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Sample records for relative standard chemical

  1. Proposed minimum reporting standards for chemical analysis Chemical Analysis Working Group (CAWG) Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Alexander; Barrett, Dave; Beale, Michael H.; Beger, Richard; Daykin, Clare A.; Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Fiehn, Oliver; Goodacre, Royston; Griffin, Julian L.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Hardy, Nigel; Harnly, James; Higashi, Richard; Kopka, Joachim; Lane, Andrew N.; Lindon, John C.; Marriott, Philip; Nicholls, Andrew W.; Reily, Michael D.; Thaden, John J.; Viant, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that supports the need for standardized reporting of metadata or information describing large-scale metabolomics and other functional genomics data sets. Reporting of standard metadata provides a biological and empirical context for the data, facilitates experimental replication, and enables the re-interrogation and comparison of data by others. Accordingly, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative is building a general consensus concerning the minimum reporting standards for metabolomics experiments of which the Chemical Analysis Working Group (CAWG) is a member of this community effort. This article proposes the minimum reporting standards related to the chemical analysis aspects of metabolomics experiments including: sample preparation, experimental analysis, quality control, metabolite identification, and data pre-processing. These minimum standards currently focus mostly upon mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy due to the popularity of these techniques in metabolomics. However, additional input concerning other techniques is welcomed and can be provided via the CAWG on-line discussion forum at http://msi-workgroups.sourceforge.net/ or http://Msi-workgroups-feedback@lists.sourceforge.net. Further, community input related to this document can also be provided via this electronic forum. PMID:24039616

  2. Energetic materials standardsChemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  3. Standardized chemical synthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Cheluvappa

    2014-01-01

    As we have extracted pyocyanin both from P. aeruginosa cultures, and via chemical synthesis; we know the procedural and product-quality differences. We endorse the relative ease, safety, and convenience of using the chemical synthesis described here. Crucially, our “naturally endotoxin-free” pyocyanin can be extracted easily without using infectious bacteria.

  4. Informing Workers of Chemical Hazards: The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Practical information on how to implement a chemical-related safety program is outlined in this publication. Highlights of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard are presented and explained. These include: (1) hazard communication requirements (consisting of warning labels, material safety…

  5. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  6. 77 FR 74685 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and...: Comments that include trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism...

  7. 78 FR 16698 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical-Terrorism Vulnerability Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0057] Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) Chemical- Terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI) AGENCY: National Protection and... notice is also soliciting comments concerning the Information Collection Request, Chemical Facility Anti...

  8. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral or fungal infection, tendency to keloid formation, facial dermatitis, taking photosensitizing medications and unrealistic expectations. Physicians′ qualifications : The physician performing chemical peeling should have completed postgraduate training in dermatology. The training for chemical peeling may be acquired during post graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in cutaneous surgery or in focused workshops providing such training. The physician should have adequate knowledge of the different peeling agents used, the process of wound healing, the technique as well as the identification and management of complications. Facility : Chemical peeling can be performed safely in any clinic/outpatient day care dermatosurgical facility. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent : A detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and should clearly mention if more procedures are needed for proper results. The patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, presentations, and personal discussions. The need for postoperative medical therapy should be emphasized. Superficial peels are considered safe in Indian patients. Medium depth peels should be performed with great caution, especially in dark skinned patients. Deep peels are not recommended for

  9. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then, a randomization test as well as chemical-chemical interaction and chemical structure information were utilized to make further selections. A final analysis of these new chemicals in the context of the current literature indicates that several chemicals are strongly linked to lung cancer.

  10. Chemical aspects of rubidium uranium sulphate for its use as a chemical standard for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Khandekar, R.R.; Krishnan, K.; Jayadevan, N.C.; Sood, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Rb 2 U(SO 4 ) 3 , a double sulphate of rubidium and uranium(IV) has been prepared and investigated for its use as a chemical standard for uranium. The compound can be easily prepared and crystallised in a pure form. The results of physico-chemical characterisation on preparation of 5-10 g. lots are described in this report. These studies suggest that the compound is anhydrous, stoichiometric, stable to atmospheric effects and easily soluble in acids and thus satisfies most of the criteria for a primary standard. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  12. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  13. Wound Healing Activity and Chemical Standardization of Eugenia pruniformis Cambess

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo; Perini, Jamila Alessandra; Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Angeli-Gamba, Thaís; Esteves, Ricardo dos Santos; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Oliveira, Adriana Passos; Rocha, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eugenia pruniformis is an endemic species from Brazil. Eugenia genus has flavonoids as one of the remarkable chemical classes which are related to the improvement of the healing process. Aims: To evaluate of wound healing activity of E. pruniformis leaves and to identify and quantify its main flavonoids compounds. Materials And Methods: Wound excision model in rats was used to verify the hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts potential. The animals were divided in four groups of six and the samples were evaluated until the 15° day of treatment. Hydroxyproline dosage and histological staining with hematoxilin-eosin and Sirius Red were used to observe the tissue organization and quantify the collagen deposition, respectively. Chemical compounds of the ethyl acetate extract were identified by chromatographic techniques and mass spectrometry analysis and total flavonoids content was determined by spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant activity was determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate radical photometric (DPPH) assays. Results: The treated group with the ethyl acetate extract showed collagen deposition increase, higher levels of hidroxyproline, better tissue reorganization and complete remodeling of epidermis. Quercetin, kaempferol and hyperoside were identified as main compounds and flavonoids content value was 43% (w/w). The ORAC value of the ethyl acetate extract was 0.81± 0.05 mmol TE/g whereas the concentration to produce 50% reduction of the DPPH was 7.05± 0.09 μg/mL. Conclusion: The data indicate a wound healing and antioxidant activities of E. pruniformis. This study is the first report of flavonoids and wound healing activity of E. pruniformis. KEY MESSAGES Eugenia pruniformis extract accelerates wound healing in skin rat model, probably due to its involvement with the collagen deposition increase, higher levels of hidroxyproline, dermal remodelling and potent antioxidant activity

  14. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  15. Towards standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcubierre, Miguel; Allen, Gabrielle; Bona, Carles; Fiske, David; Goodale, Tom; Guzman, F Siddhartha; Hawke, Ian; Hawley, Scott H; Husa, Sascha; Koppitz, Michael; Lechner, Christiane; Pollney, Denis; Rideout, David; Salgado, Marcelo; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Edward; Shinkai, Hisa-aki; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Szilagyi, Bela; Takahashi, Ryoji; Winicour, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many different numerical evolution schemes for Einstein's equations have been proposed to address stability and accuracy problems that have plagued the numerical relativity community for decades. Some of these approaches have been tested on different spacetimes, and conclusions have been drawn based on these tests. However, differences in results originate from many sources, including not only formulations of the equations, but also gauges, boundary conditions, numerical methods and so on. We propose to build up a suite of standardized testbeds for comparing approaches to the numerical evolution of Einstein's equations that are designed to both probe their strengths and weaknesses and to separate out different effects, and their causes, seen in the results. We discuss general design principles of suitable testbeds, and we present an initial round of simple tests with periodic boundary conditions. This is a pivotal first step towards building a suite of testbeds to serve the numerical relativists and researchers from related fields who wish to assess the capabilities of numerical relativity codes. We present some examples of how these tests can be quite effective in revealing various limitations of different approaches, and illustrating their differences. The tests are presently limited to vacuum spacetimes, can be run on modest computational resources and can be used with many different approaches used in the relativity community

  16. Towards standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcubierre, Miguel [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Allen, Gabrielle; Goodale, Tom; Guzman, F Siddhartha; Hawke, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Koppitz, Michael; Lechner, Christiane; Pollney, Denis; Rideout, David [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Bona, Carles [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra de Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Fiske, David [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Hawley, Scott H [Center for Relativity, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Salgado, Marcelo [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Schnetter, Erik [Inst. fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Seidel, Edward [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Inst., 14476 Golm (Germany); Shinkai, Hisa-aki [Computational Science Div., Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shoemaker, Deirdre [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Szilagyi, Bela [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Takahashi, Ryoji [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, (Denmark); Winicour, Jeff [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-01-21

    In recent years, many different numerical evolution schemes for Einstein's equations have been proposed to address stability and accuracy problems that have plagued the numerical relativity community for decades. Some of these approaches have been tested on different spacetimes, and conclusions have been drawn based on these tests. However, differences in results originate from many sources, including not only formulations of the equations, but also gauges, boundary conditions, numerical methods and so on. We propose to build up a suite of standardized testbeds for comparing approaches to the numerical evolution of Einstein's equations that are designed to both probe their strengths and weaknesses and to separate out different effects, and their causes, seen in the results. We discuss general design principles of suitable testbeds, and we present an initial round of simple tests with periodic boundary conditions. This is a pivotal first step towards building a suite of testbeds to serve the numerical relativists and researchers from related fields who wish to assess the capabilities of numerical relativity codes. We present some examples of how these tests can be quite effective in revealing various limitations of different approaches, and illustrating their differences. The tests are presently limited to vacuum spacetimes, can be run on modest computational resources and can be used with many different approaches used in the relativity community.

  17. Wound healing activity and chemical standardization of Eugenia pruniformis Cambess

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo de Albuquerque; Jamila Alessandra Perini; Daniel Escorsim Machado; Thaís Angeli-Gamba; Ricardo dos Santos Esteves; Marcelo Guerra Santos; Adriana Passos Oliveira; Leandro Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eugenia pruniformis is an endemic species from Brazil. Eugenia genus has flavonoids as one of the remarkable chemical classes which are related to the improvement of the healing process. Aims: To evaluate of wound healing activity of E. pruniformis leaves and to identify and quantify its main flavonoids compounds. Materials And Methods: Wound excision model in rats was used to verify the hydroethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts potential. The animals were divided in four groups o...

  18. Bioremediation performance as related to chemical availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.; Olivera, F.; Webster, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two side-by-side field prepared bed land treatment units (PBLTU) were evaluated. One PBLTU (H unit) treated soils containing chemicals from a diesel spill that had occurred about 12 months earlier. The other PBLTU (G unit) treated soils containing crude oil that had been in the soil for many decades. Laboratory slurry treatability studies and indicated that the hydrocarbons in both soils could be bioremediated if adequate nutrients were provided. The PBLTU had nutrients applied periodically, and were operated in a manner consistent with good operational guidelines. PBLTU performance was based on reductions in mobility, toxicity, and chemical concentration. Spatially random soil samples were taken from the two field PBLTU monthly and analyzed for the above parameters as well as nutrients and pH. Periodically, microbial numbers and type in the soil samples also were evaluated. Performance was monitored over an 18 month period. In the H unit, no detectable TPH reductions occurred although petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms existed in the soil and other conditions were appropriate for bioremediation. GC/MS analyses indicated reduction in some specific hydrocarbons. The H unit soils had low chemical mobility as determined by leachability tests (TCLP, SPLP) and had low relative toxicity as determined by Microtox trademark

  19. 75 FR 18850 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Directorate; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program AGENCY: National Protection...-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), Sensitive Security Information (SSI), or Protected Critical... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Program Description The Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), 6 CFR...

  20. Chemical-induced disease relation extraction with various linguistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinghang; Qian, Longhua; Zhou, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relations between chemicals and diseases is crucial in various biomedical tasks such as new drug discoveries and new therapy developments. While manually mining these relations from the biomedical literature is costly and time-consuming, such a procedure is often difficult to keep up-to-date. To address these issues, the BioCreative-V community proposed a challenging task of automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease (CID) relations in order to benefit biocuration. This article describes our work on the CID relation extraction task on the BioCreative-V tasks. We built a machine learning based system that utilized simple yet effective linguistic features to extract relations with maximum entropy models. In addition to leveraging various features, the hypernym relations between entity concepts derived from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-controlled vocabulary were also employed during both training and testing stages to obtain more accurate classification models and better extraction performance, respectively. We demoted relation extraction between entities in documents to relation extraction between entity mentions. In our system, pairs of chemical and disease mentions at both intra- and inter-sentence levels were first constructed as relation instances for training and testing, then two classification models at both levels were trained from the training examples and applied to the testing examples. Finally, we merged the classification results from mention level to document level to acquire final relations between chemicals and diseases. Our system achieved promisingF-scores of 60.4% on the development dataset and 58.3% on the test dataset using gold-standard entity annotations, respectively. Database URL:https://github.com/JHnlp/BC5CIDTask. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. How to tackle chemical communication? Relative proportions versus semiquantitative determination of compounds in lizard chemical secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Roa, Roberto; Sáiz, Jorge; Gómara, Belén; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about chemical communication in some vertebrates is still relatively limited. Squamates are a glaring example of this, even when recent evidences indicate that scents are involved in social and sexual interactions. In lizards, where our understanding of chemical communication has considerably progressed in the last few years, many questions about chemical interactions remain unanswered. A potential reason for this is the inherent complexity and technical limitations that some methodologies embody when analyzing the compounds used to convey information. We provide here a straightforward procedure to analyze lizard chemical secretions based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that uses an internal standard for the semiquantification of compounds. We compare the results of this method with those obtained by the traditional procedure of calculating relative proportions of compounds. For such purpose, we designed two experiments to investigate if these procedures allowed revealing changes in chemical secretions 1) when lizards received previously a vitamin dietary supplementation or 2) when the chemical secretions were exposed to high temperatures. Our results show that the procedure based on relative proportions is useful to describe the overall chemical profile, or changes in it, at population or species levels. On the other hand, the use of the procedure based on semiquantitative determination can be applied when the target of study is the variation in one or more particular compounds of the sample, as it has proved more accurate detecting quantitative variations in the secretions. This method would reveal new aspects produced by, for example, the effects of different physiological and climatic factors that the traditional method does not show.

  2. Standard definitions of terms relating to dosimetry - approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions are presented for terms related to radiation dosimetry. These definitions are the same as, or similar to, those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) as presented in the National Bureau of Sandards Handbook 62, but attempt has been made to define some of the terms more exactly

  3. Standards for Educational Public Relations and Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Marsha A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)

  4. STANDARD CALCULATION PER PRODUCT IN THE CHEMICAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research is to present a way of organising the managerial accounting of totally and semi finished product obtained in chemical fertilizer industry entities. For this study, we analyzed the current principle of managerial accounting to an entity in the studied area, in order to emphasize the need of organizing and implementing a modern accounting management to control the cost and increase the performance of the entities in this area, starting from the premise that there are sufficient similarities between entities in the field. Research carried out has revealed that currently, the costing is organized in terms of using traditional methods and that it is necessary to organize and implement an accounting management based on the use of modern methods, namely the method of standard costs combined with the method of centres of costs. The major implications of the proposed system for the investigated field consist of determining a relevant cost-oriented management entity, highlighting the shortcomings of traditional methods of cost

  5. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory... using hazardous chemicals; hazard-control techniques; equipment- reliability measures; worker... burden (time and costs) of the information collection requirements, including the validity of the...

  6. Morphonological Description of Relative Morphemes in Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical framework that has been used in this analysis is Generative Phonology as stipulated by Chomsky and Halle in their book called Sound Pattern of English (SPE) of 1968. I have considered that relative morpheme forms are the result of two different formatives, which are O- of reference (O-ref.) and the Subject ...

  7. Implementation of standard testbeds for numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, M C [Department of Physics and Physical Science, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Husa, S [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Alic, D [Department of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinder, I [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lechner, C [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics (WIAS), Mohrenstrasse 39, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schnetter, E [Center for Computation and Technology, 216 Johnston Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Szilagyi, B; Dorband, N; Pollney, D; Winicour, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, 14076 Golm (Germany); Zlochower, Y [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2008-06-21

    We discuss results that have been obtained from the implementation of the initial round of testbeds for numerical relativity which was proposed in the first paper of the Apples with Apples Alliance. We present benchmark results for various codes which provide templates for analyzing the testbeds and to draw conclusions about various features of the codes. This allows us to sharpen the initial test specifications, design a new test and add theoretical insight.

  8. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodgson, Ernest; Brimfield, Alan A; Goldstein, Joyce E; Rose, Randy L; Wallace, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    .... The metabolism of chlorpyrifos, DEET, permethrin, pyridostigmine bromide, sulfur mustard, naphthalene and nonane as well as a number of their metabolites and related chemicals was investigated...

  9. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodgson, Ernest

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the human-metabolism and metabolic interactions of a subset of deployment-related chemicals, including chlorpyrifos, DEET, permethrin, pyridostigmine bromide, and sulfur mustard metabolites...

  10. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting

  11. 75 FR 2445 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... include trade secrets, confidential commercial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information... and submit an online data collection (the Top-Screen) to DHS. The Department uses the facility's Top... required to submit Top-Screens. See 72 FR 65397-65398. \\2\\ Among other things, the November 2007 rule...

  12. 78 FR 16692 - Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability... from other comments in response to this notice. Comments containing trade secrets, confidential... Burden Cost (operating/maintaining): $3,977. Instrument: Notification of a New Top Screen. Frequency: On...

  13. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the

  14. Measurement standards and the general problem of reference points in chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.; Dube, G.

    2002-01-01

    Besides the measurement standards available in general metrology in the form of the realisations of the units of measurement, measurement standards of chemical composition are needed for the vast field of chemical measurement (measurements of the chemical composition), because it is the main aim of such measurements to quantify non-isolated substances, often in complicated matrices, to which the 'classical' measurement standards and their lower- level derivatives are not directly applicable. At present, material artefacts as well as standard measurement devices serve as chemical measurement standards. These are measurement standards in the full metrological sense only, however, if they are firmly linked to the SI unit in which the composition represented by the standard is expressed. This requirement has the consequence that only a very restricted number of really reliable chemical measurement standards exist at present. Since it is very difficult and time consuming to increase this number substantially and, on the other hand, reliable reference points are increasingly needed for all kinds of chemical measurements, primary methods of measurement and high-level reference measurements will play an increasingly important role for the establishment of worldwide comparability and hence mutual acceptance of chemical measurement results. (author)

  15. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  16. 21 CFR 1300.02 - Definitions relating to listed chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions relating to listed chemicals. 1300.02 Section 1300.02 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEFINITIONS § 1300.02 Definitions relating to listed chemicals. (a) Any term not defined in this part shall have the...

  17. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  18. Standards for chemical or NDA measurements for nuclear safeguards: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of various materials from all parts of the fuel cycle are required to be traceable to a national measurement system, primarily through standards. The availability of the standards is discussed, for nondestructive as well as destructive chemical analysis. Needs for improved standards (reference materials) and lowered uncertainty are discussed

  19. Comparisons of ANSI standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANSI standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  20. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  1. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  2. The direct measurement of the heteronuclear chemical shifts relative to tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, A.G.

    1988-12-01

    The measurement of heteronuclear chemical shifts using absolute frequencies of the heteronucleus and the 1 H resonance of tetramethylsilane has been examined. This method avoids the problems associated with external standards and gives results which can be obtained quickly and with high precision. The method has a number of advantages in the accurate measurement of chemical shifts, as for example 31 P in chemical warfare agents and related chemicals and allows multinuclear data to be obtained without dynamic range or potential interference problems. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.

  4. Relative Configuration of Natural Products Using NMR Chemical Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    By comparing calculated with experimental NMR chemical shifts, we were able to determine the relative configurations of three monoterpene diastereomers produced by the walkingstick Anisomorpha buprestoides. The combined RMSDs of both 1H and 13C quantum chemically calculated shifts were able to predi...

  5. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) chemical identification codes (NODC Accession 9200273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package contains a listing of codes and chemical names that were used in NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144)...

  6. Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP): 1990 Standard Extract Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1990 Standard Extract Files portion of the Archive of Census Related Products (ACRP) contains population and housing data derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's...

  7. Radiological and related Chemical Health Impact Assessments of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    concentrations obtained and the relation from United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the chemical ... radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay .... Using Equation 2, the elemental concentrations in pipe.

  8. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I.; Good, Benjamin M.; Su, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505 F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available at https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex Database URL: https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex PMID:27087308

  9. Present status of standards relating to radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kentaro

    1996-01-01

    Japanese and international standards related to radiation control and radiation protective management are presented focusing on the forming condition, significance, current situation, and their relationship. Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) is quite useful in the field of atomic energy as well as other fields in terms of optimization and rationalization of the management. JIS includes JIS Z 4001 Atomic Energy Terminology which corresponds to internationl standards ISO 921 Nuclear Glossary, and JIS Z 4005 Medical Radiation Terminology, covering about 500 articles, which corresponds to IEC 788 Medical Radiology-Terminology. The first standards regarding radiation protection was established in X-ray Film Badge, which is included in the field of personal dosimeter, in 1956. Currently, 36 JIS has been established in the field of radiation management dosimeter and 3 are under arrangement. As for radiation protective supplies, 9 JIS has been established so far. Before proposal of JIS, investigation had been conducted to improve, simplify, and standardize the standards of radiation dosimetric technique, dosimeters, dosimetric procedures, and improvement. In this article, the results of material surface contamination monitoring and body surface monitoring conducted in Atomic Energy Safety Association and Radiation Dosimetry Associationare reported, and ISO and IEC are also treated. (S.Y.)

  10. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with Respect to Authenticity, Assay and Chemical Constituent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Torey

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R2 = 0.8685, rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  11. Standardization of Cassia spectabilis with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torey, Angeline; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Yeng, Chen; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2010-05-10

    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.

  12. Computer-related standards for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winczewski, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid application of the computer to all areas of the petroleum industry is straining the capabilities of corporations and vendors to efficiently integrate computer tools into the work environment. Barriers to this integration arose form decades of competitive development of proprietary applications formats, along with compilation of data bases in isolation. Rapidly emerging industry-wide standards relating to computer applications and data management are poised to topple these barriers. This paper identifies the most active players within a rapidly evolving group of cooperative standardization activities sponsored by the petroleum industry. Summarized are their objectives, achievements, current activities and relationships to each other. The trends of these activities are assessed and projected

  13. Relations between the technological standards and technological appropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto PRADO GUERRERO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the educational practices of using Blackboard in blended learning environments with students of higher education to understand the relationship between technological appropriation and standards of educational technology. To achieve that goal, the following research question was raised: ¿To what extent are the standards of education technology with the appropriation of technology in blended learning environments in higher educa­tion related? The contextual framework of this work includes the following topics: the institution, teaching, teachers and students. The design methodology that was used is of a correlation type. Correlations were carried out to determine the frequency and level in the technological standards as well as the appropriation of technology. In the comparison of the results obtained by the students, the teachers and the platform; we found that students in the school study showed a high degree of technology ownership and this was the same for the performance shown on the technological standards. It was established that teachers play a key role in developing the techno­logical appropriation of students and performance in technology standards.

  14. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for...-reliability measures; worker information-and-training programs; conditions under which the employer must... validity of the methodology and assumptions used; The quality, utility, and clarity of the information...

  15. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  16. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  17. Symmetry Relations in Chemical Kinetics Arising from Microscopic Reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the kinetics of time-reversible chemical reactions having the same equilibrium constant but different initial conditions are closely related to one another by a directly measurable symmetry relation analogous to chemical detailed balance. In contrast to detailed balance, however, this relation does not require knowledge of the elementary steps that underlie the reaction, and remains valid in regimes where the concept of rate constants is ill defined, such as at very short times and in the presence of low activation barriers. Numerical simulations of a model of isomerization in solution are provided to illustrate the symmetry under such conditions, and potential applications in protein folding or unfolding are pointed out.

  18. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  19. Predicting work-related flow in the chemical industry / Erika Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In a new world of work characterised by competitiveness, benchmarking, technological innovation and efficiency, the South African chemical industry needs to function at an optimal level to meet the demands of its stakeholders and employees. The industry needs leadership of the highest standard and an efficient, productive workforce. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leader empowering behaviour, self-efficacy, job resources and work-related flow for empl...

  20. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  1. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C.; Mazzei, Jose L.; Ramos, Monica F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  4. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available athttps://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relexDatabase URL:https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  6. Impact of oil and related chemicals on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This review updates a previous review entitled ''Impact of Oil on the Marine Environment''. It covers oil and individual hydrocarbons, used lubricating oils, chemical control agents for oil spills, and wastes from offshore petroleum operations. It considers all major knowledge generated since the mid-1970s. The review covers its topics comprehensively, from a consideration of the composition, sources and inputs of oil to its ecological and human health effects and its effects on man's use of the sea. The review addresses several key questions on the present levels of contamination, the impact of hydrocarbons and related chemicals on marine biota, the recovery potential of marine ecosystems exposed to these contaminants, the degree of protection required for marine ecosystems known to be vulnerable and sensitive, and recommended research and other actions to fill gaps in knowledge. The review describes the hazards of marine oil pollution and associated chemicals and wastes as they are understood currently, and clarifies the importance of reducing oil inputs in coastal and offshore waters. It assists in considering fundamental questions, asked by the public and decision-makers alike, such as: how much oil is entering our oceans, and how much harm is it doing? (author)

  7. An extended risk assessment approach for chemical plants applied to a study related to pipe ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessments and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) in particular have been used in the chemical industry for many years to support decision-making on the choice of arrangements and measures associated with chemical processes, transportation and storage of dangerous substances. The assessments have been founded on a risk perspective seeing risk as a function of frequency of events (probability) and associated consequences. In this paper we point to the need for extending this approach to place a stronger emphasis on uncertainties. A recently developed risk framework designed to better reflect such uncertainties is presented and applied to a chemical plant and specifically the analysis of accidental events related to the rupture of pipes. Two different ways of implementing the framework are presented, one based on the introduction of probability models and one without. The differences between the standard approach and the extended approaches are discussed from a theoretical point of view as well as from a practical risk analyst perspective.

  8. Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 is an offline global chemical transport model particularly suited for studies of the troposphere. The updates of the model from its previous version MOZART-2 are described, including an expansion of the chemical mechanism to include more detailed hydrocarbon chemistry and bulk aerosols. Online calculations of a number of processes, such as dry deposition, emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes and photolysis frequencies, are now included. Results from an eight-year simulation (2000–2007 are presented and evaluated. The MOZART-4 source code and standard input files are available for download from the NCAR Community Data Portal (http://cdp.ucar.edu.

  9. Standard guide for corrosion-related failure analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers key issues to be considered when examining metallic failures when corrosion is suspected as either a major or minor causative factor. 1.2 Corrosion-related failures could include one or more of the following: change in surface appearance (for example, tarnish, rust, color change), pin hole leak, catastrophic structural failure (for example, collapse, explosive rupture, implosive rupture, cracking), weld failure, loss of electrical continuity, and loss of functionality (for example, seizure, galling, spalling, swelling). 1.3 Issues covered include overall failure site conditions, operating conditions at the time of failure, history of equipment and its operation, corrosion product sampling, environmental sampling, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, morphology (mode) or failure, and by considering the preceding, deducing the cause(s) of corrosion failure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibili...

  10. Chemical and physical structures of proteinoids and related polyamino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Hajime; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Nomoto, Shinya

    Studies of polyamino acid formation pathways in the prebiotic condition are important for the study of the origins of life. Several pathways of prebiotic polyamino acid formation have been reported. Heating of monoammonium malate [1] and heating of amino acids in molten urea [2] are important pathways of the prebiotic peptide formation. The former case, globular structure called proteinoid microsphere is formed in aqueous conditions. The later case, polyamino acids are formed from unrestricted amino acid species. Heating of aqueous aspargine is also interesting pathway for the prebiotic polyamino acid formation, because polyamino acid formation proceeds in aqueous condition [3]. In this study, we analyzed the chemical structure of the proteinoids and related polyamino acids formed in the above three pathways using with mass spectrometer. In addition, their physical structures are analyzed by the electron and optical microscopes, in order to determine the self-organization abilities. We discuss the relation between the chemical and the physical structures for the origins of life. References [1] Harada, K., J. Org. Chem., 24, 1662 (1959), Fox, S. W., Harada, K., and Kendrick, J., Science, 129, 1221 (1959). [2] Terasaki, M., Nomoto, S., Mita, H., and Shimoyama, A., Chem. Lett., 480 (2002), Mita, H., Nomoto, S., Terasaki, M., Shimoyama, A., and Yamamoto, Y., Int. J. Astrobiol., 4, 145 (2005). [3] Kovacs, K and Nagy, H., Nature, 190, 531 (1961), Munegumi, T., Tanikawa, N., Mita, H. and Harada, K., Viva Origino, 22, 109 (1994).

  11. The Scalable Coherent Interface and related standards projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) project (IEEE P1596) found a way to avoid the limits that are inherent in bus technology. SCI provides bus-like services by transmitting packets on a collection of point-to-point unidirectional links. The SCI protocols support cache coherence in a distributed-shared-memory multiprocessor model, message passing, I/O, and local-area-network-like communication over fiber optic or wire links. VLSI circuits that operate parallel links at 1000 MByte/s and serial links at 1000 Mbit/s will be available early in 1992. Several ongoing SCI-related projects are applying the SCI technology to new areas or extending it to more difficult problems. P1596.1 defines the architecture of a bridge between SCI and VME; P1596.2 compatibly extends the cache coherence mechanism for efficient operation with kiloprocessor systems; P1596.3 defines new low-voltage (about 0.25 V) differential signals suitable for low power interfaces for CMOS or GaAs VLSI implementations of SCI; P1596.4 defines a high performance memory chip interface using these signals; P1596.5 defines data transfer formats for efficient interprocessor communication in heterogeneous multiprocessor systems. This paper reports the current status of SCI, related standards, and new projects. 16 refs

  12. Binary trading relations and the limits of EDI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan; Truex, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of electronic data interchange (EDI) standards and their application in different types of trading relationships. It argues that EDI standards are not directly comparable to more stable sets of technical standards in that they are dynamically tested...... and negotiated in use with each trading exchange. It takes the position that EDI standards are an emergent language form and must mean different things at the institutional and local levels. Using the lens of emergent linguistic analysis it shows how the institutional and local levels must always be distinct...... and yet can coexist. EDI standards can never represent the creation of an 'Esperanto of institutional communication'. Instead we believe that standards must be developed such that they support and accommodate general basic grammatical forms that can be customised to individual needs. The analysis...

  13. Changes in IEC standards related to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubszky, T.; Barsai, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Purposes. Technical Committee TC62 of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) deals with medical electrical equipment (i.e. medical devices using electricity). Standardization concerning diagnostic radiology equipment is task of its Sub-Committee SC62B. An outlook of its activities and present situation, and especially of radiation protection aspects, is given. Materials and methods. Third edition of basic safety standard for medical electrical equipment IEC 60601-1 was issued in 2005. Elaboration of new collateral and particular standards - applicable together with it - is in progress. These standards are generally at the same time also European - EN - and national standards. There is a great importance of radiation protection in diagnostic X-ray equipment. Collateral standard IEC 6060-1-3 about it was at first issued in 1994. Rapid development of imaging technology demands updating of requirements. SC62B in 2003 founded a maintenance team MT37 for preparation of the second edition of this standard. According to new safety philosophy of IEC all modality specific requirements are to be collected in 'safety and essential performance' particular standards. A new working group WG42 - founded in 2006 - elaborates a new particular standard IEC 60601-2-54 for radiographic and radioscopic equipment. Maintenance team MT32 deals with safety and performance standards for X-ray tube assemblies. The authors actively participate in these activities. Results and discussion. Present and future system of diagnostic radiology IEC standards and some interesting details are presented. Conclusions. International standards - although they are not 'obligatory' - are generally the basis of safety and performance certification of diagnostic radiology equipment and often also of their quality assurance.

  14. Relation Between Sustainability‑Related Communication and Competitiveness in the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Hyršlová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interests of companies in the sustainability‑related communication have risen considerably in recent years. This paper focuses on the current state of sustainability‑related reporting in chemical industry companies registered in the Association of Chemical Industry in the Czech Republic. It deals with the form and the content of reporting, the importance of different stakeholders in this process as well as benefits of the sustainability‑related communication and its impacts on competitiveness of the company. This paper summarizes the results of a research executed in the year 2014. The results of the research showed that chemical industry companies were aware of the significance of sustainability‑related communication and they utilized various types of sustainability‑related reports for this communication. Companies prefer to report on the environmental and social aspects of their activities primarily in their annual reports, or they issue separate environmental reports. The research verified the relationship between the sustainability‑related communication and competitiveness. A suitable established high quality system of communication that provides sufficient information and meets the information requirements of the key stakeholders may significantly contribute to reputation improvement, to increased attractiveness of the company as an employer and thereby to maintain, to improve respectively, the level of a company’s competitiveness.

  15. Standardization in smart grids. Introduction to IT-related methodologies, architectures and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslar, Mathias; Specht, Michael; Daenekas, Christian; Trefke, Joern; Rohjans, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Rosinger, Christine; Bleiker, Robert [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Introduction to Standardization for Smart Grids. Presents a tutorial and best practice of Smart Grid Prototype Projects. Written by leading experts in the field. Besides the regulatory and market aspects, the technical level dealing with the knowledge from multiple disciplines and the aspects of technical system integration to achieve interoperability and integration has been a strong focus in the Smart Grid. This topic is typically covered by the means of using (technical) standards for processes, data models, functions and communication links. Standardization is a key issue for Smart Grids due to the involvement of many different sectors along the value chain from the generation to the appliances. The scope of Smart Grid is broad, therefore, the standards landscape is unfortunately very large and complex. This is why the three European Standards Organizations ETSI, CEN and CENELEC created a so called Joint Working Group (JWG). This was the first harmonized effort in Europe to bring together the needed disciplines and experts delivering the final report in May 2011. After this approach proved useful, the Commission used the Mandate M/490: Standardization Mandate to European Standardization Organizations (ESOs) to support European Smart Grid deployment. The focal point addressing the ESO's response to M/490 will be the CEN, CENELEC and ETSI Smart Grids Coordination Group (SG-CG). Based on this mandate, meaningful standardization of architectures, use cases, communication technologies, data models and security standards takes place in the four existing working groups. This book provides an overview on the various building blocks and standards identified as the most prominent ones by the JWG report as well as by the first set of standards group - IEC 61850 and CIM, IEC PAS 62559 for documenting Smart Grid use cases, security requirements from the SGIS groups and an introduction on how to apply the Smart Grid Architecture Model SGAM for utilities. In addition

  16. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  17. Chemical equilibrium relations used in the fireball model of relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fireball model of relativistic heavy-ion collision uses chemical equilibrium relations to predict cross sections for particle and composite productions. These relations are examined in a canonical ensemble model where chemical equilibrium is not explicitly invoked

  18. Variability of standard artificial soils: Physico-chemical properties and phenanthrene desorption measured by means of supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielská, Lucie; Hovorková, Ivana; Komprdová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The study is focused on artificial soil which is supposed to be a standardized “soil like” medium. We compared physico-chemical properties and extractability of Phenanthrene from 25 artificial soils prepared according to OECD standardized procedures at different laboratories. A substantial range of soil properties was found, also for parameters which should be standardized because they have an important influence on the bioavailability of pollutants (e.g. total organic carbon ranged from 1.4 to 6.1%). The extractability of Phe was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at harsh and mild conditions. Highly variable Phe extractability from different soils (3–89%) was observed. The extractability was strongly related (R 2 = 0.87) to total organic carbon content, 0.1–2 mm particle size, and humic/fulvic acid ratio in the following multiple regression model: SFE (%) = 1.35 * sand (%) − 0.77 * TOC (%)2 + 0.27 * HA/FA. - Highlights: ► We compared properties and extractability of Phe from 25 different artificial soils. ► Substantial range of soil properties was found, also for important parameters. ► Phe extractability was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 2 modes. ► Phe extractability was highly variable from different soils (3–89%). ► Extractability was strongly related to TOC, 0.1–2 mm particles, and HA/FA. - Significant variability in physico-chemical properties exists between artificial soils prepared at different laboratories and affects behavior of contaminants in these soils.

  19. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  20. Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Çinel; Çelenk, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies This study was aimed to provide principle of the chemical analyses, antibacterial efficiency test and validation procedures of the most commonly used benzalkonium chloride (BAC) base disinfectant as a biocide. Disinfectant which comprised 20 % BAC concentration was used as a prototype product and active substance was verified with chemical analysis...

