over a longer period of time should be conducted.

  13. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  14. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  15. Methods in relativistic nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Gillet, V.; Cauvin, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book is intended to provide the methods and tools for performing actual calculations for finite many-body systems of bound relativistic constituent particles. The aim is to cover thoroughly the methodological aspects of the relativistic many-body problem for bound states while avoiding the presentation of specific models. The many examples contained in the later part of the work are meant to give concrete illustrations of how to actually apply the methods which are given in the first part. The basic framework of the approach is the lagrangian field theory solved in the time-independent Schroedinger picture. (Auth.)

  16. Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.

  17. Land water storage from space and the geodetic infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A.; Larson, K.; Wahr, J.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, remote sensing techniques have been increasingly used to monitor components of the water balance of large river basins. By complementing scarce in situ observations and hydrological modelling, space observations have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of hydrological processes at work in river basins and their relationship with climate variability and socio-economic life. Among the remote sensing tools used in land hydrology, several originate from space geodesy and are integral parts of the Global Geodetic Observing System. For example, satellite altimetry is used for systematic monitoring of water levels of large rivers, lakes and floodplains. InSAR allows the detection of surface water change. GRACE-based space gravity offers for the first time the possibility of directly measuring the spatio-temporal variations of the vertically integrated water storage in large river basins. GRACE is also extremely useful for measuring changes in mass of the snow pack in boreal regions. Vertical motions of the ground induced by changes in water storage in aquifers can be measured by both GPS and InSAR. These techniques can also be used to investigate water loading effects. Recently GPS has been used to measure changes in surface soil moisture, which would be important for agriculture, weather prediction, and for calibrationg satellite missions such as SMOS and SMAP. These few examples show that space and ground geodetic infrastructures are increasingly important for hydrological sciences and applications. Future missions like SWOT (Surface Waters Ocean Topography; a wide swath interferometric altimetry mission) and GRACE 2 (space gravimetry mission based on new technology) will provide a new generation of hydrological products with improved precision and resolution.

  18. DETECTION OF COASTLINE DEFORMATION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEODETIC SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sabuncu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal areas are being destroyed due to the usage that effect the natural balance. Unconsciously sand mining from the sea for nearshore nourishment and construction uses are the main ones. Physical interferences for mining of sand cause an ecologic threat to the coastal environment. However, use of marine sand is inevitable because of economic reasons or unobtainable land-based sand resources. The most convenient solution in such a protection–usage dilemma is to reduce negative impacts of sand production from marine. This depends on the accurate determination of criteriaon production place, style, and amount of sand. With this motivation, nearshore geodedic surveying studies performed on Kilyos Campus of Bogazici University located on the Black Sea coast, north of Istanbul, Turkey between 2001-2002. The study area extends 1 km in the longshore. Geodetic survey was carried out in the summer of 2001 to detect the initial condition for the shoreline. Long-term seasonal changes in shoreline positions were determined biannually. The coast was measured with post-processed kinematic GPS. Besides, shoreline change has studied using Landsat imagery between the years 1986-2015. The data set of Landsat 5 imageries were dated 05.08.1986 and 31.08.2007 and Landsat 7 imageries were dated 21.07.2001 and 28.07.2015. Landcover types in the study area were analyzed on the basis of pixel based classification method. Firstly, unsupervised classification based on ISODATA (Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Technique has been applied and spectral clusters have been determined that gives prior knowledge about the study area. In the second step, supervised classification was carried out by using the three different approaches which are minimum-distance, parallelepiped and maximum-likelihood. All pixel based classification processes were performed with ENVI 4.8 image processing software. Results of geodetic studies and classification outputs will be

  19. Multiwavelength Observations of Relativistic Jets from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Anantua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.

  20. Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs

  1. Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Quantum gates via relativistic remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emartinm@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dept. Applied Math., University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sutherland, Chris [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-12-12

    We harness relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build 1-qubit quantum gates.

  3. Instability in relativistic nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1979-11-01

    The stability of the Fermi gas state in the nuclear matter which satisfies the saturation property is considered relativistically. It is shown that the Fermi gas state is stable at very low density and at high density, but it is unstable for density fluctuation in the intermediate density region including the normal density. (author)

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.

  5. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned

  6. A relativistic radiation transfer benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, A.

    1988-01-01

    We use the integral form of the radiation transfer equation in an one dimensional slab to determine the time-dependent propagation of the radiation energy, flux and pressure in a collisionless homogeneous medium. First order v/c relativistic terms are included and the solution is given in the fluid frame and the laboratory frame

  7. Relativistic models of nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)

  8. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  9. Methods for the determination of lunisolar precession from observations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsmore, B.

    1976-01-01

    Although it is not practicable at present to determine the position or motion of the equinox using radio techniques, lunisolar precession may be determined from measurements at two epochs of differences of (i) Right Ascension -RA, and (ii) Declinations - Dec., of extragalactic radio sources. The determinations are largely free from systematic errors, and the magnitudes of random errors, arising principally from tropospheric irregularities, are given for observations with the Cambridge 5-km telescope. Some first epoch measure-ments have been made with this instrument and it is estimated that by carrying out second epoch measurements after an interval of 5 yr, the centennial value of lunisolar precession will be determined with a standard error of +- 0''.25. (author)

  10. Scanning Precession Electron Diffraction Study of 2xxx Series Aluminium Alloys Exhibiting Several Coexisting Strengthening Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Sunde, Jonas Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this thesis, scanning precession electron diffraction is applied to heat-treated Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Cu-Ag alloys, shedding light on the distribution of phases present and the complex interplay between these microstructural features. The employed technique yielded high quality data sets, which through subsequent data processing enabled a detailed phase mapping of these multi-component Al alloys. Among the main results presented, are virtual dark field images highlighting all separat...

  11. Relativistic Descriptions of Few-Body Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of relativistic effects in few-body systems, of theoretical approaches, recent developments and applications is given. Manifestations of relativistic effects in the binding energies, in the electromagnetic form factors and in three-body observables are demonstrated. The three-body forces of relativistic origin are also discussed. We conclude that relativistic effects in nuclei can be important in spite of small binding energy. At high momenta they clearly manifest themselves and are necessary to describe the deuteron e.m. form factors. At the same time, there is still a discrepancy in three-body observables which might be a result of less clarity in understanding the corresponding relativistic effects, the relativistic NN kernel and the three-body forces. Relativistic few-body physics remains to be a field of very intensive and fruitful researches. (author)

  12. AN APPARENT PRECESSING HELICAL OUTFLOW FROM A MASSIVE EVOLVED STAR: EVIDENCE FOR BINARY INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mills, E. A. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O 1009, Lopezville Drive, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Ressler, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (∼180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf–Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τ{sub p} ∼ 1.4 × 10{sup 4} yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.

  13. Equatorial Precession Drove Mid-Latitude Changes in ENSO-Scale Variation in the Earliest Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Lee, D. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Foulden Maar is an annually laminated lacustrine diatomite deposit from the South Island of New Zealand. The deposit was laid down over ~100 kyr of the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene, during the peak and deglaciation phase of the Mi-1 Antarctic glaciation event. At this time, New Zealand was located at approximately the same latitude as today (~45°S). Evidence from organic geochemical proxies (δD, δ13C) and physical properties (density, colour) indicates the presence of an 11-kyr cycle at the site. Although it is known that 11-kyr insolation (half-precession) cycles occur between the Tropics, this cycle is rarely seen in sedimentary archives deposited outside the immediate vicinity of the Equator. Records from Foulden Maar correlate well with the amplitude and phase of the modelled equatorial half-precession cycle for the earliest Miocene. High-resolution (50 µm) colour intensity measurements and lamina thickness measurements both indicate the presence of significant ENSO-like (2-8 year) variation in the Foulden Maar sediments. Early results from targeted lamina thickness measurements suggest that ENSO-band variation is modulated by the 11-kyr cycle, with power in the ENSO band increasing during periods of increased insolation at the Equator. This implies that equatorial half-precession had a significant effect on ENSO-like variation in the early Miocene, and that this effect was felt as far afield as the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF NATURALLY TILTED, RETROGRADELY PRECESSING, NODAL SUPERHUMPING ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generate these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic variables using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths suggest the lift force as a source to disk tilt. Our results confirm the disk shape, disk structure, and negative superhump period and support the source to disk tilt, source to retrograde precession, and location associated with X-ray and He II emission from the disk as suggested in previous works. Our results identify the fundamental negative superhump frequency as the indicator of disk tilt around the line of nodes.

  15. Three-Dimensional Precession Feature Extraction of Ballistic Targets Based on Narrowband Radar Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shuang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-motion is a crucial feature used in ballistic target recognition. To address the problem that single-view observations cannot extract true micro-motion parameters, we propose a novel algorithm based on the narrowband radar network to extract three-dimensional precession features. First, we construct a precession model of the cone-shaped target, and as a precondition, we consider the invisible problem of scattering centers. We then analyze in detail the micro-Doppler modulation trait caused by the precession. Then, we match each scattering center in different perspectives based on the ratio of the top scattering center’s micro-Doppler frequency modulation coefficient and extract the 3D coning vector of the target by establishing associated multi-aspect equation systems. In addition, we estimate feature parameters by utilizing the correlation of the micro-Doppler frequency modulation coefficient of the three scattering centers combined with the frequency compensation method. We then calculate the coordinates of the conical point in each moment and reconstruct the 3D spatial portion. Finally, we provide simulation results to validate the proposed algorithm.

  16. Microcomputer-based instrument for the detection and analysis of precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The Centrifuge Precession Analyzer (CPA) is a microcomputer-based instrument which detects precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine and calculates the amplitude and frequency of precession. The CPA consists of a printed circuit board which contains signal-conditioning circuitry and a 24-bit counter and an INTEL iSBC 80-/24 single-board computer. Precession motion is detected by monitoring a signal generated by a variable reluctance pick-up coil in the top of the centrifuge machine. This signal is called a Fidler signal. The initial Fidler signal triggers a counter which is clocked by a high-precision, 20.000000-MHz, temperature-controlled, crystal oscillator. The contents of the counter are read by the computer, and the counter reset after every ten Fidler signals. The speed of the centrifuge machine and the amplitude and frequency of precession are calculated, and the results are displayed on a liquid crystal display on the front panel of the CPA. The thesis contains results from data generated by a Fidler signal simulator and data taken when the centrifuge was operated under three test conditions: (1) nitrogen gas during drive-up, steady state, and drive-down, (2) xenon gas during slip test, steady state, and the addition of gas, and (3) no gas during steady state. The qualitative results were consistent with experience with centrifuge machines UF 6 in that the amplitude of precession increased and the frequency of precession decreased during drive-up, drive-down and the slip check. The magnitude of the amplitude and frequency of precession were proportional to the molecular weight of the gases in steady state

  17. Recent development of relativistic molecular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahito, Nakajima; Kimihiko, Hirao

    2005-01-01

    Today it is common knowledge that relativistic effects are important in the heavy-element chemistry. The continuing development of the relativistic molecular theory is opening up rows of the periodic table that are impossible to treat with the non-relativistic approach. The most straightforward way to treat relativistic effects on heavy-element systems is to use the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach and its electron-correlation methods based on the Dirac-Coulomb(-Breit) Hamiltonian. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) or Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) equation with the four-component spinors composed of the large- and small-components demands severe computational efforts to solve, and its applications to molecules including heavy elements have been limited to small- to medium-size systems. Recently, we have developed a very efficient algorithm for the four-component DHF and DKS approaches. As an alternative approach, several quasi-relativistic approximations have also been proposed instead of explicitly solving the four-component relativistic equation. We have developed the relativistic elimination of small components (RESC) and higher-order Douglas-Kroll (DK) Hamiltonians within the framework of the two-component quasi-relativistic approach. The developing four-component relativistic and approximate quasi-relativistic methods have been implemented into a program suite named REL4D. In this article, we will introduce the efficient relativistic molecular theories to treat heavy-atomic molecular systems accurately via the four-component relativistic and the two-component quasi-relativistic approaches. We will also show several chemical applications including heavy-element systems with our relativistic molecular approaches. (author)

  18. Are we close to putting the anomalous perihelion precessions from Verlinde's emergent gravity to the test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione, Universita e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R.)-Istruzione, Bari, BA (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    In the framework of the emergent gravity scenario by Verlinde, it was recently observed by Liu and Prokopec that, among other things, an anomalous pericenter precession would affect the orbital motion of a test particle orbiting an isolated central body. Here, it is shown that, if it were real, its expected magnitude for the inner planets of the Solar System would be at the same level of the present-day accuracy in constraining any possible deviations from their standard perihelion precessions as inferred from long data records spanning about the last century. The most favorable situation for testing the Verlinde-type precession seems to occur for Mars. Indeed, according to recent versions of the EPM and INPOP planetary ephemerides, non-standard perihelion precessions, of whatsoever physical origin, which are larger than some ∼ 0.02-0.11 milliarcseconds per century are not admissible, while the putative precession predicted by Liu and Prokopec amounts to 0.09 milliarcseconds per century. Other potentially interesting astronomical and astrophysical scenarios like, e.g., the Earth's LAGEOS II artificial satellite, the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B and the S-stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in Sgr A* are, instead, not viable because of the excessive smallness of the predicted precessions for them. (orig.)

  19. Stress coupling in the seismic cycle indicated from geodetic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Hainzl, S.; Zoeller, G.; Holschneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic cycle includes several phases, the interseismic, coseismic and postseismic phase. In the interseismic phase, strain gradually builds up around the overall locked fault in tens to thousands of years, while it is coseismically released in seconds. In the postseismic interval, stress relaxation lasts months to years, indicated by evident aseismic deformations which have been indicated to release comparable or even higher strain energy than the main shocks themselves. Benefiting from the development of geodetic observatory, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) in the last two decades, the measurements of surface deformation have been significantly improved and become valuable information for understanding the stress evolution on the large fault plane. In this study, we utilize the GPS/InSAR data to investigate the slip deficit during the interseismic phase, the coseismic slip and the early postseismic creep on the fault plane. However, it is already well-known that slip inversions based only on the surface measurements are typically non-unique and subject to large uncertainties. To reduce the ambiguity, we utilize the assumption of stress coupling between interseismic and coseismic phases, and between coseismic and postseismic phases. We use a stress constrained joint inversion in Bayesian approach (Wang et al., 2012) to invert simultaneously for (1) interseismic slip deficit and coseismic slip, and (2) coseismic slip and postseismic creep. As case studies, we analyze earthquakes occurred in well-instrumented regions such as the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, the 2010 M8.7 earthquake and the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We show that the inversion with the stress-coupling constraint leads to better constrained slip distributions. Meanwhile, the results also indicate that the assumed stress coupling is reasonable and can be well reflected from the available geodetic measurements. Reference: Lifeng

  20. Geodetic and geophysical observations in Antarctica an overview in the IPY perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Capra, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on various aspects of the geodetic and geophysical investigation and observation techniques. It includes material from the Arctic and Antarctica, as well as covering work from both temporary and permanent observatories.

  1. On the effect of ionospheric delay on geodetic relative GPS positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadou, P.Y.; Kleusberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Uncorrected ionospheric delay is one of the factors limiting the accuracy in geodetic relative positioning with single frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier phase observations. Dual frequency measurements can be combined to eliminate the ionospheric delay in the observations. A

  2. A comparative study for the estimation of geodetic point velocity by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geodetic point velocity; artificial neural networks; back propagation; radial basis function; Kriging. J. Earth Syst. Sci. ...... The employment of BPANN is an alternative tool to KRIG for .... Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications.

  3. The Importance of Geodetically Controlled Data Sets: THEMIS Controlled Mosaics of Mars, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R. L.; Weller, L.

    2018-04-01

    Accurate image registration is necessary to answer questions that are key to addressing fundamental questions about our universe. To provide such a foundational product for Mars, we have geodetically controlled and mosaicked THEMIS IR images.

  4. Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.

  5. Three-dimensional stochastic adjustment of volcano geodetic network in Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C.; van der Laat, R.; Cattin, P.-H.; Del Potro, R.