  1. [Possible relation between clinical guidelines and legal standard of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshiharu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2010-10-01

    Legal standard of medicine is not equal across the all kinds of medical institutions. Each medical institution is required its respective standard of medicine in which its doctors are expected to have studied medical informations, which have been spread among medical institutions with similar characteristics. Therefore, in principle, clinical guidelines for the treatment of a disease formed by public committees do not directly become the medical standards of respective disease treatment. However, doctors would be legally required to practice medicine with reference to the clinical guidelines because medical informations, mediated by internet or many kinds of media, have been spread very fast to all medical institutions these days. Moreover, doctors would be required to inform their patients of non-standardized new treatments, even if such treatments are not listed in clinical guidelines in case patients have special concern about new treat-

  2. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as

  3. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  4. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of the rationale used in setting occupational exposure standards for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1986-12-01

    Ten chemicals which create significant occupational hazard are reviewed. They are toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulphide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica and vinyl chloride. Each is discussed under the headings of physiological intake and elimination in humans, characteristics of acute and chronic toxicity, sites of occupational exposure and rationale for limits of such exposure. Since radioactive substances yield ionizing radiation as the common hazard the treatment of the current permissible levels of exposure is somewhat simpler. Having set out industrial standards for exposure to hazardous substances and radionuclides, a detailed comparison is made. Exposure limits to ioninzing radiation are sufficiently low to remove the appearance of directly related injury. It is expected however that low level exposure may have a stochastic effect, that is, there is the possibility of a slightly increased incidence of neoplasms in a large exposed population, but numbers will be too small to be able to attribute any particular case to the exposure. TLVs on the other hand, depending on the particular chemical, may be high enough in the workplace to permit some directly related signs or symptoms in the exposed individual. 244 refs

  6. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  7. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and

  8. New conducted electrical weapons: Electrical safety relative to relevant standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark W; Brave, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    We have previously published about TASER ® conducted electrical weapons (CEW) compliance with international standards. CEWs deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. An eXperimental Rotating-Field (XRF) waveform CEW and the X2 CEW are new 2-shot electrical weapon models designed to target a precise amount of delivered charge per pulse. They both can deploy 1 or 2 dart pairs, delivered by 2 separate cartridges. Additionally, the XRF controls delivery of incapacitating pulses over 4 field vectors, in a rotating sequence. As in our previous study, we were motivated by the need to understand the cardiac safety profile of these new CEWs. The goal of this paper is to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of all relevant international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of several TASER XRF and X2 CEWs were measured under normal operating conditions. The measurements were compared against manufacturer specifications. CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2, IEC 60601-1 and BS EN 60601-1. Our study confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant standards.

  9. [Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

    2013-01-01

    The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented

  10. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  11. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  12. The Rhetoric of Arrogance: The Public Relations Response of the Standard Oil Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Josh

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates one of the earliest American public relations debacles (ending in the dissolution of the Standard Oil Trust in 1911). Presents background on Standard Oil and offers an overview Ida Tarbell's influential "History of the Standard Oil company." Argues that Standard failed to respond to these accounts adequately, reinforcing…

  13. Virtual quantification of metabolites by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: predicting ionization efficiency without chemical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcraft, Kenneth R; Lee, Richard; Mills, Casandra; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2009-04-01

    A major obstacle in metabolomics remains the identification and quantification of a large fraction of unknown metabolites in complex biological samples when purified standards are unavailable. Herein we introduce a multivariate strategy for de novo quantification of cationic/zwitterionic metabolites using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) based on fundamental molecular, thermodynamic, and electrokinetic properties of an ion. Multivariate calibration was used to derive a quantitative relationship between the measured relative response factor (RRF) of polar metabolites with respect to four physicochemical properties associated with ion evaporation in ESI-MS, namely, molecular volume (MV), octanol-water distribution coefficient (log D), absolute mobility (mu(o)), and effective charge (z(eff)). Our studies revealed that a limited set of intrinsic solute properties can be used to predict the RRF of various classes of metabolites (e.g., amino acids, amines, peptides, acylcarnitines, nucleosides, etc.) with reasonable accuracy and robustness provided that an appropriate training set is validated and ion responses are normalized to an internal standard(s). The applicability of the multivariate model to quantify micromolar levels of metabolites spiked in red blood cell (RBC) lysates was also examined by CE-ESI-MS without significant matrix effects caused by involatile salts and/or major co-ion interferences. This work demonstrates the feasibility for virtual quantification of low-abundance metabolites and their isomers in real-world samples using physicochemical properties estimated by computer modeling, while providing deeper insight into the wide disparity of solute responses in ESI-MS. New strategies for predicting ionization efficiency in silico allow for rapid and semiquantitative analysis of newly discovered biomarkers and/or drug metabolites in metabolomics research when chemical standards do not exist.

  14. A review of standards related to biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J.; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Air quality is evaluated by the concentration of particulate matter (PM) per unit of air volume. PM10 refers to all particles smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter. The European Commission has established acceptable levels of PM10, but the rules are less precise for evaluating the amount of PM that can be emitted from a furnace's chimney. The province of Quebec allows up to 340 mg/m{sup 3} of PM for large furnaces and 600 mg/m{sup 3} for smaller furnaces. Although wood products can be burned in the province, the burning of all other biomass such as straw, stover and grass is forbidden. The City of Vancouver has stricter emissions standards for PM, notably 50 mg/m{sup 3} for large furnaces and 35 mg/m{sup 3} for smaller furnaces. The reason for this difference is that most furnaces in Quebec are used in rural areas whereas the densely populated City of Vancouver must control emissions at the source. It was concluded that although a universal standard on combustion emissions is not feasible because of different socio-economic conditions and population density, furnaces should emit levels of PM which decrease as the surrounding area population concentration increases. Stringent regulations may be met through advances in technology such as chimney height, bag filters, multicyclones, and precipitators.

  15. A consolidated and standardized relational database for ER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmunt, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The three US Department of Energy (DOE) installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12, and K-25) were established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project that ''built the bomb.'' That research, and work in more recent years, has resulted in the generation of radioactive materials and other toxic wastes. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems manages the three Oak Ridge installations (as well as the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at the DOE plants in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky). DOE Oak Ridge Operations has been mandated by federal and state agreements to provide a consolidated repository of environmental data and is tasked to support environmental data management activities at all five installations. The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) was initiated to fulfill these requirements. The primary use of OREIS data is to provide access to project results by regulators. A secondary use is to serve as background data for other projects. This paper discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality control (QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, dealing with configuration control issues, and incorporating historical data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics

  16. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter, E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

  17. Regulations and standardization relative to the biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, E.

    2009-01-01

    It does not exist regulations on pollutants emissions on domestic wood burning furnaces, however, these appliances are submitted to the European and french standardization concerning the safety rules, the use rules and the tests methods. Since 2007, these wood burning appliances on the market must have the European Community label. The green flame label was elaborated by the environment and energy control Agency (A.D.E.M.E.), and manufacturers of domestic appliances to promote the use of competitive wood burning appliances. concerning the collective and industrial heating, the installations of more 2 MW are framed by different categories of the installations classified for environment protection (I.C.P.E.) regulation according their fuel and power. The combustion installations of less than 2 MW are a particular case, they are framed by a sanitary department regulation and are controlled by the department directions of sanitary and social affairs. the limit values of emissions are summarized in tables. (N.C.)

  18. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  19. Current global standards for chemical protective clothing: how to choose the right protection for the right job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN WELY, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The first standards for chemical protective clothing (CPC) emerged mid to late 1980’s and have evolved since as most standards are revisited every 5 yr. Over the past years, we have also seen a strengthening of the chemical and worker protection legislation around the globe (various forms of REACH) but also protection of workers. The most prevalent standards originate under the auspices of the International Standards Organisation (ISO), European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) or under various US standards organisations (e.g. NFPA, ASTM). Protective clothing against hazardous materials is required in many of the professional and non-professional activities of everyday life. Effective and adequate protection is important in many scenarios from household (e.g. cleaning agents, peroxides, acids and bases, paints), to agricultural (e.g. fuel, pesticides), to medical (e.g. pharmaceuticals and active ingredients), to industrial production (e.g. petro-chemicals, chemicals, paints, adhesive and coatings) but also manufacturing of many products (e.g. light bulbs, cars, semi-conductors), during various emergency activities (e.g. boat, rail or road accidents as well as fire-fighting in an urban and industrial setting), and finally, military operations or response to incidents of terrorism. Nevertheless, CPC must remain the last line of defence whenever possible through a preference for less hazardous chemicals, less dangerous processes and handling operations, and by engineering controls to reduce and minimise human contact with the chemicals. This article provides information about the selection, use, care and maintenance (SUCAM) of protective clothing against chemical and microbiological hazards. PMID:29046493

  20. Wood anatomical and chemical properties related to the pulpability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most important hardwood species used by the pulp and paper industry due to its high pulp yield, high wood density, excellent fibre quality and good handsheet properties. However, the wood is a highly variable and complex material that has different chemical, physical and anatomical ...

  1. Direct solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy of standard chemicals and humic acid in ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, S; Nicolodelli, G; Redon, R; Milori, D M B P

    2017-04-15

    The front face fluorescence spectroscopy is often used to quantify chemicals in well-known matrices as it is a rapid and powerful technique, with no sample preparation. However it was not used to investigate extracted organic matter like humic substances. This work aims to fully investigate for the first time front face fluorescence spectroscopy response of a ternary system including boric acid, tryptophan and humic substances, and two binaries system containing quinine sulfate or humic substance in boric acid. Pure chemicals, boric acid, tryptophan, quinine sulfate and humic acid were mixed together in solid pellet at different contents from 0 to 100% in mass. The measurement of excitation emission matrix of fluorescence (3D fluorescence) and laser induced fluorescence were then done in the front face mode. Fluorescence matrices were decomposed using the CP/PARAFAC tools after scattering treatments. Results show that for 3D fluorescence there is no specific component for tryptophan and quinine sulfate, and that humic substances lead to a strong extinction effect for mixture containing quinine sulfate. Laser induced fluorescence gives a very good but non-specific related response for both quinine sulfate and tryptophan. No humic substances fluorescence response was found, but extinction effect is observed as for 3D fluorescence. This effect is stronger for quinine sulfate than for tryptophan. These responses were modeled using a simple absorbance versus emission model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  3. Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

  4. Chemical meningitis related to intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Bénédicte; Zairi, Fahed; Boulanger, Thomas; Bonneterre, Jacques; Mortier, Laurent; Le Rhun, Emilie

    2017-10-01

    Therapeutic options of leptomeningeal metastases include intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy. Among intra-CSF agents, liposomal cytarabine has advantages but can induce specific toxicities. A BRAF-V600E-mutated melanoma leptomeningeal metastases patient, treated by dabrafenib and liposomal cytarabine, presented after the first injection of liposomal cytarabine with hyperthermia and headaches. Despite sterile CSF/blood analyses, extended intravenous antibiotics were given and the second injection was delayed. The diagnosis of chemical meningitis was finally made. Dose reduction and appropriate symptomatic treatment permitted the administration of 15 injections of liposomal cytarabine combined with dabrafenib. A confirmation of the diagnosis of chemical meningitis is essential in order (1) not to delay intra-CSF or systemic chemotherapy or (2) to limit the administration of unnecessary but potentially toxic antibiotics.

  5. The standardization of data relational mode in the materials database for nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinxuan

    1996-01-01

    A relational database needs standard data relation ships. The data relation ships include hierarchical structures and repeat set records. Code database is created and the relational database is created between spare parts and materials and properties of the materials. The data relation ships which are not standard are eliminated and all the relation modes are made to meet the demands of the 3NF (Third Norm Form)

  6. Standardized reporting for rapid relative effectiveness assessments of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Pasternack, Iris; Van de Casteele, Marc; Rossi, Bernardette; Cangini, Agnese; Di Bidino, Rossella; Jelenc, Marjetka; Abrishami, Payam; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Seyfried, Hans; Wildbacher, Ingrid; Goettsch, Wim G

    2014-11-01

    Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals. Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model. The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report. The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.

  7. 75 FR 60616 - Commission Guidance Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards Related To Brokers and Dealers... Oversight Board in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to establish auditing... 60617

  8. Composition, standardization and chemical profiling of Banisteriopsis caapi, a plant for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders relevant to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Ikhlas A; Miller, Loren S; Chaurasiya, Narayan D; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Tripathi, Lalit M; Khan, Shabana I; Joshi, Vaishali C; Wigger, Frank T; Muhammad, Ilias

    2010-04-21

    Banisteriopsis caapi, a woody vine from the Amazonian basin, is popularly known as an ingredient of a sacred drink ayahuasca, widely used throughout the Amazon as a medicinal tea for healing and spiritual exploration. The usefulness of Banisteriopsis caapi has been established for alleviating symptoms of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease. Primary objective of this study was to develop the process for preparing standardized extracts of Banisteriopsis caapi to achieve high potency for inhibition of human monoamine oxidases (MAO) and antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of the plant collected from different geographical locations and seasons were analyzed by HPLC for principal bioactive markers. The extracts were simultaneously tested in vitro for inhibition of human MAOs and antioxidant activity for analysis of correlation between phytochemical composition of the extracts and bioactivities. Reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detection was employed to profile the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal components of the aqueous extract of Banisteriopsis caapi. The Banisteriopsis caapi extracts and standardized compositions were tested in vitro for inhibition of recombinant preparations of human MAO-A and MAO-B. In vitro cell-based assays were employed for evaluation of antioxidant property and mammalian cell cytotoxicity of these preparations. Among the different aerial parts, leaves, stems/large branches and stem bark of Banisteriopsis caapi, HPLC analysis revealed that most of the dominant chemical and bioactive markers (1, 2, 5, 7-9) were present in high concentrations in dried bark of large branch. A library of HPLC chromatograms has also been generated as a tool for fingerprinting and authentication of the studied Banisteriopsis caapi species. The correlation between potency of MAO inhibition and antioxidant activity with the content of the main active constituents of the aqueous Banisteriopsis caapi extracts

  9. Some comments on misuse of terms related to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Complet text of publication follows. I have been involved in scientific studies involving chemical analysis for more than 49 years. Over this period I have observed an increasing tendency to incorrect use of terms 'analysis' and 'determination' and the corresponding verbum forms. According to correct terminology in English, samples are analyzed, analytes (e.g., trace elements) are determined. However, too often expressions such as 'analysis of copper in blood' are seen in the literature, especially in papers written by non-chemists. The reason why I am raising this point at the present time in that I observed the problem in several recent titles of papers published over the last few years in the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry: Preconcentration and neutron activation analysis of thorium and uranium in natural waters. Use of activated carbon as pre-separation agent in NAA of selenium, cobalt and iodine. Recent developments in the analysis of transuranics (Np, Pu, Am) in sea water. Automated radiochemical analysis of total 99 Tc in aged nuclear waste processing streams. Photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11 C. Preconcentration neutron activation analysis of lanthanides by cloudpoint extraction using PAN. Analysis of the chemical elements in leaves infected by fumagina by X-ray fluorescence technique. Rapid method for 226 Ra and 228 Ra analysis in water samples. The above list is far from exhaustive. I believe that this incorrect use of terminology should be avoided at least in the titles of scientific papers, in Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry as well as in other scientific journals. In some of the above cases replacing 'of' with 'for the determination of', or just with 'for', would have solved the problem. In other cases it would be preferable to reverse the order of words in the sentence, such as e.g., 'Determination of selenium, cobalt and

  10. IEEE Std 382-1980: IEEE standard for qualification of safety-related valve actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of all safety-related functions of power-driven valve actuators

  11. Establishment and intra-/inter-laboratory validation of a standard protocol of reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Hosoi, Kazuhiro; Wakuri, Shinobu; Iwase, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Toshinobu; Matsuoka, Naoko; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Toda, Tsuguto; Takagi, Hironori; Osaki, Naoto; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Satoru; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Yamada, Shizuo; Ohno, Yasuo; Kojima, Hajime

    2013-11-01

    A reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was previously developed for photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals, and the present multi-center study aimed to establish and validate a standard protocol for ROS assay. In three participating laboratories, two standards and 42 coded chemicals, including 23 phototoxins and 19 nonphototoxic drugs/chemicals, were assessed by the ROS assay according to the standardized protocol. Most phototoxins tended to generate singlet oxygen and/or superoxide under UV-vis exposure, but nonphototoxic chemicals were less photoreactive. In the ROS assay on quinine (200 µm), a typical phototoxic drug, the intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation; CV) were found to be 1.5-7.4% and 1.7-9.3%, respectively. The inter-laboratory CV for quinine averaged 15.4% for singlet oxygen and 17.0% for superoxide. The ROS assay on 42 coded chemicals (200 µm) provided no false negative predictions upon previously defined criteria as compared with the in vitro/in vivo phototoxicity, although several false positives appeared. Outcomes from the validation study were indicative of satisfactory transferability, intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and predictive capacity of the ROS assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Evaluation of the standard application of Delphi in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occupational irritant chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L; Yan, Y J

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the problems encountered in the application of the standard (hereinafter referred to as standard) for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occu-pational irritant chemicals, to provide reference for the revision of the new standard, to reduce the number of missed patients in occupational COPD, and to get rid of the working environment of those who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases due to long-term exposure to poisons., slowing the progression of the disease. Methods: Using Delphi (Delphi) Expert research method, after the senior experts to demonstrate, to under-stand the GBZ 237-2011 "occupational irritant chemicals to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary dis-ease" standard evaluation of the system encountered problems, to seek expert advice, The problems encoun-tered during the clinical implementation of the standards promulgated in 2011 are presented. Results: Through the Delphi Expert investigation method, it is found that experts agree on the content evaluation and implemen-tation evaluation in the standard, but the operational evaluation of the standard is disputed. According to the clinical experience, the experts believe that the range of occupational irritant gases should be expanded, and the operation of the problem of smoking, seniority determination and occupational contact history should be challenged during the diagnosis. Conclusions: Since the promulgation in 2011 of the criteria for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occupational stimulant chemicals, there have been some problems in the implementation process, which have caused many occupationally exposed to irritating gases to suffer from "occupational chronic respiratory Diseases" without a definitive diagnosis.

  13. Melting and related precursor cooperative phenomena in chemically bonded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2004-09-01

    A number of experimental studies of condensed matter assemblies with different types of chemical bonding will provide the focus of this work. Condensed compounds X(CH 3 ) 4 , with X = C,Si or Ge, are the first of such assemblies; two phase boundaries in the pressure temperature plane being studied: melting and a solid phase boundary heralding orientational disordering of molecules still however on a lattice. Secondly, directionally bonded d-electron transition metals such as Ni, Pd and Nb will be treated. Here, melting is the main focus, but the precursor transition is now the separation of a high-temperature ductile solid from a lower temperature mechanically brittle phase. A dislocation-mediated model of these transitions is discussed, leading into the third area of covalently bonded solids graphite and silicon. Here topological defect models again provide the focus; both dislocations and rotation-dislocations now being invoked. Some qualitative suggestions are made to interpret the melting curve of graphite subjected to high pressure. (author)

  14. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field.

  15. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...

  16. Health-related quality of life of chemical warfare victims: an assessment with the use of a specific tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biat Saeed, Khaled; Parandeh, Akram; Alhani, Fatemeh; Salaree, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to chemical warfare gases significantly changes the quality of life (QoL) of victims and has significant chronic adverse effects. This study sought to assess the health-related QoL (HRQoL) of chemical victims by means of a tool specifically designed for this purpose. The correlation of their QoL with several demographic factors was evaluated as well. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 chemical warfare victims were selected from subjects presenting to selected medical centers in Tehran in 2012 using convenience sampling. Two questionnaires of demographic information and HRQoL of chemical warfare victims (specific tool) were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD) of scores obtained by chemical warfare victims in physical, psychosocial and spiritual domains was 39.6 ± 16.5, 42.1 ± 15.2 and 82.4 ± 15.4, respectively. Different age groups showed a significant difference in the psychosocial domain score (P chemical warfare victims, it can be used as strategically for these patients to help them cope with their injury and improve their physical and psychosocial health and QoL.

  17. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Chemical Production and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the chemical production & distribution industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, click on the links below.

  18. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  19. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials by the k sub 0 standardization and relative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M C; Martinho, E [LNETI/ICEN, Sacavem (Portugal)

    1989-04-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k{sub o}-standardization method was applied to eight geological, environmental and biological reference materials, including leaves, blood, fish, sediments, soils and limestone. To a first approximation, the results were normally distributed around the certified values with a standard deviation of 10%. Results obtained by using the relative method based on well characterized multi-element standards for IAEA CRM Soil-7 are reported.

  20. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Giridhar, S.

    2014-04-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  1. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  2. 77 FR 50757 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are announcing the standardized administrative fees we will charge to recover our full cost of... will ensure fees are consistent and that we collect the full cost of supplying our information when a... standard fees that are calculated to reflect the full cost of providing information for nonprogram-related...

  3. Do U Txt? Event-Related Potentials to Semantic Anomalies in Standard and Texted English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I.; Coch, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Texted English is a hybrid, technology-based language derived from standard English modified to facilitate ease of communication via instant and text messaging. We compared semantic processing of texted and standard English sentences by recording event-related potentials in a classic semantic incongruity paradigm designed to elicit an N400 effect.…

  4. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Althoug...

  5. 78 FR 17680 - Information Collection Request; Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Total Burden Cost (Capital/Startup) [cir] Estimating Capital Costs for Option 3--Number and Type of High... Department to take advantage of the vetting for terrorist ties already being conducted on affected... Department anticipates that many high-risk chemical facilities will rely on businesses that provide contract...

  6. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance

  7. Chemical analysis of coal by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence utilizing artificial standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate determinations of the elemental composition of coal by classical methods can be quite difficult and are normally very time consuming. X-ray fluorescence utilizing the powder method, however, has the ability of providing accurate and rapid analyses. Unfortunately, well characterized standards, although available, are not plentiful. In addition, the durability of stability of ground and pelletized coal samples is poor resulting in deterioration with time. As a result, artificial coal standards were prepared from certified geological materials by fusing in lithium tetraborate in percentages approximating expected ash contents and compositions in coal. Since the lithium tetraborate comprises about the same percentage of the standard as does the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in coal, the ground and pelletized coal sample can be assayed against the fused calibration curves by compensating for the differences in the mass absorption coefficients of the two matrices. 5 figures, 4 tables

  8. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... `uncontrollable acts of third parties,' such as strikes, sabotage, operator intoxication or insanity, and a... accounting for malfunctions could lead to standards that are significantly less stringent than levels that...) to eliminate redundancy. 40 CFR 63.11494(c)(1)(vii) We are adding a new paragraph that lists lead...

  9. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... During Periods of Startup, Shutdown and Malfunctions (SSM) VI. Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents A. Definition of Metal HAP Process Vent B. Metal HAP Process Vent Standards VII. Technical Corrections and...: Chromium Compounds, Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, Paint and Allied Coatings and Mercury...

  10. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  11. Standard test methods for chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-Grade silver-indium-cadmium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1990-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear grade silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloys to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Silver, Indium, and Cadmium by a Titration Method 7-15 Trace Impurities by Carrier-Distillation Spectro- chemical Method 16-22 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard and precautionary statements, see Section 5 and Practices E50. 7.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of silver, indium, and cadmium in alloys of approximately 80 % silver, 15 % indium, and 5 % cadmium used in nuclear reactor control r...

  12. Quantifying relative importance: Computing standardized effects in models with binary outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Johnson, Darren; Lefcheck, Jonathan S.; Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.

    2018-01-01

    Scientists commonly ask questions about the relative importances of processes, and then turn to statistical models for answers. Standardized coefficients are typically used in such situations, with the goal being to compare effects on a common scale. Traditional approaches to obtaining standardized coefficients were developed with idealized Gaussian variables in mind. When responses are binary, complications arise that impact standardization methods. In this paper, we review, evaluate, and propose new methods for standardizing coefficients from models that contain binary outcomes. We first consider the interpretability of unstandardized coefficients and then examine two main approaches to standardization. One approach, which we refer to as the Latent-Theoretical or LT method, assumes that underlying binary observations there exists a latent, continuous propensity linearly related to the coefficients. A second approach, which we refer to as the Observed-Empirical or OE method, assumes responses are purely discrete and estimates error variance empirically via reference to a classical R2 estimator. We also evaluate the standard formula for calculating standardized coefficients based on standard deviations. Criticisms of this practice have been persistent, leading us to propose an alternative formula that is based on user-defined “relevant ranges”. Finally, we implement all of the above in an open-source package for the statistical software R.

  13. Meeting the measurement uncertainty and traceability requirements of ISO/AEC standard 17025 in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B

    2001-11-01

    The new laboratory accreditation standard, ISO/IEC 17025, reflects current thinking on good measurement practice by requiring more explicit and more demanding attention to a number of activities. These include client interactions, method validation, traceability, and measurement uncertainty. Since the publication of the standard in 1999 there has been extensive debate about its interpretation. It is the author's view that if good quality practices are already in place and if the new requirements are introduced in a manner that is fit for purpose, the additional work required to comply with the new requirements can be expected to be modest. The paper argues that the rigour required in addressing the issues should be driven by customer requirements and the factors that need to be considered in this regard are discussed. The issues addressed include the benefits, interim arrangements, specifying the analytical requirement, establishing traceability, evaluating the uncertainty and reporting the information.

  14. The standard laboratory module approach to automation of the chemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.M.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Automation of the technology and practice of environmental laboratory automation has not been as rapid or complete as one might expect. Confined to autosamplers and limited robotic systems, our ability to apply production concepts to environmental analytical analysis is not great. With the impending remediation of our hazardous waste sites in the US, only the application of production chemistry techniques will even begin to provide those responsible with the necessary knowledge to accomplish the cleanup expeditiously and safely. Tightening regulatory requirements have already mandated staggering increases in sampling and characterization needs with the future only guaranteeing greater demands. The Contaminant Analysis Automation Program has been initiated by our government to address these current and future characterization by application of a new robotic paradigm for analytical chemistry. By using standardized modular instruments, named Standard Laboratory Modules, flexible automation systems can rapidly be configured to apply production techniques to our nations environmental problems at-site

  15. Standard Test Method for Effects of Cleaning and Chemical Maintenance Materials on Painted Aircraft Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of cleaning solutions and liquid cleaner concentrates on painted aircraft surfaces (Note 1). Streaking, discoloration, and blistering may be determined visually. Softening is determined with a series of specially prepared pencils wherein determination of the softest pencil to rupture the paint film is made. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any paint film that is exposed to cleaning materials. MIL-PRF-85285 has been selected as a basic example. When other paint finishes are used, refer to the applicable material specification for panel preparation and system curing prior to testing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user ...

  16. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  17. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations

  18. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  19. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  20. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  1. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals......, such as butter, cause the PCs to be less resistant to ESC under stress. The reason for this is that these chemicals and the PCs have sufficiently similar Hansen solubility parameters to allow surface conformational changes even though absorption is non-existent or extremely small. ATR-FTIR was used to detect...

  2. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...... printed matter produced on a fictitious sheet feed offset printing industry in Europe has been identified and shown in Figure 1 (light bars). „Ï The effect of including the chemical related impact categories is substantial as shown in Figure 1, e.g. the importance of paper is reduced from 67% to 31...

  3. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. American National Standard: guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters at nuclear power sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard presents guidelines for evaluating site-related geotechnical parameters for nuclear power sites. Aspects considered include geology, ground water, foundation engineering, and earthwork engineering. These guidelines identify the basic geotechnical parameters to be considered in site evaluation, and in the design, construction, and performance of foundations and earthwork aspects for nuclear power plants. Also included are tabulations of typical field and laboratory investigative methods useful in identifying geotechnical parameters. Those areas where interrelationships with other standards may exist are indicated

  5. Norms and international standards related to reduce risk management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fuentes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims to develop a revision of the literature within the main concepts in the international rules and standards related to risk management in companies. By this way, there will be an analysis of issues such as the COSO - ERM model, an introduction to the ISO 27000 and 31000 standards; and the Project Management according to PMI targeted at risk management

  6. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  7. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  8. Vaginismus and dyspareunia: relationship with general and sex-related moral standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord

    2011-01-01

    Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance behavior, which is at the nucleus of vaginismus. To examine whether indeed strong adherence to conservative morals and/or strict sexual standards may be involved in vaginismus. The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) to investigate the individual's value pattern and the Sexual Disgust Questionnaire (SDQ) to index the willingness to perform certain sexual activities as an indirect measure of sex-related moral standards. The SVS and SDQ were completed by three groups: women diagnosed with vaginismus (N=24), a group of women diagnosed with dyspareunia (N=24), and a healthy control group of women without sexual complaints (N=32). Specifically, the vaginismus group showed relatively low scores on liberal values together with comparatively high scores on conservative values. Additionally, the vaginismus group was more restricted in their readiness to perform particular sex-related behaviors than the control group. The dyspareunia group, on both the SVS and the SDQ, placed between the vaginismus and the control group, but not significantly different than either of the groups. The findings are consistent with the view that low liberal and high conservative values, along with restricted sexual standards, are involved in the development/maintenance of vaginismus. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Effect of Fermentation Conditions and Plucking Standards of Tea Leaves on the Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Fermented Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation conditions (temperature, time, and pH and plucking standards (one leaf and a bud to four leaves and a bud on the chemical components and sensory quality of the fermented juices processed from crushed fresh tea leaves were investigated. The results showed that optimum fermentation conditions that resulted in fermented juices of the best sensory quality and the highest content of TFs were a temperature of 35°C, time duration of 75 min, and pH 5.1. The fermented juices processed from new shoots with three leaves and a bud or four leaves and a bud afforded high overall acceptability and TF concentration. These differences arise because tea leaves with different plucking standards have different catechin content and enzyme activities. Fermented tea juice possessed higher concentrations of chemical components such as soluble solids, amino acids, and TFs and exhibited better sensory quality as compared to black tea infusion. The TF concentrations decreased as the pH of the fermenting juice increased, and the fermented juice showed the best overall acceptability. These results provide essential information for the improvement of the processing of black tea beverage by suggesting fermentation of fresh tea leaves as a better alternative to their infusion.

  10. Relation between chemical shift artifact and infiltration on MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Makino, Hideki; Yanada, Syuichi; Ohishi, Yukihiko; Mashima, Yasuoki; Yamada, Hideo.

    1994-01-01

    Retrospective study on the relation between existence of the interruption and disturbance of chemical shift artifact and tumor infiltration at the periphery of the kidney on MR imaging was evaluated in 28 cases with renal cell carcinoma. Judgement was possible in 9 out of the 11 cases with pathological stage below pT2 and 14 cases out of 17 pT3 cases. Judgement was impracticable in 5 cases because the peripheral fat tissue of the kidney was too less to observe chemical shift artifact and the tumor was spreading at the side opposite to the chemical shift artifact. Chemical shift artifact on MRI in this study correlated well with renal tumor infiltration. (author)

  11. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing of Chemically Induced Aquilaria sinensis to Identify Genes Related to Agarwood Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Wu, Hongqing; He, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Haohua; Fan, Yunfei; Tan, Guohui; Liu, Taomei; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood is a traditional Chinese medicine used as a clinical sedative, carminative, and antiemetic drug. Agarwood is formed in Aquilaria sinensis when A. sinensis trees are threatened by external physical, chemical injury or endophytic fungal irritation. However, the mechanism of agarwood formation via chemical induction remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of different parts of a chemically induced A. sinensis trunk sample with agarwood. The Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify the genes involved in agarwood formation. A five-year-old Aquilaria sinensis treated by formic acid was selected. The white wood part (B1 sample), the transition part between agarwood and white wood (W2 sample), the agarwood part (J3 sample), and the rotten wood part (F5 sample) were collected for transcriptome sequencing. Accordingly, 54,685,634 clean reads, which were assembled into 83,467 unigenes, were obtained with a Q20 value of 97.5%. A total of 50,565 unigenes were annotated using the Nr, Nt, SWISS-PROT, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. In particular, 171,331,352 unigenes were annotated by various pathways, including the sesquiterpenoid (ko00909) and plant-pathogen interaction (ko03040) pathways. These pathways were related to sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and defensive responses to chemical stimulation. The transcriptome data of the different parts of the chemically induced A. sinensis trunk provide a rich source of materials for discovering and identifying the genes involved in sesquiterpenoid production and in defensive responses to chemical stimulation. This study is the first to use de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly for different parts of chemically induced A. sinensis. Results demonstrate that the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway and WRKY transcription factor play important roles in agarwood formation via chemical induction. The comparative analysis of the transcriptome data of agarwood and A. sinensis lays the foundation

  13. Standard methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    All methods described for subsampling and analysis of UF 6 are in routine use at United States Atomic Energy Commission installations. A gravimetric method is included for U and titrimetric methods, for Cl 2 and U. Mass spectrometric methods are given for both double and single standard procedures for U-isotopic content and for semiquantitative determination of hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons, and partially substituted halohydrocarbons. Spectroscopic methods are described for 232 U, fission products, Pu, and Np. In some instances an ion exchange- or extraction-separation is specified prior to the spectroscopic determination. Mass spectroscopic procedures for 31 trace elements are included, as are spectrophotometric methods for Br 2 , Si, P, Ti, V, W, Th, and Mo. Following a preliminary separation for some elements, emission spectroscopic procedures are described for B, Si, Ru, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, Zr, V, Th, rare earths, and other elements. Procedures for the determination of Sb, Ru, Al, Cd, Co, Ca, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, and Zn by atomic absorption methods are included. The preparation of high-purity U 3 O 8 by the hydrolysis of UF 6 to UO 2 F 2 which upon drying and pyrohydrolysis yields U 3 O 8 is described

  14. The universal relation of galactic chemical evolution: the origin of the mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Dima, Gabriel I.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Silverman, John D.; Kashino, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mass-metallicity relation for z ≲ 1.6. The mass-metallicity relation follows a steep slope with a turnover, or 'knee', at stellar masses around 10 10 M ☉ . At stellar masses higher than the characteristic turnover mass, the mass-metallicity relation flattens as metallicities begin to saturate. We show that the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation depends only on the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass. The relationship between metallicity and the stellar mass normalized to the characteristic turnover mass is independent of redshift. We find that the redshift-independent slope of the mass-metallicity relation is set by the slope of the relationship between gas mass and stellar mass. The turnover in the mass-metallicity relation occurs when the gas-phase oxygen abundance is high enough that the amount of oxygen locked up in low-mass stars is an appreciable fraction of the amount of oxygen produced by massive stars. The characteristic turnover mass is the stellar mass, where the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is unity. Numerical modeling suggests that the relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is a redshift-independent, universal relationship followed by all galaxies as they evolve. The mass-metallicity relation originates from this more fundamental universal relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio. We test the validity of this universal metallicity relation in local galaxies where stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass measurements are available. The data are consistent with a universal metallicity relation. We derive an equation for estimating the hydrogen gas mass from measurements of stellar mass and metallicity valid for z ≲ 1.6 and predict the cosmological evolution of galactic gas masses.

  15. ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION SPIKING CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS RELATED TO CHEMICAL WEAPON CONVENTION IN UNKNOWN WATER SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTRON IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Budiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification and analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products is one of important component for the implementation of the convention. Nowadays, the analytical method for determination chemical warfare agent and their degradation products has been developing and improving. In order to get the sufficient analytical data as recommended by OPCW especially in Proficiency Testing, the spiking chemical compounds related to Chemical Weapon Convention in unknown water sample were determined using two different techniques such as gas chromatography and gas chromatography electron-impact ionization mass spectrometry. Neutral organic extraction, pH 11 organic extraction, cation exchanged-methylation, triethylamine/methanol-silylation were performed to extract the chemical warfare agents from the sample, before analyzing with gas chromatography. The identification of chemical warfare agents was carried out by comparing the mass spectrum of chemicals with mass spectrum reference from the OPCW Central Analytical Database (OCAD library while the retention indices calculation obtained from gas chromatography analysis was used to get the confirmation and supported data of  the chemical warfare agents. Diisopropyl methylphosphonate, 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroacetic acid and 3-quinuclidinol were found in unknown water sample. Those chemicals were classified in schedule 2 as precursor or reactant of chemical weapons compound in schedule list of Chemical Weapon Convention.   Keywords: gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, retention indices, OCAD library, chemical warfare agents

  16. Adolescents' Motivation for Reading: Group Differences and Relation to Standardized Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Denton, Carolyn A.; York, Mary J.; Francis, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on adolescents' motivation for reading by examining important group differences and the relation of motivation to standardized achievement. Adolescents (N = 406) ranging from grade 7 to grade 12 completed a self-report survey that assessed 13 different aspects of their reading motivation…

  17. Limitations of the relative standard deviation of win percentages for measuring competitive balance in sports leagues

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dorian Owen

    2009-01-01

    The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.

  18. Challenging the 3.0 GPA Eligibility Standard for Public Relations Internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the appropriateness of a 3.0 GPA standard for public relations internship eligibility at one university. Seeks to determine at what GPA cutoff faculty can feel confident that the student will gain from the internship without damaging the program's reputation. Finds students with a 2.7 GPA did as well as students with GPAs ranging from 3.0…

  19. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral \\8\\ and vision... Act uses the terms ``dental'' and ``oral'' interchangeably when referring to the pediatric dental care... Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential...

  20. Naval Research Laboratory Industrial Chemical Analysis and Respiratory Filter Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    38068 1000.00 19.50 38.07 19500 500.00 22.80 76.40 11400 * Based on the capacity as measured at 2456 mg/m3 challenge level. Ave = 22989.33...2,000 0 20 40 60 80 100 Fi lte r C ap ac ity (m g- m in /m 3 ) Relative Humidity (%) E-9 there is no test data for these two compounds. This is...and likely VX. a. ZZAT’s loss of capacity for the simple organics also results in a loss of capacity against GB, when measured at 50% RH. At higher

  1. NMR determination of chemically related metals in solution as a new method of inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    An NMR spectroscopic method for the determination of chemically related metals in solution is suggested. The metals are determined in complexes with specially selected polydentate ligands. Structural requirements to ligands, analytical properties and general limits of the application of the method are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Physico-chemical findings related to the resilience of different soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an interdisciplinary study on Sustainable Agriculture in semiarid Areas (SASA) in south-central Tanzania, soils from five different locations were investigated for their mineralogical composition and physico-chemical characteristics in order to determine their resilience in relation to land use. The results of the ...

  3. The relation between repair of DNA and radiation and chemical mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of various genes involved in DNA repair functions on radiation and chemical mutagenesis in Escherichia coli is discussed and compared to similar studies done in yeast. Results of the effect of various genes conferring radiation-sensitivty on mutation induction in yeast are presented and related to current ideas of mutagenesis

  4. Student Misconceptions in Chemical Equilibrium as Related to Cognitive Level and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Alan E.; Kass, Heidi

    Reported is an investigation to determine the nature and extent of student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium and to ascertain the degree to which certain misconceptions are related to chemistry achievement and to performance on specific tasks involving cognitive transformations characteristic of the concrete and formal operational stages of…

  5. DFT/GIAO calculations of the relative contributions of hyperconjugation to the chemical shifts of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J. Walkimar de M.; Dias, Jacques F.; Seidl, Peter R.; Tostes, J. Glauco R.

    2002-01-01

    Our previous DFT/GIAO calculations on different types of alcohols reveal that the rotation of the hydroxyl group can affect the chemical shift of carbons and hydrogens close to the substituent in different ways. Besides the steric and electrostatic effects that have been widely studied, hyperconjugation with the lone pairs on oxygen of the hydroxyl group leads to changes in bond lengths and angles as well as to different charge distributions. As all three of these factors also affect chemical shifts, we undertook a systematic investigation of their relative contributions to the chemical shifts of ethanol, a molecule in which there is minimum interference among these factors. Calculations by the B3LYP method at the 6-31G(d) level for ethanol conformers corresponding to a rotation around the carbon-oxygen bond at 30 dec increments are used to show how relative contributions vary with the dihedral angle formed between the carbon-carbon and oxygen-hydrogen bonds (C-C-O-H). Largest contributions to carbon chemical shifts can be attributed to changes in bond lengths while for hydrogen chemical shifts also contribute significantly differences in charge distribution. (author)

  6. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF

  7. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  8. Conformational analysis, spectroscopic, structure-activity relations and quantum chemical simulation studies of 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Devi, L.; Mohan, S.

    2018-05-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-trifluoromethylbenzylamine (TFMBA) have been recorded in the range 4000-450 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The conformational analysis of the compound has been carried out to attain stable geometry of the compound. The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum chemical studies. The experimental vibrational frequencies are compared with the wavenumbers obtained theoretically from the B3LYP gradient calculations employing the standard high level 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets for the optimised geometry of the compound. The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the normal modes obtained from the B3LYP methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The 1H (400 MHz; CDCl3) and 13C (100 MHz; CDCl3) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were also recorded. The electronic properties, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies are measured by DFT approach. The charges of the atoms by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis are determined by B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. The structure-chemical reactivity relations of the compound are determined through chemical potential, global hardness, global softness, electronegativity, electrophilicity and local reactivity descriptors by conceptual DFT methods.

  9. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Dover Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  10. Relating physico-chemical properties of frozen green peas (Pisum sativum L.) to sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Kathleen M; Minnaar, Amanda; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-03-30

    The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer's markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality. The sensory quality of frozen green peas, particularly texture properties, were well explained using physico-chemical methods of analysis notably alcohol insoluble solids, starch content, hardness and °Brix. Generally, retail class peas were of superior sensory quality to caterer's class peas although one caterer's brand was comparable to the retail brands. Retail class peas were sweeter, smaller, greener, more moist and more tender than the caterer's peas. Retail class peas also had higher °Brix, a(*) , hue and chroma values; lower starch, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter content and hardness measured. The sensory quality of frozen green peas can be partially predicted by measuring physico-chemical parameters particularly °Brix and to a lesser extent hardness by texture analyser, alcohol insoluble solids, dry matter and starch content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Relativity of commercial specification of Menthae Herba based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Zhao, Ming; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen; Peng, Hua-sheng; Han Bang-xing; Zhang, Wei-wan-qi; Gu, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the differences of 35 Menthae Herba samples collected on the market and at producing areas, the contents of six total terpenoids, the essential oil and chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed, which provided evidences for drawing up the commodity specifications and grading criteria of Menthae Herba. GC-MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of 35 different samples. The chromatographic fingerprints obtained by using GC were then evaluated by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The relativity between the content of six terpenoids and the essential oil were studied. In this study, the chemical profiles of 35 samples from different producing areas had significant disparity. All samples collected in the report could be categorized into four chemical types, L-menthol, pulegone, carvone and L-menthone, but the chemical profiles had no relationship with the areas. The chromatographic fingerprints of the samples from different types were dissimilar, while the different producing areas were difficult to be separated. It was indicated that the content of volatile oil was positively correlated with the content of L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids. The content of the essential oil, L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids of Menthae Herba were considered as one of the commercial specifications and grading criteria. These results in the research could be helpful to draw up the commercial specification and grading criteria of Menthae Herba from a view of chemical information.

  12. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  13. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Chuang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the 228 Th/ 228 Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  14. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  15. Synthesis of reference compounds related to Chemical Weapons Convention for verification and drug development purposes – a Brazilian endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, S. F. A.; de Paula, R. L.; Kitagawa, D. A. S.; Barcellos, M. C.; Simas, A. B. C.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with challenges that Brazilian Army Organic Synthesis Laboratory has been going through to access reference compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention in order to support verification analysis and for research of novel antidotes. Some synthetic procedures to produce the chemicals, as well as Quality Assurance issues and a brief introduction of international agreements banning chemical weapons are also presented.

  16. The standard genetic code and its relation to mutational pressure: robustness and equilibrium criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Caceres, Jose Luis; Hong, Rolando; Martinez Ortiz, Carlos; Sautie Castellanos, Miguel; Valdes, Kiria; Guevara Erra, Ramon

    2004-10-01

    Under the assumption of even point mutation pressure on the DNA strand, rates for transitions from one amino acid into another were assessed. Nearly 25% of all mutations were silent. About 48% of the mutations from a given amino acid stream either into the same amino acid or into an amino acid of the same class. These results suggest a great stability of the Standard Genetic Code respect to mutation load. Concepts from chemical equilibrium theory are applicable into this case provided that mutation rate constants are given. It was obtained that unequal synonymic codon usage may lead to changes in the equilibrium concentrations. Data from real biological species showed that several amino acids are close to the respective equilibrium concentration. However in all the cases the concentration of leucine nearly doubled its equilibrium concentration, whereas for the stop command (Term) it was about 10 times lower. The overall distance from equilibrium for a set of species suggests that eukaryotes are closer to equilibrium than prokaryotes, and the HIV virus was closest to equilibrium among 15 species. We obtained that contemporary species are closer to the equilibrium than the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) was. Similarly, nonpreserved regions in proteins are closer to equilibrium than the preserved ones. We suggest that this approach can be useful for exploring some aspects of biological evolution in the framework of Standard Genetic Code properties. (author)

  17. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  18. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae; Markley, John L

    2012-10-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  19. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woonghee, E-mail: whlee@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, and Biochemistry Department (United States); Yu, Wookyung [Center for Proteome Biophysics, Pusan National University, Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhkmann [Pusan National University, Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Iksoo [Center for Proteome Biophysics, Pusan National University, Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Structural Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry (Korea, Republic of); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, and Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2012-10-15

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.eduhttp://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  20. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo

    2012-01-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu. PMID:22903636

  1. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae; Markley, John L.

    2012-01-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.eduhttp://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  2. Chemical review and studies related to species from the genus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Colombi Cansian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

  3. Computational Protocols for Prediction of Solute NMR Relative Chemical Shifts. A Case Study of L-Tryptophan in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus H.; Aidas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    to the results stemming from the conformations extracted from the MM conformational search in terms of replicating an experimental reference as well as in achieving the correct sequence of the NMR relative chemical shifts of L-tryptophan in aqueous solution. We find this to be due to missing conformations......In this study, we have applied two different spanning protocols for obtaining the molecular conformations of L-tryptophan in aqueous solution, namely a molecular dynamics simulation and a molecular mechanics conformational search with subsequent geometry re-optimization of the stable conformers...... using a quantum mechanically based method. These spanning protocols represent standard ways of obtaining a set of conformations on which NMR calculations may be performed. The results stemming from the solute–solvent configurations extracted from the MD simulation at 300 K are found to be inferior...

  4. From Classical to Discrete Gravity through Exponential Non-Standard Lagrangians in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ahmad El-Nabulsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-standard Lagrangians have gained a growing importance in theoretical physics and in the theory of non-linear differential equations. However, their formulations and implications in general relativity are still in their infancies despite some advances in contemporary cosmology. The main aim of this paper is to fill the gap. Though non-standard Lagrangians may be defined by a multitude form, in this paper, we considered the exponential type. One basic feature of exponential non-standard Lagrangians concerns the modified Euler-Lagrange equation obtained from the standard variational analysis. Accordingly, when applied to spacetime geometries, one unsurprisingly expects modified geodesic equations. However, when taking into account the time-like paths parameterization constraint, remarkably, it was observed that mutually discrete gravity and discrete spacetime emerge in the theory. Two different independent cases were obtained: A geometrical manifold with new spacetime coordinates augmented by a metric signature change and a geometrical manifold characterized by a discretized spacetime metric. Both cases give raise to Einstein’s field equations yet the gravity is discretized and originated from “spacetime discreteness”. A number of mathematical and physical implications of these results were discussed though this paper and perspectives are given accordingly.

  5. Determination of the relations governing the evolution of the standard deviations of the distribution of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.

    1985-04-01

    An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  6. Recurrence Relations for the Equilibrium Means of Distributions Arising in Chemical Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Elsheikh

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we derive recurrence relations that describe how the equilibrium mean of the number molecules of a reactant varies with each of the parameters defining the initial state for four basic reversible chemical reactions. In essence, the relations provide a rationale for updating the equilibrium mean following the addition (or removal of a molecule of one of the types involved in the reaction, there being a relation for each type. With a new parameterization introduced for each reaction, the relations provide a convenient means of evaluating the means, variances and other important moments without any need to work out the underlying distributions. As an application, the relations are used to numerically assess-approximate expressions for the means and variances.

  7. Relating road salt to exceedances of the water quality standard for chloride in New Hampshire streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Philip R; Kahl, J Steve; Sassan, Dari A; Heath, Douglas L; Walsh, Edward M

    2010-07-01

    Six watersheds in New Hampshire were studied to determine the effects of road salt on stream water quality. Specific conductance in streams was monitored every 15 min for one year using dataloggers. Chloride concentrations were calculated from specific conductance using empirical relationships. Stream chloride concentrations were directly correlated with development in the watersheds and were inversely related to streamflow. Exceedances of the EPA water quality standard for chloride were detected in the four watersheds with the most development. The number of exceedances during a year was linearly related to the annual average concentration of chloride. Exceedances of the water quality standard were not predicted for streams with annual average concentrations less than 102 mg L(-1). Chloride was imported into three of the watersheds at rates ranging from 45 to 98 Mg Cl km(-2) yr(-1). Ninety-one percent of the chloride imported was road salt for deicing roadways and parking lots. A simple, mass balance equation was shown to predict annual average chloride concentrations from streamflow and chloride import rates to the watershed. This equation, combined with the apparent threshold for exceedances of the water quality standard, can be used for screening-level TMDLs for road salt in impaired watersheds.

  8. Effect of chemical peeling on the skin in relation to UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Yoko; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Kawana, Seiji; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-07-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. However, it needs to be clarified whether the repetitive procedure of chemical peeling on photodamaged skin is safe and whether the different chemicals used for peeling results in similar outcomes or not. In this article, we reviewed the effect of peeling or peeling agents on the skin in relation to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The pretreatment of peeling agents usually enhance UV sensitivity by inducing increased sunburn cell formation, lowering minimum erythematous dose and increasing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, this sensitivity is reversible and recovers to normal after 1-week discontinuation. Using animals, the chronic effect of peeling and peeling agents was shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis. There is also an in vitro study using culture cells to know the detailed mechanisms of peeling agents, especially on cell proliferation and apoptotic changes via activating signalling cascades and oxidative stress. It is important to understand the effect of peeling agents on photoaged skin and to know how to deal with UV irradiation during the application of peeling agents and treatment of chemical peeling in daily life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  10. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  11. Relative resilience to noise of standard and sequential approaches to measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C. B.; Ferraro, A.

    2018-05-01

    A possible alternative to the standard model of measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is offered by the sequential model of MBQC—a particular class of quantum computation via ancillae. Although these two models are equivalent under ideal conditions, their relative resilience to noise in practical conditions is not yet known. We analyze this relationship for various noise models in the ancilla preparation and in the entangling-gate implementation. The comparison of the two models is performed utilizing both the gate infidelity and the diamond distance as figures of merit. Our results show that in the majority of instances the sequential model outperforms the standard one in regard to a universal set of operations for quantum computation. Further investigation is made into the performance of sequential MBQC in experimental scenarios, thus setting benchmarks for possible cavity-QED implementations.

  12. Relationship between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Hanan; Braeckman, Lutgart; Van Hecke, Tanja; De Clercq, Bart; Janssens, Heidi; Wahab, Magd Abdel

    2017-03-28

    The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between indicators of non-standard work arrangements, including precarious contract, long working hours, multiple jobs, shift work, and work-related accident absence, using a representative Belgian sample and considering several socio-demographic and work characteristics. This study was based on the data of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS). For the analysis, the sample was restricted to 3343 respondents from Belgium who were all employed workers. The associations between non-standard work arrangements and work-related accident absence were studied with multivariate logistic regression modeling techniques while adjusting for several confounders. During the last 12 months, about 11.7% of workers were absent from work because of work-related accident. A multivariate regression model showed an increased injury risk for those performing shift work (OR 1.546, 95% CI 1.074-2.224). The relationship between contract type and occupational injuries was not significant (OR 1.163, 95% CI 0.739-1.831). Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed for those performing long working hours (OR 1.217, 95% CI 0.638-2.321) and those performing multiple jobs (OR 1.361, 95% CI 0.827-2.240) in relation to work-related accident absence. Those who rated their health as bad, low educated workers, workers from the construction sector, and those exposed to biomechanical exposure (BM) were more frequent victims of work-related accident absence. No significant gender difference was observed. Indicators of non-standard work arrangements under this study, except shift work, were not significantly associated with work-related accident absence. To reduce the burden of occupational injuries, not only risk reduction strategies and interventions are needed but also policy efforts are to be undertaken to limit shift work. In general, preventive measures and more training on the job are needed to

  13. Stability of biogenic metal(loid) nanomaterials related to the colloidal stabilization theory of chemical nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Turner, Raymond J

    2018-02-25

    In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures. Different macromolecules (e.g. proteins, peptides, lipids, DNA, and polysaccharides) or secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, organic acids, and alkaloids) naturally produced by organisms have been indicated as main contributors to the stabilization of Bio-Me-nanostructures. Nevertheless, the chemical-physical mechanisms behind the ability of these molecules in providing stability to Bio-Me-nanomaterials are unknown. In this context, transposing the stabilization theory of chemically synthesized Me-nanomaterials (Ch-Me-nanomaterials) to biogenic materials can be used towards a better comprehension of macromolecules and secondary metabolites role as stabilizing agents of Bio-Me-nanomaterials. According to this theory, nanomaterials are generally featured by high thermodynamic instability in suspension, due to their high surface area and surface energy. This feature leads to the necessity to stabilize chemical nanostructures, even during or directly after their synthesis, through the development of (i) electrostatic, (ii) steric, or (iii) electrosteric interactions occurring between molecules and nanomaterials in suspension. Based on these three mechanisms, this review is focused on parallels between the stabilization of biogenic or chemical nanomaterials, suggesting which chemical-physical mechanisms may be

  14. The impact of nectar chemical features on phenotypic variation in two related nectar yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, María I; Herrera, Carlos M; Van den Ende, Wim; Verstrepen, Kevin; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Floral nectars become easily colonized by microbes, most often species of the ascomycetous yeast genus Metschnikowia. Although it is known that nectar composition can vary tremendously among plant species, most probably corresponding to the nutritional requirements of their main pollinators, far less is known about how variation in nectar chemistry affects intraspecific variation in nectarivorous yeasts. Because variation in nectar traits probably affects growth and abundance of nectar yeasts, nectar yeasts can be expected to display large phenotypic variation in order to cope with varying nectar conditions. To test this hypothesis, we related variation in the phenotypic landscape of a vast collection of nectar-living yeast isolates from two Metschnikowia species (M. reukaufii and M. gruessii) to nectar chemical traits using non-linear redundancy analyses. Nectar yeasts were collected from 19 plant species from different plant families to include as much variation in nectar chemical traits as possible. As expected, nectar yeasts displayed large variation in phenotypic traits, particularly in traits related to growth performance in carbon sources and inhibitors, which was significantly related to the host plant from which they were isolated. Total sugar concentration and relative fructose content significantly explained the observed variation in the phenotypic profile of the investigated yeast species, indicating that sugar concentration and composition are the key traits that affect phenotypic variation in nectarivorous yeasts. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  16. DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

  17. Systematic review: work-related stress and the HSE management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, K; Limbert, C; Deacy, C; O'Reilly, A; Scott, S; Thirlaway, K

    2013-10-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has defined six management standards representing aspects of work that, if poorly managed, are associated with lower levels of employee health and productivity, and increased sickness absence. The HSE indicator tool aims to measure organizations' performance in managing the primary stressors identified by the HSE management standards. The aims of the study are to explore how the HSE indicator tool has been implemented within organizations and to identify contexts in which the tool has been used, its psychometric properties and relationships with alternative measures of well-being and stress. Studies that matched specific criteria were included in the review. Abstracts were considered by two researchers to ensure a reliable process. Full texts were obtained when abstracts met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen papers were included in the review. Using factor analysis and measures of reliability, the studies suggest that the HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure. The tool has been used to measure work-related stress across different occupational groups, with a clear relationship between the HSE tool and alternative measures of well-being. Limitations of the tool and recommendations for future research are discussed. The HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure of organizational performance against the HSE management standards. As such it can provide a broad overview of sources of work-related stress within organizations. More research is required to explore the use of the tool in the design of interventions to reduce stress, and its use in different contexts and with different cultural and gender groups.

  18. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  19. Optical properties of the urban aerosol and their relation to chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaderer, B.P.; Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Light extinction and resulting visibility degradation in an unsaturated precipitation-free atmosphere are determined by light absorption and scattering and are caused by a complex mix of natural components and anthropogenic pollutants. The paper reviews correlation studies relating light scattering and light extinction (visibility) to concentrations of sulfate mass, nitrate mass, the remainder of the mass, and in some cases organic aerosol mass, while accounting for variations in relative humidity. It is found that sulfate aerosol mass is the dominant chemical aerosol species affecting light scattering and extinction. The dominant effect of sulfate mass on light scattering and extinction, even when sulfates account for a relatively small fraction of the total mass, results from the fact that sulfates are secondary aerosols and are mostly found in the 0.1-1.0 micron size range

  20. Hypothalamic-mediated model for systemic lupus erythematosis: relation to hemispheric chemical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-11-01

    The isoprenoid pathway including endogenous digoxin was assessed in systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). All the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. This was also studied for comparison in patients with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway was upregulated with increased digoxin synthesis in patients with SLE and in those with right hemispheric dominance. In this group of patients (i) the tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites reduced, (ii) the dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were elevated, (iii) lysosomal stability was reduced, (iv) ubiquinone levels were low and free radical levels increased, and (v) the membrane cholesterol:phospholipid ratios were increased and membrane glycoconjugates reduced. On the other hand, in patients with left hemispheric dominance the reverse patterns were obtained. The biochemical patterns obtained in SLE is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. SLE occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals, and is a reflection of altered brain function. The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of SLE and its relation to hemispheric dominance is discussed.

  1. Quantum chemical and spectroscopic analysis of calcium hydroxyapatite and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Khavryuchenko, O.V.; Lisnyak, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous calcium hydroxyapatite was examined by vibrational spectroscopy (Raman and infra-red (IR)) and quantum chemical simulation techniques. The structures and vibrational (IR, Raman and inelastic neutron scattering) spectra of PO 4 3- ion, Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , [Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ] 3 , Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH, CaHPO 4 , [CaHPO 4 ] 2 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .3H 2 O clusters were quantum chemically simulated at ab initio and semiempirical levels of approximation. A complete coordinate analysis of the vibrational spectra was performed. The comparison of the theoretically simulated spectra with the experimental ones allows to identify correctly the phase composition of the amorphous calcium hydroxyapatite and related materials. The shape of the bands in the IR spectra of the hydroxoapatite can be used in order to characterize the structural properties of the material, e.g., the PO 4 3- ion status, the degree of hydrolysis of the material and the presence of hydrolysis products. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the quantum chemically optimized Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) cluster, which was used for vibrations spectra simulation

  2. Role of the chemical engineering technician in applied research related to tritium separation from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Applied research and development activities related to the removal of tritium from aqueous effluent streams have presented broad opportunities to the chemical engineering technician for professional growth. Technician job activities involve operating complex analytical instrumentation and constructing, maintaining, and operating experimental electrolysis apparatus. The technician is a member of a professional team including scientific, engineering, and other technical personnel and as such is expected to exercise creative thought. Proximity of a large university and availability of formalized ''in house'' training courses provide incentives for technicians to broaden their academic base concurrent with their work involvement

  3. Abnormal brain activation and connectivity to standardized disorder-related visual scenes in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Feldker, Katharina; Neumeister, Paula; Zepp, Britta Maria; Peterburs, Jutta; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of altered emotional processing in social anxiety disorder (SAD) is hampered by a heterogeneity of findings, which is probably due to the vastly different methods and materials used so far. This is why the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated immediate disorder-related threat processing in 30 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) with a novel, standardized set of highly ecologically valid, disorder-related complex visual scenes. SAD patients rated disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes as more unpleasant, arousing and anxiety-inducing than HC. On the neural level, disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes evoked differential responses in SAD patients in a widespread emotion processing network including (para-)limbic structures (e.g. amygdala, insula, thalamus, globus pallidus) and cortical regions (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and precuneus). Functional connectivity analysis yielded an altered interplay between PCC/precuneus and paralimbic (insula) as well as cortical regions (dmPFC, precuneus) in SAD patients, which emphasizes a central role for PCC/precuneus in disorder-related scene processing. Hyperconnectivity of globus pallidus with amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) additionally underlines the relevance of this region in socially anxious threat processing. Our findings stress the importance of specific disorder-related stimuli for the investigation of altered emotion processing in SAD. Disorder-related threat processing in SAD reveals anomalies at multiple stages of emotion processing which may be linked to increased anxiety and to dysfunctionally elevated levels of self-referential processing reported in previous studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  5. Variation of iron redox kinetics and its relation with molecular composition of standard humic substances at circumneutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying Ping; Fujii, Manabu; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Terao, Koumei; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe) and proportion of steady-state Fe(II) concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II) fraction) were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS) with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III) and oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8). Rates of Fe(III) reduction were spectrophotometrically determined by a ferrozine method under the simulated sunlight and dark conditions, whereas rates of Fe(II) oxidation were examined in air-saturated solution using luminol chemiluminescence technique. The reduction and oxidation rate constants were determined to substantially vary depending on the type of HS. For example, the first-order rate constants varied by up to 10-fold for photochemical reduction and 7-fold for thermal reduction. The degree of variation in Fe(II) oxidation was larger for the H2O2-mediated reaction compared to the O2-mediated reaction (e.g., 15- and 3-fold changes for the former and latter reactions, respectively, at pH 8). The steady-state Fe(II) fraction under the simulated sunlight indicated that the Fe(II) fraction varies by up to 12-fold. The correlation analysis indicated that variation of Fe(II) oxidation is significantly associated with aliphatic content of HS, suggesting that Fe(II) complexation by aliphatic components accelerates Fe(II) oxidation. The reduction rate constant and steady-state Fe(II) fractions in the presence of sunlight had relatively strong positive relations with free radical content of HS, possibly due to the reductive property of radical semiquinone in HS. Overall, the findings in this study indicated that the Fe reduction and oxidation kinetics and resultant Fe(II) formation are substantially influenced by chemical properties of HS.

  6. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  7. Land use-related chemical composition of street sediments in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Cen; Neumann, Thomas; Norra, Stefan; Stüben, Doris

    2004-01-01

    deserts. This is supported by mineral phase analysis, which showed a clear imprint of material in road dusts coming from the West-China deserts. Our results clearly show that the chemical composition of urban road dusts can be used to identify distinct sources responsible for their contamination. The study demonstrates that the chemistry of road dusts is an important monitor to assess the contamination in the urban environment. Chemical composition of street sediments in Beijing comprises the information of different sources of atmospheric particles. This study is only a small contribution to the understanding of substance fluxes related to Beijing's dust. More effort is required to assess Beijing's dust fluxes, since the dust harms the living quality of the inhabitants. Especially the measurable superimposing of long scale transported dust from dry regions with the anthropogenic polluted urban dust makes investigations of Beijing's dust scientifically valuable.

  8. Standard practice for determining relative image quality response of industrial radiographic imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides a practice whereby industrial radiographic imaging systems may be comparatively assessed using the concept of relative image quality response (RIQR). The RIQR method presented within this practice is based upon the use of equivalent penetrameter sensitivity (EPS) described within Practice E 1025 and subsection 5.2 of this practice. Figure 1 illustrates a relative image quality indicator (RIQI) that has four different steel plaque thicknesses (.015, .010, .008, and .005 in.) sequentially positioned (from top to bottom) on a ¾-in. thick steel plate. The four plaques contain a total of 14 different arrays of penetrameter-type hole sizes designed to render varied conditions of threshold visibility ranging from 1.92 % EPS (at the top) to .94 % EPS (at the bottom) when exposed to nominal 200 keV X-ray radiation. Each “EPS” array consists of 30 identical holes; thus, providing the user with a quantity of threshold sensitivity levels suitable for relative image qualitative response com...

  9. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-10-30

    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  10. Gauge-independent scales related to the Standard Model vacuum instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.; Garny, M.; Konstandin, T.; Riotto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about 10"1"1 GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  11. Gauge-Independent Scales Related to the Standard Model Vacuum Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R.; Konstandin, Thomas; Riotto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about $10^{11}$ GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge-invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  12. Relation between chemical properties in molten acetamide and water at 98 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Nicole

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish the relation between the chemical properties of various cations in water and in molten acetamide at 98 deg. C. A solvent always possesses properties which have some effect on the reactivity of the solute. Various types of interactions (polar, electrostatic, Van der Waals forces, and hydrogen bonds) bind the solvent molecules to the dissolved molecules and ions. Interactions between the solute species and the solvent species are designated: solvation phenomena. In addition to solvation phenomena, another but less direct type of interaction occurs: the solvated ions find themselves in a sensibly continuous medium having a dielectric constant ε which can vary considerably. As the value of the dielectric constant decreases, the electrostatic interactions between the ions increase. The variation is such that these ions can only be considered free for values of ε > 40. This is the case for acetamide and water at 98 deg. C. The solvation of a chemical species belonging to an oxido-reducing system can only be effected by comparing the behavior of such a system with a reference system relatively insensitive to changes in the solvent. The reference system used was a ferrocene-ion/ferricinium couple. The solvation of a chemical species is characterized by a variable designated: the solvation activity coefficient. The chemical and electrochemical properties of various elements (alkali elements, alkaline earths, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, U, Al, Ce, and Eu) in neutral or acid media in acetamide were studied using various electrochemical techniques (principally polarography). These studies led to the establishment of a table of oxido-reducing potentials for molten acetamide. Comparisons with water at 98 deg. C indicate that the metallic cations are more solvated in acetamide than in water. The evaluation of solvation activity coefficients from polarographic measurements (E 1/2 , D M ) led to an approximate estimation of the differences in behavior

  13. Determine equilibrium dissociation constant of drug-membrane receptor affinity using the cell membrane chromatography relative standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Yang, Liu; Lv, Yanni; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong

    2017-06-23

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K D ) of drug-membrane receptor affinity is the basic parameter that reflects the strength of interaction. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method is an effective technique to study the characteristics of drug-membrane receptor affinity. In this study, the K D value of CMC relative standard method for the determination of drug-membrane receptor affinity was established to analyze the relative K D values of drugs binding to the membrane receptors (Epidermal growth factor receptor and angiotensin II receptor). The K D values obtained by the CMC relative standard method had a strong correlation with those obtained by the frontal analysis method. Additionally, the K D values obtained by CMC relative standard method correlated with pharmacological activity of the drug being evaluated. The CMC relative standard method is a convenient and effective method to evaluate drug-membrane receptor affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Standard on microbiological management of fluids for hemodialysis and related therapies by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Hideki; Akiba, Takashi; Masakane, Ikuto; Tomo, Tadashi; Mineshima, Michio; Kawasaki, Tadayuki; Hirakata, Hideki; Akizawa, Tadao

    2009-04-01

    The Committee of Scientific Academy of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) proposes a new standard on microbiological management of fluids for hemodialysis and related therapies. This standard is within the scope of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is currently under revision. This standard is to be applied to the central dialysis fluid delivery systems (CDDS), which are widely used in Japan. In this standard, microbiological qualities for dialysis water and dialysis fluids are clearly defined by endotoxin level and bacterial count. The qualities of dialysis fluids were classified into three levels: standard, ultrapure, and online prepared substitution fluid. In addition, the therapeutic application of each dialysis fluid is clarified. Since high-performance dialyzers are frequently used in Japan, the standard recommends that ultrapure dialysis fluid be used for all dialysis modalities at all dialysis facilities. It also recommends that the dialysis equipment safety management committee at each facility should validate the microbiological qualities of online prepared substitution fluid.

  15. Cell behavior related to implant surfaces with different microstructure and chemical composition: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserva, Enrico; Lanuti, Anna; Menini, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in vitro comparison of osteoblast and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation related to two different surface treatments applied to the same implant design to determine whether the interaction between cells and implants is influenced by surface structure and chemical composition of the implants. Thirty-nine implants with a sandblasted (SB) surface and 39 implants with a grit-blasted and high-temperature acid-etched (GBAE) surface were used. The implant macrostructures and microstructures were analyzed by high- and low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by stereo-SEM. The surface chemical composition was investigated by energy dispersive analysis and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. SaOS-2 osteoblasts and human MSCs were used for the evaluation of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity in contact with the two surfaces. The GBAE surface showed fewer contaminants and a very high percentage of titanium (19.7%) compared to the SB surface (14.2%). The two surfaces showed similar mean roughness (Ra), but the depth (Rz) and density (RSm) of the porosity were significantly increased in the GBAE surface. The GBAE surface presented more osteoblast and MSC proliferation than the SB surface. No statistically significant differences in alkaline phosphatase activity were found between surfaces for either cellular line. The GBAE surface showed less surface contaminants and a higher percentage of titanium (19.7%) than the SB surface. The macro/micropore structured design and chemical composition of the GBAE surface allowed greater cell adhesion and proliferation and an earlier cell spreading but did not play an obvious role in in vitro cellular differentiation.

  16. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons

  17. Temporal assessment of copper speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in UK freshwaters using chemical equilibrium and biotic ligand models: Implications for compliance with copper environmental quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathouri, Maria; Korre, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Although significant progress has been made in understanding how environmental factors modify the speciation, bioavailability and toxicity of metals such as copper in aquatic environments, the current methods used to establish water quality standards do not necessarily consider the different geological and geochemical characteristics of a given site and the factors that affect copper fate, bioavailability potential and toxicity. In addition, the temporal variation in the concentration and bioavailable metal fraction is also important in freshwater systems. The work presented in this paper illustrates the temporal and seasonal variability of a range of water quality parameters, and Cu speciation, bioavailability and toxicity at four freshwaters sites in the UK. Rivers Coquet, Cree, Lower Clyde and Eden (Kent) were selected to cover a broad range of different geochemical environments and site characteristics. The monitoring data used covered a period of around six years at almost monthly intervals. Chemical equilibrium modelling was used to study temporal variations in Cu speciation and was combined with acute toxicity modelling to assess Cu bioavailability for two aquatic species, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. The estimated copper bioavailability, toxicity levels and the corresponding ecosystem risks were analysed in relation to key water quality parameters (alkalinity, pH and DOC). Although copper concentrations did not vary much during the sampling period or between the seasons at the different sites; copper bioavailability varied markedly. In addition, through the chronic-Cu BLM-based on the voluntary risk assessment approach, the potential environmental risk in terms of the chronic toxicity was assessed. A much higher likelihood of toxicity effects was found during the cold period at all sites. It is suggested that besides the metal (copper) concentration in the surface water environment, the variability and seasonality of other important water quality

  18. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of chemical warfare agents, toxins and related compounds: state of the art and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kientz, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the identification of chemical warfare agents, toxins, bioregulators and related products are frequently reported in literature. These methods are often based on instrumental analysis using chromatography (gas and liquid) and mass spectrometry. Here, these instrumental techniques are

  19. Guidelines for terms related to chemical speciations and fractionation of elements : definitions, structural aspects, and methodological approaches (IUPAC Recommendations 2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Templeton, D.M.; Ariese, F.; Cornelis, R.; Danielsson, L.G.; Muntau, H.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lobínski, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of concepts related to speciation of elements, more particularly speciation analysis and chemical species. Fractionation is distinguished from speciation analysis, and a general outline of fractionation procedures is given. We propose a categorization of species

  20. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among motorcycle mechanics, Lahore (Pakistan: an application of standardized Nordic questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Baqar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a follow up to our previously published “letter to the editor”, whose purpose was to report the relationship of pain prevalence (work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and trouble prohibiting to normal work (work-related musculoskeletal disorders with descriptive variables among motorcycle mechanics using standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ as a tool. Results demonstrates that the pain prevalence was significantly high in shoulders, neck, low-back, wrists, ankles and elbows compared to other body parts. Among variables “age of participants and working hours” were found to be directly associated whereby shoulder and neck pain had significant correlation with lower age groups and more working hours. Regarding trouble prohibited to normal work, a total of 121 (46% participants reported hindrance in normal work with serious complaints about shoulders for younger age group; wrists and hips for middle age group; and neck, lower back, knees, ankles for old age group. Finally, results of a frequencies and cross-tabulations indicated that prolong work hours were significantly associated with emergence of musculoskeletal symptoms. This high prevalence of WMSS leading to WMSD among the motorcycles mechanics reflects the ignorance of occupational duties. A possible recommendation of this research includes the development and implementation of health and safety guidelines for the mentioned industry.

  1. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake.

  2. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Taste and mouthfeel properties of red wines proanthocyanidins and their relation to the chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2013-09-18

    The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the in-mouth sensory properties of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and its chemical composition. To achieve such a goal, the proanthocyanidin fraction from six different young commercial red wines was obtained by gel permeation chromatography. A sensory panel, selected on the basis of their PROP status and trained in taste and mouthfeel sensations, described both the wines and fractions. MALDI-TOF-MS and UPLC-MS were used to identify thoroughly the polyphenolic composition of each proanthocyanidin fraction. The results showed that the PAs fractions were exclusively described as astringent and persistent. The astringent subqualities studied (velvety and puckering/drying) were mainly related to the quantity of proanthocyanidins and the proportion of the extension flavanol units linked to proanthocyanidins. A significant negative correlation was found between both of the astringencies (velvety and puckering/drying). Furthermore, both subqualities appeared to contribute to the persistence. A significant correlation was observed between the astringency and the persistence data of the wines and fractions. Significant multiple linear regressions were found between the sensory astringency data and the chemical compounds analyzed. The concentration of proanthocyanidins present in young red wines is the major determinant of the differences perceived in the astringency. Additionally, the extension flavanol units linked to the proanthocyanidins seem to have a different impact on the astringent subqualities.

  4. Applicable safety-related design and operations considerations from the oil and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, R.J.; Deshotels, R.L.; Master, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fluor Daniel has conducted several hazards and risk analyses on petroleum and chemical facilities. These analyses included qualitative hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies, preliminary hazards analyses, and qualitative fault-tree analysis as well as quantitative event-tree/fault-tree risk analysis. Several design-related problem areas were uncovered as a result of these analyses as well as deficiencies in operations and maintenance. Design deficiency areas include potential common-mode failures associated with redundant functions sharing a common distributed digital control (DDC) logic circuit board and failures in pressure relief systems. Many of the design weaknesses and potential operator errors discussed have a direct counterpart in nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power reactors. Counterparts that are discussed are common cause/common mode failures in control systems and failures in pressure relief systems. Overpressurization of piping and vessels resulting in rupture is discussed. Mitigating design features and operations procedures that have been implemented in the chemical process industry are described and their applicability to the nuclear industry is discussed

  5. Non-standard employment relations and wages among school-leavers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.R.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-standard (alternatively, flexible) employment has become common in the Netherlands, and viewed as an important weapon for combating youth unemployment. However, if such jobs are 'bad', non-standard employment becomes a matter of concern. In addition, non-standard employment may hit the least

  6. 78 FR 57445 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... the Federal Register a schedule of standardized administrative fees we charge to recover the full cost... fee schedule is outdated and incongruent with the agency's current costs for this service. New... new standard fee on our most recent cost calculations for supplying this information and the standard...

  7. 76 FR 22665 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... criteria. The revised air quality criteria reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the... National Ambient Air Quality Standards, contains staff analyses of the scientific bases for alternative... Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY...