    2009-04-01

    Volcano geodetic networks are a key instrument to understanding magmatic processes and, thus, forecasting potentially hazardous activity. These networks are extensively used on volcanoes worldwide and generally comprise a number of different traditional and modern geodetic surveying techniques such as levelling, distances, triangulation and GNSS. However, in most cases, data from the different methodologies are surveyed, adjusted and analysed independently. Experience shows that the problem with this procedure is the mismatch between the excellent correlation of position values within a single technique and the low cross-correlation of such values within different techniques or when the same network is surveyed shortly after using the same technique. Moreover one different independent network for each geodetic surveying technique strongly increase logistics and thus the cost of each measurement campaign. It is therefore important to develop geodetic networks which combine the different geodetic surveying technique, and to adjust geodetic data together in order to better quantify the uncertainties associated to the measured displacements. In order to overcome the lack of inter-methodology data integration, the Geomatic Institute of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) has developed a methodology which uses a 3D stochastic adjustment software of redundant geodetic networks, TRINET+. The methodology consists of using each geodetic measurement technique for its strengths relative to other methodologies. Also, the combination of the measurements in a single network allows more cost-effective surveying. The geodetic data are thereafter adjusted and analysed in the same referential frame. The adjustment methodology is based on the least mean square method and links the data with the geometry. Trinet+ also allows to run a priori simulations of the network, hence testing the quality and resolution to be expected for a determined network even

  6. Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit

  7. Geodetic determinations for the NuMI project at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocean, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) project, the MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment will search for neutrino mass by looking for neutrino oscillations. The project plans to direct a beam of muon neutrinos from the Main Injector towards both nearby and far-off detectors capable of counting all three types of neutrinos. The beam will travel 735 km through the Earth towards a remote iron mine in northern Minnesota where, 710 m below surface, a massive 5400 metric tons detector will be built. For the neutrino energy spectrum physics test to work properly, the primary proton beam must be within ± 12 m from its ideal position at Soudan, MN, corresponding to ± 1.63 x 10-5 radians, i.e. 3.4 arc-seconds. Achieving this tolerance requires a rather exact knowledge of the geometry of the beam, expressed in terms of the azimuth and the slope of the vector joining the two sites. This paper summarizes the concepts, the methodology, the implementation, and the results of the geodetic surveying efforts made up to date for determining the absolute positions of the Fermilab and the Soudan underground mine sites, from which the beam orientation parameters are computed. (author)

  8. Thin-plate spline quadrature of geodetic integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangysen, Herman

    1989-01-01

    Thin-plate spline functions (known for their flexibility and fidelity in representing experimental data) are especially well-suited for the numerical integration of geodetic integrals in the area where the integration is most sensitive to the data, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the evaluation point. Spline quadrature rules are derived for the contribution of a circular innermost zone to Stoke's formula, to the formulae of Vening Meinesz, and to the recursively evaluated operator L(n) in the analytical continuation solution of Molodensky's problem. These rules are exact for interpolating thin-plate splines. In cases where the integration data are distributed irregularly, a system of linear equations needs to be solved for the quadrature coefficients. Formulae are given for the terms appearing in these equations. In case the data are regularly distributed, the coefficients may be determined once-and-for-all. Examples are given of some fixed-point rules. With such rules successive evaluation, within a circular disk, of the terms in Molodensky's series becomes relatively easy. The spline quadrature technique presented complements other techniques such as ring integration for intermediate integration zones.

  9. Azimuth selection for sea level measurements using geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shuangcheng

    2018-03-01

    Based on analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath signals recorded by a geodetic GPS receiver, GPS Reflectometry (GPS-R) has demonstrated unique advantages in relation to sea level monitoring. Founded on multipath reflectometry theory, sea level changes can be measured by GPS-R through spectral analysis of recorded signal-to-noise ratio data. However, prior to estimating multipath parameters, it is necessary to define azimuth and elevation angle mask to ensure the reflecting zones are on water. Here, a method is presented to address azimuth selection, a topic currently under active development in the field of GPS-R. Data from three test sites: the Kachemak Bay GPS site PBAY in Alaska (USA), Friday Harbor GPS site SC02 in the San Juan Islands (USA), and Brest Harbor GPS site BRST in Brest (France) are analyzed. These sites are located in different multipath environments, from a rural coastal area to a busy harbor, and they experience different tidal ranges. Estimates by the GPS tide gauges at azimuths selected by the presented method are compared with measurements from physical tide gauges and acceptable correspondence found for all three sites.

  10. Earth rotation excitation mechanisms derived from geodetic space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth rotation variations are caused by mass displacements and motions in the subsystems of the Earth. Via the satellite Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field variations can be identified which are caused by mass redistribution in the Earth system. Therefore time variable gravity field models (GFZ RL04, CSR RL04, JPL RL04, ITG-Grace03, GRGS, ...) can be used to derive different impacts on Earth rotation. Furthermore satellite altimetry provides accurate information on sea level anomalies (AVISO, DGFI) which are caused by mass and volume changes of seawater. Since Earth rotation is solely affected by mass variations and motions the volume (steric) effect has to be reduced from the altimetric observations in order to infer oceanic contributions to Earth rotation variations. Therefore the steric effect is estimated from physical ocean parameters such as temperature and salinity changes in the oceans (WOA05, Ishii). In this study specific individual geophysical contributions to Earth rotation variations are identified by means of a multitude of accurate geodetic space observations in combination with a realistic error propagation. It will be shown that due to adjustment of altimetric and/or gravimetric solutions the results for polar motion excitations can be improved.

  11. STRUCTURAL MONITORING WITH GEODETIC SURVEY OF QUADRIFOGLIO CONDOMINIUM (LECCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costantino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring buildings for moving elements has been always a problem of great importance for their conservation and preservation, as well as for risk mitigation. In particular, topographic surveying allows, through the use of the principles and instruments of the geodetic survey, to control moving points which have been identified and measured. In this study case, twelve survey campaigns were done for monitoring a building located in the city of Lecce. The condominium was built five years ago on an old quarry filled with debris to allow construction. Later in time, obviously, cracks started to appear on walls within the property, and for this legal actions were taken. The survey schema adopted has been that of triangulation/trilateration, from two vertices with known coordinates. With this methodologies four cornerstones have been identified, established with forced centering on pillars with anchor plates, connected to same number of framework points, considered stable. From these, 23 control points located on the structure with rotating prisms anchored at the same manner have been surveyed. The elaboration has been carried out by generating redundancy of the measures and compensating the values with least mean squares. The results obtained by the activity of survey and elaboration have confirmed the existence of ongoing phenomena. The causes that have generated the phenomenon have been, subsequently, investigated and have been considered attributable to the existence of a sewer pipeline and a water pipeline not properly put in place and consequently broke down due to the geological characteristics of the site.

  12. Relativistic quantum mechanics of bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, P.; Home, D.; Sinha Roy, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    We show that it is possible to use the Klein-Gordon, Proca and Maxwell formulations to construct multi-component relativistic configuration space wavefunctions of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons in an external field. These wavefunctions satisfy the first-order Kemmer-Duffin equation. The crucial ingredient is the use of the future-causal normal n μ (n μ n μ =1, n 0 >0) to the space-like hypersurfaces foliating space-time, inherent in the concept of a relativistic wavefunction, to construct a conserved future-causal probability current four-vector from the second-rank energy-momentum tensor, following Holland's prescription. The existence of a Hermitian position operator, localized solutions, compatibility with the second quantized theories and the question of interpretation are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  14. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  15. The relativistic electron wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac, P.A.M.

    1977-08-01

    The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)

  16. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.

  17. Volatility smile as relativistic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2017-06-01

    We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.

  18. Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltanat Sadykova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.

  19. Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)

  20. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)

  1. Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol

  2. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  3. Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron

    2010-01-01

    In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.

  4. Characteristic manifolds in relativistic hypoelasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambo, S [Messina Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica

    1978-10-02

    The relativistic hypoelasticity is considered and the characteristic manifolds are determined by using the Cauchy-Kovalevski theorem for the Cauchy problem with analytic initial conditions. Taking into account that the characteristic manifold represents the image of the front-wave in the space-time, it is possible to determine the velocities of propagation. Three wave-species are obtained: material waves, longitudinal waves and transverse waves.

  5. A relativistic quarkonium potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, B.; Maor, U.

    1984-04-01

    We review a recently developed relativistic quark-antiquark bound state equation using the expansion in intermediate states. Using a QCD motivated potential we succeeded very well to fit both the heavy systems (banti b, canti c) and the light systems (santi s, uanti u and danti d). Here we emphasize our results on heavy-light sustems and on the possible (tanti t) family. (orig.)

  6. Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field

  7. Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru

  8. Theory of a relativistic peniotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhurakhovskii, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A normalized mathematical model for describing the motion of electrons in a relativistic peniotron with smoothly varying magnetostatic field, which provides a state of exact gyroresonance along the entire length of the device, is constructed. The results of computer calculations of the energetics of this device are presented and an example of an effective choice of its parameterse corresponding to high electronic efficiency of a one-velocity flow are presented

  9. Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)

  10. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  11. General relativistic dynamics of an extreme mass-ratio binary interacting with an external body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Casals, Marc

    2017-10-01

    We study the dynamics of a hierarchical three-body system in the general relativistic regime: an extreme mass-ratio inner binary under the tidal influence of an external body. The inner binary consists of a central Schwarzschild black hole and a test body moving around it. We discuss three types of tidal effects on the orbit of the test body. First, the angular momentum of the inner binary precesses around the angular momentum of the outer binary. Second, the tidal field drives a "transient resonance" when the radial and azimuthal frequencies are commensurable. In contrast with resonances driven by the gravitational self-force, this tidal-driven resonance may boost the orbital angular momentum and eccentricity (a relativistic version of the Kozai-Lidov effect). Finally, for an orbit-dynamical effect during the nonresonant phase, we calculate the correction to the innermost stable circular (mean) orbit due to the tidal interaction. Hierarchical three-body systems are potential sources for future space-based gravitational wave missions, and the tidal effects that we find could contribute significantly to their waveform.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.

    1991-04-01

    Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs

  13. Relativistic bound state wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    2005-01-01

    A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is

  14. Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.

  15. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms

  16. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  17. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  18. Relativistic ion acceleration by ultraintense laser interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Koga, J.K.; Nakagawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    There has been a great interest in relativistic particle generation by ultraintense laser interactions with matter. We propose the use of relativistically self-focused laser pulses for the acceleration of ions. Two dimensional PIC simulations are performed, which show the formation of a large positive electrostatic field near the front of a relativistically self-focused laser pulse. Several factors contribute to the acceleration including self-focusing distance, pulse depletion, and plasma density. Ultraintense laser-plasma interactions are capable of generating enormous electrostatic fields of ∼3 TV/m for acceleration of protons with relativistic energies exceeding 1 GeV

  19. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  20. GeoSEA: Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Flueh, Ernst R.; Petersen, Florian; Behrmann, Jan-Hinrich; Devey, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Space geodetic observations of crustal deformation have contributed greatly to our understanding of plate tectonic processes in general, and plate subduction in particular. Measurements of interseismic strain have documented the active accumulation of strain, and subsequent strain release during earthquakes. However, techniques such as GPS cannot be applied below the water surface because the electromagnetic energy is strongly attenuated in the water column. Evidence suggests that much of the elastic strain build up and release (and particularly that responsible for both tsunami generation and giant earthquakes) occurs offshore. To quantify strain accumulation and assess the resultant hazard potential we urgently need systems to resolve seafloor crustal deformation. Here we report on first results of sea trials of a newly implemented seafloor geodesy array. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the Seafloor) array consists of a seafloor transponder network comprising 35 units and a wave glider acting as a surface unit (GeoSURF) to ensure satellite correspondence, data transfer and monitor system health. Seafloor displacement occurs in the horizontal (x,y) and vertical direction (z). The vertical displacement is measured by monitoring pressure variations at the seafloor. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be measured either using an acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning (requiring a suitably equipped vessel to perform repeated cruises to provide the GPS fixes) or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor to determine relative distances by using the travel time observations to each other, which is the technique tested during our short sea trials. For horizontal direct path measurements, the system utilizes acoustic ranging techniques with a ranging precision better than 15 mm and long term stability over 2 km distances. Vertical motion is obtained from pressure gauges. Integrated inclinometers

  1. Theta phase precession and phase selectivity: a cognitive device description of neural coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, Osbert C.; Bardakjian, Berj L.

    2009-06-01

    Information in neural systems is carried by way of phase and rate codes. Neuronal signals are processed through transformative biophysical mechanisms at the cellular and network levels. Neural coding transformations can be represented mathematically in a device called the cognitive rhythm generator (CRG). Incoming signals to the CRG are parsed through a bank of neuronal modes that orchestrate proportional, integrative and derivative transformations associated with neural coding. Mode outputs are then mixed through static nonlinearities to encode (spatio) temporal phase relationships. The static nonlinear outputs feed and modulate a ring device (limit cycle) encoding output dynamics. Small coupled CRG networks were created to investigate coding functionality associated with neuronal phase preference and theta precession in the hippocampus. Phase selectivity was found to be dependent on mode shape and polarity, while phase precession was a product of modal mixing (i.e. changes in the relative contribution or amplitude of mode outputs resulted in shifting phase preference). Nonlinear system identification was implemented to help validate the model and explain response characteristics associated with modal mixing; in particular, principal dynamic modes experimentally derived from a hippocampal neuron were inserted into a CRG and the neuron's dynamic response was successfully cloned. From our results, small CRG networks possessing disynaptic feedforward inhibition in combination with feedforward excitation exhibited frequency-dependent inhibitory-to-excitatory and excitatory-to-inhibitory transitions that were similar to transitions seen in a single CRG with quadratic modal mixing. This suggests nonlinear modal mixing to be a coding manifestation of the effect of network connectivity in shaping system dynamic behavior. We hypothesize that circuits containing disynaptic feedforward inhibition in the nervous system may be candidates for interpreting upstream rate codes to

  2. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fischer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers over 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances over the same periods. For two glaciers, Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner, case studies showing possible reasons for discrepancies between the geodetic and the direct mass balance are presented. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is −0.5 m w.e. a−1, the mean annual direct mass balance −0.4 m w.e. a−1. The mean cumulative difference is −0.6 m w.e., the minimum −7.3 m w.e., and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance may depend on the accuracy of the DEMs, which ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.02 m w.e. for airborne laser scanning (LiDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover, and density changes of the surface layer also contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. to the difference between the two methods over the investigated period of 10 yr. On Hintereisferner, the fraction of area covered by snow or firn has been changing within 1953–2006. The accumulation area is not identical with the firn area, and both are not coincident with areas of volume gain. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Trends in the difference between the direct and the geodetic data vary from glacier to glacier and can differ systematically for specific glaciers under specific types of climate forcing. Ultimately, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, and great care must be taken when attempting to combine them.

  3. Electron-Spin Precession in Dependence of the Orientation of the External Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-03-13

    Electron-spin dynamics in semiconductor-based heterostructures has been investigated in oblique magnetic fields. Spins are generated optically by a circularly polarized light, and the dynamics of spins in dependence of the orientation (theta) of the magnetic field are studied. The electron-spin precession frequency, polarization amplitude, and decay rate as a function of theta are obtained and the reasons for their dependences are discussed. From the measured data, the values of the longitudinal and transverse components of the electron g-factor are estimated and are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in earlier investigations. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects are also discussed.

  4. Negative muon spin precession measurement of the hyperfine states of muonic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Ghandi, K.; Froese, A.M.; Fryer, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Both hyperfine states of muonic 23 Na and the rate R of conversion between them have been observed directly in a high field negative muon spin precession experiment using a backward muon beam with transverse spin polarization. The result in metallic sodium, R=13.7±2.2 μs -1 , is consistent with Winston's prediction in 1963 based on Auger emission of core electrons, and with the measurements of Gorringe et al. in Na metal, but not with their smaller result in NaF. In NaOH we find R=23.5±8 μs -1 , leaving medium-dependent effects ambiguous

  5. Structure refinement using precession electron diffraction tomography and dynamical diffraction: tests on experimental data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Correa, Cinthia Antunes; Steciuk, G.; Jacob, D.; Roussel, P.; Boullay, P.; Klementová, Mariana; Gemmi, M.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Domeneghetti, C.; Cámara, F.; Petříček, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 6 (2015), 740-751 ISSN 2052-5206 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR GA13-25747S; GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132; FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Keywords : XRD * structure refinement * precession electron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.892, year: 2015

  6. When effective theories predict: the inevitability of Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D

    2012-01-01

    If the concepts underlying Effective Theory were appreciated from the earliest days of Newtonian gravity, Le Verrier's announcement in 1845 of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury would have been no surprise. Furthermore, the size of the effect could have been anticipated through "naturalness" arguments well before the definitive computation in General Relativity. Thus, we have an illustration of how Effective Theory concepts can guide us in extending our knowledge to "new physics", and not just in how to reduce larger theories to restricted (e.g., lower energy) domains.

  7. Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions: the relativistic equation-of-motion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated using techniques of quantum field theory. To reduce the equation of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method is employed to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular momentum coupling. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation

  8. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2016-07-05

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  9. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

    1998-01-01

    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 0 production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e + e - pair creation near a nucleus with the e + being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure

  10. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  11. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  13. The magnetosphere in relativistic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapffe, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper takes off from the author's earlier epistemological analysis and criticism of the Special Theory of Relativity, identifies the problem as lying in Einstein's choice of the inertial frame of Newtonian mechanics rather than the electromagnetic frame of the locally embedding Maxwellian field when discussing electrodynamics, then proposes this Maxwellian field of the magnetosphere as the specific rest frame proper to all experimentation of optical or electromagnetic sort conducted within its bounds. The result is shown to remove all paradoxes from relativistic physics. (author)

  14. Relativistic jets in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.

    1982-01-01

    The most unusual characteristic of the star SS 433 emerged in the late 1970's when a series of optical spectra showed intense, broad optical emission lines whose profiles and wavelengths changed drastically from night to night. These features are interpreted as strong Doppler-shifted Balmer and HeI lines. The modulation of the Doppler shifts are observed as being cyclic with a period of about 164 days. It was hypothesized that these phenomena were caused by two collimated, colinear, jets which were ejecting in opposite directions from SS 433. Most authors believe that velocity variations of the emission lines are caused by a cyclic rotation of jet axis inclined to line of sight. This rotation being the result of precession, which leads one to suspect SS 433 as a member of a close binary system. This hypothesis has been confirmed from recent optical, radio, and x-ray observations which are discussed in the article. The combination of optical and radio observations of SS 433, described in the article, gives an accurate measure of the Kinematics of the system and some confidence that the Kinematic equations are understood. However, the specific physical processes of this ejection are poorly understood. Some theoretical difficulties regarding this are given

  15. The impacts of source structure on geodetic parameters demonstrated by the radio source 3C371

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming H.; Heinkelmann, Robert; Anderson, James M.; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Karbon, Maria; Schuh, Harald; Wang, Guang L.

    2017-07-01

    Closure quantities measured by very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations are independent of instrumental and propagation instabilities and antenna gain factors, but are sensitive to source structure. A new method is proposed to calculate a structure index based on the median values of closure quantities rather than the brightness distribution of a source. The results are comparable to structure indices based on imaging observations at other epochs and demonstrate the flexibility of deriving structure indices from exactly the same observations as used for geodetic analysis and without imaging analysis. A three-component model for the structure of source 3C371 is developed by model-fitting closure phases. It provides a real case of tracing how the structure effect identified by closure phases in the same observations as the delay observables affects the geodetic analysis, and investigating which geodetic parameters are corrupted to what extent by the structure effect. Using the resulting structure correction based on the three-component model of source 3C371, two solutions, with and without correcting the structure effect, are made. With corrections, the overall rms of this source is reduced by 1 ps, and the impacts of the structure effect introduced by this single source are up to 1.4 mm on station positions and up to 4.4 microarcseconds on Earth orientation parameters. This study is considered as a starting point for handling the source structure effect on geodetic VLBI from geodetic sessions themselves.

  16. Operational production of Geodetic Excitation Functions from EOP estimated values at ASI-CGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, C.; Luceri, V.; Bianco, G.

    2009-04-01

    ASI-CGS is routinely providing geodetic excitation functions from its own estimated EOP values (at present SLR and VLBI; the current use of GPS EOP's is also planned as soon as this product will be fully operational) on the ASI geodetic web site (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it). This product has been generated and monitored (for ASI internal use only) in a long pre-operational phase (more than two years), including validation and testing. The daily geodetic excitation functions are now weekly updated along with the operational ASI SLR and VLBI EOP solutions and compared, whenever possible, with the atmospheric excitation functions available at the IERS SBAAM, under the IB and not-IB assumption, including the "wind" term. The work will present the available estimated geodetic function time series and its comparison with the relevant atmospheric excitation functions, deriving quantitative indicators on the quality of the estimates. The similarities as well as the discrepancies among the atmospheric and geodetic series will be analysed and commented, evaluating in particular the degree of correlation among the two estimated time series and the likelihood of a linear dependence hypothesis.

  17. MR fingerprinting using fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP) with spiral readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the possibility of using gradient echo-based sequences other than balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) in the magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) framework to quantify the relaxation parameters . An MRF method based on a fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) sequence structure is presented. A dictionary containing possible signal evolutions with physiological range of T1 and T2 was created using the extended phase graph formalism according to the acquisition parameters. The proposed method was evaluated in a phantom and a human brain. T1 , T2 , and proton density were quantified directly from the undersampled data by the pattern recognition algorithm. T1 and T2 values from the phantom demonstrate that the results of MRF FISP are in good agreement with the traditional gold-standard methods. T1 and T2 values in brain are within the range of previously reported values. MRF-FISP enables a fast and accurate quantification of the relaxation parameters. It is immune to the banding artifact of bSSFP due to B0 inhomogeneities, which could improve the ability to use MRF for applications beyond brain imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Precession technique and electron diffractometry as new tools for crystal structure analysis and chemical bonding determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, A.; Kuligin, K.; Nicolopoulos, S.; Nickolskiy, M.; Boulahya, K.; Portillo, J.; Lepeshov, G.; Sobolev, B.; Collette, J.P.; Martin, N.; Robins, A.C.; Fischione, P.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new fast electron diffractometer working with high dynamic range and linearity for crystal structure determinations. Electron diffraction (ED) patterns can be scanned serially in front of a Faraday cage detector; the total measurement time for several hundred ED reflections can be tens of seconds having high statistical accuracy for all measured intensities (1-2%). This new tool can be installed to any type of TEM without any column modification and is linked to a specially developed electron beam precession 'Spinning Star' system. Precession of the electron beam (Vincent-Midgley technique) reduces dynamical effects allowing also use of accurate intensities for crystal structure analysis. We describe the technical characteristics of this new tool together with the first experimental results. Accurate measurement of electron diffraction intensities by electron diffractometer opens new possibilities not only for revealing unknown structures, but also for electrostatic potential determination and chemical bonding investigation. As an example, we present detailed atomic bonding information of CaF 2 as revealed for the first time by precise electron diffractometry

  19. Exploring the use of numerical relativity waveforms in burst analysis of precessing black hole mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Cadonati, Laura; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Healy, James; London, Lionel; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in numerical relativity and an ever improving performance of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In preparation for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) and a new era in gravitational wave astronomy, the numerical relativity and gravitational wave data analysis communities are collaborating to ascertain the most useful role for numerical relativity waveforms in the detection and characterization of binary black hole coalescences. In this paper, we explore the detectability of equal mass, merging black hole binaries with precessing spins and total mass M T (set-membership sign)[80,350]M · , using numerical relativity waveforms and templateless search algorithms designed for gravitational wave bursts. In particular, we present a systematic study using waveforms produced by the MayaKranc code that are added to colored, Gaussian noise and analyzed with the Omega burst search algorithm. Detection efficiency is weighed against the orientation of one of the black-hole's spin axes. We find a strong correlation between the detection efficiency and the radiated energy and angular momentum, and that the inclusion of the l=2, m=±1, 0 modes, at a minimum, is necessary to account for the full dynamics of precessing systems.

  20. A model for precessing helical vortex in the turbine discharge cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuibin, P A; University Politehnica Timişoara, Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timişoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Hydraulic Machinery, University Politehnica Timişoara, Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timişoara (Romania))" >Susan-Resiga, R F; Muntean, S

    2014-01-01

    The decelerated swirling flow in the discharge cone of hydraulic turbine develops various self-induced instabilities and associated low frequency phenomena when the turbine is operated far from the best efficiency regime. In particular, the precessing helical vortex ( v ortex rope ) developed at part-load regimes is notoriously difficult and expensive to be computed using full three-dimensional turbulent unsteady flow models. On the other hand, modern design and optimization techniques require robust, tractable and accurate a-priori assessment of the turbine flow unsteadiness level within a wide operating range before actually knowing the runner geometry details. This paper presents the development and validation of a quasi-analytical model of the vortex rope in the discharge cone. The first stage is the computing of the axisymmetrical swirling flow at runner outlet with input information related only to the operating point and to the blade outlet angle. Then, the swirling flow profile further downstream is computed in successive cross-sections through the discharge cone. The second stage is the reconstruction of the precessing vortex core parameters in successive cross-sections of the discharge cone. The final stage lies in assembling 3D unsteady flow field in the discharge cone. The end result is validated against both experimental and numerical data

  1. Precession mode on high-K configurations: non-collective axially-symmetric limit of wobbling motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    The precession mode, the rotational excitation built on the high-K isomeric state, in comparison with the recently identified wobbling mode has been studied. The random-phase-approximation (RPA) formalism, which has been developed for the nuclear wobbling motion, is invoked and the precession phonon is obtained by the non-collective axially symmetric limit of the formalism. The excitation energies and the electromagnetic properties of the precession bands in 178 W are calculated, and it is found that the results of RPA calculations well correspond to those of the rotor model; the correspondence can be understood by an adiabatic approximation to the RPA phonon. As a by-product, it is also found that the problem of too small out-of-band B(E2) in our previous RPA wobbling calculations can be solved by a suitable choice of the triaxial deformation which corresponds to the one used in the rotor model

  2. Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied

  3. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...

  4. Relativistic corrections to molecular dynamic dipole polarizabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirpekar, Sheela; Oddershede, Jens; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    1995-01-01

    obtained from the use of the Darwin and mass-velocity operators to first order are included at both levels of approximation. We find that correlation and relativistic contributions are not even approximately additive for the two molecules. The importance of the relativistic corrections is smallest...

  5. A Primer to Relativistic MOND Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekenstein, J.D..; Sanders, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We first review the nonrelativistic lagrangian theory as a framework for the MOND equation. Obstructions to a relativistic version of it are discussed leading up to TeVeS, a relativistic tensor-vector-scalar field theory which displays both MOND and Newtonian limits. The whys for its

  6. Relativistic astrophysics and theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1982-01-01

    A brief historical review of the development of astrophysical science in the State Astrophysical Institute named after Shternberg (SAISh) has been given in a popular form. The main directions of the SAISh astrophysical investigations have been presented: relativistic theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics of interplanetary medium and cosmology

  7. Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…

  8. Large earthquake rates from geologic, geodetic, and seismological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake rate and recurrence information comes primarily from geology, geodesy, and seismology. Geology gives the longest temporal perspective, but it reveals only surface deformation, relatable to earthquakes only with many assumptions. Geodesy is also limited to surface observations, but it detects evidence of the processes leading to earthquakes, again subject to important assumptions. Seismology reveals actual earthquakes, but its history is too short to capture important properties of very large ones. Unfortunately, the ranges of these observation types barely overlap, so that integrating them into a consistent picture adequate to infer future prospects requires a great deal of trust. Perhaps the most important boundary is the temporal one at the beginning of the instrumental seismic era, about a century ago. We have virtually no seismological or geodetic information on large earthquakes before then, and little geological information after. Virtually all-modern forecasts of large earthquakes assume some form of equivalence between tectonic- and seismic moment rates as functions of location, time, and magnitude threshold. That assumption links geology, geodesy, and seismology, but it invokes a host of other assumptions and incurs very significant uncertainties. Questions include temporal behavior of seismic and tectonic moment rates; shape of the earthquake magnitude distribution; upper magnitude limit; scaling between rupture length, width, and displacement; depth dependence of stress coupling; value of crustal rigidity; and relation between faults at depth and their surface fault traces, to name just a few. In this report I'll estimate the quantitative implications for estimating large earthquake rate. Global studies like the GEAR1 project suggest that surface deformation from geology and geodesy best show the geography of very large, rare earthquakes in the long term, while seismological observations of small earthquakes best forecasts moderate earthquakes

  9. Geodetic constraints on continental rifting along the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R.; McClusky, S.; Arrajehi, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.; Ghebreab, W.; Ogubazghi, G.; Al-Aydrus, A.

    2006-12-01

    We are using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor and quantify patterns and rates of tectonic and magmatic deformation associated with active rifting of the continental lithosphere and the transition to sea floor spreading in the Red Sea. Broad-scale motions of the Nubian and Arabian plates indicate coherent plate motion with internal deformation below the current resolution of our measurements (~ 1-2 mm/yr). The GPS-determined Euler vector for Arabia-Nubia is indistinguishable from the geologic Euler vector determined from marine magnetic anomalies, and Arabia-Eurasia relative motion from GPS is equal within uncertainties to relative motion determined from plate reconstructions, suggesting that Arabia plate motion has remained constant (±10%) during at least the past ~10 Ma. The approximate agreement between broad-scale GPS rates of extension (i.e., determined from relative plate motions) and those determined from magnetic anomalies along the Red Sea rift implies that spreading in the central Red Sea is primarily confined to the central rift (±10-20%). Extension appears to be more broadly distributed in the N Red Sea and Gulf of Suez where comparisons with geologic data also indicate a relatively recent (between 500 and 125 kyr BP) change in the motion of the Sinai block that is distinct from both Nubia and Arabia. In the southern Red Sea, GPS results are beginning to define the motion of the "Danakil micro-plate". We investigate and report on a model involving CCW rotation of the Danakil micro-plate relative to Nubia and magmatic inflation below the Afar Triple Junction that is consistent with available geodetic constraints. Running the model back in time suggests that the Danakil micro-plate has been an integral part of rifting/triple junction processes throughout the history of separation of the Arabian and Nubian plates. On the scale of Nubia-Arabia-Eurasia plate interactions, we show that new area formed at spreading centers roughly equals that

  10. Regional Crustal Deformation and Lithosphere Thickness Observed with Geodetic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kollo, K.; Koivula, H.; Ahola, J.

    2009-04-01

    The solid Earth, including the lithosphere, interacts in many ways with other components of the Earth system, oceans, atmosphere and climate. Geodesy is a key provider of data needed for global and environmental research. Geodesy provides methods and accurate measurements of contemporary deformation, sea level and gravity change. The importance of the decades-long stability and availability of reference frames must be stressed for such studies. In the future, the need to accurately monitor 3-D crustal motions will grow, both together with increasingly precise GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning, demands for better follow-up of global change, and local needs for crustal motions, especially in coastal areas. These demands cannot yet be satisfied. The project described here is a part of a larger entity: Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas, DynaQlim, an International Lithosphere Project (ILP) -sponsored initiative. The aims of DynaQlim are to understand the relations between upper mantle dynamics, mantle composition, physical properties, temperature and rheology, to study the postglacial uplift and ice thickness models, sea level change and isostatic response, Quaternary climate variations and Weichselian (Laurentian and other) glaciations during the late Quaternary. We aim at studying various aspects of lithospheric motion within the Finnish and Fennoscandian area, but within a global perspective, by the newest geodetic techniques in a multidisciplinary setting. The studies involve observations of three-dimensional motions and gravity change in a multidisciplinary context on a range of spatial scales: the whole of Fennoscandia, Finland, a regional test area of Satakunta, and the local test site Olkiluoto. Objectives of the research include improving our insight into the 3-D motion of a thick lithosphere, and into the gravity effect of the uplift, using novel approaches; improving the kinematic 3-D models in the

  11. Monitoring of Volcanic Activity by Sub-mm Geodetic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S.; Mare, Y.; Ichiki, M.; Demachi, T.; Tachibana, K.; Nishimura, T.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic earthquakes have been occurring beneath Zao volcano in northern Honshu, Japan since 2013, following the increase of deep low frequency earthquakes from 2012. On account of a burst of seismicity initiated in April 2015, the JMA announced a warning of eruption, however, the seismicity gradually decreased for the next two months and the warning was canceled in June. In the same time period, minor expansive deformation was observed by GNSS. Small earthquakes are still occurring, and low-freq. earthquakes (LPE) occur sometimes accompanied by static tilt changes. In this study, we try to extract the sub-mm displacements from the LPE waveforms observed by broadband seismometers (BBS) and utilize them for geodetic inversion to monitor volcanic activities. Thun et al. (2015, 2016) devised an efficient method using a running median filter (RMF) to remove LP noises, which contaminate displacement waveforms. They demonstrated the reproducibility of the waveforms corresponding to the experimentally given sub-mm displacements in the laboratory. They also apply the method to the field LPE data obtained from several volcanoes to show static displacements. The procedure is outlined as follows: (1) Unfiltered removal of the instrument response, (2) LP noise estimate by LPF with a corner frequency of 5/M, where M (seconds) is the time window of the RMF and should be at least three times the length of the rise time. (3) Subtract the noise estimated from step (2). (4) Integrate to obtain displacement waveforms. We apply the method to the BBS waveform at a distance of about 1.5 km ESE from the summit crater of Zao Volcano associated with a LPE on April 1, 2017. Assuming the time window M as 300 seconds, we successfully obtained the displacement history: taking the rise time of about 2 minutes, the site was gradually uplifted with the amount of about 50-60 µm and then subsided with HF displacements in the next 2 minutes resulting about 20-30 µm static upheaval. Comparing the

  12. Geodetic data support trapping of ethane in Titan's polar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotin, Christophe; Rambaux, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Titan's surface is characterized by polar depressions that strongly influence interpretations of the gravity data. This study investigates several geodynamical models that can explain these depressions. For each model, the values of the three moments of inertia are computed numerically by discretizing the interior in spherical coordinates. The study shows that a Pratt model where the polar subsurface is made of ethane clathrates can explain the polar depression, the abrupt jump in altitude at about 60 degrees latitude, and the values of the degree 2 gravity coefficients. This model, proposed by Choukroun and Sotin [1], is based on the stability of ethane clathrate hydrates relative to methane clathrate hydrates. In addition to fitting the geodetic data, it explains the absence of ethane in Titan's atmosphere although ethane is the main product of the photolysis of methane. Other geophysical models based on latitudinal variations in the tidal heating production or in the heat flux at the base of the icy crust do not provide such a good match to the gravity and topographic observations. The ethane-clathrate model predicts that all the ethane produced by photolysis of methane at the present rate during the last billion years could be stored in the polar subsurface. It is consistent with the age of Titan's surface and that of Titan's atmospheric methane inferred from geological and geochemical observations by the Cassini/Huygens mission. The present study also emphasizes the role of mass anomalies on the interpretation of the degree 2 gravity coefficients. It shows that for Titan, a slow rotator, the values of the two equatorial moments of inertia (MoI) are largely affected by the polar depressions whereas the value of polar MoI is not. Therefore, as pointed out by previous calculations [2], calculating the moment of inertia (MoI) factor from the value of J2 could lead to major errors. This is not the case for our preferred Titan's model for which the negative polar

  13. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  14. Microcomputer-based instrument for the detection and analysis of precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The Centrifuge Procession Analyzer (CPA) is a microcomputer-based instrument which detects precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine and calculates the amplitude and frequency of precession. The CPA consists of a printed circuit board which contains signal-conditioning circuitry and a 24-bit counter and an INTEL iSBC 80/24 single/board computer. Pression motion is detected by monitoring a signal generated by a variable reluctance pick-up coil in the top of the centrifuge machine. This signal is called a Fidler signal. The initial Fidler signal triggers a counter which is clocked by a high-precision, 20.000000-MHz, temperature-controlled, crystal oscillator. The contents of the counter are read by the computer and the counter reset after every ten Fidler signals. The speed of the centrifuge machine and the amplitude and frequency of precession are calculated and the results are displayed on a liquid crystal display on the front panel of the CPA. The report contains results from data generated by a Fidler signal simulator and data taken when the centrifuge was operated under three test conditions: (1) nitrogen gas during drive-up, steady state, and drive-down; (2) xenon gas during slip test, steady state, and the addition of gas; and (3) no gas during steady state. The qualitative results were consistent with experience with centrifuge machines using UF 6 in that the amplitude of precession increased and the frequency of precession decreased during drive-up, drive-down and the slip check. The magnitude of the amplitude and frequency of precession were proportional to the molecular weight of the gases in steady state

  15. Random phase approximation in relativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongyu; Yang Ding; Tian Yuan; Cao Ligang

    2009-01-01

    Some special issues of the random phase approximation(RPA) in the relativistic approach are reviewed. A full consistency and proper treatment of coupling to the continuum are responsible for the successful application of the RPA in the description of dynamical properties of finite nuclei. The fully consistent relativistic RPA(RRPA) requires that the relativistic mean filed (RMF) wave function of the nucleus and the RRPA correlations are calculated in a same effective Lagrangian and the consistent treatment of the Dirac sea of negative energy states. The proper treatment of the single particle continuum with scattering asymptotic conditions in the RMF and RRPA is discussed. The full continuum spectrum can be described by the single particle Green's function and the relativistic continuum RPA is established. A separable form of the paring force is introduced in the relativistic quasi-particle RPA. (authors)

  16. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenitani, S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 􏰅50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  17. Co-location of space geodetic techniques carried out at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell using a closure in time and a multi-technique reference target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodet, J.; Schreiber, K. U.; Eckl, J.; Plötz, C.; Mähler, S.; Schüler, T.; Klügel, T.; Riepl, S.