  8. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Delannoy

    Full Text Available Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5 (SPAC were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group. During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  9. Chemical approaches toward graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Shaomin; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-03-12

    A 'gold rush' has been triggered all over the world for exploiting the possible applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved; one is the preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials with well-defined structures, and the other is the controllable fabrication of these materials into functional devices. This review gives a brief overview of the recent research concerning chemical and thermal approaches toward the production of well-defined graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas, including solar cells, lithium ion secondary batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Standards related to harmonic disturbances and its evolution; La normalisation relative aux perturbations harmoniques et son evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deflandre, T. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this document is to provide an overview of the various normative documents and regulations that may be useful in the field of harmonics as references to a network user, fitter, manufacturer or operator. Several documents that are presently developed at Electricite de France are also presented, together with the connecting regulation that is included in the Emeraude contract. The following points are discussed: hierarchy of normative documents, harmonic emission standards and more especially the NF EN 610003-2 standards ``Limits for the emission of harmonic currents for equipment having an inrush current inferior or equal to 16 A per phase``; document status, immunity standards, compatibility and environment standards, documents under study and the Emeraude contract

  11. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on

  12. Collectivism versus individualism: performance-related pay and union coverage for non-standard workers in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L.; Francesconi, Marco

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the extent of union coverage and performance-related pay (PRP) - the latter representing one aspect of pay flexibility - across standard and non-standard workers in Britain, using the first seven waves of the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-1997. We find there is no evidence of expansion of either union coverage or PRP towards any type of non-standard employment in the 1990s. Thus union rhetoric about a 'strategy of enlargement' towards non-standard workers remains j...

  13. Quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of geological standards with a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer designed for in situ application in space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuland, M B; Riedo, A; Tulej, M; Wurz, P; Grimaudo, V; Moreno-García, P; Mezger, K

    2016-01-01

    A key interest of planetary space missions is the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the planetary surface material. The chemical composition of surface material (minerals, rocks, soils) yields fundamental information that can be used to answer key scientific questions about the formation and evolution of the planetary body in particular and the Solar System in general. We present a miniature time-of-flight type laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer (LMS) and demonstrate its capability in measuring the elemental and mineralogical composition of planetary surface samples quantitatively by using a femtosecond laser for ablation/ionization. The small size and weight of the LMS make it a remarkable tool for in situ chemical composition measurements in space research, convenient for operation on a lander or rover exploring a planetary surface. In the laboratory, we measured the chemical composition of four geological standard reference samples USGS AGV-2 Andesite, USGS SCo-l Cody Shale, NIST 97b Flint Clay and USGS QLO-1 Quartz Latite with LMS. These standard samples are used to determine the sensitivity factors of the instrument. One important result is that all sensitivity factors are close to 1. Additionally, it is observed that the sensitivity factor of an element depends on its electron configuration, hence on the electron work function and the elemental group in agreement with existing theory. Furthermore, the conformity of the sensitivity factors is supported by mineralogical analyses of the USGS SCo-l and the NIST 97b samples. With the four different reference samples, the consistency of the calibration factors can be demonstrated, which constitutes the fundamental basis for a standard-less measurement-technique for in situ quantitative chemical composition measurements on planetary surface. (paper)

  14. Double standards: the multinational asbestos industry and asbestos-related disease in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Jock; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    This study documents and contrasts the development of knowledge about asbestos-related disease (ARD) in South Africa and the United Kingdom. It also contributes to the globalization debate by exploring corporate decision-making in a multinational industry. Between the 1930s and 1960s, the leading U.K. asbestos companies developed a sophisticated knowledge of ARD, though in South Africa, where the leading companies such as Turner & Newall and Cape Asbestos owned mines, there was little attempt to apply this knowledge. Asbestos mines (and their environments) in South Africa were uniquely dusty and ARD was rife. Social and political factors in South Africa, especially apartheid, allowed these companies to apply double standards, even after 1960 when the much more serious hazard of mesothelioma was identified. This shows the need for greater regulation of multinationals. Because of the lack of such regulation in the early 1960s, an opportunity was lost to prevent the current high morbidity and mortality of ARD both in South Africa and worldwide.

  15. Length standards and the Twin Paradox in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, James Gasper

    In this Thesis I work towards a discussion of several resolutions of the Twin Paradox by exploring the Lorentz transformations. I begin by asking what it means for a moving length to contract, a question which obviously cannot be divorced from the propagation of length standards from one reference frame to another. I emphasize the conventionality of definitions of length. I go on to argue that it is the imposition of clock synchronization-the conventionality of one-way speeds- and not the effects of acceleration which leads to the asymmetry of light speed observed in Sagnac effect; and further, that this asymmetry leads to apparent paradoxes which are easily resolved when we take into account general covariance. In subsequent discussion of light-speed conventionality, I prove that any transform which preserves synchronization consistent with Michelson-Morley must be a similarity transform; and use this to demonstrate that not all results which appear to depend on Special Relativity actually do. I conclude this Thesis with an argument that the Twin Paradox cannot be resolved consistently if we impose simultaneously all 'physical' conditions which various resolutions impose in part.

  16. Failure trend analysis for safety related components of Korean standard NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Han, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    The component reliability data of Korean NPP that reflects the plant specific characteristics is required necessarily for PSA of Korean nuclear power plants. We have performed a project to develop the component reliability database (KIND, Korea Integrated Nuclear Reliability Database) and S/W for database management and component reliability analysis. Based on the system, we have collected the component operation data and failure/repair data during from plant operation date to 2002 for YGN 3, 4 and UCN 3, 4 plants. Recently, we provided the component failure rate data for UCN 3, 4 standard PSA model from the KIND. We evaluated the components that have high-ranking failure rates with the component reliability data from plant operation date to 1998 and 2000 for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3, 4 respectively. We also identified their failure mode that occurred frequently. In this study, we analyze the component failure trend and perform site comparison based on the generic data by using the component reliability data which is extended to 2002 for UCN 3, 4 and YGN 3, 4 respectively. We focus on the major safety related rotating components such as pump, EDG etc

  17. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  18. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  19. Quantification of the impact of water as an impurity on standard physico-chemical properties of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andanson, J.-M.; Meng, X.; Traïkia, M.; Husson, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual water has a negligible impact on density of hydrophobic ionic liquids. • The density of a dry sample can be calculated from the density of a wet ionic liquid. • The viscosity of a dry sample can be calculated from the one of a wet ionic liquid. • Water can be quantified by NMR spectroscopy even in dried hydrophobic ionic liquids. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of the presence of water as impurity in ionic liquids. First, density and viscosity of five ionic liquids as well as their aqueous solutions were measured. For hydrophobic dried ionic liquids, traces of water (50 ppm) have measurable impact neither on the density nor on the viscosity values. In the concentration range studied (up to 5000 ppm), a linear evolution of the molar volume of the mixture with the mole fraction composition is observed. Practically, this allows to estimate the density of an neat ionic liquid provided (i) the water quantity and (ii) the density of the undried sample are known. This is particularly useful for hydrophilic ionic liquids that are difficult to dry. In the studied concentration range, a linear evolution of the relative viscosity was also depicted as a function of the mass fraction composition. It is thus possible to evaluate the viscosity of the pure ionic liquid knowing the water quantity and the viscosity of the undried sample. The comparison of the results obtained using two viscosimeters confirms that a Stabinger viscosimeter is appropriate to precisely measure ionic liquids viscosities. Second, NMR and IR spectroscopies were used to characterize the pure ionic liquids and their solutions with water. The sensitivity of IR spectroscopy does allow neither the quantification nor the detection of water below 1 mol%. With NMR spectroscopy, water can be quantified using either the intensity or the chemical shift of the water proton peak for mole fractions as low as 200 ppm. It is even possible to detect water in

  20. An Analysis of Geography Content in Relation to Geography for Life Standards in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" in the United States (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994), it has been widely used to develop quality curriculum materials for what students should know and able to do in geography. This study compared geography content taught in Omani public schools…

  1. [Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Wan, Cheng; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in-direct ELISA results. The software was designed based on the I-STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might encounter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. I-STOD V1.0 (WINDOWS XP/WIN 7, 0.5 GB) was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas were used to examine the operational effects of I-STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully overcame several problems including reliability of standard curve, applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for samples outside the scope, so that I-STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent. I-STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I-STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize the testing results of in-direct ELISA.

  2. A standard analysis method (SAM) for the automated analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils using the chemical analysis automation (CAA) paradigm: validation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzeszutko, C.; Johnson, C.R.; Monagle, M.; Klatt, L.N.

    1997-10-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program is developing a standardized modular automation strategy for chemical analysis. In this automation concept, analytical chemistry is performed with modular building blocks that correspond to individual elements of the steps in the analytical process. With a standardized set of behaviors and interactions, these blocks can be assembled in a 'plug and play' manner into a complete analysis system. These building blocks, which are referred to as Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM), interface to a host control system that orchestrates the entire analytical process, from sample preparation through data interpretation. The integrated system is called a Standard Analysis Method (SAME). A SAME for the automated determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in soils, assembled in a mobile laboratory, is undergoing extensive testing and validation. The SAME consists of the following SLMs: a four channel Soxhlet extractor, a High Volume Concentrator, column clean up, a gas chromatograph, a PCB data interpretation module, a robot, and a human- computer interface. The SAME is configured to meet the requirements specified in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SW-846 Methods 3541/3620A/8082 for the analysis of pcbs in soils. The PCB SAME will be described along with the developmental test plan. Performance data obtained during developmental testing will also be discussed

  3. Variation of iron redox kinetics and its relation with molecular composition of standard humic substances at circumneutral pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ping Lee

    Full Text Available Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe and proportion of steady-state Fe(II concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II fraction were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III and oxidation of Fe(II by dissolved oxygen (O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8. Rates of Fe(III reduction were spectrophotometrically determined by a ferrozine method under the simulated sunlight and dark conditions, whereas rates of Fe(II oxidation were examined in air-saturated solution using luminol chemiluminescence technique. The reduction and oxidation rate constants were determined to substantially vary depending on the type of HS. For example, the first-order rate constants varied by up to 10-fold for photochemical reduction and 7-fold for thermal reduction. The degree of variation in Fe(II oxidation was larger for the H2O2-mediated reaction compared to the O2-mediated reaction (e.g., 15- and 3-fold changes for the former and latter reactions, respectively, at pH 8. The steady-state Fe(II fraction under the simulated sunlight indicated that the Fe(II fraction varies by up to 12-fold. The correlation analysis indicated that variation of Fe(II oxidation is significantly associated with aliphatic content of HS, suggesting that Fe(II complexation by aliphatic components accelerates Fe(II oxidation. The reduction rate constant and steady-state Fe(II fractions in the presence of sunlight had relatively strong positive relations with free radical content of HS, possibly due to the reductive property of radical semiquinone in HS. Overall, the findings in this study indicated that the Fe reduction and oxidation kinetics and resultant Fe(II formation are substantially influenced by chemical properties of HS.

  4. Influence of midsole hardness of standard cushioned shoes on running-related injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Genin, Joakim; Delattre, Nicolas; Seil, Romain; Urhausen, Axel

    2014-03-01

    In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, we tested if leisure-time runners using shoes with less compliant midsoles have a higher running-related injury (RRI) risk. We provided 247 runners with standard running shoes having either a soft study shoes (soft-SS) or a hard study shoes (hard-SS) midsole and followed them prospectively for 5 months regarding RRI. All information about sports practice and injuries was uploaded on a dedicated internet platform and checked for consistency and completeness. RRI was defined as any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to identify RRI risk factors. The type of study shoes used for running was not associated with RRIs (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.48). The hard-SS had a 15% greater overall stiffness in the heel region. The two study groups were similar regarding personal and sports participation characteristics, except for years of running experience, which was higher (prunning. No between-group differences were found regarding injury location, type, severity or category. Nevertheless, the adjusted regression model revealed positive associations with RRI risk for body mass index (HR=1.126; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.227), previous injury (HR=1.735; 95% CI 1.037 to 2.902) and mean session intensity (HR=1.396; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.874). Protective factors were previous regular running activity (HR=0.422; 95% CI 0.228 to 0.779) and weekly volume of other sports activities (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.879). Midsole hardness of modern cushioned running shoes does not seem to influence RRI risk.

  5. Standard test method for determining effects of chemical admixtures on corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement in concrete exposed to chloride environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures in a chloride environment. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...... as flexible employees and related this picture to current empirical and theoretical research in the field of non-standard employment....

  7. Household energy consumption versus income and relative standard of living: A panel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyeux, Roselyne; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Our fundamental premise is that energy consumption at the household level is a key indicator of standard of living. We employ state-of-the-art panel cointegration techniques to evaluate the nature of the relationship between income measures and energy consumption measures for seven East Indian Ocean countries. The general finding is that income and household electricity consumption are not cointegrated. Given this finding, we conclude that standard of living measures that rely on income measures and do not include household-level energy consumption information will necessarily miss important indications of both levels and changes of standard of living

  8. Chemical variations in the Cerro de Mercado (Durango, Mexico) fluorapatite: Assessing the effect of heterogeneity on a geochronologic standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K. V.

    2001-12-01

    Despite the lack of an official pronouncement, the fluorapatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico has become the de facto standard for (U-Th)/He geochronology. In addition to being relatively inclusion-free and easily obtained, these crystals are commonly in excess of 5mm in diameter, permitting the removal of the outer skin of the crystal, theoretically eliminating the alpha-ejection correction. However, bulk analyses of the Durango fluorapatite indicate a substantial variation in U and Th concentrations from aliquot to aliquot (167-238 ppm Th; 9.7-12.3 ppm U, [1]). If similar variations were to occur on the sub-grain scale, small fragments of single crystals could contain helium excesses or deficiencies due to alpha-ejection exchange between zones with varying parent element content. We have performed a series of experiments to quantify the intra-grain variation in U and Th, in order to model the effect of this variation on ages determined on Durango fluorapatite. X-ray maps show concentric zonation in U and Th, with similar, but more apparently pronounced zonation in Si and Cl. Preliminary laser-ablation ICPMS data indicate, not surprisingly, that intra-grain variations in U and Th concentrations obtained by analysis of ~35 μ m spots are larger than that which had been previously obtained by bulk analytical techniques (with overall concentrations greater than for bulk analyses). Thus far, analyses yield U concentrations varying from 11 to 16 ppm, and Th concentrations ranging from 220 to 340 ppm. Modeling underway suggests that parent element variations on the order of 50%, such as those observed, and the resulting differential alpha-exchange could lead to several percent error in age, for ~100 μ m fragments. The effect scales inversely with fragment size, with 300 μ m fragments (roughly the size of a large, single grain analysis) having only ~1% error. This may offer an explanation for the previously observed inability to reproduce ages for the Durango

  9. Investigation on the relation between pressure drops and fluid chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, C.; Engler, N.; Berthollon, G.; Muller, T.; Sala, B.; Combrade, P.; Turluer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Variations of primary coolant flow rate were sometimes observed on some plants some years ago. These variations come from variations of pressure drops in the various zones of the primary system. After many investigations, these changes were attributed to variations of physical and chemical conditions. One specific difficulty was to explain the level of head loss variations with the low amount of oxide present in a primary circuit. Another one was to account for the formation of deposits under high water velocity conditions. Therefore, Framatome-ANP launched laboratory tests to reproduce the observed head loss variations, identify the conditions of their occurrence and try to identify the root mechanisms. A small loop - called EMILIE - was implemented in the laboratories of the Technical Centre of Framatome-ANP in Le Creusot. It allows us to study the effect of the water chemistry and velocity, as well as the nature of the circuit surfaces on the occurrence of head loss variations and their relation with the amount, nature and morphology of oxide deposits. This paper summarizes the first results obtained and briefly discusses a possible mechanism. (authors)

  10. Sickness-related dysfunction in persons with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity at four levels of severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Vogel, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    To examine quality of life outcome for persons who self-report chemical sensitivity, often referred to as multiple chemical sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity is poorly understood with few providers specialising in its treatment. This lack of treatment and the ubiquity of chemicals engender severe life impacts such as job loss, financial loss, social isolation and even homelessness for persons who experience these sensitivities. Survey. We examined chemical incitants, symptoms and sickness-related behavioural dysfunction as measured by the Sickness Impact Profile in 254 persons self-identified with multiple chemical sensitivity. Chemicals rated as causing the most symptomatology in respondents were pesticide, formaldehyde, fresh paint, new carpet, diesel exhaust, perfume and air fresheners. The five highest rated symptoms in this sample were tiredness/lethargy, difficulty concentrating, muscle aches, memory difficulties and long-term fatigue. Overall mean Sickness Impact Profile score was 25.25%, showing serious impairment, with the most serious dysfunction in the categories of work (55.36%), alertness behaviour (53.45%) and recreation and pastimes (45.20%). Multiple chemical sensitivity is an important health care issue because it often includes serious dysfunction, is poorly understood by providers and poses extensive financial and treatment obstacles for those who experience it. Persons with multiple chemical sensitivity seek medical treatment in a variety of contexts and informed providers can both avoid iatrogenic harm due to medical exposures and provide any possible treatment for the chemical sensitivities. Understanding the impact of the health condition is crucial to communicate with and treat persons who experience the sensitivities.

  11. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid

  12. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  13. Composition, Standardization and Chemical Profiling of Banisteriopsis caapi, a Plant for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders Relevant to Parkinson’s Disease†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Miller, Loren S.; Chaurasiya, Narayan D.; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Tripathi, Lalit M.; Khan, Shabana I.; Joshi, Vaishali C.; Wigger, Frank T.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Banisteriopsis caapi, a woody vine from the Amazonian basin, is popularly known as an ingredient of a sacred drink ayahuasca, widely used throughout the Amazon as a medicinal tea for healing and spiritual exploration. The usefulness of B. caapi has been established for alleviating symptoms of neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Aim of the study Primary objective of this study was to develop the process for preparing standardized extracts of B. caapi to achieve high potency for inhibition of human monoamine oxidases (MAO) and antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of the plant collected from different geographical locations and seasons were analyzed by HPLC for principal bioactive markers. The extracts were simultaneously tested in vitro for inhibition of human MAOs and antioxidant activity for analysis of correlation between phytochemical composition of the extracts and bioactivities. Materials and methods Reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detection was employed to profile the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal components of the aqueous extract of B. caapi. The B. caapi extracts and standardized compositions were tested in vitro for inhibition of recombinant preparations of human MAO-A and MAO-B. In vitro cell-based assays were employed for evaluation of antioxidant property and mammalian cell cytotoxicity of these preparations. Results Among the different aerial parts, leaves, stems/large branches and stem bark of B. caapi, HPLC analysis revealed that most of the dominant chemical and bioactive markers (1, 2, 5, 7-9) were present in high concentrations in dried bark of large branch. A library of HPLC chromatograms has also been generated as a tool for fingerprinting and authentication of the studied B. caapi species. The correlation between potency of MAO inhibition and antioxidant activity with the content of the main active constituents of the aqueous B. caapi extracts and

  14. [Preparation of the database and the homepage on chemical accidents relating to health hazard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Morita, M; Kaminuma, T

    1998-01-01

    We collected the data on accidents due to chemicals occurred in Japan, and prepared the database. We also set up the World Wide Web homepage containing the explanation on accidents due to chemicals and the retrieval page for the database. We designed the retrieval page so that users can search the data from keywords such as chemicals (e.g. chlorine gas, hydrogen sulfide, pesticides), places (e.g. home, factory, vehicles, tank), causes (e.g. reaction, leakage, exhaust gas) and others (e.g. cleaning, painting, transportation).

  15. Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the providing of guidance in converting the results of electrochemical measurements to rates of uniform corrosion. Calculation methods for converting corrosion current density values to either mass loss rates or average penetration rates are given for most engineering alloys. In addition, some guidelines for converting polarization resistance values to corrosion rates are provided. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  16. Differences in Ethical Standards: Factoring in the Cultural Expectation in Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Focusing on ethics in public relations from a multicultural point of view brings together elements which are critical to international public relations. The Public Relations-Ethics-Multicultural (PREM) model illustrates that articles can be found in the literature on ethics, public relations, and multicultural as individual concepts. The…

  17. Recommended inorganic chemicals for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.R.; Greenberg, R.R.; Pratt, K.W.; Rains, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    All analytical techniques depend on the use of calibration chemicals to relate analyte concentration to an instrumental parameter. A fundamental component in the preparation of calibration solutions is the weighing of a pure chemical or metal before preparing a solution standard. The analyst must be assured that the purity, stoichiometry, and assay of the chemical are known. These terms have different meanings, and each has an important influence. This report is intended to assist the analyst in the selection and use of chemical standards for instrumental calibration. Purity, stoichiometry, and preparation of solutions for different purposes are discussed, and a critical evaluation of the best materials available for each element is presented for use in preparing solutions or calibration standards. Information on the chemical form, source, purity, drying, and appropriate precautions is given. In some cases, multiple sources or chemical forms are available. Certain radioactive elements, the transuranic elements, and the noble gases are not considered

  18. Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3-5 and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  20. Standardized Patients' Perspectives on Workplace Satisfaction and Work-Related Relationships: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Bonvin, Raphael; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2016-08-01

    The use of standardized patients (SPs) in health care education has grown in the last 50 years. In addition, the requirements for SPs have increased steadily, and thus, the work of SPs has become more difficult and demanding. It has been claimed that SP programs are highly contextualized, having emerged from local, institutional, professional, and national conditions, but their effects on SPs have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of this job development on SPs and their programs. The study was conducted using a qualitative research design, with semistructured individual in-depth interviews to understand the reactions, values, and perceptions that underlie and influence SP behavior. To cover SP perspectives from more than 1 SP program, a total of 15 SPs from 8 different nursing schools and medical schools in Switzerland were asked to participate. Standardized patients feel motivated, engaged, and willing to invest effort in their task and do not mind demands increasing as long as the social environment in SP programs is supportive. The role of the SP trainer and the use of feedback are considered very important. Standardized patient programs require concepts in which the SP perspective has been integrated to better serve SPs' well-being. Standardized patients are valuable partners in the training of health professionals-we need to take care of them.

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  2. 76 FR 50117 - Commission Rules and Forms Related to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    .... generally accepted accounting principles (``U.S. GAAP''). Statement No. 168 became effective for financial... Codification'' is a registered trademark of the Financial Accounting Foundation. DATES: Effective Date: August... accounting principles established by a standard-setting body that meets specified criteria. On April 25, 2003...

  3. A Relational Data Dictionary Compatible with the National Bureau of Standards Information Resource Dictionary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    IRDS DATA ARCHITECTURE This section presents an overview of the framwork in which IRDS data is organized and presented to the user. 33 4 -T i .V 1...system-standard schema contains twelve entity-types that conceptually can be grouped into three categories, Data, Process, and External. [Ref. 32] 36

  4. [Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to standard hospital precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandana Bambenongama, Norbert; Losimba Likwela, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The infectious risk in the healthcare setting is potentially ubiquitous. Several infectious agents may be transmitted to healthcare professionals, most of which are carried by blood and body fluids. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in delivery rooms and operating theatres about standard precautions in healthcare settings in order to deduce the actions to be implemented to improve their security. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2011. A questionnaire was sent to 96 people using the direct interview technique. Only 20% of study subjects were familiar with the main bloodborne viruses (HBV, HCV and HIV). 67.8% of them considered that standard precautions must be applied only to women in labour and suspected HIV-positive patients. Almost all respondents (91.1%) had already been subject to at least one AES during the last 12 months. Respondents appeared to have a poor knowledge of the recommended actions following an AES. Recapping of needles after care is a practice reported by 55.6% of respondents. Routine use of protective barriers is unsatisfactory. The frequent failure of systematic application of standard precautions in healthcare settings by healthcare workers in the city of Isiro should lead the Ministry of Health to implement a process designed to increase awareness about standard precautions and improve the equipment necessary for strict compliance with these precautions.

  5. The Standard-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Oughtistic Theory of Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The idea that normative statements implicitly refer to standards has been around for quite some time. It is usually defended by normative antirealists, who tend to be attracted to Humean theories of reasons. But this is an awkward combination: 'A ought to X' entails that there are reasons for A to

  6. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting syst......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods......According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...

  7. Estimation of environment-related properties of chemicals for design of sustainable processes: development of group-contribution+ (GC+) property models and uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkerikar, Amol Shivajirao; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent; Young, Douglas M; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-11-26

    The aim of this work is to develop group-contribution(+) (GC(+)) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) based property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncertainties of estimated property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is used. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of property models and an uncertainty analysis step to establish statistical information about the quality of parameter estimation, such as the parameter covariance, the standard errors in predicted properties, and the confidence intervals. For parameter estimation, large data sets of experimentally measured property values of a wide range of chemicals (hydrocarbons, oxygenated chemicals, nitrogenated chemicals, poly functional chemicals, etc.) taken from the database of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and from the database of USEtox is used. For property modeling and uncertainty analysis, the Marrero and Gani GC method and atom connectivity index method have been considered. In total, 22 environment-related properties, which include the fathead minnow 96-h LC(50), Daphnia magna 48-h LC(50), oral rat LD(50), aqueous solubility, bioconcentration factor, permissible exposure limit (OSHA-TWA), photochemical oxidation potential, global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, emission to urban air (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental rural air (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental fresh water (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental seawater (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), emission to continental natural soil (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic), and emission to continental agricultural soil (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) have been modeled and analyzed. The application

  8. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  10. Employees Training Evaluation related to the Competency Standards in the Steel and Metalworking Industry in Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guillermo Carreno-Bodensiek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research process applied to a sample of companies in the steel and metalworking sector in Boyacá, Colombia. The active workers are evaluated over the Occupational Competency Standards related to their daily activities. It also aims to highlight the formation priority of human talent for business, according to build up a level of competitiveness. Also, seeks to meet the need to train and develop skills and competencies in the workforce, taking into account the concepts of experts about training and developing proposals for management. This research is consistent with global trends in education and the requirements of standardization of training, why diagnoses and designs are focused on the functions of the companies related to the Standards of Competency.

  11. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  12. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  13. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  14. Oliveria decumbens essential oil: Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity against the growth of some clinical and standard strains causing infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Behbahani, Behrooz; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Farideh; Vasiee, Alireza; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Oliveria decumbens as a valuable medicinal plant is extensively used in traditional medicine. clinical and standard strains causing infection resistance to antimicrobial agents, is one of the important problems in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Oliveria decumbens essential oil on the growth of some clinical and standard strains causing infection (Pseudomonas aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Oliveria decumbens essential oil composition was identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Phytochemical analysis (alkaloids, saponins, flavone and phenolic) essential oil of the Oliveria decumbens were appraised based on qualitative methods. Several methods (disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)) were used to appraise the antibacterial activity of the Oliveria decumbens essential oil. Thymol (28.45%) was the major compound of Oliveria decumbens essential oil. The total phenolics content (TPC) of the essential oil positively correlated with antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA of Oliveria decumbens essential oil was equal to 92.45 ± 0.70 μg GAE/mg and 164.45 ± 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC of Oliveria decumbens essential oil ranged from 1 to 8 mg/ml depending on the type of bacteria (clinical and standard strains). The MBC of Oliveria decumbens essential oil varied from 1 mg/ml to 16 mg/ml. The smallest inhibition zone diameter (IZD) on different Oliveria decumbens essential oil concentrations on P. aeruginosa. Results indicate that Oliveria decumbens essential oil can prove to be an important source of AA and antibacterial and may be used for the treatment of infection diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relations between finite zero structure of the plant and the standard $H_\\infty$ controller order reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, Takao; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2001-01-01

    A relation between the finite zero structure of the plant and the standard $H_\\infty$ controller was studied. The mechanism was also investigated using the ARE-based $H_\\infty$ controller that is represented by a free parameter. It was observed that the mechanism of the controller reduction is

  16. The necessity for revision of radiation protection standard in China and the discussion of relative issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1996-01-01

    The author describes the necessity of revising the existing radiation protection standard, and discusses the problems that need to be studied for the revision, which are mainly as follows: (1) Which exposure from natural radiation sources should be as part of occupational exposure; (2) Control of the occupational exposure of the pregnant woman; (3) Chronic exposure and action level; (4) Control of potential exposure; (5) Health surveillance

  17. A relation between the Barbero-Immirzi parameter and the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw, E-mail: bobroda@uni.lodz.p [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, PL-90-236 Lodz (Poland); Szanecki, Michal, E-mail: michalszanecki@wp.p [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, PL-90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-06-07

    It has been shown that Sakharov's induced, from the fields entering the standard model, Barbero-Immirzi parameter {gamma} assumes, in the framework of Euclidean formalism, the UV cutoff-independent value, 1/9. The calculus uses the Schwinger's proper-time formalism, the Seeley-DeWitt heat-kernel expansion, and it is akin to the derivation of the ABJ chiral anomaly in space-time with torsion.

  18. The relation between respiratory motion artifact correction and lung standardized uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lijie; Liu Xiaojian; Liu Jie; Xu Rui; Yan Jue

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT is playing an important role in disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. But the respiratory motion artifact may bring trouble in diagnosis and therapy. There are many methods to correct the respiratory motion artifact. Respiratory gated PET/CT is applied most extensively of them. Using respiratory gated PET/CT to correct respiratory motion artifact can increase the maximum standardized uptake value of lung lesion obviously, thereby improving the quality of image and accuracy of diagnosis. (authors)

  19. Economic competitiveness gap related to the application of the GAEC standards of cross-compliance on farms: evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fedrizzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods used in the monitoring carried out in the farms of the MO.NA.CO. project, to calculate the economic competitiveness gap faced by agricultural holdings that accede to the commitments imposed by the standards included in the project. The monitoring works were performed in agricultural holdings in relation to the particular reference condition of each standard. The processing of the information acquired allowed us to define the working times of each cultivation operation by means of the indications in the recommendations of the Associazione Italiana di Genio Rurale - Italian Rural Engineering Association, that considers the official methodology of the International Commission of the Organisation Scientifique du Travail en Agriculture (C.I.O.S.T.A.. The overall costs and revenues in case of compliance or non-compliance with the commitments of the standard were calculated by using Biondi’s methodology and other norms that indicate the technical and economic coefficients to be used in the calculations (EP 496.2 and D 497.4 ASAE standards. With the data related to the unit cost of ploughing a model Partial Least Squares (PLS has been achieved and validated, and it makes possible to predict the unit cost of this agricultural operation. Finally, the values of the variation of the economic competitiveness gap are reported for each standard.

  20. Synthesis, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical and structure-activity relation studies of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Devi, L; Subbalakshmi, R; Rani, T; Mohan, S

    2014-09-15

    The stable geometry of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone is optimised by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(∗∗) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry have been determined. The effects of substituents (hydroxyl, methoxy and acetyl groups) on the benzene ring vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. 1H and 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO's, the total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities are calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R.

    1959-01-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [fr

  2. Characterization of a novel androgen receptor (AR) coregulator RIPK1 and related chemicals that suppress AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide and chemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Kuo, Yung-Chia; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Lee, Li-Yu; Ma, Wen-Lung; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2017-09-19

    Using bicalutamide-androgen receptor (AR) DNA binding domain-ligand binding domain as bait, we observed enrichment of FxxFY motif-containing peptides. Protein database searches revealed the presence of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) harboring one FxxFY motif. RIPK1 interacted directly with AR and suppressed AR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Domain mapping experiments showed that the FxxFY motif in RIPK1 is critical for interactions with AR and the death domain of RIPK1 plays a crucial role in its inhibitory effect on transactivation. In terms of tissue expression, RIPK1 levels were markedly higher in benign prostate hyperplasia and non-cancerous tissue regions relative to the tumor area. With the aid of computer modeling for screening of chemicals targeting activation function 2 (AF-2) of AR, we identified oxadiazole derivatives as good candidates and subsequently generated a small library of these compounds. A number of candidates could effectively suppress AR transactivation and AR-related functions in vitro and in vivo with tolerable toxicity via inhibiting AR-peptide, AR-coregulator and AR N-C interactions. Combination of these chemicals with antiandrogen had an additive suppressive effect on AR transcriptional activity. Our collective findings may pave the way in creating new strategies for the development and design of anti-AR drugs.

  3. Standard Gibbs free energies of reactions of ozone with free radicals in aqueous solution: quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Sergej; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    Free radicals are common intermediates in the chemistry of ozone in aqueous solution. Their reactions with ozone have been probed by calculating the standard Gibbs free energies of such reactions using density functional theory (Jaguar 7.6 program). O(2) reacts fast and irreversibly only with simple carbon-centered radicals. In contrast, ozone also reacts irreversibly with conjugated carbon-centered radicals such as bisallylic (hydroxycylohexadienyl) radicals, with conjugated carbon/oxygen-centered radicals such as phenoxyl radicals, and even with nitrogen- oxygen-, sulfur-, and halogen-centered radicals. In these reactions, further ozone-reactive radicals are generated. Chain reactions may destroy ozone without giving rise to products other than O(2). This may be of importance when ozonation is used in pollution control, and reactions of free radicals with ozone have to be taken into account in modeling such processes.

  4. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  5. Academic Public Relations Curricula: How They Compare with the Bateman-Cutlip Commission Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Hunter P.

    To see what effect the 1975 Bateman-Cutlip Commission's recommendations have had on improving public relations education in the United States, 173 questionnaires were sent to colleges or universities with accredited or comprehensive programs in public relations. Responding to five basic assumptions underlying the commission's recommendations,…

  6. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  7. Chemical Separation Technique of Strontium-90 in the Soil Water as theStandard Methods for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngasifudin-Hamdani; Suratman; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign; Winduanto-Wahyu SP

    2000-01-01

    Research about separation technique of strontium-90 from its materialmatrix using chemical precipitation method has been done. That technique wasapplied on the detection of radionuclide strontium-90 containing in the soilwater of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN in three location. The twoimportant parameters used in this technique were growth time of Y-90 andstirring time. The result shown that activity of strontium-90 in the pos-01was between 1.801x10 -19 - 9.616x10 -17 μCi/cm 3 , pos-02 was8.448x10 -19 - 1.003x X 10 -16 μCi/cm 3 and pos-03 was 6.719x10 -19 - 11.644x10 -16 μCi/cm 3 . From those data shown that activity of Sr-90in the soil water of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN was still belowthe limit value of maximum concentration permitted i.e. 4.0x10 -7 -3.5x10 -6 μCi/cm 3 . The statistic test using analysis of varian twofactorial with random block design shown that the activity of Sr-90 in thesoil water was influenced by the interaction which take place between growthlong time of Y-90 and stirring long time. (author)

  8. Examining database persistence of ISO/EN 13606 standardized electronic health record extracts: relational vs. NoSQL approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Lozano-Rubí, Raimundo; Serrano-Balazote, Pablo; Castro, Antonio L; Moreno, Oscar; Pascual, Mario

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this research is to compare the relational and non-relational (NoSQL) database systems approaches in order to store, recover, query and persist standardized medical information in the form of ISO/EN 13606 normalized Electronic Health Record XML extracts, both in isolation and concurrently. NoSQL database systems have recently attracted much attention, but few studies in the literature address their direct comparison with relational databases when applied to build the persistence layer of a standardized medical information system. One relational and two NoSQL databases (one document-based and one native XML database) of three different sizes have been created in order to evaluate and compare the response times (algorithmic complexity) of six different complexity growing queries, which have been performed on them. Similar appropriate results available in the literature have also been considered. Relational and non-relational NoSQL database systems show almost linear algorithmic complexity query execution. However, they show very different linear slopes, the former being much steeper than the two latter. Document-based NoSQL databases perform better in concurrency than in isolation, and also better than relational databases in concurrency. Non-relational NoSQL databases seem to be more appropriate than standard relational SQL databases when database size is extremely high (secondary use, research applications). Document-based NoSQL databases perform in general better than native XML NoSQL databases. EHR extracts visualization and edition are also document-based tasks more appropriate to NoSQL database systems. However, the appropriate database solution much depends on each particular situation and specific problem.