    2018-01-01

    The quality of the links between the different space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS) is still one of the major limiting factors for the realization of a unique global terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow the monitoring of the Earth system, i.e., of processes like sea level change, postglacial rebound and silent earthquakes. According to the specifications of the global geodetic observing system of the International Association of Geodesy, such a reference frame should be accurate to 1 mm over decades, with rates of change stable at the level of 0.1 mm/year. The deficiencies arise from inaccurate or incomplete local ties at many fundamental sites as well as from systematic instrumental biases in the individual space geodetic techniques. Frequently repeated surveys, the continuous monitoring of antenna heights and the geometrical mount stability (Lösler et al. in J Geod 90:467-486, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-016-0887-8) have not provided evidence for insufficient antenna stability. Therefore, we have investigated variations in the respective system delays caused by electronic circuits, which is not adequately captured by the calibration process, either because of subtle differences in the circuitry between geodetic measurement and calibration, high temporal variability or because of lacking resolving bandwidth. The measured system delay variations in the electric chain of both VLBI- and SLR systems reach the order of 100 ps, which is equivalent to 3 cm of path length. Most of this variability is usually removed by the calibrations but by far not all. This paper focuses on the development of new technologies and procedures for co-located geodetic instrumentation in order to identify and remove systematic measurement biases within and between the individual measurement techniques. A closed-loop optical time and frequency distribution system and a common inter-technique reference target provide the possibility to remove

  18. Relativistic theory of spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I.

    1987-06-01

    We derive a formula for the relativistic decay rates in atoms in a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics based upon the electron's self energy. Relativistic Coulomb wavefunctions are used, the full spin calculation is carried out and the dipole approximation is not employed. The formula has the correct nonrelativistic limit and is used here for calculating the decay rates in Hydrogen and Muonium for the transitions 2P → 1S 1/2 and 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 . The results for Hydrogen are: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2649x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.4946x10 -6 s -1 . Our result for the 2P → 1S 1/2 transition rate is in perfect agreement with the best nonrelativistic calculations as well as with the results obtained from the best known radiative decay lifetime measurements. As for the Hydrogen 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 decay rate, the result obtained here is also in good agreement with the best known magnetic dipole calculations. For Muonium we get: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2382x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.3997x10 -6 s -1 . (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs

  19. Physical processes in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)

  20. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  1. TOPLAR: Time of Flight with Larmor Precessions - or - How to extend the dynamic range of NSE spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Well, A.A.; Bleuel, M.; Pappas, C.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectrometers typically cover a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude at a given wavelength. At long Fourier times the limits are given by the homogeneity of precession fields. At short Fourier times, the quasi-elastic approximation and the NSE formalism mark a methodological limit. We propose to overcome this limitation and by combining Time Of Flight with Larmor precession to extend the capabilities of Neutron Spin Echo spectrometers towards short Fourier times. TOFLAR should be easily implemented on NSE spectrometers equipped with a chopper system such as IN15 or the planned WASP. (authors)

  2. First-order design of geodetic networks using the simulated annealing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berné, J. L.; Baselga, S.

    2004-09-01

    The general problem of the optimal design for a geodetic network subject to any extrinsic factors, namely the first-order design problem, can be dealt with as a numeric optimization problem. The classic theory of this problem and the optimization methods are revised. Then the innovative use of the simulated annealing method, which has been successfully applied in other fields, is presented for this classical geodetic problem. This method, belonging to iterative heuristic techniques in operational research, uses a thermodynamical analogy to crystalline networks to offer a solution that converges probabilistically to the global optimum. Basic formulation and some examples are studied.

  3. Geodetic antenna calibration test in the Antarctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grejner-Brzezinska, A.; Vazquez, E.; Hothem, L.

    2006-01-01

    TransAntarctic Mountain DEFormation (TAMDEF) Monitoring Network is the NSF-sponsored OSU and USGS project, aimed at measuring crustal motion in the Transantarctic Mountains of Victoria Land using GPS carrier phase measurements. Station monumentation, antenna mounts, antenna types, and data processing strategies were optimized to achieve mm-level estimates for the rates of motion. These data contributes also to regional Antarctic frame definition. Significant amount of data collected over several years allow the investigation of unique aspects of GPS geodesy in Antarctica, to determine how the error spectrum compares to the mid-latitude regions, and to identify the optimum measurement and data processing schemes for Antarctic conditions, in order to test the predicted rates of motion (mm-level w.r.t. time). The data collection for the TAMDEF project was initiated in 1996. The primary antenna used has been the Ashtech L1/L2 Dorne Margolin (D/M) choke ring. A few occupations involved the use of a Trimble D/M choke ring. The data were processed using the antenna calibration data available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The recent developments in new antenna designs that are lighter in weight and lower in cost are being considered as a possible alternative to the bulkier and more expensive D/M choke ring design. In November 2003, in situ testing of three alternative models of L1/L2 antennas was conducted at a site located in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica (S77.87, E166.56). The antenna models used in this test were: Ashtech D/M choke ring, Trimble D/M choke ring, Trimble Zephyr, and the NovAtel GPS-702. Two stations, spaced within 30 meters, were used in the test. Both had the characteristics similar to the stations of the TAMDEF network, i.e., the UNAVCO fixed-height, force-centered level mounts with a constant antenna offset were used, ensuring extreme stability of the antenna/ mount/pin set up. During each of the four 3-day test data collection

  4. Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, T; Kodama, T

    2011-06-01

    We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.

  5. Relativistic effects in resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the relativistic-electron-mass variation in the generation of plasma waves by the linear mode conversion of intense electromagnetic waves is investigated. The increase in the electron mass in high intensity regions of the mode-converted wave reduces the local plasma frequency and thereby strongly modifies the plasma-driver resonance. A spatial discontinuity in the structure of the mode-converted wave results and causes the wave to break. Under rather modest restrictions, the wave breaking resulting from these effects occurs before the wave amplitude is limited either by thermal convection or by breaking caused by previously investigated nonrelativistic effects. Consequently, the amplitude of the mode-converted plasma wave should saturate at a much lower level than previously predicted. For simplicity, the analysis is limited to the initial stages of mode conversion where the ion dynamics can be neglected. The validity of this approximation is discussed

  6. Parton distribution in relativistic hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Lapidus, L.I.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution in the slow-parton number in the relativistic hadron is considered as a function of its rapidity (y). Neglecting corrections due to the tarton chain recombination the equation is derived and its explicit solution is found. It describes this distribution depending on the initial distribution at y approximately 1. Comparison with the reggeon diagrams results in relations between the parton model and the regaeon field theory parameters. The interpretation of the cutting rules in the framework of the parton model is presented. The numerical estimation of the parton model parameters is performed. It is shown that the slow-parton density corresponding to accessible energies seems to be close to the saturated density. Therefore, the enhanced graphs contributions turn out to be of considerable importance

  7. Relativistic three-particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochauser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In keeping with recent developments in experimental nuclear physics, a formalism is developed to treat interactions between three relativistic nuclear particles. The concept of unitarity and a simple form of analyticity are used to construct coupled, integral, Faddeev-type equations and, with the help of analytic separable potentials, these are cast in simple, one-dimensional form. Energy-dependent potentials are introduced so as to take into account the sign-change of some phase shifts in the nucleon-nucleon interaction and parameters for these potentials are obtained. With regard to the success of such local potentials as the Yukawa potential, a recently developed method for expanding these in separable form is discussed. Finally, a new method for the numerical integration of the Faddeev equations along the real axis is introduced, thus avoiding the traditional need for contour rotations into the complex plane. (author)

  8. Relativistic thermodynamics of Fluids. l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, P.; Swenson, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In 1953, Stueckelberg and Wanders derived the basic laws of relativistic linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemically reacting fluids from the relativistic local conservation laws for energy-momentum and the local laws of production of substances and of nonnegative entropy production by the requirement that the corresponding currents (assumed to depend linearly on the derivatives of the state variables) should not be independent. Generalizing their method, we determine the most general allowed form of the energy-momentum tensor T/sup alphabeta/ and of the corresponding rate of entropy production under the same restriction on the currents. The problem of expressing this rate in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes is discussed in detail; it is shown that the number of independent forces is not uniquely determined by the theory, and seven possibilities are explored. A number of possible new cross effects are found, all of which persist in the Newtonian (low-velocity) limit. The treatment of chemical reactions is incorporated into the formalism in a consistent manner, resulting in a derivation of the law for rate of production, and in relating this law to transport processes differently than suggested previously. The Newtonian limit is discussed in detail to establish the physical interpretation of the various terms of T/sup alphabeta/. In this limit, the interpretation hinges on that of the velocity field characterizing the fluid. If it is identified with the average matter velocity following from a consideration of the number densities, the usual local conservation laws of Newtonian nonequilibrium thermodynamics are obtained, including that of mass. However, a slightly different identification allows conversion of mass into energy even in this limit, and thus a macroscopic treatment of nuclear or elementary particle reactions. The relation of our results to previous work is discussed in some detail

  9. Accurate measurement in the field of the earth of the general-relativistic precession of the LAGEOS II pericenter and new constraints on non-newtonian gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David M; Peron, Roberto

    2010-12-03

    The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein's theory. This result may be considered as a 99.8% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the γ and β parameters of general relativity, and it may be used to constrain possible deviations from the inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions parametrized by a Yukawa-like potential with strength α and range λ. We obtained |α| ≲ 1 × 10(-11), a huge improvement at a range of about 1 Earth radius.

  10. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. The authors have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. In this paper the authors report on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future

  11. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannesfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Takeuchi, Y.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. The authors have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. They report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. New derivation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Amaresh; Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Pal, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the spectra and azimuthal anisotropy of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC and recently at the LHC. The first-order dissipative fluid dynamics or the relativistic Navier-Stokes (NS) theory involves parabolic differential equations and suffers from a causality and instability. The second-order or Israel-Stewart (IS) theory with its hyperbolic equations restores causality but may not guarantee stability. The correct formulation of relativistic viscous fluid dynamics is far from settled and is under intense investigation

  13. Relativistic Theory of Few Body Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross

    2002-11-01

    Very significant advances have been made in the relativistic theory of few body systems since I visited Peter Sauer and his group in Hannover in 1983. This talk provides an opportunity to review the progress in this field since then. Different methods for the relativistic calculation of few nucleon systems are briefly described. As an example, seven relativistic calculations of the deuteron elastic structure functions, A, B, and T{sub 20}, are compared. The covariant SPECTATOR {copyright} theory, among the more successful and complete of these methods, is described in more detail.

  14. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  15. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.

    1988-09-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Whispering gallery effect in relativistic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Y.; Law, K. F. F.; Korneev, Ph.; Fujioka, S.; Kojima, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Sakata, S.; Matsuo, K.; Oshima, A.; Morace, A.; Arikawa, Y.; Yogo, A.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; d'Humières, E.; Santos, J. J.; Kondo, K.; Sunahara, A.; Gus'kov, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2018-03-01

    relativistic laser pulse, confined in a cylindrical-like target, under specific conditions may perform multiple scattering along the internal target surface. This results in the confinement of the laser light, leading to a very efficient interaction. The demonstrated propagation of the laser pulse along the curved surface is just yet another example of the "whispering gallery" effect, although nonideal due to laser-plasma coupling. In the relativistic domain its important feature is a gradual intensity decrease, leading to changes in the interaction conditions. The proccess may pronounce itself in plenty of physical phenomena, including very efficient electron acceleration and generation of relativistic magnetized plasma structures.

  17. Holographic Aspects of a Relativistic Nonconformal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a general D-dimensional Schwarzschild-type black brane solution of the Einstein-dilaton theory and derive, by using the holographic renormalization, its thermodynamics consistent with the geometric results. Using the membrane paradigm, we calculate the several hydrodynamic transport coefficients and compare them with the results obtained by the Kubo formula, which shows the self-consistency of the gauge/gravity duality in the relativistic nonconformal theory. In order to understand more about the relativistic non-conformal theory, we further investigate the binding energy, drag force, and holographic entanglement entropy of the relativistic non-conformal theory.

  18. The de Sitter relativistic top theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenta, J.; Nieto, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the relativistic top theory from the point of view of the de Sitter (or anti-de Sitter) group. Our treatment rests on the Hanson-Regge spherical relativistic top Lagrangian formulation. We propose an alternative method for studying spinning objects via Kaluza-Klein theory. In particular, we derive the relativistic top equations of motion starting with the geodesic equation for a point particle in 4+N dimensions. We compare our approach with Fukuyama's formulation of spinning objects, which is also based on Kaluza-Klein theory. We also report a generalization of our approach to a 4+N+D dimensional theory

  19. The ionisation equation in a relativistic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichenassamy, S.; Krikorian, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    By deriving the relativistic form of the ionisation equation for a perfect gas it is shown that the usual Saha equation is valid to 3% for temperatures below one hundred million Kelvin. Beyond 10 9 K, the regular Saha equation is seriously incorrect and a relativistic distribution function for electrons must be taken into account. Approximate forms are derived when only the electrons are relativistic (appropriate up to 10 12 K) and also for the ultrarelativistic case (temperatures greater than 10 15 K). (author)

  20. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  1. Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented

  2. Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, A. I., E-mail: malyshev@phys.unn.ru; Kozulin, A. S. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.

  3. Electron-Spin Precession in Dependence of the Orientation of the External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electron-spin dynamics in semiconductor-based heterostructures has been investigated in oblique magnetic fields. Spins are generated optically by a circularly polarized light, and the dynamics of spins in dependence of the orientation (θ of the magnetic field are studied. The electron-spin precession frequency, polarization amplitude, and decay rate as a function ofθare obtained and the reasons for their dependences are discussed. From the measured data, the values of the longitudinal and transverse components of the electrong-factor are estimated and are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in earlier investigations. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects are also discussed.

  4. SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicolás [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.

  5. In-situ Indentation and Correlated Precession Electron Diffraction Analysis of a Polycrystalline Cu Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianying; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2018-04-01

    In-situ TEM nanoindentation of a polycrystalline Cu film was cross-correlated with precession electron diffraction (PED) to quantify the microstructural evolution. The use of PED is shown to clearly reveal features, such as grain size, that are easily masked by diffraction contrast created by the deformation. Using PED, the accompanying grain refinement and change in texture as well as the preservation of specific grain boundary structures, including a ∑3 boundary, under the indent impression were quantified. The nucleation of dislocations, evident in low-angle grain boundary formations, was also observed under the indent. PED quantification of texture gradients created by the indentation process linked well to bend contours observed in the bright-field images. Finally, PED enabled generating a local orientation spread map that gave an approximate estimation of the spatial distribution of strain created by the indentation impression.

  6. Phase mapping of iron-based rapidly quenched alloys using precession electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, P.; Janotova, I.; Hosko, J.; Matko, I.; Janickovic, D.; Svec, P. Sr.; Kepaptsoglou, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is focused on application of PED and phase/orientation mapping of nanocrystals of bcc-Fe formed during the first crystallization stage of amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B ribbon. Using precession electron diffraction and phase/orientation mapping the formation of primary crystalline phase, bcc-Fe, from amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B has been analyzed. Important information about mutual orientation of the phase in individual submicron grains as well as against the sample surface has been obtained. This information contributes to the understanding of micromechanisms controlling crystallization from amorphous rapidly quenched structure and of the structure of the original amorphous state. The presented technique due to its high spatial resolution, speed and information content provided complements well classical techniques, especially in nanocrystalline materials. (authors)

  7. Translation compensation and micro-Doppler extraction for precession ballistic targets with a wideband terahertz radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Deng, Bin; Wang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Ye; Qin, Yuliang

    2018-01-01

    Imaging, classification, and recognition techniques of ballistic targets in midcourse have always been the focus of research in the radar field for military applications. However, the high velocity translation of ballistic targets will subject range profile and Doppler to translation, slope, and fold, which are especially severe in the terahertz region. Therefore, a two-step translation compensation method based on envelope alignment is presented. The rough compensation is based on the traditional envelope alignment algorithm in inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging, and the fine compensation is supported by distance fitting. Then, a wideband imaging radar system with a carrier frequency of 0.32 THz is introduced, and an experiment on a precession missile model is carried out. After translation compensation with the method proposed in this paper, the range profile and the micro-Doppler distributions unaffected by translation are obtained, providing an important foundation for the high-resolution imaging and micro-Doppler extraction of the terahertz radar.

  8. Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation

  9. Precipitate statistics in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy from scanning precession electron diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, J. K.; Paulsen, Ø.; Wenner, S.; Holmestad, R.

    2017-09-01

    The key microstructural feature providing strength to age-hardenable Al alloys is nanoscale precipitates. Alloy development requires a reliable statistical assessment of these precipitates, in order to link the microstructure with material properties. Here, it is demonstrated that scanning precession electron diffraction combined with computational analysis enable the semi-automated extraction of precipitate statistics in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy. Among the main findings is the precipitate number density, which agrees well with a conventional method based on manual counting and measurements. By virtue of its data analysis objectivity, our methodology is therefore seen as an advantageous alternative to existing routines, offering reproducibility and efficiency in alloy statistics. Additional results include improved qualitative information on phase distributions. The developed procedure is generic and applicable to any material containing nanoscale precipitates.

  10. Searching for gravitational waves from the inspiral of precessing binary systems: New hierarchical scheme using 'spiky' templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandclement, Philippe; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2003-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the effects of precession on the anticipated detection of gravitational-wave inspiral signals from compact object binaries with moderate total masses · , we found that (i) if precession is ignored, the inspiral detection rate can decrease by almost a factor of 10, and (ii) previously proposed 'mimic' templates cannot improve the detection rate significantly (by more than a factor of 2). In this paper we propose a new family of templates that can improve the detection rate by a factor of 5 or 6 in cases where precession is most important. Our proposed method for these new 'mimic' templates involves a hierarchical scheme of efficient, two-parameter template searches that can account for a sequence of spikes that appear in the residual inspiral phase, after one corrects for any oscillatory modification in the phase. We present our results for two cases of compact object masses (10 and 1.4 M · and 7 and 3 M · ) as a function of spin properties. Although further work is needed to fully assess the computational efficiency of this newly proposed template family, we conclude that these 'spiky templates' are good candidates for a family of precession templates used in realistic searches that can improve detection rates of inspiral events

  11. Myocardial tagging with steady state free precession techniques and semi-automatic postprocessing--impact on diagnostic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Thorsten R C; Bayrhof, Nicole; Huber, Armin

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the diagnostic value of myocardial tagging sequences with regard to the evaluable share of the cardiac cycle. Thirty-three patients were examined at 1.5 T using tagging sequences with gradient-echo (GRE) readout, 18 patients at 1.5 T with steady-state free precession (SSF...

  12. Precession of a two-layer Earth: contributions of the core and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Tomás; Ferrándiz, José M.; Escapa, Alberto; Getino, Juan; Navarro, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's internal structure contributes to the precession rate in a small but non-negligible amount, given the current accuracy goals demanded by IAG/GGOS to the reference frames, namely 30 μas and 3 μas/yr. These contributions come from a variety of sources. One of those not yet accounted for in current IAU models is associated to the crossed effects of certain nutation-rising terms of a two-layer Earth model; intuitively, it gathers an 'indirect' effect of the core via the NDFW, or FCN, resonance as well as a 'direct' effect arising from terms that account for energy variations depending on the elasticity of the core. Similar order of magnitude reaches the direct effect of the departure of the Earth's rheology from linear elasticity. To compute those effects we work out the problem in a unified way within the Hamiltonian framework developed by Getino and Ferrándiz (2001). It allows a consistent treatment of the problem since all the perturbations are derived from the same tide generating expansion and the crossing effects are rigorously obtained through Hori's canonical perturbation method. The problem admits an asymptotic analytical solution. The Hamiltonian is constructed by considering a two-layer Earth model made up of an anelastic mantle and a fluid core, perturbed by the gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun. The former effects reach some tens of μas/yr in the longitude rate, hence above the target accuracy level. We outline their influence in the estimation of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity, a main parameter factorizing both precession and nutation.

  13. Electronic structure of FeTiSb using relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahariya, Jagrati [Department of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007, Rajasthan (India); Mund, H. S., E-mail: hmoond@gmail.com [Department of Physics, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    Electronic and magnetic properties of FeTiSb have been reported. The calculations are performed using spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme based on Green’s function method. Within SPR-KKR a fully relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches have been used to investigate electronic structure of FeTiSb. Energy bands, total and partial density of states, atom specific magnetic moment along with total moment of FeTiSb alloys are presented.

  14. The Wigner function in the relativistic quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, K., E-mail: kowalski@uni.lodz.pl; Rembieliński, J.

    2016-12-15

    A detailed study is presented of the relativistic Wigner function for a quantum spinless particle evolving in time according to the Salpeter equation. - Highlights: • We study the Wigner function for a quantum spinless relativistic particle. • We discuss the relativistic Wigner function introduced by Zavialov and Malokostov. • We introduce relativistic Wigner function based on the standard definition. • We find analytic expressions for relativistic Wigner functions.

  15. New relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Magnollay, P.; Tarlini, M.; Aldinger, R.R.; Kielanowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    A relativistic generalization of the Heisenberg commutation relations is suggested which is different from the conventional ones used for the intrinsic coordinates and momenta in the relativistic oscillator model and the relativistic string. This new quantum relativistic oscillator model is determined by the requirement that it gives a unified description of relativistic vibrations and rotations and contracts in the nonrelativistic limit c -1 →0 into the usual nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator

  16. The impact of using jason-1 and cryosat-2 geodetic mission altimetry for gravity field modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik; Knudsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Since the release of the Danish Technical University DTU10 global marine gravity field in 2010, the amount of geodetic mission altimetry data has nearly tripled. The Cryosat-2 satellite have provided data along its 369 day near repeat since 2010 and as of May 2012 the Jason-1 satellite has been o...

  17. Geodynamical behavior of some active area in Egypt, as deduced from geodetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawy, E.; Mrlina, J.; Radwan, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal gravity variation in parallel with the space geodetic technique (GPS) had been started in Egypt for real campaigns in 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan area was the first net to be measured. More than five measurement epochs were performed. The results had a considerable limit of coincidence between gravity and GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress and had the vertical displacement observed for leveling points. The lowest gravity changes along Kalabsha fault reflect extensional and/or strike component of the stress field. Also, the areas around Cairo (Greater Cairo) and due to the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992, such type of measurements were useful for monitoring the recent activity. The data of the geodetic network around Cairo after 5 campaigns showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost all points are 5.5± mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. The non-tidal changes can explain the dynamic process within the upper crust related to the development of local stress conditions. The trends of gravity changes are more or less coincident with that deduced from GPS deformation analysis and the occurrence of the main shocks in the area. In additions, in 2005 the geodetic network around the southern part of Sinai and the Gulf of Suez were established. One campaign of measurements had been performed and the gravity values were obtained.

  18. Resolution testing and limitations of geodetic and tsunami datasets for finite fault inversions along subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A.; Newman, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Finite fault inversions utilizing multiple datasets have become commonplace for large earthquakes pending data availability. The mixture of geodetic datasets such as Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) and InSAR, seismic waveforms, and when applicable, tsunami waveforms from Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) gauges, provide slightly different observations that when incorporated together lead to a more robust model of fault slip distribution. The merging of different datasets is of particular importance along subduction zones where direct observations of seafloor deformation over the rupture area are extremely limited. Instead, instrumentation measures related ground motion from tens to hundreds of kilometers away. The distance from the event and dataset type can lead to a variable degree of resolution, affecting the ability to accurately model the spatial distribution of slip. This study analyzes the spatial resolution attained individually from geodetic and tsunami datasets as well as in a combined dataset. We constrain the importance of distance between estimated parameters and observed data and how that varies between land-based and open ocean datasets. Analysis focuses on accurately scaled subduction zone synthetic models as well as analysis of the relationship between slip and data in recent large subduction zone earthquakes. This study shows that seafloor deformation sensitive datasets, like open-ocean tsunami waveforms or seafloor geodetic instrumentation, can provide unique offshore resolution for understanding most large and particularly tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake activity. In most environments, we simply lack the capability to resolve static displacements using land-based geodetic observations.

  19. A case for inherent geometric and geodetic accuracy in remotely sensed VNIR and SWIR imaging products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Significant aberrations can occur in acquired images which, unless compensated on board the spacecraft, can seriously impair throughput and timeliness for typical Earth observation missions. Conceptual compensations options are advanced to enable acquisition of images with inherent geometric and geodetic accuracy. Research needs are identified which, when implemented, can provide inherently accurate images. Agressive pursuit of these research needs is recommended.

  20. A unified treatment of the non-relativistic and relativistic hydrogen atom: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swainson, R.A.; Drake, G.W.F.

    1991-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three papers in which it is shown how the radial part of non-relativistic and relativistic hydrogenic bound-state calculations involving the Green functions can be presented in a unified manner. In this paper the non-relativistic Green function is examined in detail; new functional forms are presented and a clear mathematical progression is show to link these and most other known forms. A linear transformation of the four radial parts of the relativistic Green function is given which allows for the presentation of this function as a simple generalization of the non-relativistic Green function. Thus, many properties of the non-relativistic Green function are shown to have simple relativistic generalizations. In particular, new recursion relations of the radial parts of both the non-relativistic and relativistic Green functions are presented, along with new expressions for the double Laplace transforms and recursion relations between the radial matrix elements. (author)

  1. Response of the Asian summer monsoons to idealized precession and obliquity forcing in a set of GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, J. H. C.; Erb, M. P.; Dolan, A. M.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Tuenter, E.; Hilgen, F. J.; Edge, D.; Pope, J. O.; Lourens, L. J.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the response of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons to separate precession and obliquity forcing, using a set of fully coupled high-resolution models for the first time: EC-Earth, GFDL CM2.1, CESM and HadCM3. We focus on the effect of insolation changes on monsoon precipitation and underlying circulation changes, and find strong model agreement despite a range of model physics, parameterization, and resolution. Our results show increased summer monsoon precipitation at times of increased summer insolation, i.e. minimum precession and maximum obliquity, accompanied by a redistribution of precipitation and convection from ocean to land. Southerly monsoon winds over East Asia are strengthened as a consequence of an intensified land-sea pressure gradient. The response of the Indian summer monsoon is less straightforward. Over south-east Asia low surface pressure is less pronounced and winds over the northern Indian Ocean are directed more westward. An Indian Ocean Dipole pattern emerges, with increased precipitation and convection over the western Indian Ocean. Increased temperatures occur during minimum precession over the Indian Ocean, but not during maximum obliquity when insolation is reduced over the tropics and southern hemisphere during northern hemisphere summer. Evaporation is reduced over the northern Indian Ocean, which together with increased precipitation over the western Indian Ocean dampens the increase of monsoonal precipitation over the continent. The southern tropical Indian Ocean as well as the western tropical Pacific (for precession) act as a moisture source for enhanced monsoonal precipitation. The models are in closest agreement for precession-induced changes, with more model spread for obliquity-induced changes, possibly related to a smaller insolation forcing. Our results indicate that a direct response of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons to insolation forcing is possible, in line with speleothem records but in

  2. Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Sina

    2017-07-01

    It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.

  3. On quantization of relativistic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Quantization of the relativistic string theory based on methods of the constrained Hamiltonian systems quantization is considered. Connections of this approach and Polyakov's quantization are looked. New representation of a loop heat kernel is obtained

  4. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  5. Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkelens, H. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis gives a self-contained treatment of the relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. Here plasma means any mixture containing electrically charged particles. The relativistic Boltzmann equation is linearized for the case of a plasma. The Chapman-Enskog method is elaborated further for transport phenomena. Linear laws for viscous phenomena are derived. Then the collision term in the Boltzmann theory is dealt with. Using the transport equation, a kinetic theory of wave phenomena is developed and the dissipation of hydromagnetic waves in a relativistic plasma is investigated. In the final chapter, it is demonstrated how the relativistic Boltzmann theory can be applied in cosmology. In doing so, expressions are derived for the electric conductivity of the cosmological plasma in the lepton era, the plasma era and the annihilation era. (Auth.)

  6. Relativistic nuclear physics and quantum chromodynamics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The data of investigations on problems of high energy physics are given. Special attention pays to quantum chromodynamics at large distances, cumulative processes, multiquark states and relativistic nuclear collisions

  7. Hot relativistic winds and the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, F.S.; Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts are reviewed to construct a self-consistent model of pulsar magnetospheres that links the particle source near the pulsar to the outflowing relativistic wind and couples the wind to the surrounding nebula. (Auth.)

  8. ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC NUCLEI: A NEW FRONTIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLERRAN, L.

    1999-01-01

    The collisions of ultra-relativistic nuclei provide a window on the behavior of strong interactions at asymptotically high energies. They also will allow the authors to study the bulk properties of hadronic matter at very high densities

  9. Summary of the relativistic heavy ion sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions span four orders of magnitude in energy in the laboratory and a few more in theory. In the two years since the last Intersections conference, experiments in the field of very high energy heavy ion research have begun at CERN and Brookhaven. The prime motivation for these experiments is the possibility of forming quark matter. This paper is a review of the topics covered in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Sessions

  10. Relativistic charged fluids: hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbasch, F.; Bonnaud, G.

    1991-10-01

    This report gives a rigorous and consistent hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a charged fluid and the basis equations, in a relativistic context. This study should lead to a reliable model, as much analytical as numerical, of relativistic plasmas which will appear in the interaction of a strong laser field with a plasma. For simplicity, we limited our study to a perfect fluid or, in other words, we disregarded the energy dissipation processes inside the fluid [fr

  11. On the convexity of relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, José M; Martí, José M; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Miralles, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    The relativistic hydrodynamic system of equations for a perfect fluid obeying a causal equation of state is hyperbolic (Anile 1989 Relativistic Fluids and Magneto-Fluids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this report, we derive the conditions for this system to be convex in terms of the fundamental derivative of the equation of state (Menikoff and Plohr1989 Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 75). The classical limit is recovered. Communicated by L Rezzolla (note)

  12. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonstrange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the σ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum

  13. Chiral quark model with relativistic kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.

    2003-01-01

    The non-strange baryon spectrum is studied within a three-body model that incorporates relativistic kinematics. We found that the combined effect of relativistic kinematics together with the pion exchange between quarks is able to reverse the order of the first positive- and negative-parity nucleon excited states as observed experimentally. Including the chiral partner of the pion (the $\\sigma$ meson) leads to an overall good description of the spectrum.

  14. Limits and signatures of relativistic spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ulvi; Wilkinson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave photons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  15. Relativistic klystron research at SLAC and LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.