  9. Relationship of responsible Care and Environmental Management Systems Standard ISO 14001. Example of Sumitomo Chemical; Resuponshiburu{center_dot}kea to kankyo manejimento sisutemu kikaku ISO14001. Sumitomo kagaku no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuo. [Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    In the chemical sector, Responsible Care is propelled by the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). The objective of Responsible Care is to improve the performance and reputation of the Chemical Industry in areas that impact on people and environment. Sumitomo Chemical is committed to supporting a continuing effort to improve the chemical industry`s responsible management of chemicals through the Japan Responsible Vare Vouncil program. One the other hand, ISO 14001 had been published on Aug.1996 and have adopted the ISO 14001 as national standards on Oct. 1996. Already 973 companies in Japan, 74 of them in the chemical sector, have been certified to ISO 14001. In this paper, I provides concise commentaries on how Responsible Care and Environmental management systems work in the chemical sector. (author)

  10. Relationship of responsible Care and Environmental Management Systems Standard ISO 14001. Example of Sumitomo Chemical. Resuponshiburu[center dot]kea to kankyo manejimento sisutemu kikaku ISO14001. Sumitomo kagaku no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuo. (Sumitomo Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-01-15

    In the chemical sector, Responsible Care is propelled by the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). The objective of Responsible Care is to improve the performance and reputation of the Chemical Industry in areas that impact on people and environment. Sumitomo Chemical is committed to supporting a continuing effort to improve the chemical industry's responsible management of chemicals through the Japan Responsible Vare Vouncil program. One the other hand, ISO 14001 had been published on Aug.1996 and have adopted the ISO 14001 as national standards on Oct. 1996. Already 973 companies in Japan, 74 of them in the chemical sector, have been certified to ISO 14001. In this paper, I provides concise commentaries on how Responsible Care and Environmental management systems work in the chemical sector. (author)

  11. Integrity, standards, and QC-related issues with big data in pre-clinical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, John F; Ung, Matthew; Escalante-Chong, Renan; Ross, Jermaine; Zhang, Jenny; Cha, Yoonjeong; Lysaght, Andrew; Funt, Jason; Kusko, Rebecca

    2018-06-01

    The tremendous expansion of data analytics and public and private big datasets presents an important opportunity for pre-clinical drug discovery and development. In the field of life sciences, the growth of genetic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data is partly driven by a rapid decline in experimental costs as biotechnology improves throughput, scalability, and speed. Yet far too many researchers tend to underestimate the challenges and consequences involving data integrity and quality standards. Given the effect of data integrity on scientific interpretation, these issues have significant implications during preclinical drug development. We describe standardized approaches for maximizing the utility of publicly available or privately generated biological data and address some of the common pitfalls. We also discuss the increasing interest to integrate and interpret cross-platform data. Principles outlined here should serve as a useful broad guide for existing analytical practices and pipelines and as a tool for developing additional insights into therapeutics using big data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  14. An orthologous transcriptional signature differentiates responses towards closely related chemicals in Arabidopsis thaliana and brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicides are structurally diverse chemicals that inhibit plant-specific targets, however their off-target and potentially differentiating side-effects are less well defined. In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix AtH1 arrays was used to identify dis...

  15. Studies on physico – chemical properties of pond water in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the mean of physico-chemical properties obtained were for the littoral zone of the twelve ponds (P1 – P12) studied and that these properties exhibited spatial and temporal variations. The mean abundance of zooplankton ranged from 3 to 78 orgs/Litre. There were more than seven genera of ...

  16. Wood chemical composition as related to properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    Burst and tear strengths of handsheets made from 48 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying chemical composition decreased with incressing extractive content after the independent effects of fiber morphology were specified. This result was attributed to lessened bond strength caused by reduced surface tension forces and blocking of reactive sites on the fiber surfaces...

  17. Importance of chemical speciation of iodine in relation to dose estimates from 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.

    1996-12-01

    Biota live in a chemical milieu and take up elements according to laws of chemistry and physics. Radioactivity is not important to accumulation processes. However, for radionuclides it is almost always the radiological consequences that are important. As such, most discussions and modelling of the processes of distribution, exposure and consequences tend to deal with radionuclides and do not dwell on chemistry. In fact, the chemical aspects of dose estimation are dealt with quite adequately, but usually in an implicit rather than explicit manner. This report discusses the chemistry and chemical speciation of iodine (1) and illustrates how these topics have been implicitly included in biosphere models such as BIOTRAC, the model employed in the assessment of Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept. Iodine is emphasized because 129 I is the dominant contributor to the hypothetical doses estimated. Not all aspects of the behaviour of 1 are implicit in BIOTRAC, but the exceptions are of minor importance. In general, the very broad ranges in parameter values specified for BIOTRAC encompass substantial latitude for the possible effects of chemical behaviour and speciation. Nonetheless, detailed understanding of the behavior of 1 in the environment is essential to the credibility of models such as BIOTRAC. There is substantial room for improved knowledge of the speciation of I, especially in freshwater and soil environments. (author)

  18. The influences of the physical-chemical factors on the free-volume relations in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.; Sausa, O.; Bandzuch, P.

    1995-01-01

    The positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to the study of different physical-chemical factors on the free-volume microstructure of the model polymeric systems [amorphous 1,4-cis-poly(butadiene), amorphous a-tactic and semi-crystal iso-tactic poly(propylene), polycarbonate

  19. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of an explorative study that aimed at exploring work related issues in students’ perceptions of their job as atypical employees. An individual picture of the experienced work reality of students is drawn according to work task, flexible working hours, instructions...... and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...... as flexible employees and related this picture to current empirical and theoretical research in the field of non-standard employment....

  20. Indonesian perceptions on the implementation of the chemical weapons convention in relation with biosecurity and biosafety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isroil, S.

    2009-01-01

    April 29, 2007 was marked the 10 year anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entry into force and the creation of the OPCW. Many nations throughout the last year were celebrated its commemoration. Compared to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) which is now entering the 33rd year of its entry into force, the progress of CWC is running far beyond that convention because CWC is considered the most complete convention which is equipped with a comprehensive verification system. In contrast, up till now there is no formal verification regime to monitor compliance of the BWC. So the national legislation as well as biosafety and biosecurity procedures will be the best regime to prohibit the misuse of biological agents. To some extent, the strategy and method on implementing the provision of CWC are coincident with biosecurity and biosafety procedure due to their dual use characteristics. Concerning CWC, Indonesia which was ratified it in 30 September 1998 has always active in any multilateral meeting and as well as national activities on prohibiting the misuse of chemical weapons. Several courses have also been done in cooperation with OPCW such as Development of Response System Against Chemical Weapons, Basic Training Course for Response Team, National Industry Awareness Workshop, Advance Training for Response Team, National Emergency Response Workshop, as well as setting up 20 sets of individual protective equipment. There have already 7 inspections done by OPCW in Indonesia during 2004-2007 which proved that there were no indications of misuse of chemical processes and its facilities for hostile purposes. However, it does not mean that there is no threat from the possible misuse of chemical and biological agents due to its dual use characteristics. Learnt from Indonesian experiences, there are several constraints on implementing the CWC as well as biosafety and biosecurity. First is the different perception on the biological and chemical threats. For

  1. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  2. Effects of anticaking agents and relative humidity on the physical and chemical stability of powdered vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipasek, Rebecca A; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that is widely used by the food industry in the powder form for both its nutritional and functional properties. However, vitamin C is deliquescent, and deliquescence has been linked to physical and chemical instabilities. Anticaking agents are often added to powder systems to delay or prevent caking, but little is known about their effect on the chemical stability of powders. In this study, various anticaking agents (calcium phosphate, calcium silicate, calcium stearate, corn starch, and silicon dioxide) were combined with sodium ascorbate at 2% and 50% w/w ratios and stored at various relative humidities (23%, 43%, 64%, 75%, 85%, and 98% RHs). Chemical and physical stability and moisture sorption were monitored over time. Additionally, saturated solution samples were stored at various pHs to determine the effect of surface pH and dissolution on the vitamin degradation rate. Storage RH, time, and anticaking agent type and ratio all significantly affected (P vitamin C stability. Silicon dioxide and calcium silicate (50% w/w) and calcium stearate (at both ratios) were the only anticaking agents to improve the physical stability of powdered sodium ascorbate while none of the anticaking agents improved its chemical stability. However, corn starch and calcium stearate had the least adverse effect on chemical stability. Dissolution rate and pH were also important factors affecting the chemical and physical stability of the powders. Therefore, monitoring storage environmental conditions and anticaking agent usage are important for understanding the stability of vitamin C. Anticaking agent type and ratio significantly affected the physical and chemical stability of vitamin C over time and over a range of RHs. No anticaking agent improved the chemical stability of the vitamin, and most caused an increase in chemical degradation even if physical stability was improved. It is possible that anticaking agents would greatly affect other

  3. A Standardized Chemically Modified Curcuma longa Extract Modulates IRAK-MAPK Signaling in Inflammation and Potentiates Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakshi Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The TLR/IL-1R pathway is a critical signaling module that is misregulated in pathologies like inflammation and cancer. Extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. enriched in curcumin and carbonyls like turmerones have been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxic effect and the underlying mechanism of a novel chemically modified, non-carbonyl compound enriched Curcuma longa L. (C. longa extract (CMCE. CMCE (1 or 10 µg/mL; 14 h significantly decreased LPS (50-100 ng/mL induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, human, and mouse whole blood as measured by ELISA. LPS-induced IRAK1, MAPK activation, TLR4 expression, TLR4-MyD88 interaction and IκBα degradation were significantly reduced in CMCE pre-treated THP-1 cells as assessed by Western blotting. CMCE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg; 10 days p.o. pre-treated and LPS (10 mg/kg challenged Swiss mice exhibited attenuated plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, aortic iNOS expression and vascular dysfunction. In a PI permeability assay, cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of CMCE. Analysis of Sub-G1 phase, Annexin V-PI positivity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3 and PARP-1 activation confirmed CMCE induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. IRAK inhibition also sensitized HL-60 cells to CMCE induced cytotoxicity. The present study defines the mechanism underlying the action of CMCE and suggests a therapeutic potential for its use in sepsis and leukemia.

  4. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    –162 g CP/kg and 5 g chromicoxide/kg. Endogenous losses of protein and AA were estimated by feeding an N-free diet.On a dry matter (DM) basis, mussel meal contained 605 g, mussel silage 575 g, starfish meal700 g, starfish juice 393 g, and fish silage 776 g CP/kg. The ratio of AA to CP ranged from0......Mussels cultured on lines for nine months and harvested in March were boiled to removeshells and processed into a dry meal or a silage acidified by formic acid. Starfish mealwas prepared from starfish caught in May, and a starfish juice fraction was obtained bypressing fresh starfish. Commercial...... fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...

  5. Standard test methods for chemical analysis of ceramic whiteware materials using wavelength dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of ten major elements (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, and LOI in ceramic whitewares clays and minerals using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). The sample is first ignited, then fused with lithium tetraborate and the resultant glass disc is introduced into a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The disc is irradiated with X-rays from an X-ray tube. X-ray photons emitted by the elements in the samples are counted and concentrations determined using previously prepared calibration standards. (1) In addition to 10 major elements, the method provides a gravimetric loss-on-ignition. Note 1—Much of the text of this test method is derived directly from Major element analysis by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, included in Ref (1). 1.2 Interferences, with analysis by WDXRF, may result from mineralogical or other structural effects, line overlaps, and matrix effects. The structure of the...

  6. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  7. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  8. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  9. Important sources and chemical species of ambient fine particles related to adverse health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, J.

    2017-12-01

    Although many epidemiological studies have reported that exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to increases in mortality and mobidity health outcomes, the key question of which chemical species and sources of PM2.5 are most harmful to public health remains unanswered in the air pollution research area. This study was designed to address the key question with evaluating the risks of exposure to chemical species and source-specific PM2.5 mass on morbidity. Hourly measurements of PM2.5 mass and its major chemical species, including organic carbon, elemental carbon, ions, and trace elements, were observed from January 1 to December 31, 2013 at four of the PM2.5 supersites in urban environments in Korea and the reuslts were used in a positive matrix factorization to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass. Nine sources, including secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, mobile, biomass burning, roadway emission, industry, oil combustion, soil, and aged sea salt, were identified and secondary inorganic aerosol factors (i.e. secondary sulfalte, and secondary nitrate) were the dominant sources contributing to 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the study region. In order to evaluate the risks of exposure to chemical species and sources of PM2.5 on morbidity, emergency room visits for cardivascular disease and respiratory disease were considered. Hourly health outcomes were compared with hourly measurments of the PM2.5 chemical species and sources using a poission generalized linear model incorporating natural splines, as well as time-stratified case-crossover design. The PM2.5 mass and speveral chemical components, such as organic carbon, elemetal carbon, zinc, and potassium, were strongly associated with morbidity. Source-apporitionmened PM2.5 mass derived from biomass burning, and mobile sources, was significantly associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The findings represent that local combustion may be particularly important

  10. The effect of non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk on physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the bacterial viability of classical and probiotic yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlin, Šimun; Samaržija, Dubravka

    2017-06-15

    Classical and probiotic set yogurt were made using non-standard heat treatment of sheep's milk at 60°C/5min. Physico-chemical properties, sensory characteristics, and the viability of bacteria that originated from cultures in classical and probiotic yogurt were analysed during 21days of storage at 4°C. For the production of yogurt, a standard yogurt culture and a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used. At the end of storage time of the classical and probiotic yogurt the totals of non-denatured whey proteins were 92.31 and 91.03%. The viability of yogurt culture bacteria and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were higher than 10 6 cfu/g. The total sensory score (maximum - 20) was 18.49 for the classical and 18.53 for the probiotic. In nutritional and functional terms it is possible to produce classical and probiotic sheep's milk yogurt by using a non-standard temperature of heat treatment with a shelf life of 21days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  12. Equivalence factors for standardizing catch data across multiple beach seine nets to account for differences in relative bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Chris S.; Hall, Norm G.

    2012-06-01

    We describe a method for modelling the relative effects of seine net biases and for deriving equivalence factors to standardize fish abundance data sets collected using multiple sampling gears. Nearshore fish communities were sampled from 10 sites in each of the basin and riverine portions of the Swan-Canning Estuary, Western Australia, using beach seine nets of three different lengths (21.5, 41.5 and 133 m). The resulting data were subjected to generalized linear modelling to derive equivalence factors relating catches from the two larger net types to those from the 21.5 m net. Equivalence factors were derived on the basis of functional habitat guilds of fish (small benthic, small pelagic, demersal, pelagic). Prior to standardization, catches from the 41.5 and 133 m nets consistently underestimated fish densities relative to those from the 21.5 m net. Following standardization, the degree to which fish densities were underestimated by the two larger nets was reduced and/or eliminated for most guilds, and particularly in the case of the 133 m net. For both of the larger nets, standardized estimates of total fish density across all species were far closer to those recorded using the 21.5 m seine, thus indicating that standardization of the fish abundance data had greatly reduced the overall effects of the biases introduced by the different net types. This approach could be applied to other systems and sampling methods, to facilitate more robust comparisons of fish abundances between studies with divergent sampling methodologies.

  13. Computerized crystal-chemical classification of silicates and related materials with CRYSTANA and formula notation for classified structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Hans-Joachim; Liebau, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    The computer program CRYSTANA is described which implements a method for the crystal-chemical classification of silicates and related materials. This method is mainly based upon the topological structure of the connected units of a compound and can be applied when the units are built from tetrahedra as coordination polyhedra. The classification parameters and the rules which have to be applied for their determination are summarized and a formalization of the method is provided based upon a finite graph representation of the units. A description of how CRYSTANA can be used and which kind of output it produces is included. From this output crystal-chemical formulas can be derived, which differ slightly from an existing notation in order to meet recommendations of the International Union of Crystallography. - The computer program CRYSTANA is described which implements a method for the crystal-chemical classification of silicates and related materials. The implementation is based upon a graph-theoretical formalization of the classification method. An extended notation of crystal-chemical formulas is introduced. The formulas can be derived from the output of the program

  14. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; King, Ryan J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15 000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain–pituitary–gonadal–hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  15. Study on exploitation of Jerusalem artichoke bulbs in relation to chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. known in USA also as sunchoke, is a perennial plant, well-adapted to humid and cold climats, nonpretencious to soil and with good yield increase. The bulbs are the eatable part that grows in the ground that have certain similitudes with the potato. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a technical and medical vegetable is based on the chemical composition of the plant. The bulbs of the Jerusalem artichoke harvested in autumn have been sensorially and chemically analyzed along the deposition during the cold season. Measurements were made on the light brown variety with a slightly elongated shape. The low mass loss during depostion, the high content of reducing sugar (4.7- 6.12% and total carbohydrates (94.27-96.18% enable their successful use in the functional food and for the production of alcohol.

  16. Relations between chemical species distribution and the fluctuating activity of Vulcano (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, M.; Legittimo, P.C.

    1984-09-01

    Five years of systematic observation of the fumaroles of Vulcano have permitted the detection of some compositional trends coincident with a fluctuation in temperature. A gradual decrease of CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S+SO/sup 2/, HF was observed with the lowering of temperature, while HCl slightly increased. These physical-chemical characteristics of the system are not readily explained as simply produced by different stages in magma degassing, and the previous hypothesis of the insignificant influence of a brackish aquifer on the fumaroles still appears a reliable working model. R-mode factor analysis allowed the differentiated role of chemical species to be distinguished for which different genetic processes can be derived. The ratios HF/HCl and SO/sub 2//H/sub 2/S are taken as indicators of the changing activity of the system, and also the available data for Usu (Japan) and Mount St. Helens (USA) are considered.

  17. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance: relation to alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (modulate tryptophan/tyrosine transport), dolichol (important in N -glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). It was considered pertinent to assess the pathway in alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration. Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport, the pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in its pathogenesis. In the patient group there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites as reduced endogenous morphine synthesis from tyrosine. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these groups of patients. The same patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic addiction, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration are associated with an upregulated isoprenoid pathway and elevated digoxin secretion from the hypothalamus. This can contribute to NMDA excitotoxicity and altered connective tissue/lipid metabolism important in its pathogenesis. Endogenous morphine deficiency plays a role in alcoholic addiction. Alcoholic cirrhosis, addiction, and acquired hepato -cerebral degeneration occur in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. However, their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation

  18. Occurrence and distribution of Chytridiales related to some physical and chemical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy K. Hassan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of water and soil were positively corelated with the occurrence and distribution of chytrides. Thirty-six zoosporic members of chytrids belonging to fourteen genera were recorded in the present study. Nowakowskiella, Karlingia, Cladochytrium, Endochytrium and Rhizophlyctis were the most common genera observed along River Nileshore and other canals in nine Governorates in Egypt during the winter of 1989/1990.

  19. Structural Consequences of Duplicitous Chemical Relation of Cobalt and Fullerene in Mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Naramoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, 4-7 (2012), s. 328-335 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA ČR GA106/09/1264; GA ČR GAP107/11/1856 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fullerene * cobalt * chemical bonding * nanostructure * self- organization Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2012

  20. On the tear proteome of the house mouse (Mus musculus musculus in relation to chemical signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Stopkova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian tears are produced by lacrimal glands to protect eyes and may function in chemical communication and immunity. Recent studies on the house mouse chemical signalling revealed that major urinary proteins (MUPs are not individually unique in Mus musculus musculus. This fact stimulated us to look for other sexually dimorphic proteins that may—in combination with MUPs—contribute to a pool of chemical signals in tears. MUPs and other lipocalins including odorant binding proteins (OBPs have the capacity to selectively transport volatile organic compounds (VOCs in their eight-stranded beta barrel, thus we have generated the tear proteome of the house mouse to detect a wider pool of proteins that may be involved in chemical signalling. We have detected significant male-biased (7.8% and female-biased (7% proteins in tears. Those proteins that showed the most elevated sexual dimorphisms were highly expressed and belong to MUP, OBP, ESP (i.e., exocrine gland-secreted peptides, and SCGB/ABP (i.e., secretoglobin families. Thus, tears may have the potential to elicit sex-specific signals in combination by different proteins. Some tear lipocalins are not sexually dimorphic—with MUP20/darcin and OBP6 being good examples—and because all proteins may flow with tears through nasolacrimal ducts to nasal and oral cavities we suggest that their roles are wider than originally thought. Also, we have also detected several sexually dimorphic bactericidal proteins, thus further supporting an idea that males and females may have adopted alternative strategies in controlling microbiota thus yielding different VOC profiles.

  1. Chemical compounds related to nutraceutical and industrial qualities of non-transgenic soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Dardanelli, Julio L; Soldini, Diego O

    2014-05-01

    Information about the chemical profile of soybean seed is valuable for breeding programs aimed at obtaining value-added products to meet the demands of niche markets. The objective of this study was to determine seed composition of non-transgenic soybean genotypes with specialty characters in different environments of Argentina. Protein and oil contents ranged from 396 to 424 g kg⁻¹ and from 210 to 226 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Oleic and linolenic acid ratio, the general indicator of oil quality, varied from 2.7 to 3.8. The oil contained high levels of total tocopherols (1429-1558 mg kg⁻¹) and the meal exhibited high levels of total isoflavones (2.91-4.62 mg g⁻¹). The biplot showed that oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols, genistin, malonyl daidzin and genistin, acetyl daidzin and glycitin and total isoflavones allowed the greatest discrimination among the genotypes studied. Different chemical profiles of each non-transgenic genotype analyzed were established and, therefore, their identity was defined. These results are important for breeders who intend to obtain new genotypes with improved meal and oil quality, as well as for processors and exporters, who could use them directly as raw material for soyfood processing for nutraceutical purposes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Relative proportions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differ between accumulation bioassays and chemical methods to predict bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Department of Soil Science, Reading RG6 6DW, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Department of Soil Science, Reading RG6 6DW, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Chemical methods to predict the bioavailable fraction of organic contaminants are usually validated in the literature by comparison with established bioassays. A soil spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was aged over six months and subjected to butanol, cyclodextrin and tenax extractions as well as an exhaustive extraction to determine total PAH concentrations at several time points. Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and rye grass root (Lolium multiflorum) accumulation bioassays were conducted in parallel. Butanol extractions gave the best relationship with earthworm accumulation (r{sup 2} <= 0.54, p <= 0.01); cyclodextrin, butanol and acetone-hexane extractions all gave good predictions of accumulation in rye grass roots (r{sup 2} <= 0.86, p <= 0.01). However, the profile of the PAHs extracted by the different chemical methods was significantly different (p < 0.01) to that accumulated in the organisms. Biota accumulated a higher proportion of the heavier 4-ringed PAHs. It is concluded that bioaccumulation is a complex process that cannot be predicted by measuring the bioavailable fraction alone. - The ability of chemical methods to predict PAH accumulation in Eisenia fetida and Lolium multiflorum was hindered by the varied metabolic fate of the different PAHs within the organisms.

  3. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  4. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  5. The Relations between Teasing and Bullying and Middle School Standardized Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations between the schoolwide prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and schoolwide academic performance in a sample of 271 Virginia middle schools. In addition, the study examined the mediating effects of student engagement. A three-step sequence of path models investigated associations between schoolwide PTB and…

  6. Introducing Distance and Measurement in General Relativity: Changes for the Standard Tests and the Cosmological Large-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of incompressible homogeneous fluid.

  7. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects. MAIN OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting...... reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases. RESULTS: We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus...... was on internal validity (96%), reliability (67%) criterion validity (81%), and construct validity (62%). For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity...

  8. Heuristic Evaluation of Ehealth Interventions: Establishing Standards That Relate to the Therapeutic Process Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Muench, Fred

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers' perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products' suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product's ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention's compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs.

  9. Rate and State Friction Relation for Nanoscale Contacts: Thermally Activated Prandtl-Tomlinson Model with Chemical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiwen; Goldsby, David L.; Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-05-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe macroscale to microscale frictional behavior. They entail a linear combination of the direct effect (the increase of friction with sliding velocity due to the reduced influence of thermal excitations) and the evolution effect (the change in friction with changes in contact "state," such as the real contact area or the degree of interfacial chemical bonds). Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale single-asperity amorphous silica-silica contacts exhibit logarithmic aging (increasing friction with time) over several decades of contact time, due to the formation of interfacial chemical bonds. Here we establish a physically based RSF relation for such contacts by combining the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson (PTT) model with an evolution effect based on the physics of chemical aging. This thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model with chemical aging (PTTCA), like the PTT model, uses the loading point velocity for describing the direct effect, not the tip velocity (as in conventional RSF laws). Also, in the PTTCA model, the combination of the evolution and direct effects may be nonlinear. We present AFM data consistent with the PTTCA model whereby in aging tests, for a given hold time, static friction increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity. Kinetic friction also increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity at sufficiently high velocities, but at a different increasing rate. The discrepancy between the rates of increase of static and kinetic friction with velocity arises from the fact that appreciable aging during static contact changes the energy landscape. Our approach extends the PTT model, originally used for crystalline substrates, to amorphous materials. It also establishes how conventional RSF laws can be modified for nanoscale single-asperity contacts to provide a physically based friction

  10. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance: relation to speech and language dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-06-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport and dolichols can modulate glycoconjugate synthesis important in synaptic connectivity, the pathway was assessed in patients with dyslexia, delayed recovery from global aphasia consequent to a dominant hemispheric thrombotic infarct, and developmental delay of speech milestone. The pathway was also studied in right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of speech disorders. The plasma/serum--activity of HMG CoA reductase, magnesium, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone--and tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns, as well as RBC (Na+)-K+ ATPase activity, were measured in the above mentioned groups. The glycoconjugate metabolism and membrane composition was also studied. The study showed that in dyslexia, developmental delay of speech milestone, and delayed recovery from global aphasia there was an upregulated isoprenoidal pathway with increased digoxin and dolichol levels. The membrane (Na+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium and ubiquinone levels were low. The tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites including dopamine decreased in the serum contributing to a speech dysfunction. There was an increase in carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids levels as well as an increased activity of GAG degrading enzymes and glyco hydrolases in the serum. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio of RBC membrane increased and membrane glycoconjugates showed a decrease. All of these could contribute to altered synaptic inactivity in these disorders. The patterns correlated with those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Right hemispheric chemical dominance may play a role in the genesis of these disorders. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness

  11. Composition models for the viscosity and chemical durability of West Valley related nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Saad, E.E.; Freeborn, W.P.; Macedo, P.B.; Pegg, I.L.; Sassoon, R.E.; Barkatt, A.; Finger, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    There are two important criteria that must be satisfied by a nuclear waste glass durability and processability. The chemical composition of the glass must be such that it does not dissolve or erode appreciably faster than the decay of the radioactive materials embedded in it. The second criterion, processability, means that the glass must melt with ease, must be easily pourable, and must not crystallize appreciably. This paper summarizes the development of simple models for predicting the durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses from their composition

  12. Chemical Synthesis of Oligosaccharides related to the Cell Walls of Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnaert, Christine; Daugaard, Mathilde; Nami, Faranak

    2017-01-01

    in good quantities and with high purity. This review contains an overview of those plant and algal polysaccharides, which have been elucidated to date. The majority of the content is devoted to detailed summaries of the chemical syntheses of oligosaccharide fragments of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin......Plant cell walls are composed of an intricate network of polysaccharides and proteins that varies during the developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the functions of individual wall components in cells, especially for highly complex glycans. Fortunately...

  13. Physico-chemical investigations in relation with the tritium circuit in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.; Courvoisier, P.; Mauvisseau, J.; Sauzay, G.

    1986-06-01

    The tritium flow diagram within a fusion reactor may be splitted in a series of chemical engineering units. For them, the E.E.C. has launched a review program as well as experimental work. In this framework the CEA has carried out conceptual studies on fuel clean-up process, on gaseous waste treatment and on atmosphere detritiation systems. Moreover measurements with experimental loops are running to determine data necessary to assess unit dimensions; among others: hydrogen permeation rate through Pd-Ag membranes and tritium oxidation catalyst performances

  14. Lessons learned from major accidents relating to ageing of chemical plants

    OpenAIRE

    GYENES ZSUZSANNA; WOOD Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Major industrial accidents that occurred in the past and even recently, such as the Flixborough, UK in 1974, the ConocoPhillips, UK in 2001 and the Chevron, US in 2012 show that ageing is still a disturbing phenomenon present in chemical process industries. Further to these cases, it is estimated that 30 % of the major accidents reported in the eMARS accident database run by the Major Accident Hazards Bureau of the European Commission are connected to at least one ageing phenomenon. It is som...

  15. Relation between tritium concentration and chemical composition in rain at Fukuoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Momoshima, N.; Maeda, Y.; Kakiuchi, H.

    1999-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in rain collected at Fukuoka, Japan from 1982 have been measured. From May 1996 tritium concentrations and chemical species have been analyzed for each rain to examine their relationship. Recent rain was concluded not to be affected by tritium from atmospheric nuclear tests. Tritium concentrations showed a seasonal pattern, high during winter and spring and low during summer and fall and had positive correlations with non-sea-salt SO 4 2- , indicating a long distance of acidic materials as well as tritium from continental China. (author)

  16. Dietary phosphorus concentrations related to breaking load and chemical bone properties in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S N; Lawrence, L A; McDowell, L R; Warnick, A C; Wilkinson, N S

    1990-04-01

    Effects of dietary P on breaking load and chemical properties of bone were evaluated in growing beef heifers. Initially, 14 weaned Angus heifers received ad libitum a low P diet (.10% P dry basis) for 270 d. Heifers were subsequently randomly allotted into two groups (7 heifers/group) and received ad libitum either .12 or .20% P (dry basis). The experimental endpoint was 245 d of the treatment phase for nonpregnant and 3 wk postpartum for pregnant heifers. Results indicate that chemical and physical properties of bovine bones are sensitive to dietary P. Mineralization of rib bones was less at .12% P (dry basis). Rib bone density (g/cm3) and mineral content expressed on a per unit volume basis (mg/cm3) were the most sensitive parameters measured. Breaking load results of 12th ribs also indicated a greater amount of mineral present in heifers receiving .20% P (153.8 vs. 114.3 kg). Vertebral bone density and mineral concentrations on a per unit volume basis were also sensitive to dietary P and clearly ranked the two dietary P amounts, whereas percentage of bone ash or mineral concentration expressed on an ash basis did not.

  17. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  18. Green Synthesis of Formulated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Chemical Protection of Skin Care and Related Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Ramya

    Nanomaterials have diversified applications based on the unique properties. These nanoparticles and functionalized nanocomposites have been studied in the health care filed. Nanoparticles are mostly used in sunscreens which are a part of human life. These sunscreens consist of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Due to the higher band crevices, they help the skin to protect from ultraviolet rays, for instance, ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A. A series of nanostructured zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by cost-effective chemical and bioinspired methods and variables were optimized. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles were formulated by aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis) plant extract and avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit extract. The state-of-the-art instrumentation was used to characterize the morphology, elemental composition, and particle size distribution. X-ray diffraction data indicated highly crystalline and ultrafine nanoparticles were obtained from the colloidal methods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the chemical state of zinc, carbon, and oxygen atoms were well-indexed and are used as fingerprint identification of the elements. Transmission electron microscopy images show the shape of particles were cubic and fiber shape contingent upon the protecting operators and heat treatment conditions. The toxicity studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles were found to cause an increase in nitric oxide, which is protecting against further oxidative stress and appears to be nontoxic.

  19. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-03-20

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust–ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol–cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42−), bisulfate

  20. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  1. The Bland-Altman analysis: Does it have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.F.; Tofts, P.S.; Baldock, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bland-Altman analysis is used to compare two different methods of measurement and to determine whether a new method of measurement may replace an existing accepted 'gold standard' method. In this work, Bland-Altman analysis has been applied to radiation dosimetry to compare the PTW Markus and Roos parallel plate ionisation chambers and a PTW PinPoint chamber against a Farmer type ionisation chamber which is accepted as the gold standard for radiation dosimetry in the clinic. Depth doses for low energy x-rays beams with energies of 50, 75 and 100 kVp were measured using each of the ionisation chambers. Depth doses were also calculated by interpolation of the data in the British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Report 25. From the Bland-Altman analysis, the mean dose difference between the two parallel plate chambers and the Farmer chambers was 1% over the range of depths measured. The PinPoint chamber gave significant dose differences compared to the Farmer chamber. There were also differences of up to 12% between the BJR Report 25 depth doses and the measured data. For the Bland-Altman plots, the lines representing the limits of agreement were selected to be a particular percentage agreement e.g. 1 or 2%, instead of being based on the standard deviation (σ) of the differences. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis is a powerful tool for making comparisons of ionisation chambers with an ionisation chamber that has been accepted as a 'gold standard'. Therefore we conclude that Bland-Altman analysis does have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard.

  2. Comparison and Analysis of IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 standards for harmonization of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ok; Kim, Jong Seog; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Myung Jun

    2011-01-01

    The seismic qualification of safety related equipment in nuclear power plants should demonstrate an equipment's ability to perform its safety function during/or after the time it is subjected to the forces resulting from one SSE. In addition, the equipment must withstand the effects of a number of OBEs, preceding the SSE. IEEE 344 and IEC 60980 present the criteria for establishing procedures demonstrating that the Class 1E equipment can meet its performance requirement during seismic events. Currently, IEEE 344 is used for regulation of nuclear power plant in the United State whereas IEC 60980 is mainly used in Europe. In particular, NPPs of France and China apply with RCC-E and GB that are domestic standards, respectively. Equipment supplier and Utility have difficulties because of different applicable standards. Equipment supplier to export S/R components/equipment to other standard area performs additional seismic qualification. For example, equipment are qualifies according to IEC 60980, RCC-E, GB although they have been qualified in accordance with IEEE 344. Also, utility to attempt power up-rate, life extension of NPP constructed under rules of RCC-E such as Ulchin NPP 1 and 2 has similar difficulties. RCC-E endorses IEC 60980 and GB is almost same as IEC 60980 except minor difference of earthquake environment definition. Therefore this paper surveys the similarities and differences between IEEE 344 and IEC 60980. In addition, this paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to be possible using one or the other standard area

  3. Transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cell electrodes focusing on heat transfer related to chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navasa, M; Andersson, M; Yuan, J; Sundén, B

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are widely studied for their advantages especially at high temperatures. However, operating at high temperatures represents a high cost due to the strict requirements the materials are expected to fulfill. Thus, the main goal in SOFC research has been to decrease the operating temperature so that the range of available materials is widened and hence, the operating cost can be reduced. In this paper, the different heat sources that contribute to the cell energy balance are presented with strong emphasis on the chemical reactions that take place in SOFCs. The knowledge of which heat sources or sinks taking place and their locations within the SOFC can provide useful information for further design and efficiency improvements.

  4. On the electrophilic character of molecules through its relation with electronegativity and chemical hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazmul; Ghosh, Dulal C

    2012-01-01

    Electrophilicity is an intrinsic property of atoms and molecules. It probably originates logistically with the involvement in the physical process of electrostatics of soaked charge in electronic shells and the screened nuclear charge of atoms. Motivated by the existing view of conceptual density functional theory that similar to electronegativity and hardness equalization, there should be a physical process of equalization of electrophilicity during the chemical process of formation of hetero nuclear molecules, we have developed a new theoretical scheme and formula for evaluating the electrophilicity of hetero nuclear molecules. A comparative study with available bench marking reveals that the hypothesis of electrophilicity and equalization, and the present method of evaluating equalized electrophilicity, are scientifically promising.

  5. On the Electrophilic Character of Molecules Through Its Relation with Electronegativity and Chemical Hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal C. Ghosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophilicity is an intrinsic property of atoms and molecules. It probably originates logistically with the involvement in the physical process of electrostatics of soaked charge in electronic shells and the screened nuclear charge of atoms. Motivated by the existing view of conceptual density functional theory that similar to electronegativity and hardness equalization, there should be a physical process of equalization of electrophilicity during the chemical process of formation of hetero nuclear molecules, we have developed a new theoretical scheme and formula for evaluating the electrophilicity of hetero nuclear molecules. A comparative study with available bench marking reveals that the hypothesis of electrophilicity and equalization, and the present method of evaluating equalized electrophilicity, are scientifically promising.

  6. On the relation between chemical composition and optical properties of detonation nanodiamonds

    KAUST Repository

    Kirmani, Ahmad R.

    2015-06-23

    The morphology and presence of impurities strongly influence mechanical, optical, electrical, and thermal properties of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs). Here we report insights on the chemical composition and its effect on the optical properties of the DNDs obtained by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation. Herein, for the first time, a detailed valence band structure of as-prepared and oxidized DNDs is reported. Photoemission spectroscopy (PES) measurements demonstrate that the defects, originating from fullerene-like C bonding in the sp2 shells of the DNDs, are governing the literature-reported loss of the emission spectral features arising from the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center excitations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that nitrogen is present in the DNDs in the form of N–O bonded species located at the surface region/sp2 shells, while in core of the DND it is in the form of N–C/N=C species.

  7. Golden Standard" in International Relations Training and The Effectiveness of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Baykov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main aspects of the IR experts' professional education and training, aimed at improving the efficiency of the foreign office staff. A new approach has been taken to the problem of updating and rationalization of the current academic programs (especially, MA training programs in order to boost the competitiveness of national educational system at the global education market. The main focus is shifted from marketing to quality and "content" characteristics of the professional training in IR studies' area within the organization of higher education. The author draws on the empirical data, collected by means of analysis, processing and generalization of expert assessments and evaluations of Russian and foreign participants of international faculty and university forums in International Studies in 2015. As a result, the article proposes an ideal model of the master's program, developed by the author, based on "benchmark"International Relations/World Politics programs, which are highly valuated by the respondents. Moreover, it examines the most relevant issues, concerning the framework of students' teaching process (including preparation of master's theses, further employment of graduates and, finally, the development/modernisation of teaching staff. In conclusion, the article highlights recommendations on probable reforms of higher education in IR studies' area. The author does not criticize the national education system destructively. On the contrary, the inevitable question is how to converge the best qualities of domestic and foreign institutions of higher education system in a harmonious way. The article is designed and might be of interest for higher education and training experts, as well as for a wide range of readers interested in the education and training of the foreign office staff.

  8. Public relations: a re-examination of definition, role, and function based on community relations of the Standard Oil (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruckeberg, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study describes public relations as it is commonly practiced today as: a vocation utilizing persuasive communication to obtain a vested nonmarketing goal on behalf of a represented client. It argues that public relation is better defined and practiced as: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. To illustrate what this dissertation advocates, a case study is used. Probably no organization had designed a community relations program with the specific and express purpose of fostering a sense of community, at least to the extent this dissertation calls for. However, the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) refinery at Sugar Creek, MO, has done this sufficiently to merit study. Based on the findings of the case study, which covers a 75-year period of time, specific recommendations are made in practicing public relations as advocated in this dissertation: the active attempt to restore/maintain a sense of community. The theoretical basis comes from the writings of the Chicago School of Social Thought. It is demonstrated that the Chicago School can provide an excellent theoretical basis to provide insight into public relations practice from a perspective that eliminates the problems that now exist in the role and function of public relations.