    1988-06-01

    We are developing relativistic klystrons as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications such as large linear electron-positron colliders and compact accelerators. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here briefly on our experiments so far. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Fundamental laws of relativistic classical dynamics revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaquiere, Augustin

    1977-01-01

    By stating that a linear differential form, whose coefficients are the components of the momentum and the energy of a particle, has an antiderivative, the basic equations of the dynamics of points are obtained, in the relativistic case. From the point of view of optimization theory, a connection between our condition and the Bellman-Isaacs equation of dynamic programming is discussed, with a view to extending the theory to relativistic wave mechanics [fr

  17. Dechanneling function for relativistic axially channeled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, V.A.; Telegin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of the x(t) dechanneling function depending on the depth is theoretically studied. Theoretical consideration of x(t) for axial channeled relativistic electrons in anisotropic medium results in two-dimensional kinetic equation with mixed derivatives of the parabolic type. The kinetic equation in the approximation of the continuous Lindchard model for relativistic axial channeled electrons is numerically solved. The depth dependence of the x(t) dechanneling function is obtained [ru

  18. Misbheaving Faults: The Expanding Role of Geodetic Imaging in Unraveling Unexpected Fault Slip Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic imaging techniques enable researchers to "see" details of fault rupture that cannot be captured by complementary tools such as seismology and field studies, thus providing increasingly detailed information about surface strain, slip kinematics, and how an earthquake may be transcribed into the geological record. For example, the recent Haiti, Sierra El Mayor, and Nepal earthquakes illustrate the fundamental role of geodetic observations in recording blind ruptures where purely geological and seismological studies provided incomplete views of rupture kinematics. Traditional earthquake hazard analyses typically rely on sparse paleoseismic observations and incomplete mapping, simple assumptions of slip kinematics from Andersonian faulting, and earthquake analogs to characterize the probabilities of forthcoming ruptures and the severity of ground accelerations. Spatially dense geodetic observations in turn help to identify where these prevailing assumptions regarding fault behavior break down and highlight new and unexpected kinematic slip behavior. Here, we focus on three key contributions of space geodetic observations to the analysis of co-seismic deformation: identifying near-surface co-seismic slip where no easily recognized fault rupture exists; discerning non-Andersonian faulting styles; and quantifying distributed, off-fault deformation. The 2013 Balochistan strike slip earthquake in Pakistan illuminates how space geodesy precisely images non-Andersonian behavior and off-fault deformation. Through analysis of high-resolution optical imagery and DEMs, evidence emerges that a single fault map slip as both a strike slip and dip slip fault across multiple seismic cycles. These observations likewise enable us to quantify on-fault deformation, which account for ~72% of the displacements in this earthquake. Nonetheless, the spatial distribution of on- and off-fault deformation in this event is highly spatially variable- a complicating factor for comparisons

  19. Propagation of uncertainty by Monte Carlo simulations in case of basic geodetic computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszkowska Patrycja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the accuracy of functions of measured or adjusted values may be a problem in geodetic computations. The general law of covariance propagation or in case of the uncorrelated observations the propagation of variance (or the Gaussian formula are commonly used for that purpose. That approach is theoretically justified for the linear functions. In case of the non-linear functions, the first-order Taylor series expansion is usually used but that solution is affected by the expansion error. The aim of the study is to determine the applicability of the general variance propagation law in case of the non-linear functions used in basic geodetic computations. The paper presents errors which are a result of negligence of the higher-order expressions and it determines the range of such simplification. The basis of that analysis is the comparison of the results obtained by the law of propagation of variance and the probabilistic approach, namely Monte Carlo simulations. Both methods are used to determine the accuracy of the following geodetic computations: the Cartesian coordinates of unknown point in the three-point resection problem, azimuths and distances of the Cartesian coordinates, height differences in the trigonometric and the geometric levelling. These simulations and the analysis of the results confirm the possibility of applying the general law of variance propagation in basic geodetic computations even if the functions are non-linear. The only condition is the accuracy of observations, which cannot be too low. Generally, this is not a problem with using present geodetic instruments.

  20. Propagation of uncertainty by Monte Carlo simulations in case of basic geodetic computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Patrycja

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the accuracy of functions of measured or adjusted values may be a problem in geodetic computations. The general law of covariance propagation or in case of the uncorrelated observations the propagation of variance (or the Gaussian formula) are commonly used for that purpose. That approach is theoretically justified for the linear functions. In case of the non-linear functions, the first-order Taylor series expansion is usually used but that solution is affected by the expansion error. The aim of the study is to determine the applicability of the general variance propagation law in case of the non-linear functions used in basic geodetic computations. The paper presents errors which are a result of negligence of the higher-order expressions and it determines the range of such simplification. The basis of that analysis is the comparison of the results obtained by the law of propagation of variance and the probabilistic approach, namely Monte Carlo simulations. Both methods are used to determine the accuracy of the following geodetic computations: the Cartesian coordinates of unknown point in the three-point resection problem, azimuths and distances of the Cartesian coordinates, height differences in the trigonometric and the geometric levelling. These simulations and the analysis of the results confirm the possibility of applying the general law of variance propagation in basic geodetic computations even if the functions are non-linear. The only condition is the accuracy of observations, which cannot be too low. Generally, this is not a problem with using present geodetic instruments.

  1. Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades Colmenero, Neus

    The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space

  2. Relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2013-01-01

    A relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric is studied within the framework of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields, where Marle’s model for the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is employed. The transport coefficients of the bulk and shear viscosities and thermal conductivity are determined from the Chapman–Enskog method. It is shown that the transport coefficients depend on the gravitational potential. Expressions for the transport coefficients in the presence of weak gravitational fields in the non-relativistic (low temperature) and ultra-relativistic (high temperature) limiting cases are given. Apart from the temperature gradient the heat flux has two relativistic terms. The first one, proposed by Eckart, is due to the inertia of energy and represents an isothermal heat flux when matter is accelerated. The other, suggested by Tolman, is proportional to the gravitational potential gradient and indicates that—in the absence of an acceleration field—a state of equilibrium of a relativistic gas in a gravitational field can be attained only if the temperature gradient is counterbalanced by a gravitational potential gradient. (paper)

  3. A Comprehensive Comparison of Relativistic Particle Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperda, B.; Bacchini, F.; Teunissen, J.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.; Sironi, L.; Lapenta, G.; Keppens, R.

    2018-03-01

    We compare relativistic particle integrators commonly used in plasma physics, showing several test cases relevant for astrophysics. Three explicit particle pushers are considered, namely, the Boris, Vay, and Higuera–Cary schemes. We also present a new relativistic fully implicit particle integrator that is energy conserving. Furthermore, a method based on the relativistic guiding center approximation is included. The algorithms are described such that they can be readily implemented in magnetohydrodynamics codes or Particle-in-Cell codes. Our comparison focuses on the strengths and key features of the particle integrators. We test the conservation of invariants of motion and the accuracy of particle drift dynamics in highly relativistic, mildly relativistic, and non-relativistic settings. The methods are compared in idealized test cases, i.e., without considering feedback onto the electrodynamic fields, collisions, pair creation, or radiation. The test cases include uniform electric and magnetic fields, {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} fields, force-free fields, and setups relevant for high-energy astrophysics, e.g., a magnetic mirror, a magnetic dipole, and a magnetic null. These tests have direct relevance for particle acceleration in shocks and in magnetic reconnection.

  4. Establishment of 2000 National Geodetic Control Network of China and It’s Technological Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 2000’ National Geodetic Control Network of China is an important fundamental scientific engineering project in China. It consists of three parts which are establishment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, its combination adjustment with national astro-geodetic network and 2000 National Gravity Fundamental network. It provides the high precise coordinate reference and gravity reference for three dimensional geo-center national coordinates system and gravity system, respectively. Additionally, it provides precise unified geometric and physical geodesy information for the economic construction, the national defense and the scientific research. Methods: 1. The larger number of data are processed in triple networks adjustment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, which are chosen from the GPS monitoring stations, such as grade A, B of national GPS network , grade 1st and 2nd of national GPS network, crustal movement observation network of China, and others crustal deformation monitoring stations. Finally, the data of 2666 GPS stations are used in the data processing of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network, including 124 external stations and 2542 internal stations. In order to the results of triple networks adjustment are corresponding to that of three dimensional geo-center coordinates system, ITRF 97 and epoch 2000.0 are chosen as the coordinate reference frame and epoch reference, respectively. The methods of “strong reference” and “weak reference” are combined used in the control data selection of triple networks adjustment. The scale and rotation scales are adopted for each sub network. The least square adjustment is firstly adopted in each sub network adjustment. The data of obvious abnormal baselines are found and rejected firstly. And the method of double factor robust estimation is adopted in the data processing. 2. The combined adjustment of 2000 National GPS Geodetic Network and national astro-geodetic network is

  5. Comparison between geodetic and oceanographic approaches to estimate mean dynamic topography for vertical datum unification: evaluation at Australian tide gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, M. S.; Hughes, C. W.; Woodworth, P. L.; Featherstone, W. E.; Bingham, R. J.

    2018-04-01

    The direct method of vertical datum unification requires estimates of the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) at tide gauges, which can be sourced from either geodetic or oceanographic approaches. To assess the suitability of different types of MDT for this purpose, we evaluate 13 physics-based numerical ocean models and six MDTs computed from observed geodetic and/or ocean data at 32 tide gauges around the Australian coast. We focus on the viability of numerical ocean models for vertical datum unification, classifying the 13 ocean models used as either independent (do not contain assimilated geodetic data) or non-independent (do contain assimilated geodetic data). We find that the independent and non-independent ocean models deliver similar results. Maximum differences among ocean models and geodetic MDTs reach >150 mm at several Australian tide gauges and are considered anomalous at the 99% confidence level. These differences appear to be of geodetic origin, but without additional independent information, or formal error estimates for each model, some of these errors remain inseparable. Our results imply that some ocean models have standard deviations of differences with other MDTs (using geodetic and/or ocean observations) at Australian tide gauges, and with levelling between some Australian tide gauges, of ˜ ± 50 mm . This indicates that they should be considered as an alternative to geodetic MDTs for the direct unification of vertical datums. They can also be used as diagnostics for errors in geodetic MDT in coastal zones, but the inseparability problem remains, where the error cannot be discriminated between the geoid model or altimeter-derived mean sea surface.

  6. Identifying and Allocating Geodetic Systems to historical oil gas wells by using high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriel O.

    2018-05-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in Argentina started long before the IGM created a single, high-precision geodetic reference network for the whole country. Several geodetic surveys were conducted in every producing basin, which have ever since then supported well placement. Currently, every basin has a huge amount of information referenced to the so-called "local" geodetic systems, such as Chos Malal - Quiñi Huao in the Neuquén Basin, and Pampa del Castillo in the San Jorge Basin, which differ to a greater or lesser extent from the national Campo Inchauspe datum established by the IGM in 1969 as the official geodetic network. However, technology development over the last few years and the expansion of satellite positioning systems such as GPS resulted in a new world geodetic order. Argentina rapidly joined this new geodetic order through the implementation of a new national geodetic system by the IGM: POSGAR network, which replaced the old national Campo Inchauspe system. However, this only helped to worsen the data georeferencing issue for oil companies, as a third reference system was added to each basin. Now every basin has a local system, the national system until 1997 (Campo Inchauspe), and finally the newly created POSGAR network national satellite system, which is geocentric unlike the former two planimetric datums. The purpose of this paper is to identify and allocate geodetic systems of coordinates to historical wells, whose geodetic system is missing or has been erroneously allocated, by using currently available technological resources such as geographic information systems and high-resolution satellite imagery.

  7. Relativistic mechanics, time and inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilmister, C.W.; Tocaci, E.

    1985-01-01

    This book offers a thought-provoking approach to the fundamentals of relativity, and is structured to provide a clear-cut introduction to the essentials of relativistic mechanics. It seeks to emphasize the sensible content of concepts, to improve on their inherent or often forgotten fuzziness, and to explore prospects for their further exploitation. The work also provides an analysis conducive to a rigorous, normative definition of Time, which is seen as a synthesis of universal motion, instrumental in defining a general measure to transformations, and as a sufficient reason to suppose that the speed of light must be the same in all inertial reference frames - hence showing this cardinal postulate to be a demonstrable truth. Moreover it provides an augmented perception of what inertial vs. non-inertial systems are. In addition, the book offers a natural, time-like interpretation of Space that departs from the usual converse approach; it offers a self-consistent proposal to rationalize the axiomatic grounds of mechanics, based on a single postulate in conjunction with the overall approach developed. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Canonical formalism for relativistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penafiel-Nava, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of a canonical formalism appropriate for a dynamical theory of isolated relativistic multiparticle systems involving scalar interactions is studied. It is shown that a single time-parameter structure satisfying the requirements of Poincare invariance and simultaneity of the constituents (global tranversality) can not be derived from a homogeneous Lagrangian. The dynamics is deduced initially from a non-homogeneous but singular Lagrangian designed to accommodate the global tranversality constraints with the equaltime plane associated to the total momentum of the system. An equivalent standard Lagrangian is used to generalize the parametrization procedure which is referred to an arbitrary geodesic in Minkowski space. The equations of motion and the definition of center of momentum are invariant with respect to the choice of geodesic and the entire formalism becomes separable. In the original 8N-dimensional phase-space, the symmetries of the Lagrangian give rise to a canonical realization of a fifteen-generator Lie algebra which is projected in the 6N dimensional hypersurface of dynamical motions. The time-component of the total momentum is thus reduced to a neutral element and the canonical Hamiltonian survives as the only generator for time-translations so that the no-interaction theorem becomes inapplicable

  9. Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equation-of-motion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.

    1982-01-01

    An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated with the use of techniques of quantum-field theory. To reduce the equations of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular-momentum coupling is employed. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation

  10. Relativistic entanglement from relativistic quantum mechanics in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the problems induced by the Lorentz signature of Minkowski space-time, like the need of a clock synchronization convention for the definition of 3-space and the complexity of the notion of relativistic center of mass, there is the introduction of a new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics compatible with the theory of relativistic bound states. In it the zeroth postulate of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is not valid and the physics is described in the rest frame by a Hilbert space containing only relative variables. The non-locality of the Poincare' generators imply a kinematical non-locality and non-separability influencing the theory of relativistic entanglement and not connected with the standard quantum non-locality.

  11. Added-value joint source modelling of seismic and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhaus, Henriette; Heimann, Sebastian; Walter, Thomas R.; Krueger, Frank

    2013-04-01

    In tectonically active regions earthquake source studies strongly support the analysis of the current faulting processes as they reveal the location and geometry of active faults, the average slip released or more. For source modelling of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes often a combination of geodetic (GPS, InSAR) and seismic data is used. A truly joint use of these data, however, usually takes place only on a higher modelling level, where some of the first-order characteristics (time, centroid location, fault orientation, moment) have been fixed already. These required basis model parameters have to be given, assumed or inferred in a previous, separate and highly non-linear modelling step using one of the these data sets alone. We present a new earthquake rupture model implementation that realizes a fully combined data integration of surface displacement measurements and seismic data in a non-linear optimization of simple but extended planar ruptures. The model implementation allows for fast forward calculations of full seismograms and surface deformation and therefore enables us to use Monte Carlo global search algorithms. Furthermore, we benefit from the complementary character of seismic and geodetic data, e. g. the high definition of the source location from geodetic data and the sensitivity of the resolution of the seismic data on moment releases at larger depth. These increased constraints from the combined dataset make optimizations efficient, even for larger model parameter spaces and with a very limited amount of a priori assumption on the source. A vital part of our approach is rigorous data weighting based on the empirically estimated data errors. We construct full data error variance-covariance matrices for geodetic data to account for correlated data noise and also weight the seismic data based on their signal-to-noise ratio. The estimation of the data errors and the fast forward modelling opens the door for Bayesian inferences of the source

  12. Neutron spin precession in samples of polarised nuclei and neutron spin phase imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegsa, Florian Michael

    2009-01-01

    The doublet neutron-deuteron (nd) scattering length b 2,d , which is at present only known with an accuracy of 5%, is particularly well suited to fix three-body forces in novel effective field theories at low energies. The understanding of such few-nucleon systems is essential, e.g. for predictions of element abundances in the big-bang and stellar fusion. b 2,d can be obtained via a linear combination of the spin-independent nd scattering length b c,d and the spin-dependent one, b i,d . The aim of this thesis was to perform a high-accuracy measurement of the latter to improve the relative accuracy of b 2,d below 1%. The experiment was performed at the fundamental neutron physics beam line FUNSPIN at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. It utilises the effect that the spin of a neutron passing through a target with polarised nuclei performs a pseudomagnetic precession proportional to the spin-dependent scattering length of the nuclei. An ideal method to measure this precession angle very accurately is Ramsey's atomic beam technique, adapted to neutrons. The most crucial part of the experimental setup is the so-called frozen spin target, which consists of a specially designed dilution refrigerator and contains a sample with dynamically polarised nuclear spins. The polarisation of the sample is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It turned out that the relaxation of the nuclear spins during the necessary ''cross-calibration'' of the two employed NMR systems is ultimately limiting the achievable accuracy of b i,d . During the extensive use of the Ramsey resonance method in the neutron-deuteron experiment, an idea emerged that the applied technique could be exploited in a completely different context, namely polarised neutron radiography. Hence, the second part of the thesis covers the development of a novel neutron radiography technique, based on the spin-dependent interaction of the neutron with ferromagnetic samples and magnetic fields

  13. Precession electron diffraction for SiC grain boundary characterization in unirradiated TRISO fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillo, T.M.; Rooyen, I.J. van; Wu, Y.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SiC grain orientation determined by TEM-based precession electron diffraction. • Orientation data improved with increasing TEM sample thickness. • Fraction of low angle grain boundaries lower from PED data than EBSD data. • Fractions of high angle and CSL-related boundaries similar to EBSD data. - Abstract: Precession electron diffraction (PED), a transmission electron microscopy-based technique, has been evaluated for the suitability for evaluating grain boundary character in the SiC layer of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. This work reports the effect of transmission electron microscope (TEM) lamella thickness on the quality of data and establishes a baseline comparison to SiC grain boundary characteristics, in an unirradiated TRISO particle, determined previously using a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based technique. In general, it was determined that the lamella thickness produced using the standard focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication process (∼80 nm), is sufficient to provide reliable PED measurements, although thicker lamellae (∼120 nm) were found to produce higher quality orientation data. Also, analysis of SiC grain boundary character from the TEM-based PED data showed a much lower fraction of low-angle grain boundaries compared to SEM-based EBSD data from the SiC layer of a TRISO-coated particle made using the same fabrication parameters and a SiC layer deposited at a slightly lower temperature from a surrogate TRISO particle. However, the fractions of high-angle and coincident site lattice (CSL)-related grain boundaries determined by PED are similar to those found using SEM-based EBSD. Since the grain size of the SiC layer of TRSIO fuel can be as small as 250 nm (Kirchhofer et al., 2013), depending on the fabrication parameters, and since grain boundary fission product precipitates in irradiated TRISO fuel can be nano-sized, the TEM-based PED orientation data

  14. Neutron spin precession in samples of polarised nuclei and neutron spin phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piegsa, Florian Michael

    2009-07-09

    The doublet neutron-deuteron (nd) scattering length b{sub 2,d}, which is at present only known with an accuracy of 5%, is particularly well suited to fix three-body forces in novel effective field theories at low energies. The understanding of such few-nucleon systems is essential, e.g. for predictions of element abundances in the big-bang and stellar fusion. b{sub 2,d} can be obtained via a linear combination of the spin-independent nd scattering length b{sub c,d} and the spin-dependent one, b{sub i,d}. The aim of this thesis was to perform a high-accuracy measurement of the latter to improve the relative accuracy of b{sub 2,d} below 1%. The experiment was performed at the fundamental neutron physics beam line FUNSPIN at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. It utilises the effect that the spin of a neutron passing through a target with polarised nuclei performs a pseudomagnetic precession proportional to the spin-dependent scattering length of the nuclei. An ideal method to measure this precession angle very accurately is Ramsey's atomic beam technique, adapted to neutrons. The most crucial part of the experimental setup is the so-called frozen spin target, which consists of a specially designed dilution refrigerator and contains a sample with dynamically polarised nuclear spins. The polarisation of the sample is determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It turned out that the relaxation of the nuclear spins during the necessary ''cross-calibration'' of the two employed NMR systems is ultimately limiting the achievable accuracy of b{sub i,d}. During the extensive use of the Ramsey resonance method in the neutron-deuteron experiment, an idea emerged that the applied technique could be exploited in a completely different context, namely polarised neutron radiography. Hence, the second part of the thesis covers the development of a novel neutron radiography technique, based on the spin-dependent interaction of the

  15. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  16. Relativistic model for statevector reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, P.