  9. Protection Against Chemical Agent-Induced, Seizure-Related Neuronal Cell Death

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballough, Gerald P; Filbert, Margaret G

    2002-01-01

    .... While seizure-related brain damage can be prevented by administration of an anticonvulsant drug, battlefield conditions may preclude prompt administration of the convulsant antidote for nerve agents (CANA...

  10. Ionization Potentials of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds Determined with Density Functional Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, J

    2000-01-01

    ...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...

  11. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  12. Mothers’ non-standard working and childcare-related challenges : A comparison between lone and coupled mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Moilanen, Sanna; May, Vanessa; Räikkönen, Eija; Sevón, Eija; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to particularly focus on lone-mother families, comparing the childcare-related challenges experienced by working lone mothers and coupled mothers in three European countries in the context of a 24/7 economy and non-standard working hours (e.g. evening, night and weekend work). Design/methodology/approach – This study utilises survey data from Finnish, Dutch and British working mothers (n=1,106) collected as part of the “Families 24/7” research ...

  13. Variation of iron redox kinetics and its relation with molecular composition of standard humic substances at circumneutral pH

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ying Ping; Fujii, Manabu; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Terao, Koumei; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction kinetics of iron (Fe) and proportion of steady-state Fe(II) concentration relative to total dissolved Fe (steady-state Fe(II) fraction) were investigated in the presence of various types of standard humic substances (HS) with particular emphasis on the photochemical and thermal reduction of Fe(III) and oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at circumneutral pH (pH 7-8). Rates of Fe(III) reduction were spectrophotometrically determined...

  14. Modelling the gas transport and chemical processes related to clad oxidation and hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, R O; Rashid, Y R [ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Models are developed for the gas transport and chemical processes associated with the ingress of steam into a LWR fuel rod through a small defect. These models are used to determine the cladding regions in a defective fuel rod which are susceptible to massive hydriding and the creation of sunburst hydrides. The brittle nature of zirconium hydrides (ZrH{sub 2}) in these susceptible regions produces weak spots in the cladding which can act as initiation sites for cladding cracks under certain cladding stress conditions caused by fuel cladding mechanical interaction. The modeling of the axial gas transport is based on gaseous bimolar diffusion coupled with convective mass transport using the mass continuity equation. Hydrogen production is considered from steam reaction with cladding inner surface, fission products and internal components. Eventually, the production of hydrogen and its diffusion along the length results in high hydrogen concentration in locations remote from the primary defect. Under these conditions, the hydrogen can attack the cladding inner surface and breakdown the protective ZrO{sub 2} layer locally, initiating massive localized hydriding leading to sunburst hydride. The developed hydrogen evolution model is combined with a general purpose fuel behavior program to integrate the effects of power and burnup into the hydriding kinetics. Only in this manner can the behavior of a defected fuel rod be modeled to determine the conditions the result in fuel rod degradation. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.

  15. Bringing together raptor collections in Europe for contaminant research and monitoring in relation to chemicals regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, Paola; Dekker, René; Koschorreck, Jan; Treu, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Raptors are good sentinels of environmental contamination and there is good capability for raptor biomonitoring in Europe. Raptor biomonitoring can benefit from natural history museums (NHMs), environmental specimen banks (ESBs) and other collections (e.g. specialist raptor specimen collections). Europe's NHMs, ESBs and other collections hold large numbers of raptor specimens and samples, covering long periods of time. These collections are potentially a valuable resource for contaminant studies over time and space. There are strong needs to monitor contaminants in the environment to support EU and national chemical management. However, data on raptor specimens in NHMs, ESBs and other collections are dispersed, few are digitised, and they are thus not easy to access. Specimen coverage is patchy in terms of species, space and time. Contaminant research with raptors would be facilitated by creating a framework to link relevant collections, digitising all collections, developing a searchable meta-database covering all existing collections, making them more visible and accessible for contaminant research. This would also help identify gaps in coverage and stimulate specimen collection to fill gaps in support of prioritised contaminant monitoring. Collections can further support raptor biomonitoring by making samples available for analysis on request.

  16. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  17. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Mehdi [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hempel, Stefan, E-mail: hempel.stefan@googlemail.co [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Biologie, Okologie der Pflanzen, Altensteinstrasse 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Savaghebi, Gholamreza [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buscot, Francois [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  18. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  19. IEEE Std 382-1985: IEEE standard for qualification of actuators for power operated valve assemblies with safety-related functions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of power-driven valve actuators with safety-related functions Part I describes the qualification process. Part II describes the standard qualification cases and their environmental parameters for the usual locations of safety-related equipment in a nuclear generating station. Part III describes the qualification tests outlined in 6.3.3

  20. Mass spectral analysis of N-oxides of Chemical Weapons Convention related aminoethanols under electrospray ionization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Murty, M R V S; Raju, N Prasada; Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2011-02-28

    N,N'-Dialkylaminoethanols are the hydrolyzed products or precursors of chemical warfare agents such as V-agents and nitrogen mustards, and they are prone to undergo oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination processes. Consequently, screening of the oxidized products of aminoethanols in aqueous samples is an important task in the verification of chemical weapons convention-related chemicals. Here we report the successful characterization of the N-oxides of N,N'-dialkylaminoethanols, alkyl diethanolamines, and triethanolamine using positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of the [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+) ions show diagnostic product ions that enable the unambiguous identification of the studied N-oxides, including those of isomeric compounds. The proposed fragmentation pathways are supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry data and product/precursor ion spectra. The CID spectra of [M+H](+) ions included [MH-CH(4)O(2)](+) as the key product ion, in addition to a distinctive alkene loss that allowed us to recognize the alkyl group attached to the nitrogen. The [M+Na](+) ions show characteristic product ions due to the loss of groups (R) attached to nitrogen either as a radical (R) or as a molecule [R+H or (R-H)] after hydrogen migration. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Physico-Chemical Alternatives in Lignocellulosic Materials in Relation to the Kind of Component for Fermenting Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Coz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complete bioconversion of the carbohydrate fraction is of great importance for a lignocellulosic-based biorefinery. However, due to the structure of the lignocellulosic materials, and depending basically on the main parameters within the pretreatment steps, numerous byproducts are generated and they act as inhibitors in the fermentation operations. In this sense, the impact of inhibitory compounds derived from lignocellulosic materials is one of the major challenges for a sustainable biomass-to-biofuel and -bioproduct industry. In order to minimise the negative effects of these compounds, numerous methodologies have been tested including physical, chemical, and biological processes. The main physical and chemical treatments have been studied in this work in relation to the lignocellulosic material and the inhibitor in order to point out the best mechanisms for fermenting purposes. In addition, special attention has been made in the case of lignocellulosic hydrolysates obtained by chemical processes with SO2, due to the complex matrix of these materials and the increase in these methodologies in future biorefinery markets. Recommendations of different detoxification methods have been given.

  2. Relation of chemical composition of milk with the level of production stage of lactation and parity order cows crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Fernandes Cabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical composition of the raw milk of crossbred cows in different production levels and influence of parity order and stage of lactation on milk chemical composition of high producing cows. The search was conducted in the municipality of Rio Verde in southwestern Goiás, 784 samples were collected from raw milk of crossbred cows in experiment I and were divided into three levels of production. In the second experimental procedure, the samples resulted in 657 samples of raw milk, being divided into 4 stages of lactation stage of the cows and divided into eight parity order in which first-calf heifers corresponded to first order, and multiparous cows from the second until the eighth creates. For analysis of variance and mean comparison was used lineation all casualized and we used the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the software SISVAR. The different levels of production resulted in physico-chemical differences of the constituents of milk, thus the percentages found may be related not only the level but also at the stage of lactation and parity order of the animals.

  3. Salivary Chemical Factors in Relation with Oral Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh

    2017-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is of malignant tumors, which causes cancerous complications. DNA damage, mainly because of products of oxidative stress like reactive oxygen species, is a frequent mutagenic that triggers carcinoma. Smoking increases the probability of cancer incidence. Saliva is the first biological medium to interact with external compounds, especially smoking substances. The present study overviews the salivary level of some remarkable compounds in relation with smoking and squamous cell carcinoma. To collect data, English literature was searched in databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. The keywords used for search were as follows: 'Carcinoma, Squamous Cell', 'Smoking', 'Saliva', and 'Biomarkers'. The inclusion criteria were the presence of salivary chemical factors in relation with oral cancer and influence by smoking. Out of 239 found articles, only 56 were selected. Our results demonstrated the potential role of salivary biochemistry to predict and/or treat complications with cancer in both smoker and non-smoker individuals. Changes in concentrations of salivary chemicals including antioxidants, total antioxidant, glutathione and uric acid, epithelial growth factor, cytokine biomarkers, superoxide dismutase activity, and transcriptome were related to squamous cell carcinoma and could be used as potential biomarkers for cancer prognosis; moreover, enhancement of antioxidant level might be a potential treatment.

  4. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in mixture and obesity, diabetes and related metabolic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte; Labaronne, Emmanuel; Vidal, Hubert; Naville, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders represent a major societal challenge in health and quality of life with large psychological consequences in addition to physical disabilities. They are also one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although, different etiologic factors including excessive food intake and reduced physical activity have been well identified, they cannot explain the kinetics of epidemic evolution of obesity and diabetes with prevalence rates reaching pandemic proportions. Interestingly, convincing data have shown that environmental pollutants, specifically those endowed with endocrine disrupting activities, could contribute to the etiology of these multifactorial metabolic disorders. Within this review, we will recapitulate characteristics of endocrine disruption. We will demonstrate that metabolic disorders could originate from endocrine disruption with a particular focus on convincing data from the literature. Eventually, we will present how handling an original mouse model of chronic exposition to a mixture of pollutants allowed demonstrating that a mixture of pollutants each at doses beyond their active dose could induce substantial deleterious effects on several metabolic end-points. This proof-of-concept study, as well as other studies on mixtures of pollutants, stresses the needs for revisiting the current threshold model used in risk assessment which does not take into account potential effects of mixtures containing pollutants at environmental doses, e.g., the real life exposure. Certainly, more studies are necessary to better determine the nature of the chemicals to which humans are exposed and at which level, and their health impact. As well, research studies on substitute products are essential to identify harmless molecules. PMID:28588754

  6. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Assessing biological and chemical signatures related to nutrient removal by floating islands in stormwater mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Islam, Kamrul; Marimon, Zachary; Wanielista, Martin P

    2012-07-01

    Aquatic floating plants on BioHaven mats were tested for their potential use as a Best Management Practice to be incorporated within existing stormwater detention ponds. Plants were analyzed for their capability to remove nutrient-pollution in parallel with the study of ecological dynamics. Experiments were carried out in cylindrical mesocosms of 5 m diameter and 1.2 m height, above-ground pools with a water volume of 14 m(3). The design parameters tested were for 5% and 10% vegetated floating island coverage of the mesocosm, both with and without shoreline plants called littoral zone. This littoral shelf was 0.5 m thick, graded at a downward slope of 1:5 toward the center using loamy soil with low organic matter content, excavated from below turf grass. Endemic plant species were chosen for the experimental location in central Florida based on a wetland identification manual by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to ensure the study was not compromised by unique climate requirements of the plants. Nutrient and aquatic chemical conditions such as pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll a were monitored to understand their relationships to the general wetland ecosystem. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the microbial activity near the rhizospheric zone. Logistical placement considerations were made using spatial sampling across the horizontal plane of the mesocosms, beneath and around the root zone, to determine if nutrients tend to aggregate around the floating island. This study concluded that the application of floating islands as a stormwater technology can remove nutrients through plant uptake and biological activity. The most cost-effective size in the outdoor mesocosms was 5% surface area coverage of the mat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical fractionation and mobility of traffic-related elements in road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Due to considerable progress in exhaust control emission technology and extensive regulatory work regarding this issue, non-exhaust sources of air pollution have become a growing concern. This research involved studying three types of road environment samples such as road dust, sludge from storm drains and roadside soil collected from heavily congested and polluted cities in Poland (Krakow, Warszawa, Opole and Wroclaw). Particles below 20 µm were examined since it was previously estimated that this fine fraction of road dust is polluted mostly by metals derived from non-exhaust sources of pollution such as brake linings wear. Chemical analysis of all samples was combined with a fractionation study using BCR protocol. It was concluded that the finest fractions of road environment samples were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, in particular with Zn, Cu, both well-known key tracers of brake and tire wear. In Warszawa, the pollution index for Zn was on average 15-18 times the background value, in Krakow 12 times, in Wroclaw 8-12 times and in Opole 6-9 times the background value. The pollution index for Cu was on average 6-14 times the background in Warszawa, 7-8 times in Krakow, 4-6 times in Wroclaw and in Opole 5 times the background value. Fractionation study revealed that mobility of examined metals decreases in that order: Zn (43-62%) > Cd (25-42%) > Ni (6-16%) > Cu (3-14%) > Pb (1-8%). It should, however, be noted that metals even when not mobile in the environment can become a serious health concern when ingested or inhaled.

  9. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  10. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  11. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-10-01

    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the results on the international standardization R and D. Development of chemical methods to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen shori koban mekkiso no kagaku bunseki hyoka hoho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. Chemical composition and coating thickness (g/m{sup 2}) of 14 kinds of specimens including alloy coatings and organic coating with zinc and aluminum as base were analyzed by the above-mentioned methods to examine the relation between the both. As the chemical analysis method, used was inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. To study the relation between the methods, it was found to be necessary to recognize morphology at the boundary between the coating and base steel using, for example, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electro-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). To measure traceability of the analysis method, with the chemical analysis method as a judgement method, it is necessary to make reference materials by coating materials, to use the calibration graph confirmed by the materials and to adopt the glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. On the basis of such way of thinking, drafts were worked out for the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. 7 refs., 117 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Characteristics of chemical bond and vacancy formation in chalcopyrite-type CuInSe2 and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    We studied characteristics of chemical bond and vacancy formation in chalcopyrite-type CuInSe 2 (CIS) by first principles calculations. The chalcopyrite-type CIS has two kinds of chemical bonds, Cu-Se and In-Se. The Cu-Se bond is a weak covalent bonding because electrons occupy both bonding and antibonding orbitals of Cu 3d and Se 4p and occupy only the bonding orbital (a 1 ) of Cu 4s and Se 4p and do not occupy the antibonding orbital (a 1 * ) of Cu 4s and Se 4p. On the other hand, the In-Se bond has a partially covalent and partially ionic character because the In 5s orbital covalently interacts with Se 4p; the In 5p orbital is higher than Se 4p and so the electron in the In 5p orbital moves to the Se 4p orbital. The average bond order of the Cu-Se and In-Se bonds can be calculated to be 1/4 and 1, respectively. The bond order of Cu-Se is smaller than that of In-Se. The characteristics of these two chemical bonds are related to the formation of Cu and In vacancies in CIS. The formation energy of the Cu vacancy is smaller than that of the In vacancy under both Cu-poor and In-poor conditions. The displacement (Δl) of the surrounding Se atoms after the formation of the Cu vacancy is smaller than the Δl after the formation of the In vacancy. The interesting and unique characteristics of CIS are discussed on the basis of the characteristics of the chemical bond. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by chiral liquid chromatography/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [13C]-analog internal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Lee, Seon Hwa; Blair, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is thought to be mediated primarily by the cytochromes P450 (P450s) from the 2 family (2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2J2). In contrast, P450s of the 4 family are primarily involved in omega oxidation of AA (4A11 and 4A22). The ability to determine enantioselective formation of the regioisomeric EETs is important in order to establish their potential biological activities and to asses which P450 isoforms are involved in their formation. It has been extremely difficult to analyze individual EET enantiomers in biological fluids because they are present in only trace amounts and they are extremely difficult to separate from each other. In addition, the deuterium-labeled internal standards that are commonly used for stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses have different LC retention times when compared with the corresponding protium forms. Therefore, quantification by LC/MS-based methodology can be compromised by differential suppression of ionization of the closely eluting isomers. We report the preparation of [13C20]-EET analog internal standards and the use of a validated high-sensitivity chiral LC/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the trace analysis of endogenous EETs as their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester derivatives. The assay was then used to show the exquisite enantioselectivity of P4502C19-, P4502D6-, P4501A1-, and P4501B1-mediated conversion of AA into EETs and to quantify the enantioselective formation of EETs produced by AA metabolism in a mouse epithelial hepatoma (Hepa) cell line. PMID:20972997

  15. Effect of processing of rapeseed under defined conditions in a pilot plant on chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in rapeseed meal for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Schöne, F; Messerschmidt, U; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2015-06-01

    Five rapeseed meals (RSM) were produced from a single batch of rapeseed in a large-scale pilot plant under standardized conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of residence time in the desolventizer/toaster (DT) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in RSM. Four RSM, with 48, 64, 76, and 93 min residence time and using unsaturated steam in the DT, referred to as RSM48, RSM64, RSM76, and RSM93, respectively, and 1 low-glucosinolate RSM, which was subjected to sequential treatment with unsaturated steam, saturated steam, and dry heat in the DT, referred to as low-GSL RSM, were assayed. Six barrows (average initial BW = 22 ± 1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 5 × 6 row × column design with 5 diets and 5 periods. The 5 RSM were included in a cornstarch-casein-based basal diet. In addition, basal ileal endogenous losses and SID of AA originating from casein were determined at the conclusion of the experiment in 2 additional periods by means of the regression method and using 3 graded levels of casein. The SID of AA in the 5 RSM was determined in difference to SID of AA originating from casein. The glucosinolates (GSL) were efficiently reduced, whereas NDF, ADF, ADL, and NDIN contents increased and reactive Lys (rLys) and Lys:CP ratio decreased as the residence time in the DT was increased from 48 to 93 min. The SID of most AA in RSM linearly decreased (P based on content of NDIN, GSL, rLys or on Lys:CP ratio, in different batches of RSM used for feed manufacturing.

  16. Using optical tweezers to relate the chemical and mechanical cross-bridge cycles.

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Walter; Sleep, John

    2004-01-01

    In most current models of muscle contraction there are two translational steps, the working stroke, whereby an attached myosin cross-bridge moves relative to the actin filament, and the repriming step, in which the cross-bridge returns to its original orientation. The development of single molecule methods has allowed a more detailed investigation of the relationship of these mechanical steps to the underlying biochemistry. In the normal adenosine triphosphate cycle, myosin.adenosine diphosph...

  17. WORKSHOP ON NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS FROM COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY AND RELATED SYNTHETIC STRATEGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Stephen G. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    1998-08-22

    The power of combinatorial chemistry and related high throughput synthetic strategies is currently being pursued as a fruitful way to develop molecules and materials with new properties. The strategy is motivated, for example in the pharmaceutical industry, by the difficulty of designing molecules to bind to specific sites on target biomolecules. By synthesizing a variety of similar structures, and then finding the one that has the most potent activity, new so-called lead structures will be found rapidly. Existing lead structures can be optimized. This relatively new approach has many implications for separation science. The most obvious is the call for more separations power: higher resolution, lower concentrations, higher speed. This pressure butresses the traditional directions of research into the development of more useful separations. The advent of chip-based, electroosmotically pumped systems1 will certainly accelerate progress in this traditional direction. The progress in combinatorial chemistry and related synthetic strategies gives rise to two other, broadly significant possibilities for large changes in separation science. One possibility results from the unique requirements of the synthesis of a huge number of products simultaneously. Can syntheses and separations be designed to work together to create strategies that lead to mixtures containing only desired products but without side products? The other possibility results from the need for molecular selectivity in separations. Can combinatorial syntheses and related strategies be used in the development of better separations media? A workshop in two parts was held. In one half-day session, pedagogical presentations educated across the barriers of discipline and scale. In the second half-day session, the participants broke into small groups to flesh out new ideas. A panel summarized the breakout discussions.

  18. Chemical and Biological Significance of Oenothein B and Related Ellagitannin Oligomers with Macrocyclic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yoshida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Okuda et al. reported the first isolation and characterization of oenothein B, a unique ellagitannin dimer with a macrocyclic structure, from the Oenothera erythrosepala leaves. Since then, a variety of macrocyclic analogs, including trimeric–heptameric oligomers have been isolated from various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae. Among notable in vitro and in vivo biological activities reported for oenothein B are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. Oenothein B and related oligomers, and/or plant extracts containing them have thus attracted increasing interest as promising targets for the development of chemopreventive agents of life-related diseases associated with oxygen stress in human health. In order to better understand the significance of this type of ellagitannin in medicinal plants, this review summarizes (1 the structural characteristics of oenothein B and related dimers; (2 the oxidative metabolites of oenothein B up to heptameric oligomers; (3 the distribution of oenotheins and other macrocyclic analogs in the plant kingdom; and (4 the pharmacological activities hitherto documented for oenothein B, including those recently found by our laboratory.

  19. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  20. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  1. Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikian, George L; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Taylor, Jonathan; Fessel, W Jeffrey; Kaufman, David; Towner, William; Troia-Cancio, Paolo V; Zolopa, Andrew; Robbins, Gregory K; Kagan, Ron; Israelski, Dennis; Shafer, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Determining the phenotypic impacts of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on individual nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) has remained a statistical challenge because clinical NRTI-resistant HIV-1 isolates usually contain multiple mutations, often in complex patterns, complicating the task of determining the relative contribution of each mutation to HIV drug resistance. Furthermore, the NRTIs have highly variable dynamic susceptibility ranges, making it difficult to determine the relative effect of an RT mutation on susceptibility to different NRTIs. In this study, we analyzed 1,273 genotyped HIV-1 isolates for which phenotypic results were obtained using the PhenoSense assay (Monogram, South San Francisco, CA). We used a parsimonious feature selection algorithm, LASSO, to assess the possible contributions of 177 mutations that occurred in 10 or more isolates in our data set. We then used least-squares regression to quantify the impact of each LASSO-selected mutation on each NRTI. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the most common NRTI resistance mutations. Because our results were standardized, the study provides the first analysis that quantifies the relative phenotypic effects of NRTI resistance mutations on each of the NRTIs. In addition, the study contains new findings on the relative impacts of thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) on susceptibility to abacavir and tenofovir; the impacts of several known but incompletely characterized mutations, including E40F, V75T, Y115F, and K219R; and a tentative role in reduced NRTI susceptibility for K64H, a novel NRTI resistance mutation.

  2. The major differences in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two closely related Leonotis species (Lamiaceae may have taxonomic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Leonotis species are used widely for medicinal purposes in Africa. There have been drastic changes in the taxonomic treatment of Leonotis species during the past decade. Two species, L. dysophylla and L. microphylla occurring in Pretoria have been considered as varieties of the same species and as different species by different authors. Because Leonotis species are used widely as medicinal plants inter alia against bacterial infections, we decided to compare the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of four plants from each of two populations of the species. The chemical composition of acetone extracts of finely ground leaves was determined by thin layer chromatography followed by spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid. There were hardly any differences between plants from the same population. There were major differences between the two species in the composition of pigments separated by thin layer chromatography and for compounds visualized with the vanillin-sulphuric acid spray reagent. This supported the viewpoint that the two species should not be considered as varieties. The major differences found in chemical composition indicate that chemical parameters may play an important role in resolving taxonomic differences. Because such a small quantity of material is needed, it may be feasible to analyze one or two leaves obtained from herbarium sheets as an additional taxonomic parameter. The antibacterial activity of the acetone extracts was determined using a two-fold serial dilution microplate method with tetrazolium violet as indicator of growth. The specific strains of the four most important nosocomial bacterial pathogens suggested by the United States National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards were used: Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 21212. The minimum inhibitory activity of the

  3. Assessing the state of the art in biomedical relation extraction: overview of the BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Peng, Yifan; Leaman, Robert; Davis, Allan Peter; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Li, Jiao; Wiegers, Thomas C; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Manually curating chemicals, diseases and their relationships is significantly important to biomedical research, but it is plagued by its high cost and the rapid growth of the biomedical literature. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in developing computational approaches for automatic chemical-disease relation (CDR) extraction. Despite these attempts, the lack of a comprehensive benchmarking dataset has limited the comparison of different techniques in order to assess and advance the current state-of-the-art. To this end, we organized a challenge task through BioCreative V to automatically extract CDRs from the literature. We designed two challenge tasks: disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction. To assist system development and assessment, we created a large annotated text corpus that consisted of human annotations of chemicals, diseases and their interactions from 1500 PubMed articles. 34 teams worldwide participated in the CDR task: 16 (DNER) and 18 (CID). The best systems achieved an F-score of 86.46% for the DNER task--a result that approaches the human inter-annotator agreement (0.8875)--and an F-score of 57.03% for the CID task, the highest results ever reported for such tasks. When combining team results via machine learning, the ensemble system was able to further improve over the best team results by achieving 88.89% and 62.80% in F-score for the DNER and CID task, respectively. Additionally, another novel aspect of our evaluation is to test each participating system's ability to return real-time results: the average response time for each team's DNER and CID web service systems were 5.6 and 9.3 s, respectively. Most teams used hybrid systems for their submissions based on machining learning. Given the level of participation and results, we found our task to be successful in engaging the text-mining research community, producing a large annotated corpus and improving the results of

  4. Evolution of 222 Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.

    1997-01-01

    The 222 Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  5. Rare earths: preparation of spectro chemically pure standards, study of their carbonates and synthesis of a new compound series - the peroxy carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da Silva

    1996-05-01

    In this work the following studies are concerned: I) preparation of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium oxides for use as spectro chemically pure standards; II) behavior of the rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) carbonates soluble in ammonium carbonate and mixture of ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, and III) synthesis and characterization of rare earth peroxy carbonates - a new series of compounds. Data for the synthesis and characterization of the rare earths peroxy carbonates described for the first time in this work are presented and discussed. With the aid of thermal analysis (TG-DTG) the thermal stability and the stoichiometric composition for new compounds were established and a mechanism of thermal decomposition was proposed. The peroxy carbonate was prepared by the addition of hydrogen peroxyde to the complexed soluble rare earths carbonates. These studies included also the determinations of active oxygen, the total rare earth oxide by gravimetry and complexometry and the C, H and N contents by microanalysis. The new compounds were also investigated by infrared spectroscopy. (author)

  6. Evolution of 222 Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Z, P.

    1998-01-01

    The study of the water quality for human consumption has always been great importance, considering the factors that can affect water quality as aquifers recharge and underground permeability. In this work, the behavior of three water springs related with the Popocatepetl volcano were studied within April 1997 and March 1998. The spring in Paso de Cortes in the municipality of Amecameca, State of Mexico, and the springs of Atlimeyaya and Axocopan in Atlixco, State of Puebla; the water of these last two springs is used for human consumption. The content of radon in water was determined by means of liquid scintillation, and a concentration of 1.22 Bq/l was found in the spring of Atlimeyaya, which represents 2 % of the maximum permissible level established by ICRP. A significant increase was observed in the Paso de Cortes spring in the month of July 1997. The content of radium, was determined by means of gamma spectrophotometry and small quantities of this element ( 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , H C O 3 - , Cl - , S O 4 - 2 , Li, B, Sc, Ti, V, Rb, Sr and Ba, primarily, which did not show any significant variation with the change of seasons. No important variations in the concentration of radon, radium or for other volcanic activity related species were found in the entire study. (Author)

  7. Relation between separation factor of carbon isotope and chemical reaction of CO2 with amine in nonaqueous solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1989-01-01

    The separation factor for carbon isotope exchange reaction between CO 2 and amine in nonaqueous solvent was related to absorption reaction of CO 2 in a solution. The test solutions were mixtures of primary amine (such as butylamine and tert-butylamine) or secondary amine (such as diethylamine, dipropylamine and dibutylamine) diluted with nonpolar solvent (octane or triethyalmine) or polar solvent (methanol), respectively. The isotope exchange reaction consists of three steps related to chemical reaction of CO 2 in amine and nonaqueous solvent mixture, namely the reaction between CO 2 and carbamic acid, that between CO 2 and amine carbamate, and that between CO 2 and carbamic ion. Above all, the isotope separation factor between CO 2 and carbamic acid had the highest value. The overall separation factor can be higher in amine-nonaqueous solvent mixture where the concentration of carbamic acid becomes higher. (author)

  8. Gentamicin coating of plasma chemical oxidized titanium alloy prevents implant-related osteomyelitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbeck, M; Schrader, C; Gras, F; Mückley, T; Schmidt, J; Zankovych, S; Bossert, J; Jandt, K D; Völpel, A; Sigusch, B W; Schubert, H; Bischoff, S; Pfister, W; Edel, B; Faucon, M; Finger, U

    2016-09-01

    Implant related infection is one of the most feared and devastating complication associated with the use of orthopaedic implant devices. Development of anti-infective surfaces is the main strategy to prevent implant contamination, biofilm formation and implant related osteomyelitis. A second concern in orthopaedics is insufficient osseointegration of uncemented implant devices. Recently, we reported on a macroporous titanium-oxide surface (bioactive TiOB) which increases osseointegration and implant fixation. To combine enhanced osseointegration and antibacterial function, the TiOB surfaces were, in addition, modified with a gentamicin coating. A rat osteomyelitis model with bilateral placement of titanium alloy implants was employed to analyse the prophylactic effect of gentamicin-sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and gentamicin-tannic acid coatings in vivo. 20 rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (A) titanium alloy; PBS inoculum (negative control), (B) titanium alloy, Staphylococcus aureus inoculum (positive control), (C) bioactive TiOB with gentamicin-SDS and (D) bioactive TiOB plus gentamicin-tannic acid coating. Contamination of implants, bacterial load of bone powder and radiographic as well as histological signs of implant-related osteomyelitis were evaluated after four weeks. Gentamicin-SDS coating prevented implant contamination in 10 of 10 tibiae and gentamicin-tannic acid coating in 9 of 10 tibiae (infection prophylaxis rate 100% and 90% of cases, respectively). In Group (D) one implant showed colonisation of bacteria (swab of entry point and roll-out test positive for S. aureus). The interobserver reliability showed no difference in the histologic and radiographic osteomyelitis scores. In both gentamicin coated groups, a significant reduction of the histological osteomyelitis score (geometric mean values: C = 0.111 ± 0.023; D = 0.056 ± 0.006) compared to the positive control group (B: 0.244 ± 0.015; p < 0.05) was observed. The

  9. Crystal chemical substitutions and doping of YBa2Cu3Ox and related superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakle, J.M.S.

    1998-01-01

    This review covers the literature on cationic and anionic substitutions and their effect on the properties of YBCO. Reported solubility limits are given, together with crystal symmetry and trends in unit cell parameters with dopant concentration. The dopant site is considered; this is additionally complex in the case of copper substitution because of the two distinct copper sites in the crystal structure. The effect of the dopant on the critical temperature, T c , is reviewed; the literature is often contradictory due to the dual effects of variable oxygen content and the nature of the dopant. Preparation methods appear to have an effect on solubility limits, crystal symmetry and T c . Also, the methods used to determine solubility limits are often imprecise which can lead to contradictions. The magnetic properties of doped materials are reviewed; for some dopants, particularly the magnetic lanthanides, antiferromagnetism and superconductivity co-exist. The related RBa 2 Cu 3 O δ phases (R=lanthanide), their structure, properties and behaviour on doping are reviewed in a similar way. For the larger rare earths, the related systems R 1+x Ba 2-x Cu 3 O δ are reviewed; as x increases, the transition temperature decreases and compositions R 1.5 Ba 1.5 Cu 3 O δ are semiconducting. The upper and lower solubility limit changes with R, and for R=Dy, the upper limit is 2 Cu 3 O δ , cannot be prepared in air since substitution of La onto the Ba site occurs, forming the Ba-deficient solid solutions. (orig.)

  10. Using optical tweezers to relate the chemical and mechanical cross-bridge cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Walter; Sleep, John

    2004-12-29

    In most current models of muscle contraction there are two translational steps, the working stroke, whereby an attached myosin cross-bridge moves relative to the actin filament, and the repriming step, in which the cross-bridge returns to its original orientation. The development of single molecule methods has allowed a more detailed investigation of the relationship of these mechanical steps to the underlying biochemistry. In the normal adenosine triphosphate cycle, myosin.adenosine diphosphate.phosphate (M.ADP.Pi) binds to actin and moves it by ca. 5 nm on average before the formation of the end product, the rigor actomyosin state. All the other product-like intermediate states tested were found to give no net movement indicating that M.ADP.Pi alone binds in a pre-force state. Myosin states with bound, unhydrolysed nucleoside triphosphates also give no net movement, indicating that these must also bind in a post-force conformation and that the repriming, post- to pre-transition during the forward cycle must take place while the myosin is dissociated from actin. These observations fit in well with the structural model in which the working stroke is aligned to the opening of the switch 2 element of the ATPase site.

  11. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, E. Kent; Liotta, Charles L.; Neumann, Henry M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996

  12. Operationalising UN security council resolution 1540: an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The UN member states are continuing to take measures to inter alia establish and effectively implement controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). The resolution also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts, including by working through the 1540 Committee. Most analyses on the implementation of the resolution have focused on nuclear issues. This presentation provides an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas, including chemical product classification and identification, biosafety and biosecurity practices and criminal prosecutions for unauthorised chemical transfers.(author)

  13. Comparison between standard culture and peptide nucleic acid 16S rRNA hybridization quantification to study the influence of physico-chemical parameters on Legionella pneumophila survival in drinking water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gião, M S; Wilks, S A; Azevedo, N F; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2009-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen that is mainly transmitted by the inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In this article, the influence of several physico-chemical parameters relating to the supply of potable water was studied using a L. pneumophila peptide nucleic acid (PNA) specific probe to quantify total L. pneumophila in addition to standard culture methods. A two-stage chemostat was used to form the heterotrophic biofilms, with biofilm generating vessels fed with naturally occurring L. pneumophila. The substratum was the commonly used potable water pipe material, uPVC. It proved impossible to recover cultivable L. pneumophila due to overgrowth by other microorganisms and/or the loss of cultivability of this pathogen. Nevertheless, results obtained for total L. pneumophila cells in biofilms using a specific PNA probe showed that for the two temperatures studied (15 and 20 degrees C), there were no significant differences when shear stress was increased. However, when a source of carbon was added there was a significant increase in numbers at 20 degrees C. A comparison of the two temperatures showed that at 15 degrees C, the total cell numbers for L. pneumophila were generally higher compared with the total microbial flora, suggesting that lower temperatures support the inclusion of L. pneumophila in drinking water biofilms. The work reported in this article suggests that standard culture methods are not accurate for the evaluation of water quality in terms of L. pneumophila. This raises public health concerns since culture methods are still considered to be the gold standard for assessing the presence of this opportunistic pathogen in water.

  14. White popular (Populus alba L.) - Litter impact on chemical and biochemical parameters related to nitrogen cycle in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciadamidaro, L.; Madejon, P.; Cabrera, F.; Madejon, E.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of litter from Populus alba on chemical and biochemical properties related to the N cycle in soils with different pH values and trace element contents. We hypothesized that this litter would influence several parameters related to the N cycle and consequently to soil health. Area of study: we collected two reforested contaminated soils of different pH values (AZ pH 7.23 and DO pH 2.66) and a non-contaminated soil (RHU pH 7.19). Materials and methods: Soil samples were placed in 2,000 cm{sup 3} microcosms and were incubated for 40 weeks in controlled conditions. Each soil was mixed with its corresponding litter, and soils without litter were also tested for comparison. Ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup 4}+-N) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -} -N) content, potential nitrification rate (PNR), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), protease activity, and several chemical properties such as pH, available trace element concentrations (extracted with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) were determined at different times of incubation. Main results: Values of available trace elements did not vary during the incubation and were always higher in acid soil. In neutral soils litter presence increased values of Kjeldahl-N, NO{sub 3} –-N content, potential nitrification rate (PNR), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and protease activity. Presence of trace elements in neutral soils did not alter the parameters studied. However, acidic pH and high content of available trace elements strongly affected NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and NO{sub 3}{sup -} -N, microbial biomass N and protease activity. Research highlights: Our results showed the negative effect of the acidity and trace element availability in parameters related with the N-cycle. (Author)

  15. White poplar (Populus alba L. - Litter impact on chemical and biochemical parameters related to nitrogen cycle in contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madejon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of litter from Populus alba on chemical and biochemical properties related to the N cycle in soils with different pH values and trace element contents. We hypothesized that this litter would influence several parameters related to the N cycle and consequently to soil health.Area of study: we collected two reforested contaminated soils of different pH values (AZ pH 7.23 and DO pH = 2.66 and a non-contaminated soil (RHU pH 7.19.Materials and methods: Soil samples were placed in 2,000 cm3 microcosms and were incubated for 40 weeks in controlled conditions. Each soil was mixed with its corresponding litter, and soils without litter were also tested for comparison. Ammonium (NH4+-N and nitrate (NO3–-N content, potential nitrification rate (PNR, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN, protease activity, and several chemical properties such as pH, available trace element concentrations (extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2 were determined at different times of incubation.Main results: Values of available trace elements did not vary during the incubation and were always higher in acid soil. In neutral soils litter presence increased values of Kjeldahl-N, NO3–-N content, potential nitrification rate (PNR, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN and protease activity. Presence of trace elements in neutral soils did not alter the parameters studied. However, acidic pH and high content of available trace elements strongly affected NH4+-N andNO3–-N, microbial biomass N and protease activity.Research highlights: Our results showed the negative effect of the acidity and trace element availability in parameters related with the N-cycle.Key words: microbial biomass N; protease activity; soil pH; N mineralization; nitrification; phytoremediation.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of novel nanostructured Cu-SiO2 coatings prepared by chemical vapour deposition against hospital related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sajnu; Elfakhri, Souad O; Sheel, David W; Sheel, Paul; Bolton, Frederick J Eric; Foster, Howard A

    2013-09-05

    There is increasing recognition that the healthcare environment acts as an important reservoir for transmission of healthcare acquired infections (HCAI). One method of reducing environmental contamination would be use of antimicrobial materials. The antimicrobial activity of thin silica-copper films prepared by chemical vapour deposition was evaluated against standard strains of bacteria used for disinfectant testing and bacteria of current interest in HCAI. The structure of the coatings was determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy and their hardness and adhesion to the substrate determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested using a method based on BS ISO 22196:2007. The coatings had a pale green-brown colour and had a similar hardness to steel. SEM showed nano-structured aggregates of Cu within a silica matrix. A log10 reduction in viability of >5 could be obtained within 4 h for the disinfectant test strains and within 6 h for producing Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Activity against the other hospital isolates was slower but still gave log10 reduction factors of >5 for extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and >3 for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 24 h. The results demonstrate the importance of testing antimicrobial materials destined for healthcare use against isolates of current interest in hospitals as well as standard test strains. The coatings used here can also be applied to substrates such as metals and ceramics and have potential applications where reduction of microbial environmental contamination is desirable.

  17. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Gao, Y.X.; Li, B.; Yu, H.W.; Li, Y.F.; Sun, J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, most analytical problems relating to biological systems were addressed by measuring the total concentrations of elements. Now there is increasing interest of the importance of their chemical forms, in which an element is present in biological systems, e.g., the oxidation state, the binding state with macromolecules, or even the molecular structure. The biological effects of chromium, which is classified as an essential nutrient, are dependent upon its oxidation. state. In general, trivalent chromium is biochemically active, whereas hexavalent chromium is considered to be toxic. Mercury is one of serious environmental persistent pollutants. However, organic forms of mercury are known to possess much higher toxicity than inorganic mercury. Therefore, information on speciation is critically required in order to better understanding of their bioavailability, metabolism, transformation, and toxicity in vivo. Recently, chemical speciation of selenium, mercury, copper, zinc, iron, and so on, has been investigated by INAA, ICP-MS, XRF, EXAFS and related techniques combined with chemical and biochemical separation (extraction, chromatography, gel electrophoresis, etc.). INAA, XRF, and ICP-MS have superior advantages in aspect of multielemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity, which render the possibility of analyzing various elements of interest simultaneously. These offline or online techniques have been flexibly applied to different biological matrixes, such as human hair, serum, urine, various tissues and organs in our researches. In addition, EXAFS provides structural information about the moiety of metal centers up to a distance of approximately 4-5 Anstrom. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Imbalance of elements, such as Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ca, etc., has been found in the whole blood or serum of patients with HCC. We found that the profiles of Se, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu-containing proteins

  18. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of potassium white micas related to polystage evolution of the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulák, Marián; Kaindl, Reinhard; Putiš, Marián; Sitek, Jozef; Krenn, Kurt; Tóth, Ignác

    2009-12-01

    Potassium white micas in sheared basement and cover rocks from the Central Western Carpathians (CWC) were investigated by PL microscopy, electron microprobe (EMP) analysis, Mössbauer and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We specified chemical and spectroscopic characteristics, which allow distinction between celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white mica (Wmca). Wmca generations formed during a polystage evolution in changing P- T conditions ranging from the very low to medium temperatures at medium pressure within the Alpidic CWC orogenic wedge. BSE imaging, EMP analyses and X-ray element maps indicate chemical differences between muscovite and phengite, mainly in Al, Fe and Si contents. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed their contrasting spectra, related to different hyperfine parameters, mainly of quadrupole splitting (QS of Ms: 2.6-2.7 mm/s, or 2.9-3.0 mm/s for Phg), corresponding to Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ contents. Blastomylonitic samples with a single dominating Wmca generation and finite-strain XZ sections were suitable for micro-Raman study. These data corroborate correlation between the frequencies of two vibrational modes of Wmca and Si content. The investigated Wmca generations indicate an enhanced transformation between Wmca phases in shear zones.

  19. Determinants of the Sensory Quality of Półgęsek in Relation to Volatile Compounds and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowicka Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the sensory quality of a specific Polish traditional product made from cured and then smoked goose meat (półgęsek in relation to its volatile compounds and chemical composition. In general, the examined samples contained 66.2% water, 12.2% fat, 17.9% protein, 1.8% connective tissue, and 2.3% NaCl. Moreover, 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. The typical decomposition products derived from lipid oxidation, amino acid degradation, carbohydrate fermentation and microbial esterification were the main volatiles detected in all the samples. The volatiles generated by the smoking process and the ones originating from spices were also observed. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that all the samples of the analyzed products were characterized by a high overall quality. Results of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed, however, that specific groups of products have their own unique sensory profile. Additionally, the sensory analysis confirmed the significant role of the chemical composition and volatile compounds in the development of the overall quality of półgęsek.

  20. Final test report for traffic management data dictionary (TMDD) and related standards as deployed by the Utah department of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-23

    This report presents the results of the ITS Standards Testing Program for the field testing, assessment, and evaluation of the three volumes comprising the Standards for Traffic Management Center to Center Communications (TMDD) version 2.1 and the NT...

  1. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available ) (ISO 19112) Precision Redirectable Standards Postal address Street delivery address Y N N Y N Y Fine Y UPU S42 PO Box or Private Bag Y N N Y Fine to Coarse Y UPU S42 Post Restante Y N N Y N Y Coarse Y UPU S42 Delivery address... (for goods, etc) Street address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Intersection address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Landmark address Y N N Y N Y Fine to Moderate N Building address Y N N Y N Y Fine N Site address Y N N Y N Y Fine to Coarse N Farm...

  2. Use of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index to investigate drought relative to maize, in the Luvuvhu River catchment area, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masupha, Teboho Elisa; Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond

    2017-12-01

    Drought frequency and severity analysis during the growing period of maize was carried out by means of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) based on climatic data from seven weather stations (1975-2014). The index was aggregated at different time scales following three consecutive planting dates (October, November and December), relative to the average start of the rainy season in the area. Temporal analysis of droughts was conducted and trends were evaluated using the non-parametric Spearman's Rank Correlation test. The relative frequency distributions of the different drought categories were plotted for each growth stage of maize, with respect to the three planting dates. Results revealed an average drought occurrence of once every two seasons. The 1991/92 drought was identified as the most extreme drought during the analysis period; and generally there were no significant trends across the catchment, except for weak increasing SPEI at Levubu, Lwamondo and Thohoyandou with Spearman's ρ values of 0.4. This implies that the severity of drought decreased over time in these regions following the respective planting dates. The study further revealed that planting a 120-day maturing maize crop in December would pose a high risk of frequent severe-extreme droughts (SPEI -1.5 to ≤ -2) during the flowering to grain-filling stage at the high and moderate rainfall regions, while results at the low rainfall region indicated this risk following planting in October.

  3. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Jong; Moon, Hyun Jey; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed fatigue and its association with emotional labor and non-standard working hours among hotel workers. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,320 employees of five hotels located in Seoul. The questionnaire survey included questions concerning the participants' sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, emotional labor, and fatigue. Fatigue was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between fatigue and emotional labor. Among male workers, there was a significant association between fatigue and both emotional disharmony (OR=5.52, 95% CI=2.35-12.97) and emotional effort (OR=3.48, 95% CI=1.54-7.86). These same associations were seen among the female workers (emotional disharmony: OR=6.91, 95% CI=2.93-16.33; emotional effort: OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.00-5.16). These results indicate that fatigue is associated with emotional labor and, especially, emotional disharmony among hotel workers. Therefore, emotional disharmony management would prove helpful for the prevention of fatigue.

  4. Formation of hydrogen-related traps in electron-irradiated n-type silicon by wet chemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Yutaka; Shimada, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    Interaction of hydrogen atoms and vacancy-related defects in 10 MeV electron-irradiated n-type silicon has been studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Hydrogen has been incorporated into electron-irradiated n-type silicon by wet chemical etching. The reduction of the concentration of the vacancy-oxygen pair and divacancy occurs by the incorporation of hydrogen, while the formation of the NH1 electron trap (E c - 0.31 eV) is observed. Further decrease of the concentration of the vacancy-oxygen pair and further increase of the concentration of the NH1 trap are observed upon subsequent below-band-gap light illumination. It is suggested that the trap NH1 is tentatively ascribed to the vacancy-oxygen pair which is partly saturated with hydrogen

  5. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  6. The Role of Standardized Tests as a Means of Assessment of Young Children: A Review of Related Literature and Recommendations of Alternative Assessments for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Stacie; Karr-Kidwell, P. J.

    An extensive review of literature related to the role of standardized tests in the assessment of young children was conducted, and recommendations were made for alternative approaches more appropriate to the assessment of young children. The first section of the paper contains a literature review that provides a brief history of standardized tests…

  7. The Council on Accreditation of Park, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions: 2013 Standards-- The Importance of Outcome-Based Assessment and the Connection to Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) adopted recognition standards in 2006 requiring regional and professional accreditors such as the Council on Accreditation of Park, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions (COAPRT) to adopt standards and practices advancing academic quality, demonstrating accountability, and encouraging…

  8. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  9. Dietary standards for school catering in France: serving moderate quantities to improve dietary quality without increasing the food-related cost of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Allegre, Laëtitia; Mandon, Lionel; Ciantar, Laurent; Darmon, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact on food-related cost of meals to fulfill the new compulsory dietary standards for primary schools in France. A descriptive study assessed the relationship between the level of compliance with the standards of observed school meals and their food-related cost. An analytical study assessed the cost of series of meals published in professional journals, and complying or not with new dietary standards. The costs were based on prices actually paid for food used to prepare school meals. Food-related cost of meals. Parametric and nonparametric tests from a total of 42 and 120 series of 20 meals in the analytical and descriptive studies, respectively. The descriptive study indicated that meeting the standards was not related to cost. The analytical study showed that fulfilling the frequency guidelines increased the cost, whereas fulfilling the portion sizes criteria decreased it. Series of meals fully respecting the standards (ie, frequency and portion sizes) cost significantly less (-0.10 €/meal) than series not fulfilling them, because the standards recommend smaller portion sizes. Introducing portion sizes rules in dietary standards for school catering may help increase dietary quality without increasing the food cost of meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH ENCEPHALOPATHY CAUSED BY ACUTE CHEMICAL AGENTS POISONING. P300 OF AUDITORY EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Berezina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RELEVANCE. Patients with encephalopathy due to acute chemical agents poisoning have some brain functioning changes and a cognitive impairment during the rehabilitation program. These changes require correction of appropriate diagnostic protocol and treatment.AIM. The aim of this study was to estimate changes of electroencephalography (EEG and the P3 component of the event related potential (P300 ERP that are observed in patients with encephalopathy due to acute chemical agents poisoning during stage of rehabilitation.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was included 25 patients (age 37 (32; 51 poisoned different kind of neurotoxic substances (drugs, ethanol and complicated by toxic and hypoxic encephalopathy. They have got the treatment of encephalopathy by mexidol intravenously, mesodiencephalic modulation (MDM and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. All patients were recoded EEG (electroencephalograph of “MBN” company, Russia and P300 ERP (“Neuron-Spectrum-5/EP” of “Neurosoft”, Russia according to the international recommendations of clinical neurophysiologists. Neuropsychological testing was used for the assessment of cognitive functions.RESULTS. There were some disturbances in primary electroencephalograms of all subjects. The follow-up EEG recording showed the main group of patients who had got the treatment (mexidol, MDM, HBOT had more often (11 patients the EEG improvements compared to the controls (1 patient. The main group had more rarely the EEG impairments compared to the control group. 6 patients of main group and 3 patients of controls did not have EEG changes during the follow-up EEG recordings. All controls and 17 patients of the main group patients had different cognitive disturbances. After the treatment 15 patients of the main group had improved on neuropsychological tests (MMSE, Munsterberg test, Schulte table, Number Connecting Test. They also had a decrease in the N200, P300 peak latency and an increase in the N200, P300

  11. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  12. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  13. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  14. Relation of structure to function for the US reference standard endotoxin after exposure to 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csako, G.; Suba, E.A.; Ahlgren, A.; Tsai, C.M.; Elin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure and function of the highly purified US reference standard endotoxin (RSE) were studied after exposure to ionizing radiation from a 60 Co source. With increasing doses of radiation, the trilaminar ribbon-like structure of untreated endotoxin exhibited focal swelling, after which only spherical particles were seen by electron microscopy. These morphological changes were paralleled by the respective loss of O-side chain repeating units and pieces of the R-core from the lipopolysaccharide molecules, as demonstrated by electrophoresis. The biologic function of the irradiated endotoxin was assessed with a variety of tests. At higher doses of radiation, a direct relation was observed between the degradation of the molecular and supramolecular structure and the loss of biologic function. At lower doses of radiation, however, there was variability among the functional assays in their rate of change with progressive irradiation of the RSE. The results suggest that the carbohydrate moiety plays an important role both in determining the supramolecular structure and in modulating certain biologic activities of bacterial endotoxins

  15. Proportions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Relative to Each Other and to Golden Standard in Tabriz Dental Faculty Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereydoun Parnia; Ali Hafezeqoran; Farhang Mahboub; Elnaz Moslehifard; Rodabeh Koodaryan; Rosa Moteyagheni; Fariba Saleh Saber

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden proportion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Materials and methods. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths...

  16. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  17. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  19. On some limitations of reaction-diffusion chemical computers in relation to Voronoi diagram and its inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Lacy Costello, Benjamin de

    2003-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion chemical computer in this context is a planar uniform chemical reactor, where data and results of a computation are represented by concentration profiles of reactants and the computation itself is implemented via the spreading and interaction of diffusive and phase waves. This class of chemical computers are efficient at solving problems with a 'natural' parallelism where data sets are decomposable onto a large number of geographically neighboring domains which are then processed in parallel. Typical problems of this type include image processing, geometrical transformations and optimisation. When chemical based devices are used to solve such problems questions regarding their reproducible, efficiency and the accuracy of their computations arise. In addition to these questions what are the limitations of reaction-diffusion chemical processors--what type of problems cannot currently and are unlikely ever to be solved? To answer the questions we study how a Voronoi diagram is constructed and how it is inverted in a planar chemical processor. We demonstrate that a Voronoi diagram is computed only partially in the chemical processor. We also prove that given a specific Voronoi diagram it is impossible to reconstruct the planar set (from which diagram was computed) in the reaction-diffusion chemical processor. In the Letter we open the first ever line of enquiry into the computational inability of reaction-diffusion chemical computers

  20. The reliability and validity of the standardized Mensendieck test in relation to disability in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keessen, Paul; Maaskant, Jolanda; Visser, Bart

    2018-08-01

    The standardized Mensendieck test (SMT) was developed to quantify posture, movement, gait, and respiration. In the hands of an experienced therapist, the SMT is proven to be a reliable tool. It is unclear whether posture, movement, gait, and respiration are related to the degree of functional disability in patients with chronic pain. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and convergent validity of the SMT in a heterogeneous sample of 50 patients with chronic pain. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's α and interrater reliability by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Convergent validity was assessed by determining the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between the movement quality measured in the SMT and functional limitation measured on the disability rating index (DRI). The internal consistency was Cronbach's α 0.91. Substantial reliability was found for the items: movement (ICC = 0.68), gait (ICC = 0.69), sitting posture (ICC = 0.63), and respiration (ICC = 0.64). Insufficient reliability was found for standing posture (ICC = 0.23). A moderate correlation was found between average test score SMT and the DRI (r = -0.37) and respiration and DRI (r = -0.45). The SMT is a reasonably reliable tool to assess movement, gait, sitting posture, and respiration. None of the items in the domain standing posture has sufficient reliability. A thorough study of this domain should be considered. The results show little evidence for convergent validity. Several items of the SMT correlated moderately with functional limitation with the DRI. These items were global movement, hip flexion, pelvis rotation, and all respiration items.

  1. Living standard is related to microregional differences in stroke characteristics in Central Europe: the Budapest Districts 8-12 Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folyovich, András; Vastagh, Ildikó; Kéri, Anna; Majoros, Angéla; Kovács, Koppány Levente; Ajtay, András; Laki, Zsuzsanna; Gunda, Bence; Erdei, Katalin; Lenti, Laura; Dános, Zsófia; Bereczki, Dániel

    2015-05-01

    To test whether str oke features relate to living standard within one city by comparing 2 districts. District-8 (D-8) ranks the last, whereas District-12 (D-12) is the second regarding personal monthly income of the 23 districts of Budapest, Hungary. Stroke cases hospitalized in 2007 were identified by the database of the National Health Insurance Fund and postal codes for living address. Case certification was performed by personal visits to the general practitioners. Demographic data, risk factors and survival status in 2010 were analyzed using the anonymized database. Three-year case fatality was 36.6 % in D-8 and 31.5 % in D-12 (p = 0.24). Of the fatal cases, men were more than 12 years younger in D-8 than in D-12 (69.2 ± 13.3 vs. 82.4 ± 9.2 years, p < 0.001). Men died younger than women in D-8 (69.2 ± 13.3 vs. 75.2 ± 12.4; p = 0.036), but not in D-12 (82.4 ± 9.2 vs. 81.9 ± 7.3, p = 0.8). Non-treated hypertension, alcohol dependence, and smoking were significantly more prevalent in the poor district (p < 0.01 for all). In national stroke programs of former Eastern Block countries, primary prevention should focus especially on male populations of less wealthy regions.

  2. The iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire: A Standardized Instrument for Measuring and Valuing Health-Related Productivity Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Clazien; Krol, Marieke; Severens, Hans; Koopmanschap, Marc; Brouwer, Werner; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2015-09-01

    Productivity losses often contribute significantly to the total costs in economic evaluations adopting a societal perspective. Currently, no consensus exists on the measurement and valuation of productivity losses. We aimed to develop a standardized instrument for measuring and valuing productivity losses. A group of researchers with extensive experience in measuring and valuing productivity losses designed an instrument suitable for self-completion, building on preknowledge and evidence on validity. The instrument was designed to cover all domains of productivity losses, thus allowing quantification and valuation of all productivity losses. A feasibility study was performed to check the questionnaire's consistency and intelligibility. The iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire (iPCQ) includes three modules measuring productivity losses of paid work due to 1) absenteeism and 2) presenteeism and productivity losses related to 3) unpaid work. Questions for measuring absenteeism and presenteeism were derived from existing validated questionnaires. Because validated measures of losses of unpaid work are scarce, the questions of this module were newly developed. To enhance the instrument's feasibility, simple language was used. The feasibility study included 195 respondents (response rate 80%) older than 18 years. Seven percent (n = 13) identified problems while filling in the iPCQ, including problems with the questionnaire's instructions and routing (n = 6) and wording (n = 2). Five respondents experienced difficulties in estimating the time that would be needed for other people to make up for lost unpaid work. Most modules of the iPCQ are based on validated questions derived from previously available instruments. The instrument is understandable for most of the general public. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proportions of maxillary anterior teeth relative to each other and to golden standard in tabriz dental faculty students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, Fereydoun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Mahboub, Farhang; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Koodaryan, Rodabeh; Moteyagheni, Rosa; Saleh Saber, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths of maxillary right and left incisors were calculated and the ratios were compared with golden standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (Pmean differences showed that the mean difference between proportion of right laterals to centrals with golden proportion was significant (Pgolden proportion among maxillary incisors. The review of results of mean differences for single samples showed that the mean differences between the proportion of width-to-length of left and right central teeth was statistically significant by golden standard (Pgolden standard exists. In the evaluation of the width-to-width and width-to-length proportions of maxillary incisors no golden proportions and standards were detected, respectively.

  4. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  5. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  6. The influence of the calibration standard and the chemical composition of the water samples residue in the counting efficiency of proportional detectors for gross alpha and beta counting. Application on the radiologic control of the IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Cecilia Martins

    2003-01-01

    In this work the efficiency calibration curves of thin-window and low background gas-flow proportional counters were determined for calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we have used 241 Am and natural uranium standards and for the gross beta counting we have used 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 137 Cs standards in residue thicknesses ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm 2 . These sample thicknesses were increased with a previously determined salted solution prepared simulating the chemical composition of the underground water of IPEN The counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,273 +- 0,038 for a weightless residue to only 0,015 +- 0,002 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm 2 of residue for 241 Am standard. For natural uranium standard the efficiency ranged from 0,322 +- 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023 +- 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm 2 of residue. The counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430 +- 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247 +- 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm 2 of residue for 137 Cs standard. For 90 Sr/ 90 Y standard the efficiency ranged from 0,489 +- 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323 +- 0,026 in a planchet containing 18 mg/cm 2 of residue. Results make evident the counting efficiency variation with the alpha or beta emitters energies and the thickness of the water samples residue. So, the calibration standard, the thickness and the chemical composition of the residue must always be considered in the gross alpha and beta radioactivity determination in water samples. (author)

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF Paracalyx scariosus (ROXB. ALI A WILD RELATIVE OF CAJANUS FROM SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondragunta Sri Rama Murthy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Paracalyx scariosus (Roxb. Ali locally known as ";;adavi tellakandulu";; in Telugu, used as food by local tribes people in the Rollapenta forest, Kurnool district, Nallamalais of Andhra Pradesh of southern Peninsular India. The mature seed samples were analysed for proximate composition, total (true seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids profile, mineral and antinutritional factors. They contained higher amount of crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 20.56, 5.19, 5.12 and 56.25 % respectively of the seed weight. The calorific value of 100g dry matter of seed material was 1680.92 kJ DM. The essential amino acids, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were present in relatively large quantities.  The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of palmitic and linoleic acids. The seeds are rich in sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, manganese and iron. Anti-nutritional factors such as total free phenols, (5.56% tannins (2.78%, L -DOPA (0.63%, hydrogen cyanide (0.065% and phytic acid (0.85% are present in variable quantities. From the results these plant have a good potential as food crops in Andhra Pradesh.  This paper presents the chemical composition and nutritional potential of Paracalyx scariosus seeds with regard to its suitability as a regular component in human diet.

  8. Chemical and isotopic evolution of a layered eastern U.S. snowpack and its relation to stream-water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Kendall, C.; Albert, M.R.; Hardy, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical, isotopic, and morphologic evolution of a layered snowpack was investigated during the winter of 1993-94 at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. The snowpack was monitored at two small basins: a forested basin at 525 m elevation, and an agricultural basin at 292 m elevation. At each site, the snowpack morphology was characterized and individual layers were sampled seven times during the season. Nitrate and 8d18O profiles in the snowpack remained relatively stable until peak accumulation in mid-March, except near the snow surface, where rain-on-snow events caused water and nitrate movement down to impeding ice layers. Subsequently, water and nitrate moved more readily through the ripening snowpack. As the snowpack evolved, combined processes of preferential ion elution, isotopic fractionation, and infiltration of isotopically heavy rainfall caused the pack to become depleted in solutes and isotopically enriched. The release of nitrate and isotopically depleted water was reflected in patterns of nitrate concentrations and ??18O of meltwater and stream water. Results supported data from the previous year which suggested that streamflow in the forested basin during snowmelt was dominated by groundwater discharge.

  9. Measurements of relative chemical shift tensor orientations in solid-state NMR: new slow magic angle spinning dipolar recoupling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurd, Andrew P S; Titman, Jeremy J

    2009-08-28

    Solid-state NMR experiments can be used to determine conformational parameters, such as interatomic distances and torsion angles. The latter can be obtained from measurements of the relative orientation of two chemical shift tensors, if the orientation of these with respect to the surrounding bonds is known. In this paper, a new rotor-synchronized magic angle spinning (MAS) dipolar correlation experiment is described which can be used in this way. Because the experiment requires slow MAS rates, a novel recoupling sequence, designed using symmetry principles, is incorporated into the mixing period. This recoupling sequence is based in turn on a new composite cyclic pulse referred to as COAST (for combined offset and anisotropy stabilization). The new COAST-C7(2)(1) sequence is shown to give good theoretical and experimental recoupling efficiency, even when the CSA far exceeds the MAS rate. In this regime, previous recoupling sequences, such as POST-C7(2)(1), exhibit poor recoupling performance. The effectiveness of the new method has been explored by a study of the dipeptide L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanine.

  10. Relative importance of microplastics as a pathway for the transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals to marine life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, A.; O'Connor, I.A.; Rowland, S.J.; Hendriks, A.J.; Thompson, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that, if ingested, plastic debris could act as vector for the transfer of chemical contaminants from seawater to organisms, yet modelling suggest that, in the natural environment, chemical transfer would be negligible compared to other routes of uptake. However, to date, the

  11. Iridoids from Scutellaria goulimyi Rech. f., Lamiaceae. Morphological and chemical relations with Scutellaria albida L. ssp albida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    the close relationship between the two species (Bothmer, 1991), we undertook to investigate chemical similarities between S. goulimyi and S. albida L. ssp albida (Gousiadou et al., 2007; 2012) for taxonomic purposes. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the chemical fingerprint of S...

  12. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. An interrupted time-series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery-related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout-related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. The average annual crude rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non-significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full-time equivalents (95% CI -0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing. There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after.

  13. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. Design An interrupted time‐series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery‐related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout‐related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. Results The average annual crude rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non‐significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full‐time equivalents (95% CI −0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing. Conclusions There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after. PMID:17916891

  14. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standards development of chemical analysis and non destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Jun chitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to standardize the chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals of industrial grade. These methods are among those serving bases for international standardization of products. The chemical analysis is aimed at quantitative analysis of trace impurities, in particular, present in pure titanium metals of industrial grade by developing and standardizing the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, known for its low detectable limit, and, at the same time, spark and glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry as the improved routine analysis methods. These methods, although being used by, e.g., steel makers, have not been standardized because the effects of titanium-peculiar matrix are not elucidated. The non-destructive testing is aimed at standardization of the techniques useful for automatic production lines. More concretely, these include optical methods aided by a laser or CCD camera for plate surface defect inspection, ultrasonic methods for plate internal defect inspection, and pressure differential methods for air-tightness of welded pipes. They have not been used yet for automatic production lines. (NEDO)

  15. Effect of DPA and 1-MCP on chemical compounds related to superficial scald of Granny Smith apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, C.; Moya-Leon, M. A.; Pereira, M.; Yuri, J. A.; Lobos, G. A.

    2010-07-01

    Research was carried out to study the mode of action of diphenylamine (DPA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on control of superficial scald of Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and its relation with chemical compounds. Fruit was harvested from a commercial orchard in Chile, 182 and 189 days after full bloom and received the following treatments: DPA (2,000 ppm); 1-MCP (1.2 ppm) and control (no treatment). All fruit was stored for 4 or 6 months at 0 degree centigrade. A completely randomized factorial design was used (2 harvest dates by 3 post harvest treatments). Monthly measurements were made on maturity indices, ethylene production rate (EPR), scald related compounds [a-farnesene (AF), conjugated trienes (CT), total anti-oxidants (AO)], and cell membrane stability. Following 4 and 6 months of storage, plus 7 days at 20 degree centigrade, scald was evaluated. After 6 months, DPA-treated fruit, from both harvests, showed similar firmness, EPR and AO, compared to the control. However, AF and CT were lower, and cell membrane stability higher. Conversely, 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a noticeable EPR suppression and AF inhibition, along with higher firmness, lower CT and AO, compared to the control and DPA. Furthermore, cell membrane stability was superior to that of the control and similar to that of the DPA. Treated fruit (DPA and 1-MCP) showed an important reduction in scald compared to the control. The effect of 1-MCP on the investigated compounds and the reduction in scald, confirms that ethylene plays a major role on its development. (Author) 50 refs.

  16. Exploration and Application of Standardization Management of Electrical Equipment Maintenance in Chemical Enterprises%化工企业电气设备检修标准化管理探索及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶者青

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the current large-scale chemical enterprise electrical equipment maintenance problems,and the company electrical equipment maintenance standardization of the practice of the introduction and summary.%探讨目前大型化工企业电气设备检修存在问题,并对该公司电气设备检修标准化的实践,进行了介绍与总结。

  17. Structure alerts for carcinogenicity, and the Salmonella assay system: a novel insight through the chemical relational databases technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, chemical carcinogenicity has been the object of mechanistic studies that have been translated into valuable experimental (e.g., the Salmonella assays system) and theoretical (e.g., compilations of structure alerts for chemical carcinogenicity) models. These findings remain the basis of the science and regulation of mutagens and carcinogens. Recent advances in the organization and treatment of large databases consisting of both biological and chemical information nowadays allows for a much easier and more refined view of data. This paper reviews recent analyses on the predictive performance of various lists of structure alerts, including a new compilation of alerts that combines previous work in an optimized form for computer implementation. The revised compilation is part of the Toxtree 1.50 software (freely available from the European Chemicals Bureau website). The use of structural alerts for the chemical biological profiling of a large database of Salmonella mutagenicity results is also reported. Together with being a repository of the science on the chemical biological interactions at the basis of chemical carcinogenicity, the SAs have a crucial role in practical applications for risk assessment, for: (a) description of sets of chemicals; (b) preliminary hazard characterization; (c) formation of categories for e.g., regulatory purposes; (d) generation of subsets of congeneric chemicals to be analyzed subsequently with QSAR methods; (e) priority setting. An important aspect of SAs as predictive toxicity tools is that they derive directly from mechanistic knowledge. The crucial role of mechanistic knowledge in the process of applying (Q)SAR considerations to risk assessment should be strongly emphasized. Mechanistic knowledge provides a ground for interaction and dialogue between model developers, toxicologists and regulators, and permits the integration of the (Q)SAR results into a wider regulatory framework, where different types of

  18. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  19. Use of new World Health Organization child growth standards to assess how infant malnutrition relates to breastfeeding and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Penny, Mary; Bhandari, Nita; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2010-01-01

    To compare the estimated prevalence of malnutrition using the World Health Organization's (WHO) child growth standards versus the National Center for Health Statistics' (NCHS) growth reference, to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and malnutrition, and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of nutritional status indicators for predicting death during infancy. A secondary analysis of data on 9424 mother-infant pairs in Ghana, India and Peru was conducted. Mothers and infants were enrolled in a trial of vitamin A supplementation during which the infants' weight, length and feeding practices were assessed regularly. Malnutrition indicators were determined using WHO and NCHS growth standards. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in infants aged mortality in India. No indicator was a good predictor in Ghana or Peru. In infants aged 6-12 months, underweight at 6 months had the highest sensitivity and specificity for predicting mortality in Ghana (37.0% and 82.2%, respectively) and Peru (33.3% and 97.9% respectively), while wasting was the best predictor in India (sensitivity: 54.6%; specificity: 85.5%). Malnutrition indicators determined using WHO standards were better predictors of mortality than those determined using NCHS standards. No association was found between breastfeeding duration and malnutrition at 6 months. Use of WHO child growth standards highlighted the importance of malnutrition in the first 6 months of life.

  20. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography; Analise quimica quantitativa para a padronizacao do oleo de copaiba por cromatografia em fase gasosa de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C. [Farmanguinhos - Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: siani@far.fiocruz.br; Mazzei, Jose L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ramos, Monica F.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Medicamentos

    2004-04-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  1. Chemical composition of caecal contents in the fowl in relation to dietary fibre level and time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, C J; Knox, A I

    1991-01-01

    1. Immature hens were preconditioned to a standard diet containing either 0, 100, 200 or 400 g/kg of added dried grass, 200 g/kg powdered cellulose, or 200 g/kg grass with an enzyme supplement, and were killed at either 10.30, 12.30 or 15.30 hr (after measurement of intestinal sugar absorption reported elsewhere). 2. Contents of caeca removed from these birds immediately after death were weighed and analysed for pH, uric acid, free sugars and volatile fatty acids, and the results related to dietary fibre level and time of day (of death). 3. Wet weights and uric acid concentrations of caecal contents both increased with increasing grass in the diet; neither measure varied with time, thus supporting the proposal that filling of caeca is continuous. Values of pH were all close to neutrality. 4. Mean molar concentrations of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose were in the proportions 36:2:3:1:4:1:1, respectively. Xylose and rhamnose declined with increasing grass; as did glucose, galactose and mannose with added cellulose; glucose, mannose and arabinose levels changed with time. The relative abundance of glucose in caecal contents should be taken into account when estimating contributions of fermentation products to energy balance. 5. Mean concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate were in the proportions 72:22:16:1:2:2. Acetate declined and iso-valerate increased with increasing grass; the cellulose and enzyme treatments caused increases in acetate and valerate respectively; butyrate, iso-butyrate and iso-valerate levels changed with time.

  2. The impact of vehicle on the relative potency of skin-sensitizing chemicals in the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Ian R; Clapp, Catherine J; Safford, Bob; Gibbons, Ben T; Basketter, David A

    2008-01-01

    The identification and characterization of chemicals that possess skin-sensitizing potential are typically performed using predictive tests. However, human exposure to skin-sensitizing chemicals often occurs via a matrix (vehicle) that differs from that used in these tests. It is thus important to account for the potential impact of vehicle differences when undertaking quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitization. This is achieved through the application of a specific sensitization assessment factor (SAF), scaled between 1 and 10, when identifying an acceptable exposure level. The objective of the analysis described herein is to determine the impact of vehicle differences on local lymph node assay (LLNA) EC3 values (concentrations of test chemical required to provoke a 3-fold increase in lymph node cell proliferation). Initially, the inherent variability of the LLNA was investigated by examining the reproducibility of EC3 values for 14 chemicals that have been tested more than once in the same vehicle (4:1 acetone:olive oil, AOO). This analysis reveals that the variability in EC3 value for these chemicals following multiple assessments is LLNA using at least 2 of 15 different vehicles. These data demonstrate that often the variability in EC3 values observed for a given chemical in different vehicles is no greater than the 5-fold inherent variability observed when assessing a chemical in the same vehicle on multiple occasions. However, there are examples where EC3 values for a chemical differ by a factor of more than 10 between different vehicles. These observations were often associated with an apparent underestimation of potency (higher EC3 values) with predominantly aqueous vehicles or propylene glycol. These data underscore the need to consider vehicle effects in the context of skin-sensitization risk assessments.

  3. A review of measured bioaccumulation data in terrestrial plants for organic chemicals: Metrics, variability and the need for standardized measurement protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, William J; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Dettenmaier, Erik M

    2018-01-01

    by plants are often expressed as ratios of chemical concentrations in the plant compartments of interest (e.g., leaves, shoots, roots, xylem sap) to that in the exposure medium (e.g., soil, soil pore water, hydroponic solution, air). These ratios are generally referred to as bioconcentration factors (BCFs...

  4. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  5. Issues relating to safety standards on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency focus is currently being placed on establishing safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This is a challenging task and a Specialists Meeting was held from 18 to 22 June 2001 with the intention of providing a mechanism for promoting discussion on some of the associated scientific and technical issues and as a means of developing the consensus needed for establishing the standards. The meeting used, as its basis, a number of position papers developed in recent years with the help of a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, together with selected relevant regional and national papers. The report contains the summaries of the sessions of the Specialists Meeting together with the conclusions drawn relevant to the establishment of standards. The sessions of the Meeting addressed the following topics: Common framework for radioactive waste disposal; Making the safety case - demonstrating compliance; Safety indicators; Reference critical groups and biospheres; Human intrusion; Reversibility and retrievability; Monitoring and institutional control. The publication contains 26 individual presentations delivered by participants. Each of these presentations was indexed separately

  6. 75 FR 39252 - Release of Final Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment and Particulate Matter... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2007-0492; FRL-9171-8] Release of Final Documents...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Office of Air Quality...

  7. 78 FR 2394 - Release of Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Quality Standards, External Review Draft (PA). This document was prepared as part of the current review of... ``anonymous access'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of...

  8. Estimation of Environment-Related Properties of Chemicals for Design of Sustainable Processes: Development of Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Property Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work is to develop group-contribution+ (GC+) method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI) method) based property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncert...