    1991-04-01

    A relativistic quantum field model describing statevector reduction for fermion states is presented. The time evolution of the states is governed by a Schroedinger equation with a Hamiltonian that has a Hermitian and a non-Hermitian part. In addition to the fermions, the Hermitian part describes positive and negative energy mesons of equal mass, analogous to the longitudinal and timelike photons of electromagnetism. The meson-field-sum is coupled to the fermion field. This ''dresses'' each fermion so that, in the extreme nonrelativistic limit (non-moving fermions), a fermion in a position eigenstate is also in an eigenstate of the meson-field-difference with the Yukawa-potential as eigenvalue. However, the fermions do not interact: this is a theory of free dressed fermions. It is possible to obtain a stationary normalized ''vacuum'' state which satisfies two conditions analogous to the gauge conditions of electromagnetism (i.e., that the meson-field-difference, as well as its time derivative, give zero when applied to the vacuum state), to any desired degree of accuracy. The non-Hermitian part of the Hamiltonian contains the coupling of the meson-field-difference to an externally imposed c-number fluctuating white noise field, of the CSL (Continuous Spontaneous Localization) form. This causes statevector reduction, as is shown in the extreme nonrelativistic limit. For example, a superposition of spatially separated wavepackets of a fermion will eventually be reduced to a single wavepacket: the meson-field-difference discriminates among the Yukawa-potential ''handles'' attached to each wavepacket, thereby selecting one wavepacket to survive by the CSL mechanism. Analysis beyond that given in this paper is required to see what happens when the fermions are allowed to move. (It is possible that the ''vacuum'' state becomes involved in the dynamics so that the ''gauge'' conditions can no longer be maintained.) It is shown how to incorporate these ideas into quantum

  17. High-K precession modes: Axially symmetric limit of wobbling motion in the cranked random-phase approximation description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    The rotational band built on the high-K multi-quasiparticle state can be interpreted as a multi-phonon band of the precession mode, which represents the precessional rotation about the axis perpendicular to the direction of the intrinsic angular momentum. By using the axially symmetric limit of the random-phase approximation (RPA) formalism developed for the nuclear wobbling motion, we study the properties of the precession modes in 178 W: the excitation energies, B(E2) and B(M1) values. We show that the excitations of such a specific type of rotation can be well described by the RPA formalism, which gives new insight into the wobbling motion in the triaxial superdeformed nuclei from a microscopic viewpoint

  18. Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Horwitz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.

  19. Gravitational mass and Newton's universal gravitational law under relativistic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayenas, Constantinos G; Grigoriou, Dimitrios; Fokas, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the predictions of Newton's universal gravitational law when using the gravitational, m g , rather than the rest masses, m o , of the attracting particles. According to the equivalence principle, the gravitational mass equals the inertial mass, m i , and the latter which can be directly computed from special relativity, is an increasing function of the Lorentz factor, γ, and thus of the particle velocity. We consider gravitationally bound rotating composite states, and we show that the ratio of the gravitational force for gravitationally bound rotational states to the force corresponding to low (γ ≈ 1) particle velocities is of the order of (m Pl /m o ) 2 where mpi is the Planck mass (ħc/G) 1/2 . We also obtain a similar result, within a factor of two, by employing the derivative of the effective potential of the Schwarzschild geodesics of GR. Finally, we show that for certain macroscopic systems, such as the perihelion precession of planets, the predictions of this relativistic Newtonian gravitational law differ again by only a factor of two from the predictions of GR. (paper)

  20. GOZCARDS Source Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpO3) contains zonal means and related information...

  1. GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  2. GOZCARDS Source Data for Temperature Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Temperature Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpT) contains zonal means and related...

  3. GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpHNO3) contains zonal means and related...

  4. Global geodetic observing system meeting the requirements of a global society on a changing planet in 2020

    CERN Document Server

    Plag, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Geodesy plays a key role in geodynamics, geohazards, the global water cycle, global change, atmosphere and ocean dynamics. This book covers geodesy's contribution to science and society and identifies user needs regarding geodetic observations and products.

  5. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  6. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  7. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpHCl) contains zonal means and related...

  8. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpO3) contains zonal means and related information...

  9. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpHNO3) contains zonal means and related...

  10. Agile Big Data Analytics of High-Volume Geodetic Data Products for Improving Science and Hazard Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Geodetic imaging is revolutionizing geophysics, but the scope of discovery has been limited by labor-intensive technological implementation of the analyses. The...

  11. Detecting gravitational waves from precessing binaries of spinning compact objects: Adiabatic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Chen Yanbei; Vallisneri, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Black-hole (BH) binaries with single-BH masses m=(5-20)M · , moving on quasicircular orbits, are among the most promising sources for first-generation ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Until now, the development of data-analysis techniques to detect GWs from these sources has been focused mostly on nonspinning BHs. The data-analysis problem for the spinning case is complicated by the necessity to model the precession-induced modulations of the GW signal, and by the large number of parameters needed to characterize the system, including the initial directions of the spins, and the position and orientation of the binary with respect to the GW detector. In this paper we consider binaries of maximally spinning BHs, and we work in the adiabatic-inspiral regime to build families of modulated detection templates that (i) are functions of very few physical and phenomenological parameters, (ii) model remarkably well the dynamical and precessional effects on the GW signal, with fitting factors on average > or approx. 0.97, (iii) but, however, might require increasing the detection thresholds, offsetting at least partially the gains in the fitting factors. Our detection-template families are quite promising also for the case of neutron-star-black-hole binaries, with fitting factors on average ≅0.93. For these binaries we also suggest (but do not test) a further template family, which would produce essentially exact waveforms written directly in terms of the physical spin parameters

  12. Spin precession and spin Hall effect in monolayer graphene/Pt nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savero Torres, W.; Sierra, J. F.; Benítez, L. A.; Bonell, F.; Costache, M. V.; Valenzuela, S. O.

    2017-12-01

    Spin Hall effects have surged as promising phenomena for spin logics operations without ferromagnets. However, the magnitude of the detected electric signals at room temperature in metallic systems has been so far underwhelming. Here, we demonstrate a two-order of magnitude enhancement of the signal in monolayer graphene/Pt devices when compared to their fully metallic counterparts. The enhancement stems in part from efficient spin injection and the large spin resistance of graphene but we also observe 100% spin absorption in Pt and find an unusually large effective spin Hall angle of up to 0.15. The large spin-to-charge conversion allows us to characterise spin precession in graphene under the presence of a magnetic field. Furthermore, by developing an analytical model based on the 1D diffusive spin-transport, we demonstrate that the effective spin-relaxation time in graphene can be accurately determined using the (inverse) spin Hall effect as a means of detection. This is a necessary step to gather full understanding of the consequences of spin absorption in spin Hall devices, which is known to suppress effective spin lifetimes in both metallic and graphene systems.

  13. Assessing the Detectability of Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes with Precessing Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Privitera, Stephen; Weinstein, Alan J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors will come online within the year and are expected to outperform the strain sensitivity of initial LIGO/Virgo detectors by an order of magnitude and operate with greater bandwidth, possibly to frequencies as low as 10 Hz. Coalescing binary black holes (BBH) are anticipated to be among the most likely sources of gravitational radiation observable by the detectors. Searches for such systems benefit greatly from the use of accurate predictions for the gravitational wave signal to filter the data. The component black holes of these systems are predicted to have substantial spin, which greatly influences the gravitational waveforms from these sources; however, recent LIGO/Virgo searches have made use of banks of waveform models which neglect the effects of the component spins. The inclusion of spinning components is relatively simplified when the spins are taken to be aligned with the orbital angular momentum, though the difficult task of including precession (allowing for mis-aligned component spins) remains a goal of this work. We aim to assess the ability of the GSTLAL gravitational wave search pipeline using IMR aligned-spin template waveforms to recover signals from generically spinning black hole binaries injected into simulated Advanced LIGO and Virgo detector noise. If black holes are highly spinning as predicted, use of aligned-spin template banks in upcoming searches could increase the detection rate of these systems in Advanced LIGO and Virgo data, providing the opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sources.

  14. Modulation of ice ages via precession and dust-albedo feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Ellis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a simple and novel proposal for the modulation and rhythm of ice-ages and interglacials during the late Pleistocene. While the standard Milankovitch-precession theory fails to explain the long intervals between interglacials, these can be accounted for by a novel forcing and feedback system involving CO2, dust and albedo. During the glacial period, the high albedo of the northern ice sheets drives down global temperatures and CO2 concentrations, despite subsequent precessional forcing maxima. Over the following millennia more CO2 is sequestered in the oceans and atmospheric concentrations eventually reach a critical minima of about 200 ppm, which combined with arid conditions, causes a die-back of temperate and boreal forests and grasslands, especially at high altitude. The ensuing soil erosion generates dust storms, resulting in increased dust deposition and lower albedo on the northern ice sheets. As northern hemisphere insolation increases during the next Milankovitch cycle, the dust-laden ice-sheets absorb considerably more insolation and undergo rapid melting, which forces the climate into an interglacial period. The proposed mechanism is simple, robust, and comprehensive in its scope, and its key elements are well supported by empirical evidence.

  15. Using ERP Systems to Transform Business Processes: A Case Study at a Precession Engineering Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K.M.Lee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises nowadays strive to keep transforming their business processes in accordance with the fastchanging customer demands so as to survive the intense global competition. In an attempt to provide practitioners with an insight into ERP implementation and the resulting business performances, this paper investigate how a successful ERP implementation can help transform enterprises processes. Case based research which is based on an in-depth observation under managerial and practitioner situation. A case study at a precession engineering company is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed strategic enterprise information model. This paper focuses on the implementation of Sales & Marketing and Warehouse modules of an ERP system. The key performance indicators are used to evaluate how the ERP implementation can improve the business processes. It is found that ERP helps to improve data visibility and improve on-time delivery but less effective on improving employee productivity. This research proposes an enterprise information model to exploit what strategy should be formulate and how ERP tactic can be implemented in company to enhance enterprise competitive advantages. The strategic enterprise information model is formulated based on our in-depth case study and ERP consultant's experience.

  16. In vivo determination of hepatic stiffness using steady-state free precession magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Dieter; Asbach, Patrick; Rump, Jens; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Somasundaram, Rajan; Modrow, Jens; Braun, Jürgen; Sack, Ingolf

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce an magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol based on fractional motion encoding and planar wave acquisition for rapid measurements of in vivo human liver stiffness. Vibrations of a remote actuator membrane were fed by a rigid rod to the patient's surface beneath the right costal arch resulting in axial shear deflections of the liver. Data acquisition was performed using a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence incorporating oscillating gradients for motion sensitization. Tissue vibrations of frequency fv = 51 Hz were tuned by twice the sequence repetition time (1/fv = 2TR). Twenty axial images acquired by time-resolved through-plane wave encoding were used for planar elasticity reconstruction. The MRE data acquisition was achieved within 4 breathholds of 17 seconds each. The method was applied to 12 healthy volunteers and 2 patients with diffuse liver disease (fibrosis grade 3). MRE data acquisition was successful in all volunteers and patients. The elastic moduli were measured with values between 1.99 +/- 0.16 and 5.77 +/- 0.88 kPa. Follow-up studies demonstrated the reproducibility of the method and revealed a difference of 0.74 +/- 0.47 kPa (P analysis of the strain wave field captured by axial wave images. The measured data indicate individual variations of hepatic stiffness in healthy volunteers.

  17. Deformation-Induced Precession of a Robot Moving on Curved Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengkai; Aydin, Yasemin; Lofaro, Olivia; Rieser, Jennifer; Goldman, Daniel

    Previous studies have demonstrated that passive particles rolling on a deformed surface can mimic aspects of general relativity [Ford et al, AJP, 2015]. However, these systems are dissipative. To explore steady-state dynamics, we study the movement of a self-propelled robot car on a large deformable elastic membrane: a spandex sheet stretched over a metal frame with a diameter of 2.5 m. Two wheels in the rear of the car are differentially-driven by a DC motor, and a caster in the front helps maintain directional stability; in the absence of curvature the car drives straight. A linear actuator attached below the membrane allows for controlled deformation at the center of the membrane. We find that closed elliptic orbits occur when the membrane is highly depressed ( 10 cm). However, when the center is only slightly indented, the elliptical orbits precess at a rate depending on the orbit shape and the depression. Remarkably, this dynamic is well described by the Schwarzschild metric solution, typically used to describe the effects of gravity on bodies orbiting a massive object. Experiments with multiple cars reveal complex interactions that are mediated through car-induced deformations of the membrane.

  18. The low cost Proton Precession Magnetometer developed at the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahavarkar, P.; Singh, S.; Labde, S.; Dongre, V.; Patil, A.

    2017-01-01

    Proton magnetometers are the oldest scalar magnetometers. The first commercial units were produced in early 1960s as portable instruments. In continuation airborne instruments appeared with optimized speed of readings and sensitivity, large sensors etc. Later development of Overhauser and optically pumped magnetometers has eliminated Proton magnetometers from airborne surveys. However they remain very popular in various ground surveys and observatories. With this primary purpose of generating the ground based magnetic data, the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) for the last 3 decades have been developing low cost Proton Precession Magnetometers (PPM). Beginning with the 1 nT PPM which has undergone several changes in design, the successor PM7 the advanced version has been successfully developed by the institute and is installed at various observatories of the institute. PM7 records the total field 'F' with accuracy of 0.1 nT and a sampling rate of 10 seconds/sample. This article briefly discusses the design and development of this IIG make PM7 and compares the data recorded by this instrument with one of the commercially available Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The quality of data recorded by PM7 is in excellent agreement with the Overhauser. With the available quality of data generated by this instrument, PM7 is an affordable PPM for scientific institutions, schools and colleges intending to carry out geomagnetic studies. The commercial cost of PM7 is ≈ 20% of the cost of Overhauser available in market.

  19. The low cost Proton Precession Magnetometer developed at the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, P.; Singh, S.; Labde, S.; Dongre, V.; Patil, A.

    2017-05-01

    Proton magnetometers are the oldest scalar magnetometers. The first commercial units were produced in early 1960s as portable instruments. In continuation airborne instruments appeared with optimized speed of readings and sensitivity, large sensors etc. Later development of Overhauser and optically pumped magnetometers has eliminated Proton magnetometers from airborne surveys. However they remain very popular in various ground surveys and observatories. With this primary purpose of generating the ground based magnetic data, the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG) for the last 3 decades have been developing low cost Proton Precession Magnetometers (PPM). Beginning with the 1 nT PPM which has undergone several changes in design, the successor PM7 the advanced version has been successfully developed by the institute and is installed at various observatories of the institute. PM7 records the total field `F' with accuracy of 0.1 nT and a sampling rate of 10 seconds/sample. This article briefly discusses the design and development of this IIG make PM7 and compares the data recorded by this instrument with one of the commercially available Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The quality of data recorded by PM7 is in excellent agreement with the Overhauser. With the available quality of data generated by this instrument, PM7 is an affordable PPM for scientific institutions, schools and colleges intending to carry out geomagnetic studies. The commercial cost of PM7 is ≈ 20% of the cost of Overhauser available in market.