  9. Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention by electron ionization and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Esmaeil; Saeidian, Hamid; Amozadeh, Ali; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Babri, Mehran

    2016-12-30

    For unambiguous identification of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)-related chemicals in environmental samples, the availability of mass spectra, interpretation skills and rapid microsynthesis of suspected chemicals are essential requirements. For the first time, the electron ionization single quadrupole and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectra of a series of O-alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates (Scheme 1, cpd 4) were studied for CWC verification purposes. O-Alkyl N-[bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidates were prepared through a microsynthetic method and were analyzed using electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with gas and liquid chromatography, respectively, as MS-inlet systems. General EI and ESI fragmentation pathways were proposed and discussed, and collision-induced dissociation studies of the protonated derivatives of these compounds were performed to confirm proposed fragment ion structures by analyzing mass spectra of deuterated analogs. Mass spectrometric studies revealed some interesting fragmentation pathways during the ionization process, such as McLafferty rearrangement, hydrogen rearrangement and a previously unknown intramolecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The EI and ESI fragmentation routes of the synthesized compounds 4 were investigated with the aim of detecting and identifying CWC-related chemicals during on-site inspection and/or off-site analysis and toxic chemical destruction monitoring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Biological durability of wood in relation to end-use - Part 1. Towards a European standard for laboratory testing of the biological durability of wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acker, Van J.; Stevens, M.; Carey, J.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.; Bayon, Le I.; Kleist, G.; Peek, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of biological durability of wood is an issue requiring sufficient reliability regarding end-use related prediction of performance. Five test institutes joined efforts to check standard test methods and to improve methodology and data interpretation for assessment of natural

  11. Assessment of the Adequacy of Instructional Resources in Business Education Programmes Relative to NCCE Standards for Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, Moses; Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the adequacy of instructional resources available for business education programmes at the colleges of education in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria in relation to the standards stipulated by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and was guided by five…

  12. A "Common" Vision of Instruction? An Analysis of English/Language Arts Professional Development Materials Related to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Emily; Benko, Susanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the stances put forward by a selection of professional development resources interpreting the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, and to analyse where these resources stand in relation to research in ELA. Specifically, we analyse resources written by English educators…

  13. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  14. Flow properties and chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flours as related to particle size and seed presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Bauman, Ingrid; Komes, Draženka; Srečec, Siniša

    2017-10-01

    Due to abundance in carbohydrates, dietary fibres and bioactive compounds, as well as for its outspread and low prices, carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour has a great potential of use as a functional ingredient. The aim of this study was to analyse this potential by physical and chemical properties assessment of different particle sizes of carob flour with and without seeds. The influence of seed presence on physical and chemical properties of flour was also investigated. Seed presence in carob flour led to higher cohesivity and cake strength. It also affected the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, which was confirmed by the ranking of samples according to their procyanidin and tannins contents. With regard to the carbohydrate content, significant differences (Pflours. These findings confirm the importance of understanding physical and chemical properties of carob flours in order to use them efficiently as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Detailed Research Study of Learning and Teaching Core Chemical Engineering to a High Standard in a Mixed-Ability Small Class in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    A detailed study of learning and teaching (L&T) of chemical engineering distillation to a mixed-ability small class of 13 students who are ordinarily full-time in-house employees in industry is reported. The course consisted of 9 × 2-h lectures (18 hours) and 9 × 2-h tutorials (18 hours). It was delivered over nine business days "in…

  16. Le Higgs et le quark top dans le formalisme des relations de dispersion et le modèle standard

    CERN Document Server

    Bouayed, Noureddine

    The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking responsible for the generation of masses for both the bosons and the fermions of the Standard Model remains a mystery, especially that the Higgs has still not been discovered. In this thesis I concentrate on the study of the scalar sector of the Standard Model where the Higgs with the other Goldstone Boson reside. This sector can best be probed through the massive vector bosons and the top quark. The former, for their privileged coupling to the Higgs and because their longitudinal mode represents the Goldstone Bosons, and the top, because of its very strong Yukawa coupling, are very sensitive to the mechanism of symmetry breaking. I first focus on a situation where the Higgs is light and study the processes ${W^-W^+ \\to t\\bar{t}}$ and ${ZZ \\to t\\bar{t}}$. In order to unambiguously reveal a sign of New Physics, the Standard Model needs to be predicted precisely. In a first step I therefore study the electroweak and QCD one-loop corrections for these processes. Thi...

  17. Relation between shape of liquid-gas interface and evolution of buoyantly unstable three-dimensional chemical fronts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestíková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2013), , 033023-1-033023-7 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/0919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : iodate-arsenous acid reaction * arsenous acid * concave meniscus * convex meniscus * buoyancy driven convection * chemical waves Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics; CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering (UCHP-M); CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013

  18. The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance as used in the interagency basic safety standards and related IAEA documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbl, G.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanisms are needed to remove from regulatory control those exposures or radiation sources that do not warrant concern. In this paper three such conceptual mechanisms are examined from their historical development to their current usage in the Interagency Basic Safety Standards. These concepts are exclusion, applied to exposures that are not amenable to control, exemption applied in advance on the basis of low risks to prevent practices or sources from entering the regulatory control system, and clearance, a similar concept but used to remove sources from the regulatory control system. The application of and interrelationships between these concepts, is described. (author)

  19. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine (430-500 mg/liter of drinking water) on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard (5%) or high (20%) levels of fat (corn oil) was examined. In the initiation studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diet treatments were provided for 34 days, from 24-29 days of age to 58-63 days of age. Three days prior to termination of caffeine-fat diet treatments, each rat received a single dose of DMBA. In the promotion studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diets were provided commencing 3 days after a single dose of DMBA (at 56-61 days of age) and until termination of the study. Caffeine consumption, during the initiation phase significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat), in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of caffeine in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, an apparent increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; this increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity did not, however, reach the 5% level of statistical probability. When caffeine was administered during both the initiation and promotion phases, no significant effect on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed. Treatment of rats during the initiation or promotion phases with caffeinated coffee (via drinking water) mimicked the mammary tumor modulating activities of caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee consumption did not effect either the initiation or promotion phases of this tumorigenic process. In both the initiation and promotion studies, caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency period of

  20. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  1. New fundamental equations of thermodynamics for systems in chemical equilibrium at a specified partial pressure of a reactant and the standard transformed formation properties of reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberty, R.A.; Oppenheim, I.

    1993-01-01

    When temperature, pressure, and the partial pressure of a reactant are fixed, the criterion of chemical equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the transformed Gibbs energy G' that is obtained by using a Legendre transform involving the chemical potential of the reactant that is fixed. For reactions of ideal gases, the most natural variables to use in the fundamental equation are T, P', and P B , where P' is the partial pressure of the reactants other than the one that is fixed and P B is the partial pressure of the reactant that is fixed. The fundamental equation for G' yields the expression for the transformed entropy S', and a transformed enthalpy can be defined by the additional Legendre transform H'=G'+TS'. This leads to an additional form of the fundamental equation. The calculation of transformed thermodynamic properties and equilibrium compositions is discussed for a simple system and for a general multireaction system. The change, in a reaction, of the binding of the reactant that is at a specified pressure can be calculated using one of the six Maxwell equations of the fundamental equation in G'

  2. A systematic review of Bisphenol A "low dose" studies in the context of human exposure: a case for establishing standards for reporting "low-dose" effects of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Hanson-Drury, Sesha

    2013-12-01

    Human exposure to the chemical Bisphenol A is almost ubiquitous in surveyed industrialized societies. Structural features similar to estrogen confer the ability of Bisphenol A (BPA) to bind estrogen receptors, giving BPA membership in the group of environmental pollutants called endocrine disruptors. References by scientists, the media, political entities, and non-governmental organizations to many toxicity studies as "low dose" has led to the belief that exposure levels in these studies are similar to humans, implying that BPA is toxic to humans at current exposures. Through systematic, objective comparison of our current, and a previous compilation of the "low-dose" literature to multiple estimates of human external and internal exposure levels, we found that the "low-dose" moniker describes exposures covering 8-12 orders of magnitude, the majority (91-99% of exposures) being greater than the upper bound of human exposure in the general infant, child and adult U.S. Population. "low dose" is therefore a descriptor without specific meaning regarding human exposure. Where human exposure data are available, for BPA and other environmental chemicals, reference to toxicity study exposures by direct comparison to human exposure would be more informative, more objective, and less susceptible to misunderstanding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Higgs boson and the quark top in the formalism of dispersion relations and the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouayed, N.

    2008-11-01

    The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking responsible for the generation of masses for both the bosons and the fermions of the Standard Model remains a mystery, especially that the Higgs has still not been discovered. In this thesis I concentrate on the study of the scalar sector of the Standard Model where the Higgs with the other Goldstone Bosons reside. This sector can best be probed through the massive vector bosons and the top quark. The former, for their privileged coupling to the Higgs and because their longitudinal mode represents the Goldstone Bosons, and the top, because of its very strong Yukawa coupling, are very sensitive to the mechanism of symmetry breaking. I first focus on a situation where the Higgs is light and study the processes W - W + → tt-bar and ZZ → tt-bar. In order to unambiguously reveal a sign of New Physics, the Standard Model needs to be predicted precisely. In a first step I therefore study the electroweak and QCD one loop corrections for these processes. This requires a renormalisation of the electroweak gauge and top sectors and mastering some one-loop techniques. I then concentrate on extracting the purely electroweak contributions to the above processes after setting up an analytical formula for the universal photonic contribution. The New Physics affecting the top and W system is parameterized with the help of effective operators describing symmetry breaking. The effect of these operators is carefully compared to the effect of the one-loop radiative corrections before setting a limit on the parameters of these New Physics operators. To give more realistic results the WW and ZZ cross sections are turned into e + e - and pp cross sections by using a structure function approach. This allows an application to the phenomenology at future colliders (LHC:Large Hadron Collider and ILC: International Linear Collider). A second aspect of the work presented here concerns the situation where the Higgs is heavy. For a heavy Higgs

  4. Influence of the physicochemical and aromatic properties on the chemical reactivity and its relation with carcinogenic and anticoagulant effect of 17β-aminoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina, E-mail: socc@puma2.zaragoza.unam.mx [Química Computacional, FES-Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico); Raya, Angélica [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingeniería Campus Guanajuato, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Silao de la Victoria, Guanajuato (Mexico); Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina [Laboratorio de Química Médica y Quimiogenómica, Facultad de Bioanálisis Campus Veracruz - Boca del Río, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz (Mexico); Esquivel, Rodolfo O. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM-Iztapalapa), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • The aromatic A-ring of 17β-aminoestrogens contribute to its anticoagulant effect. • The electron-donor substituent groups favored the basicity of 17β-aminoestrogens. • The physicochemical properties are important in the carcinogenic effect of anticoagulant molecules. - Abstract: Activity of steroid hormones is dependent upon a number of factors, as solubility, transport and metabolism. The functional differences caused by structural modifications could exert an influence on the chemical reactivity and biological effect. The goal of this work is to study the influence of the physicochemical and aromatic properties on the chemical reactivity and its relation with the carcinogenic risk that can associate with the anticoagulant effect of 17β-aminoestrogens using quantum-chemical descriptors at the DFT-B3LYP, BH and HLYP and M06-2X levels. The relative acidity of (H1) of the hydroxyl group increases with electron-withdrawing groups. Electron-donor groups favor the basicity. The steric hindrance of the substituents decreases the aromatic character and consequently diminution the carcinogenic effect. Density descriptors: hardness, electrophilic index, atomic charges, molecular orbitals, electrostatic potential and their geometric parameters permit analyses of the chemical reactivity and physicochemical features and to identify some reactive sites of 17β-aminoestrogens.

  5. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U. A.; Mody, F. K.; Mese, A. I. [Haliburton Energy Services, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In order to develop a real-time wellbore (in)stability modelling capability, experimental work was carried out to investigate the role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations. Time-dependent alterations in the pore pressure, acoustic and rock properties of formations subjected to compressive tri-axial test were recorded during the experiments involving the Pore Pressure Transmission (PPT) test. Based on the transient pore pressure of shale exposed to the test fluid presented here, the 20 per cent calcium chloride showed a very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. The need for a thorough understanding of the drilling fluid/shale interaction prior to applying any chemical potential wellbore (in)stability model to real-time drilling operations was emphasized. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Chemical and sensory characterization of DOC red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Boulton, Roger B; Thorngate, John H; Frega, Natale G

    2004-06-16

    Monomeric phenols, color and copigmentation parameters, pigments with different chemical structure, tannin, glucose, fructose, glycerol, ethanol, and organic acids were determined in DOC red wines from Marche (Italy), obtained during three different vintages ranging from 1996 to 2000. The intensity of the bitter and astringent tastes of the wines was determined with panel tastings. Lacrima di Morro and Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (obtained from local cultivars) were different from Rosso Piceno, Rosso Piceno Superiore, and Rosso Conero (produced from different percentages of Sangiovese and Montepulciano). Vernaccia, a red, sweet, "spumante" wine, was an outlier. Lacrima showed a low tannin content, a high content of small pigments and phenols, and a high ratio of copigmented color, which persisted after 3 years of aging. The chemical determinations accounted for a high percentage of variability of measured panel astringency, copigmented color, and measured wine absorbance at 520 nm. It was not possible to create a predictive model for bitterness.

  7. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN RELATION WITH SOIL PERMEABILITY IN THE AREA OF VELIKA GORICA WELL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kovač

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic parameters affects behaviour of various ions in soils. The goal of this paper was to get better understanding of relationship between physical and chemical properties and soil permeability at the location of case study profile Velika Gorica, based on the physical and chemical data. Soil profile is situated in the Eutric Cambisol of the Zagreb aquifer, Croatia. Zagreb aquifer represents the only source of potable water for inhabitants of the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County. Based on the data obtained from particle size analysis, soil hydraulic parameters and measured water content, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were calculated for the estimation of soil profile permeability. Soil water retention curves and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are very similar for all depths because soil content does not change significantly through the depth. Determination of anions and cations on soil samples was performed using the method of ion chromatography. Results showed decrease of ions concentrations after 0.6 m depth. SAR distribution in the soil profile shows that SAR values are not significantly changing at the soil profile. The highest CEC and EC values are determined in horizon Bw developed in 0.6 m depth which is consistent with highest SAR value and ions concentrations. All results suggest that physical and chemical properties of investigated profile are in relationship with soil permeability.

  8. Determination of mustard and lewisite related compounds in abandoned chemical weapons (Yellow shells) from sources in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Koji; Wada, Takeharu

    2006-01-06

    Knowledge of the states of the contents in chemical munitions that Japanese Imperial Forces abandoned at the end of World War II in Japan and China is gravely lacking. To unearth and recover these chemical weapons and detoxify the contents safely, it is essential to establish analytical procedures to definitely determine the CWA contents. We established such a procedure and applied it to the analysis of chemicals in the abandoned shells. Yellow shells are known to contain sulfur mustard, lewisite, or a mixture of both. Lewisite was analyzed without thiol derivatization, because it and its decomposition products yield the same substances in the derivatization. Analysis using our new procedure showed that both mustard and lewisite remained as the major components after the long abandonment of nearly 60 years. The content of mustard was 43% and that of lewisite 55%. The viscous material found was suggested to be mostly oligomers of mustard. Comparison of the components in the Yellow agents with mustard recovered in both Japan and China showed a difference in the impurities between the CWAs produced by the former Imperial navy and those by the former Imperial army.

  9. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  10. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  11. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  12. A detailed research study of learning and teaching core chemical engineering to a high standard in a mixed-ability small class in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    A detailed study of learning and teaching (L&T) of chemical engineering distillation to a mixed-ability small class of 13 students who are ordinarily full-time in-house employees in industry is reported. The course consisted of 9 × 2-h lectures (18 hours) and 9 × 2-h tutorials (18 hours). It was delivered over nine business days in situ in an established distillery. The purpose was to (re)learn core distillation of ethanol-water mixes at the level of higher education of a bachelor programme. There was 90% broad agreement that the course encouraged more learning. Students (40%) felt the course was too mathematical, however. Pointedly, there was good agreement (63%) that the course stimulated communication with each other professionally, and customers of the distillery. Results overall provide good evidence that students valued their L&T. The experimental design(s) could be readily applied to a range of fields of knowledge.

  13. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides ((U, Pu)O2)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides, (U, Pu)O2, powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Uranium in the Presence of Pu by Potentiometric Titration Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron (II) Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 7 to 14 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion-Thermal Conductivity 15 to 26 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 27 to 34 Sulfur by Distillation-Spectrophotometry 35 to 43 Moisture by the Coulometric, Electrolytic Moisture Analyzer 44 to 51 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earths by Copper Spark Spectroscopy 52 to 59 Trace Impurities by Carrier Distillation Spectroscopy 60 to 69 Impurities by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 70 to 76 Total Gas in Reactor-Grade Mixed Dioxide P...

  14. Consistency of neutron and proton capture intensity standards new relative intensities for 56Co, 66Ga decay and 35Cl(n,γ) reaction gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Z.; Belgya, T.

    2000-01-01

    The equivalence of efficiency determination procedures based on neutron and proton capture lines has been verified and the deviation of high-energy efficiency from linearity confirmed. The new, accurate relative intensities for 56 Co and 66 Ga extend the range of secondary radioactive standards up to 4.8 MeV. Extreme care has to be taken with any high-energy intensity value obtained in the past with the help of 56 Co and 66 Ga calibration sources, and corrections have to be made using the present data of high accuracy. Relative intensities have also been improved for the 35 Cl(n,γ) reaction, a useful secondary standard in a wide energy range, between 0.3-8.5 MeV. The new data are supported by other most recent measurements of a slightly lower precision

  15. 29 CFR 2509.95-1 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the fiduciary standards under ERISA when selecting an annuity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchase annuities. In conducting such a search, a fiduciary must evaluate a number of factors relating to... purchasing an unsafe annuity. In contrast to the above, a fiduciary's decision to purchase more risky, lower... account plan see 29 CFR 2550.404a-4. (b) In General. Generally, when a pension plan purchases an annuity...

  16. [Poverty and Health: The Living Standard Approach as a Supplementary Concept to Measure Relative Poverty. Results from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP 2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, T-K

    2016-06-01

    A common indicator of the measurement of relative poverty is the disposable income of a household. Current research introduces the living standard approach as an alternative concept for describing and measuring relative poverty. This study compares both approaches with regard to subjective health status of the German population, and provides theoretical implications for the utilisation of the income and living standard approach in health research. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from the year 2011 that includes 12 290 private households and 21106 survey members. Self-rated health was based on a subjective assessment of general health status. Income poverty is based on the equalised disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. A person will be denoted as deprived (inadequate living standard) if 3 or more out of 11 living standard items are lacking due to financial reasons. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, descriptive analyses and stepwise logistic regression models were applied separately for men and women adjusted for age, residence, nationality, educational level, occupational status and marital status. The results of the stepwise regression revealed a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. After adjusting for all control variables and the respective poverty indicator, income poverty was statistically not significantly associated with a poor subjective health status among men (OR Men: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.77) and women (OR Women: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.78-1.22). In contrast, the association between deprivation and subjective health status was statistically significant for men (OR Men: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57-2.52) and women (OR Women: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.76-2.64). The results of the present study indicate that the income and standard of living approach measure different dimensions of poverty. In comparison to the income approach, the living

  17. Metabolism of agrochemicals and related environmental chemicals based on cytochrome P450s in mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Hideo; Inui, Hideyuki

    2015-06-01

    A yeast gene expression system originally established for mammalian cytochrome P450 monooxygenase cDNAs was applied to functional analysis of a number of mammalian and plant P450 species, including 11 human P450 species (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4). The human P450 species CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were identified as P450 species metabolising various agrochemicals and environmental chemicals. CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 specifically metabolised sulfonylurea herbicides and halogenated hydrocarbons respectively. Plant P450 species metabolising phenylurea and sulfonylurea herbicides were also identified mainly as the CYP71 family, although CYP76B1, CYP81B1 and CYP81B2 metabolised phenylurea herbicides. The transgenic plants expressing these mammalian and plant P450 species were applied to herbicide tolerance as well as phytoremediation of agrochemical and environmental chemical residues. The combined use of CYP1A1, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 belonging to two families and three subfamilies covered a wide variety of herbicide tolerance and phytoremediation of these residues. The use of 2,4-D-and bromoxynil-induced CYP71AH11 in tobacco seemed to enhance herbicide tolerance and selectivity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A Standardized Algorithm for Determining the Underlying Cause of Death in HIV Infection as AIDS or non-AIDS Related: Results from the EuroSIDA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  19. The use of INAA for the determination of trace elements, in particular cadmium, in plastics in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1993-01-01

    Many plastic products have relatively short life cycles. Upon final destruction, inorganic additives used for pigmentation, as polymer stabilizer or as flame retarding agent are being released to the environment. In a rapidly increasing way governmental authorities are setting limits to the use of inorganic additives, in particular cadmium, in plastics. INAA has attractive characteristics which may make authorities decide to select it for the control programs in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards. An evaluation is made of the use of INAA for such analysis; analysis protocols, sensitivities, and observed levels of other trace elements are being discussed. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  20. Principles governing heart failure therapy re-examined relative to standard evidence-based medicine-driven guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lip-Bun; Chinnappa, Shanmugakumar; Tan, David K H; Hall, Alistair S

    2011-09-01

    Although all aspects of clinical work nowadays are modified by the pervading influence of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and multiplicative guidelines, not many clinicians realize that the underlying premise of EBM-driven guidelines is a particular strain of consequentialist ideology. Subservience to this ideology has transformed modern medical practice, but there is a real risk of distorting good medical practice, of belittling clinical judgement, of disempowering clinicians, and subjecting patients to skewed medical reality and treatment options. With so many heart failure (HF) guidelines issued by various august bodies, it is therefore timely to reappraise principles governing modern HF therapy with a fresh examination of the hierarchy of medical imperatives, the role of alternatives to consequentialism including deontological principles in HF therapy. In addition, other ideology worth re-examining, aside from EBM, are the principle of appropriate definition of HF underlying therapeutic goals and the principle of prioritizing objectives of HF therapy. Even within standard EBM, there are many questions to reconsider: about what types of evidence are admissible, different interpretations of available evidence, emphasizing patient-centered outcome measures instead of randomized controlled trials quantifiable therapeutic outcomes, how to prescribe drugs for prognostic versus symptomatic benefits, and how to deliver HF therapy based on pathophysiological features through mechanistic considerations and not just confined to randomized controlled trials or meta-analytical statistical imperatives. Through re-examination of these fundamental principles of HF therapy, it is hoped that clinicians will be empowered to manage HF patients more holistically and better deliver HF therapies in the best interest of each individual patient.

  1. Constitutive mass balance relations between chemical composition, volume, density, porosity, and strain in metasomatic hydrochemical systems: Results on weathering and pedogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, George H.; Dietrich, William E.

    1987-03-01

    Relations characterizing the chemical, physical, and mechanical changes resulting from metasomatic hydrochemical processes are developed using mass balance models which formally link chemical composition to bulk density, mineral density, volumetric properties, porosity, and amount of deformation (strain). Rigorous analysis of aqueous solute transport effects is then made possible in a variety of porous media flow environments including chemical weathering, pedogenesis (soil formation), diagenesis, ore deposition and enrichment, and metamorphism. Application of these linear constitutive relations to chemical weathering profiles shows that immobile and locally mobile chemical elements, with masses conserved on the scale of soil profiles, can be accurately identified from analysis of appropriate data arrays and then used as natural geochemical tracers to infer the nature and extent of hydrochemical weathering processes and volume changes during pedogenesis. Assumptions commonly made in the past about the supposed immobility of certain elements, e.g., Ti and Zr, become unnecessary. Quantitative differentiation between the effects of residual and supergene fractionation is then easily made. These methods are applied to Ni-rich laterites developed by weathering of ultramafic rocks, showing that during ordinary residual enrichment, Ni is concentrated by as much as 4× protolith peridotite concentrations. This occurs simply by silicate mineral dissolution and removal of chemical elements other than Ni ( e.g., Mg) with a corresponding reduction in saprolite density and increase in bulk porosity without significant deformation. In contrast, laterites with mineable concentrations of Ni which are similarly undeformed (such as the Nickel Mountain Mine in Riddle, Oregon) have experienced, in addition to residual enrichment, strong supergene enrichment by fractionation of ore elements between a leached zone from which Ni is extracted and a complementary enriched zone positioned

  2. Role of graphene on the surface chemical reactions of BiPO4-rGO with low OH-related defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Erping; Wang, Wenzhong

    2013-11-21

    Graphene has been widely introduced into photocatalysis to enhance photocatalytic performance due to its unique physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of graphene on the surface chemical reactions of photocatalysis has not been clearly researched, which is important for photocatalysis because photocatalytic reactions ultimately occur on the catalyst surface. Herein, a two-step solution-phase reaction has been designed to synthesize quasi-core-shell structured BiPO4-rGO cuboids and the role of graphene on the surface chemical reactions was investigated in detail. It was found that the introduced graphene modified the process and the mechanism of the surface chemical reactions. The change mainly originates from the interaction between graphene and the adsorbed O2 molecule. Due to the electron transfer from graphene to adsorbed O2, graphene could tune the interfacial charge transport and efficiently activate molecular oxygen to form O2˙(-) anions as the major oxidation species instead of ˙OH. In addition, the two-step synthesis approach could efficiently suppress the formation of OH-related defects in the lattice. As a result, the BiPO4-rGO composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to BiPO4 and P25, about 4.3 times that of BiPO4 and 6.9 times that of P25.

  3. Chemical Composition and Amounts of Mineral Elements in Honeybee-Collected Pollen in Relation to Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha El-Kazafy Abdou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the apiary of the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The purpose was to study the relationship between the botanical origin and chemical composition of bee-collected pollen. The amount of mineral elements present in bee-collected pollen was also studied. The composition of pollen loads showed the maximum contents of dry matter, ash, glucose, fructose, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, and manganese (Mn for the date palm; the maximum contents of protein, calcium (Ca, and zinc (Zn for alfalfa; the maximum contents of fiber, and copper (Cu for the sunflower; the maximum contents of the lipids and iron (Fe for summer squash; and the maximum contents of sodium (Na, and potassium (K for rape. Calcium was found to be correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 positive way with K, Na, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. Copper, though, was correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 negative way with Ca, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. The high levels of protein, ash, glucose, and fructose, and low lipid content found in bee-pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa, mean that pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa make an excellent food supplement. It was concluded, that the chemical composition of beecollected pollen can be correlated with the plant species from which pollen was collected.

  4. Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Nam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone, anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L., exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.

  5. Chemically-induced liquid film migration with low lattice diffusivity relative to the migration rate in Mo-Ni-(W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that when a 90Mo-10Ni alloy (by wt) liquid phase sintered at 1400 degrees C is heat-treated at 1400 degrees C after replacing the matrix with a melt of 44Ni-34Mo-22W (by wt), the liquid films between the grains migrate, leaving behind an Mo alloy enriched with W. The ratio of the lattice diffusivity of W in Mo, D, to the initial migration velocity, v. (D/v) is estimated to be between 0.03 and 0.18 angstrom. Hence it appears that there is no lattice diffusion of W ahead of the migrating liquid film, and is such a case the driving force has been suggested to be the chemical free energy. But the observed v is approximately same as that to be expected if the driving force is assumed to be diffusional coherency strain energy. Likewise, a previous study of den Broeder and Nakahara shows that the rate of chemically-induced grain boundary migration in Cu-Ni shows a smooth variation with temperature as D/v decreases from values much larger than the interatomic spacing to values much smaller with decreasing temperature. The coherency strain energy thus appears to be a general driving force for the migration even when the apparent diffusion length indicated by D/v is smaller than the interatomic spacing

  6. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  7. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standards development of chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Junchitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To propose it to ISOTC79 and ISOTC135, study was conducted for standardization of chemical analysis method and non-destructive inspection method for industrial use pure titanium. As the chemical analysis method, the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry which has good detection limit was developed, and at the same time, the standardization of spark and/or glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry was developed. As the non-destructive inspection method, developmental study on the following was carried out: surface defect inspection method of pure titanium metals by laser scanning inspection system or CCD camera; internal defect inspection of pure titanium sheet and coil by plate wave ultrasonic inspection method; internal defect inspection of pure titanium bar by eddy current method; inspection of very small leakage of pressurized fluid through defects in pure titanium pipe and tube by pressure differential testing method. As a result of the study, standards of system performance and tolerance were determined in analysis of Pd, Si, Al, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta and Y. Further, analytical conditions and application ranges of the spark discharged atomic emission spectrometry were made definite in terms of 19 elements including Mn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Sn, Pb, Si, Al, V, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta, Co, B, Y, C and W. (NEDO)

  8. Chemical engineering: Measurements for a competitive age

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) activities supporting chemical research, environmental research, combustion and fuel research, and related industries are described in this video. Highlights include private sector involvement in the research and associated and guest scientist programs, the calibration of customers' instruments, and the direct funding for the NIST research projects by outside industries.

  9. Comparison of some aqueous chemical dosimeters for absorbed doses of less than 1000 rads. [Benzoic--salicylic acid, terephtalic--2-hydroxyterephtabe acid, ferrous sulfate--benzoic acid--xylenol orange, and standard Fricke dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R W [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights; Barker, N T; Sangster, D F

    1978-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation into the relative merits of the systems: benzoic-salicylic acid, terephthalic-2-hydroxyterephthalic acid, the more recent ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange (FBX), and the standard Fricke dosimeter, for the measurement of absorbed doses under identical irradiation conditions, in the range 10 to 1000 rads.

  10. Method for Derivatization and Detection of Chemical Weapons Convention Related Sulfur Chlorides via Electrophilic Addition with 3-Hexyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, D Raghavender; Pardasani, Deepak; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-07-07

    Sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2) and sulfur dichloride (SCl2) are important precursors of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard and classified, respectively, into schedule 3.B.12 and 3.B.13 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Hence, their detection and identification is of vital importance for verification of CWC. These chemicals are difficult to detect directly using chromatographic techniques as they decompose and do not elute. Until now, the use of gas chromatographic approaches to follow the derivatized sulfur chlorides is not reported in the literature. The electrophilic addition reaction of sulfur monochloride and sulfur dichloride toward 3-hexyne was explored for the development of a novel derivatization protocol, and the products were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Among various unsaturated reagents like alkenes and alkynes, symmetrical alkyne 3-hexyne was optimized to be the suitable derivatizing agent for these analytes. Acetonitrile was found to be the suitable solvent for the derivatization reaction. The sample preparation protocol for the identification of these analytes from hexane spiked with petrol matrix was also optimized. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization was employed for the identification of these analytes from petrol matrix. Under the established conditions, the detection and quantification limits are 2.6 μg/mL, 8.6 μg/mL for S2Cl2 and 2.3 μg/mL, 7.7 μg/mL for SCl2, respectively, in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The calibration curve had a linear relationship with y = 0.022x - 0.331 and r(2) = 0.992 for the working range of 10 to 500 μg/mL for S2Cl2 and y = 0.007x - 0.064 and r(2) = 0.991 for the working range of 10 to 100 μg/mL for SCl2, respectively. The intraday RSDs were between 4.80 to 6.41%, 2.73 to 6.44% and interday RSDs were between 2.20 to 7.25% and 2.34 to 5.95% for S2Cl2 and SCl2, respectively.

  11. Nutritive value of some agricultural wastes as affected by relatively low gamma irradiation levels and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after irradiation by various levels of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy) or after spraying with different amounts of hydrobromic acid (HBr; 47%) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 0, 3, 6 ml HBr and 3, 6 g NaOH in 25 ml water/100 g DM. The results indicated that chemical treatments increased the IVOMD and ME values significantly for all samples treated except the date palm seeds. There was no significant effect of irradiation on IVOMD and ME. Combined treatments of irradiation and HBr or NaOH were also found to be ineffective in increasing the IVOMD and ME values. (Author)

  12. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Portuguese Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martinez and its relation with their chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Sofia; Rodrigues, Cleide F; Araújo, João P; Rocha, Pedro M; Rodilla, Jesus M; Diez, David; Granja, Ángela P; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2016-01-01

    Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martinez is an endemic aromatic Labiatae the Iberian Peninsula, common in semi-arid regions of southern Portugal and southwestern Spain, that produces an active antibacterial essential oil from the leaves and flowers. This work presents the study of the chemical variation in various stages of growth of leaves and flowers of L. luisieri. It has been found that the essential oils are mainly constituted by 1,8-cineol, camphor, linalool and trans-α-necrodil acetate. It was also studied the total phenol content and the antioxidant activity on leaves and flowers. The ethanol extraction from de leaves contents the highest total phenol, important factor for the antioxidant activity of the plant, extract. It has been studied too, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp . and Staphylococcus aureus . In accordance with the obtained results, the antibacterial activities stand out against Staphylococcus , of the oil of L. luisieri (leaves and flowers).

  14. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  15. Uncertainty and minimum detectable concentrations using relative, absolute and K*0-IAEA standardization for the INAA laboratory of the ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Laboratory of Egypt Second Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is increasingly requested to perform multi-element analysis to large number of samples from different origins. The INAA laboratory has to demonstrate competence by conforming to appropriate internationally and nationally accepted standards. The objective of this work is to determine the uncertainty budget and sensitivity of the INAA laboratory measurements. Concentrations of 9 elements; Mn, Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, and Cs, were measured against a certified test sample. Relative, absolute, and Ko-IAEA standardization methods were employed and results compared. The flux was monitored using cadmium covered gold method, and multifoil (gold, nickel and zirconium) method. The combined and expanded uncertainties were estimated. Uncertainty of concentrations ranged between 2-21% depending on the standardization method used. The relative method, giving the lowest uncertainty, produced uncertainty budget between 2 and 11%. The minimum detectable concentration was the lowest for Cs ranging between 0.36 and 0.59 ppb and the highest being for K in the range of 0.32 to 8.64 ppm

  16. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance--relation to the pathogenesis of senile osteoporosis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-03-01

    dominance plays a crucial role in deciding the predisposition to bone and joint diseases. Right hemispheric chemical dominance predisposes to spondylosis and osteoarthritis. Left hemispheric chemical dominance predisposes to osteoporosis.

  17. Characterization of physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus in relation to parity and conception rate in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the physico-chemical properties of estrual cervical mucus among different parities and analyse their association with conception rate in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Cervical mucus was collected from the mid-cervix using sterile blue sheath before artificial insemination (AI in Murrah buffaloes (n=94 and examined for appearance (transparent/ translucent, consistency (thin/ moderate/ thick, Spinnbarkeit value, arborisation pattern (typical/ atypical/ nil, pH and electrical conductivity. Artificial insemination was carried out using frozen-thawed semen by recto-vaginal method and pregnancy was confirmed by per-rectal examination after 60 days of insemination. Furthermore, the conception rates were calculated and their relationship with physico-chemical properties of cervical mucus was studied. Results: Cervical mucus was clear and thin in 85.10% and 15.96 % of estrus periods, respectively. Typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus was observed in 54.25% of the estruses. The Mean ± SEM of pH, electrical conductivity and Spinnbarkeit value of mucus were 7.82 ± 0.02, 14.00 ± 0.10 mS/cm and 14.18 ± 0.59 cm, respectively. Significantly (P< 0.05 higher conception rate (54.90% was observed in buffaloes inseminated with typical arborisation pattern of cervical mucus as compared to atypical arborisation pattern (20.00% and no conception was recorded in the estruses with nil arborisation pattern. Conclusion: The results of present investigation concluded that arborisation pattern has significant relationship with conception rate thus can be used as an important criteria to predict the right time of AI for improving conception rate in Murrah buffaloes.

  18. Studies on the process aspects related to chemical decontamination of chromium-containing alloys with redox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.S.; Suresh, S.; Chandran, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Rajesh, P.

    2004-01-01

    Presence of chromium in the oxide layer makes oxidative pre-treatment with oxidizing agents such as potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) a must for the decontamination of stainless steels and other chromium containing alloys. The effectiveness of pre-treatment with oxidizing reagent varies with the conditions of treatment such as temperature, concentration and whether the medium is acidic or alkaline. A comparative study of the two acidic oxidizing agents, i.e., nitric acid-permanganate and permanganic acid was made. The dissolution behavior of copper and its oxide in permanganic acid was found to be comparable to that of chromium oxide. Citric acid and ascorbic acid were investigated as alternatives to oxalic acid for the reduction/decomposition of permanganate left over after the oxidizing pre-treatment step. It has been established that the reduction of chromate by citric acid is instantaneous only in presence of Mn 2+ ions. It has also been established that reduction of residual permanganate can be achieved with ascorbic acid and with minimum chemical requirement. The capabilities of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-ascorbic acid mixture for the dissolution of hematite have been explored. This study would help to choose the suitable oxidizing agent, the reducing agent used for decomposition of permanganate and to optimize the concentration of reducing formulation so that the process of decontamination is achieved with a minimum requirement of chemicals. The generation of radioactive ion exchange resin as waste is therefore held at a minimum. Ion exchange studies with metal ion complexes of relevance to decontamination were carried out with a view to choose a suitable type of ion exchanger. It has been established that treatment of the ion exchange resin with brine solution can solve the problem of leaching out of non-ionic organics from the resin. (orig.)

  19. Chlorophyll 'a' and particulate organic carbon in relation to some physico-chemical parameters along southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K; Balasubramanian, T.; Jayalakshmy, K; Balachandran, K.K; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    ' and environmental parameters except NO sub(2)-N varied spatially, while POC and NO sub(2)-N diurnally. For total and 60 mu m size fractioned chlorophyll 'a' a negative relation of high gradient with salinity while, for 20 mu m size fraction a positive relation...

  20. Estimation of environment-related properties of chemicals for design of sustainable processes: Development of group-contribution+ (GC+) models and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop group-3 contribution+ (GC+)method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI)) based 15 property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncertainties of estimated...... property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is used. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of property models and an uncertainty analysis step to establish statistical information about the quality......, poly functional chemicals, etc.) taken from the database of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and from the database of USEtox is used. For property modeling and uncertainty analysis, the Marrero and Gani GC method and atom connectivity index method have been considered. In total, 22...