  20. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of βp = -52° ± 6° and βs = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  1. Factors influencing fast low angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmakumar, Rohan; Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Li Debiao

    2007-01-01

    The presence of susceptibility-shifting media can lead to signal voids in magnetic resonance images. While signal voids have been traditionally used to detect such magnetic perturbers, selective magnetic resonance imaging of off-resonant spins surrounding susceptibility-shifted media allows for them to be visualized as hyper-intense (positive contrast) regions. These positive contrast methods can potentially improve the detection conspicuity of magnetic perturbers against regions that appear dark due to the absence of protons, such as air. Recently, a fast low angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) technique has been proposed as a positive contrast imaging method. This work systematically evaluates the contrast characteristics and acquisition strategies of FLAPS-based imaging from the standpoint of imaging parameters and physical properties of the magnetic perturbers. Results show that scan parameters (T R , flip angle, B 0 ), physical properties of the perturber (size and concentration of shift reagent) and the ratio of the relaxation constants (T 1 /T 2 ) of the medium are significant factors influencing the FLAPS-based positive contrast

  2. Universal crystal cooling device for precession cameras, rotation cameras and diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, J.; McLaughlin, P.J.; Helliwell, J.R.; Sheldon, J.; Thompson, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A versatile crystal cooling device is described for macromolecular crystallographic applications in the 290 to 80 K temperature range. It utilizes a fluctuation-free cold-nitrogen-gas supply, an insulated Mylar crystal cooling chamber and a universal ball joint, which connects the cooling chamber to the goniometer head and the crystal. The ball joint is a novel feature over all previous designs. As a result, the device can be used on various rotation cameras, precession cameras and diffractometers. The lubrication of the interconnecting parts with graphite allows the cooling chamber to remain stationary while the crystal and goniometer rotate. The construction allows for 360 0 rotation of the crystal around the goniometer axis and permits any settings on the arcs and slides of the goniometer head (even if working at 80 K). There are no blind regions associated with the frame holding the chamber. Alternatively, the interconnecting ball joint can be tightened and fixed. This results in a set up similar to the construction described by Bartunik and Schubert where the cooling chamber rotates with the crystal. The flexibility of the systems allows for the use of the device on most cameras or diffractometers. THis device has been installed at the protein crystallographic stations of the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory and in the Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Oxford. Several data sets have been collected with processing statistics typical of data collected without a cooling chamber. Tests using the full white beam of the synchrotron also look promising. (orig./BHO)

  3. Steady-state free precession with myocardial tagging: CSPAMM in a single breathhold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Kuijer, Joost P A; Marcus, J Tim; Heethaar, Robert M

    2003-04-01

    A method is presented that combines steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine imaging with myocardial tagging. Before the tagging preparation at each ECG-R wave, the steady-state magnetization is stored as longitudinal magnetization by an alpha/2 flip-back pulse. Imaging is continued immediately after tagging preparation, using linearly increasing startup angles (LISA) with a rampup over 10 pulses. Interleaved segmented k-space ordering is used to prevent artifacts from the increasing signal during the LISA rampup. First, this LISA-SSFP method was evaluated regarding ghost artifacts from the steady-state interruption by comparing LISA with an alpha/2 startup method. Next, LISA-SSFP was compared with spoiled gradient echo (SGRE) imaging, regarding tag contrast-to-noise ratio and tag persistence. The measurements were performed in phantoms and in six subjects applying breathhold cine imaging with tagging (temporal resolution 51 ms). The results show that ghost artifacts are negligible for the LISA method. Compared to the SGRE reference, LISA-SSFP was two times faster, with a slightly better tag contrast-to-noise. Additionally, the tags persisted 126 ms longer with LISA-SSFP than with SGRE imaging. The high efficiency of LISA-SSFP enables the acquisition of complementary tagged (CSPAMM) images in a single breathhold. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. New Antarctic Gravity Anomaly Grid for Enhanced Geodetic and Geophysical Studies in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinert, M; Ferraccioli, F; Schwabe, J; Bell, R; Studinger, M; Damaske, D; Jokat, W; Aleshkova, N; Jordan, T; Leitchenkov, G; Blankenship, D D; Damiani, T M; Young, D; Cochran, J R; Richter, T D

    2016-01-28

    Gravity surveying is challenging in Antarctica because of its hostile environment and inaccessibility. Nevertheless, many ground-based, airborne and shipborne gravity campaigns have been completed by the geophysical and geodetic communities since the 1980s. We present the first modern Antarctic-wide gravity data compilation derived from 13 million data points covering an area of 10 million km 2 , which corresponds to 73% coverage of the continent. The remove-compute-restore technique was applied for gridding, which facilitated levelling of the different gravity datasets with respect to an Earth Gravity Model derived from satellite data alone. The resulting free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly grids of 10 km resolution are publicly available. These grids will enable new high-resolution combined Earth Gravity Models to be derived and represent a major step forward towards solving the geodetic polar data gap problem. They provide a new tool to investigate continental-scale lithospheric structure and geological evolution of Antarctica.

  5. Monitoring Coral Growth - the Dichotomy Between Underwater Photogrammetry and Geodetic Control Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, F.; Nocerino, E.; Gruen, A.

    2018-05-01

    Creating 3-dimensional (3D) models of underwater scenes has become a common approach for monitoring coral reef changes and its structural complexity. Also in underwater archeology, 3D models are often created using underwater optical imagery. In this paper, we focus on the aspect of detecting small changes in the coral reef using a multi-temporal photogrammetric modelling approach, which requires a high quality control network. We show that the quality of a good geodetic network limits the direct change detection, i.e., without any further registration process. As the photogrammetric accuracy is expected to exceed the geodetic network accuracy by at least one order of magnitude, we suggest to do a fine registration based on a number of signalized points. This work is part of the Moorea Island Digital Ecosystem Avatar (IDEA) project that has been initiated in 2013 by a group of international researchers (https://mooreaidea.ethz.ch/).

  6. LDV survey of cavitation and resonance effect on the precessing vortex rope dynamics in the draft tube of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    The large-scale penetration of the electrical grid by intermittent renewable energy sources requires a continuous operating range extension of hydropower plants. This causes the formation of unfavourable flow patterns in the draft tube of turbines and pump-turbines. At partial load operation, a precessing cavitation vortex rope is formed at the Francis turbine runner outlet, acting as an excitation source for the hydraulic system. In case of resonance, the resulting high-amplitude pressure pulsations can put at risk the stability of the machine and of the electrical grid to which it is connected. It is therefore crucial to understand and accurately simulate the underlying physical mechanisms in such conditions. However, the exact impact of cavitation and hydro-acoustic resonance on the flow velocity fluctuations in the draft tube remains to be established. The flow discharge pulsations expected to occur in the draft tube in resonance conditions have for instance never been verified experimentally. In this study, two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry is used to investigate the axial and tangential velocity fluctuations at the runner outlet of a reduced scale physical model of a Francis turbine. The investigation is performed for a discharge equal to 64 % of the nominal value and three different pressure levels in the draft tube, including resonance and cavitation-free conditions. Based on the convective pressure fluctuations induced by the vortex precession, the periodical velocity fluctuations over one typical precession period are recovered by phase averaging. The impact of cavitation and hydro-acoustic resonance on both axial and tangential velocity fluctuations in terms of amplitude and phase shift is highlighted for the first time. It is shown that the occurrence of resonance does not have significant effects on the draft tube velocity fields, suggesting that the synchronous axial velocity fluctuations are surprisingly negligible compared to the velocity

  7. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Geodetic Vertical Datum of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, A. H. M.; Abazu, I. C.; Pa'suya, M. F.; Omar, K. M.; Hamid, A. I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise is rapidly turning into major issues among our community and all levels of the government are working to develop responses to ensure these matters are given the uttermost attention in all facets of planning. It is more interesting to understand and investigate the present day sea level variation due its potential impact, particularly on our national geodetic vertical datum. To determine present day sea level variation, it is vital to consider both in-situ tide gauge and remote sensing measurements. This study presents an effort to quantify the sea level rise rate and magnitude over Peninsular Malaysia using tide gauge and multi-mission satellite altimeter. The time periods taken for both techniques are 32 years (from 1984 to 2015) for tidal data and 23 years (from 1993 to 2015) for altimetry data. Subsequently, the impact of sea level rise on Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum (PMGVD) is evaluated in this study. the difference between MSL computed from 10 years (1984 - 1993) and 32 years (1984 - 2015) tidal data at Port Kelang showed that the increment of sea level is about 27mm. The computed magnitude showed an estimate of the long-term effect a change in MSL has on the geodetic vertical datum of Port Kelang tide gauge station. This will help give a new insight on the establishment of national geodetic vertical datum based on mean sea level data. Besides, this information can be used for a wide variety of climatic applications to study environmental issues related to flood and global warming in Malaysia.

  8. Seismic and Geodetic Monitoring of the Nicoya, Costa Rica, Seismic Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Schwartz, S.; Dixon, T.; Kato, T.; Kaneda, Y.; Simila, G.; Sampson, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicoya segment of the Middle America Trench has been recognized as a mature seismic gap with potential to generate a large earthquake in the near future (it ruptured with large earthquakes in 1853, 1900 and 1950). Low level of background seismicity and fast crustal deformation of the forearc are indicatives of strong coupling along the plate interface. Given its high seismic potential, the available data and especially the fact that the Nicoya peninsula extends over large part of the rupture area, this gap was selected as one of the two sites for a MARGINS-SEIZE experiment. With the goal of documenting the evolution of loading and stress release along this seismic gap, an international effort involving several institutions from Costa Rica, the United States and Japan is being carried out for over a decade in the region. This effort involves the installation of temporary and permanent seismic and geodetic networks. The seismic network includes short period, broad band and strong motion instruments. The seismic monitoring has provided valuable information on the geometry and characteristics of the plate interface. The geodetic network includes temporary and permanent GPS stations as well as surface and borehole tiltmeters. The geodetic networks have helped quantify the extend and degree of coupling. A continuously recording, three- station GPS network on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, recorded what we believe is the first slow slip event observed along the plate interface of the Costa Rica subduction zone. We will present results from these monitoring networks. Collaborative international efforts are focused on expanding these seismic and geodetic networks to provide improved resolution of future creep events, to enhanced understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Nicoya subduction segment of the Middle American Trench and possibly capture the next large earthquake and its potential precursor deformation.

  9. THE IMPACT OF SEA LEVEL RISE ON GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Din

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise is rapidly turning into major issues among our community and all levels of the government are working to develop responses to ensure these matters are given the uttermost attention in all facets of planning. It is more interesting to understand and investigate the present day sea level variation due its potential impact, particularly on our national geodetic vertical datum. To determine present day sea level variation, it is vital to consider both in-situ tide gauge and remote sensing measurements. This study presents an effort to quantify the sea level rise rate and magnitude over Peninsular Malaysia using tide gauge and multi-mission satellite altimeter. The time periods taken for both techniques are 32 years (from 1984 to 2015 for tidal data and 23 years (from 1993 to 2015 for altimetry data. Subsequently, the impact of sea level rise on Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum (PMGVD is evaluated in this study. the difference between MSL computed from 10 years (1984 – 1993 and 32 years (1984 – 2015 tidal data at Port Kelang showed that the increment of sea level is about 27mm. The computed magnitude showed an estimate of the long-term effect a change in MSL has on the geodetic vertical datum of Port Kelang tide gauge station. This will help give a new insight on the establishment of national geodetic vertical datum based on mean sea level data. Besides, this information can be used for a wide variety of climatic applications to study environmental issues related to flood and global warming in Malaysia.

  10. Geodetic Slip Solution for the Mw=7.4 Champerico (Guatemala) Earthquake of 07 November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A. P.; DeMets, C.; Briole, P.; Molina, E.; Flores, O.; Rivera, J.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Lord, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    As the first large subduction thrust earthquake off the coast of western Guatemala in the past several decades, the 07 November 2012 Mw=7.4 earthquake offers the first opportunity for a geodetic study of coseismic and postseismic behavior for a segment of the Middle America trench where frictional coupling makes a transition from weak coupling off the coast of El Salvador to strong coupling in southern Mexico. We use measurements at 19 continuous GPS sites in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico to estimate the coseismic slip and post-seismic deformation of the November 2012 Champerico (Guatemala) earthquake. Coseismic offsets range from ~47 mm near the epicenter to El Salvador. An inversion of the geodetic data indicate that that up to ~2 m of coseismic slip occurred on a ~30 km by 30 km rupture area between ~10 and 30 km depth, encouragingly close to the global CMT epicenter. The geodetic moment of 13 x 1019 N·m and corresponding magnitude of 7.4 both agree well with independent seismological estimates. An inversion for the postseismic fault afterslip shows that the transient postseismic motions recorded at 11 GPS sites are well fit with a logarithmically decaying function. More than 70 per cent of the postseismic slip occurred at the same depth or directly downdip from the main shock epicenter. At the upper limit, afterslip that occurred within 6 months of the earthquake released energy equivalent to only ~20 per cent of the coseismic moment. The seismologically derived slip solution from Ye et al. (2012), which features more highly concentrated slip than our own, fits our GPS offsets reasonably well provided that we translate their slip centroid ~51 km to the west to a position close to our own slip centroid. The geodetic and seismologic slip solutions thus suggest bounds of 2-5 m for the peak slip along a region of the interface no larger than 30 x 30 km and possibly much smaller.

  11. Non magnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitter and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Kawai, T.; Akiyoshi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Achiwa, N.; Hino, M.; Otake, Y.; Funahashi, H.

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed cold neutron optics and interferometry using multilayer mirrors. The advantages of the multilayer mirrors are their applicability to long wavelength neutrons and a great variety of the mirror performance. The idea of the present spin interferometry is based on nonmagnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters. The equation for polarized neutrons means that the polarized neutrons are equivalent to the coherent superposition of two parallel spin eigenstates. The structure and principle of a multilayer spin splitter are explained, and the nonmagnetic gap layer of the multilayer spin splitter gives rise to neutron spin quantum precession. The performance test of the multilayer spin splitter were made with a new spin interferometer, which is analogous optically to a spin echo system with vertical precession field. The spin interferometers were installed at Kyoto University research reactor and the JRR-3. The testing method and the results are reported. The performance tests on a new phase-spin echo interferometer are described, and its applications to the development of a high resolution spin echo system and a Jamin type cold neutron interferometer are proposed. (K.I.)

  12. Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgiorno, F., E-mail: francesco.belgiorno@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L., E-mail: sergio.cacciatori@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, F., E-mail: f.dallapiazza@gmail.com [Università “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, M., E-mail: m.doronzo@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.

  13. Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Ryotaro; Minamitsuji, Masato; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    We study relativistic star solutions in second-order generalized Proca theories characterized by a U (1 )-breaking vector field with derivative couplings. In the models with cubic and quartic derivative coupling, the mass and radius of stars become larger than those in general relativity for negative derivative coupling constants. This phenomenon is mostly attributed to the increase of star radius induced by a slower decrease of the matter pressure compared to general relativity. There is a tendency that the relativistic star with a smaller mass is not gravitationally bound for a low central density and hence is dynamically unstable, but that with a larger mass is gravitationally bound. On the other hand, we show that the intrinsic vector-mode couplings give rise to general relativistic solutions with a trivial field profile, so the mass and radius are not modified from those in general relativity.

  14. Spinning relativistic particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeranskii, Andrei A; Sen'kov, Roman A; Khriplovich, Iosif B

    2000-01-01

    The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars. (from the current literature)

  15. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelskii, I. I., E-mail: metelski@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalev, V. F., E-mail: vfkvvfkv@gmail.com [Dukhov All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V. Yu., E-mail: bychenk@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  16. Theory of relativistic radiation reflection from plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonoskov, Arkady

    2018-01-01

    We consider the reflection of relativistically strong radiation from plasma and identify the physical origin of the electrons' tendency to form a thin sheet, which maintains its localisation throughout its motion. Thereby, we justify the principle of relativistic electronic spring (RES) proposed in [Gonoskov et al., Phys. Rev. E 84, 046403 (2011)]. Using the RES principle, we derive a closed set of differential equations that describe the reflection of radiation with arbitrary variation of polarization and intensity from plasma with an arbitrary density profile for an arbitrary angle of incidence. We confirm with ab initio PIC simulations that the developed theory accurately describes laser-plasma interactions in the regime where the reflection of relativistically strong radiation is accompanied by significant, repeated relocation of plasma electrons. In particular, the theory can be applied for the studies of plasma heating and coherent and incoherent emissions in the RES regime of high-intensity laser-plasma interaction.

  17. Relativistic transport theory for cosmic-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the transport of cosmic-rays in a relativistically moving magnetized plasma supporting a spectrum of hydromagnetic waves that scatter the cosmic-rays are presented. A local Lorentz frame moving with the waves or turbulence scattering the cosmic-rays is used to specify the individual particle momentum. The comoving frame is in general a noninertial frame in which the observer's volume element is expanding and shearing, geometric energy change terms appear in the cosmic-ray transport equation which consist of the relativistic generalization of the adiabatic deceleration term and a further term involving the acceleration vector of the scatterers. A relativistic version of the pitch angle evolution equation, including the effects of adiabatic focussing, pitch angle scattering, and energy changes is presented

  18. Relativistic Calculations for Be-like Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianhui; Zhang Jianping; Li Ping; Li Huili

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic configuration interaction calculations for the states of 1s 2 2s 2 , 1s 2 2s3l (l = s,p,d) and 1s 2 2p3l (l = s,p,d) configurations of iron are carried out using relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) and multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method in the active interaction approach. In the present calculation, a large-scale configuration expansion was used in describing the target states. These results are extensively compared with other available calculative and experimental and observed values, the corresponding present results are in good agreement with experimental and observed values, and some differences are found with other available calculative values. Because more relativistic effects are considered than before, the present results should be more accurate and reliable

  19. Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng

    2018-04-01

    Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.

  20. Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1990-09-01

    We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs