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Sample records for relative permeability information

  1. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  2. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  3. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  4. Sub-core permeability and relative permeability characterization with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, C.; Benson, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    This study utilizes preclinical micro-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in a Berea sandstone core with axial parallel bedding heterogeneity. The core is discretized into streamtubes, and using the micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core scale tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity data, it is then possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Full 3D simulations are then constructed based on this core characterization. Simulation results are compared with experimental results in order to test the assumptions of the simple streamtube model. Errors and limitations of this analysis will be discussed. These new methods of imaging and sub-core permeability and relative permeability measurements enable experimental quantification of transport behavior across scales.

  5. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.; Wang, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions

  6. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented and new correlations for in-plane relative permeability of water and air are established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical Estimation of Water-Oil Relative Permeabilities through Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboorian-Jooybari Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling multiphase flow through fractures is a key issue for understanding flow mechanism and performance prediction of fractured petroleum reservoirs, geothermal reservoirs, underground aquifers and carbon-dioxide sequestration. One of the most challenging subjects in modeling of fractured petroleum reservoirs is quantifying fluids competition for flow in fracture network (relative permeability curves. Unfortunately, there is no standard technique for experimental measurement of relative permeabilities through fractures and the existing methods are very expensive, time consuming and erroneous. Although, several formulations were presented to calculate fracture relative permeability curves in the form of linear and power functions of flowing fluids saturation, it is still unclear what form of relative permeability curves must be used for proper modeling of flow through fractures and consequently accurate reservoir simulation. Basically, the classic linear relative permeability (X-type curves are used in almost all of reservoir simulators. In this work, basic fluid flow equations are combined to develop a new simple analytical model for water-oil two phase flow in a single fracture. The model gives rise to simple analytic formulations for fracture relative permeabilities. The model explicitly proves that water-oil relative permeabilities in fracture network are functions of fluids saturation, viscosity ratio, fluids density, inclination of fracture plane from horizon, pressure gradient along fracture and rock matrix wettability, however they were considered to be only functions of saturations in the classic X-type and power (Corey [35] and Honarpour et al. [28, 29] models. Eventually, validity of the proposed formulations is checked against literature experimental data. The proposed fracture relative permeability functions have several advantages over the existing ones. Firstly, they are explicit functions of the parameters which are known for

  8. Relative permeability of the endothelium and epithelium of rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effros, R.M.; Mason, G.R.; Silverman, P.; Hukkanen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Electron micrographic studies of lungs suggest that the epithelial cells are more tightly joined than the underlying endothelium, and macromolecules penetrate the endothelium more readily than the epithelium. Comparisons of epithelial and endothelial permeability to small molecules have been based upon the relative rates at which solutes traverse the alveolar-capillary barrier in fluid filled lungs and those at which they equilibrate across the capillaries in air-filled lungs. Because the former process is much slower than the latter, it has been concluded that the epithelium is less permeable to small solutes than the endothelium. However this difference may be related to inadequate access of solutes to airway surfaces. In this study, solute losses from the vascular space were compared to those from the airspace in perfused, fluid-filled rabbit lungs. 36 Cl - and 125 I - were lost from air-spaces almost twice as rapidly as 22 Na + . In contrast, the endothelium is equally permeable to 22 Na + and these anions. Loss of 3 H-mannitol from the perfusate resembled that of 22 Na + for about 30 minutes, after which diffusion of 3 H-mannitol into the tissue nearly ceased. These observations suggest that the epithelium is more permselective than the endothelium. By resisting solute and water transport, the epithelium tends to prevent alveolar flooding and confines edema to the interstitium, where it is less likely to interfere with gas exchange

  9. Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydride from the Salado Formation: Sensitivity analysis and data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, R.L.; Kalbus, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents, demonstrates, evaluates, and provides theoretical justification for methods used to convert experimental data into relative permeability relationships. The report facilities accurate determination of relative permeabilities of anhydride rock samples from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Relative permeability characteristic curves are necessary for WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) predictions of the potential for flow of waste-generated gas from the repository and brine flow into repository. This report follows Christiansen and Howarth (1995), a comprehensive literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability. It focuses on unsteady-state experiments and describes five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments. Unsteady-state experimental methods were recommended for relative permeability measurements of low-permeability anhydrite rock samples form the Salado Formation because these tests produce accurate relative permeability information and take significantly less time to complete than steady-state tests. Five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments are described: the Welge method, the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann method, the Jones-Roszelle method, the Ramakrishnan-Cappiello method, and the Hagoort method. A summary, an example of the calculations, and a theoretical justification are provided for each of the five methods. Displacements in porous media are numerically simulated for the calculation examples. The simulated product data were processed using the methods, and the relative permeabilities obtained were compared with those input to the numerical model. A variety of operating conditions were simulated to show sensitivity of production behavior to rock-fluid properties

  10. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  11. A fractal model for predicting permeability and liquid water relative permeability in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of PEMFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangli; Zhao, Zongchang; Ming, Pingwen; Abuliti, Abudula; Yin, Caoyong

    In this study, a fractal model is developed to predict the permeability and liquid water relative permeability of the GDL (TGP-H-120 carbon paper) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), based on the micrographs (by SEM, i.e. scanning electron microscope) of the TGP-H-120. Pore size distribution (PSD), maximum pore size, porosity, diameter of the carbon fiber, pore tortuosity, area dimension, hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, the thickness of GDL and saturation are involved in this model. The model was validated by comparison between the predicted results and experimental data. The results indicate that the water relative permeability in the hydrophobicity case is much higher than in the hydrophilicity case. So, a hydrophobic carbon paper is preferred for efficient removal of liquid water from the cathode of PEMFCs.

  12. Cross-property relations and permeability estimation in model porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.M.; Martys, N.; Bentz, D.P.; Garboczi, E.J.; Torquato, S.

    1993-01-01

    Results from a numerical study examining cross-property relations linking fluid permeability to diffusive and electrical properties are presented. Numerical solutions of the Stokes equations in three-dimensional consolidated granular packings are employed to provide a basis of comparison between different permeability estimates. Estimates based on the Λ parameter (a length derived from electrical conduction) and on d c (a length derived from immiscible displacement) are found to be considerably more reliable than estimates based on rigorous permeability bounds related to pore space diffusion. We propose two hybrid relations based on diffusion which provide more accurate estimates than either of the rigorous permeability bounds

  13. Gas-liquid Relative Permeability Estimation in 2D Porous Media by Lattice Boltzmann Method: Low Viscosity Ratio 2D LBM Relative Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mahmoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a primary achievement in studying the CO2 and N2–oil systems. To predict gas-liquid relative permeability curves, a Shan-Chen type multicomponent multiphase lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow through 2D porous media is developed. Periodic and bounce back boundary conditions are applied to the model with the Guo scheme for the external body force (i.e., the pressure gradient. The influence of relationship between cohesion and adsorption parameters and the interfacial tension values in Young's equation, pore structure (micro scan image derived porous media response is compared with corresponding porosity and permeability ideal sphere pack structure, and saturation distribution on relative permeability curves are studied with the aim to achieve the realistic stable condition for the simulation of gas-liquid systems with a low viscosity ratio.

  14. A new method for the experimental determination of three-phase relative permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Carrillo, Edgar Ricardo; Jose Francisco Zapata Arango; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Petroleum reservoirs under primary, secondary or tertiary recovery processes usually experience simultaneous flow of three fluids phases (oil, water and gas). Reports on some mathematical models for calculating three-phase relative permeability are available in the Literature. Nevertheless, many of these models were designed based on certain experimental conditions and reservoir rocks and fluids. Therefore, special care has to be taken when applying them to specific reservoirs. At the laboratory level, three-phase relative permeability can be calculated using experimental unsteady-state or steady state methodologies. This paper proposes an unsteady-state methodology to evaluate three-phase relative permeability using the equipment available at the petrophysical analysis Laboratory of the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP) of Ecopetrol S.A. Improvements to the equipment were effected in order to achieve accuracy in the unsteady-state measurement of three-phase relative permeability. The target of improvements was directed toward to the attainment of two objectives:1) the modification of the equipment to obtain more reliable experimental data and 2) the appropriate interpretation of the data obtained. Special attention was given to the differential pressure and uncertainty measurement in the determination of fluid saturation in the rock samples. Three experiments for three-phase relative permeability were conducted using a sample A and reservoir rock from the Colombian Foothills. Fluid tests included the utilization of synthetic brine, mineral oil, reservoir crude oil and nitrogen. Two runs were conducted at the laboratory conditions while one run was conducted at reservoir conditions. Experimental results of these tests were compared using 16 mathematical models of three-phase relative permeability. For the three-phase relative permeability to oil, the best correlations between experimental data and tests using Blunt, Hustad Hasen, and Baker's models were

  15. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-12-31

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs.

  16. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs

  17. Permeability of skin and oral mucosa to water and horseradish peroxidase as related to the thickness of the permeability barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The permeability of porcine skin and keratinized and nonkeratinized oral mucosa to tritium-labeled water and horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) was determined using perfusion chambers. Small blocks from each tissue were also incubated with HRPO and the extent of penetration visualized microscopically; this enabled measurements to be made of the thickness of the permeability barrier to this water-soluble tracer. Results obtained after inverting the oral mucosa in the chambers or adding metabolic inhibitors indicated that both compounds diffuse across the tissue. The permeability constants derived directly in the study showed that skin was less permeable than oral mucosa and that the floor of the mouth was significantly more permeable than all other regions. When these constants were normalized in terms of a standard permeability barrier thickness and the different tissues compared, the values obtained for skin were again less than those of the oral regions but, of these, the buccal mucosa was significantly higher. The difference in permeability between epidermis and keratinized oral epithelium may be due to differences in the volume density of membrane-coating granules known to exist between the tissues; differences between the oral mucosal regions may reflect differences in the nature of the intercellular barrier material

  18. Experimental Measurement of Relative Permeability Functions for Fuel Cell GDL Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex-situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented. Significant departure from the generally assumed cubic function of saturation is observed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Flow visualization and relative permeability measurements in rough-walled fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two-phase (gas-liquid) flow experiments were done in a natural rock fracture and transparent replicas of natural fractures. Liquid was injected at constant volume flow rate, and gas was injected at either constant mass flow rate or constant pressure. When gas was injected at constant mass flow rate, the gas inlet pressure, and inlet and outlet capillary pressures, generally did not reach steady state but cycled irregularly. Flow visualization showed that this cycling was due to repeated blocking and unblocking of gas flow paths by liquid. Relative permeabilities calculated from flow rate and pressure data show that the sum of the relative permeabilities of the two phases is much less than 1, indicating that each phase interferes strongly with the flow of the other. Comparison of the relative permeability curves with typical curves for porous media (Corey curves) show that the phase interference is stronger in fractures than in typical porous media

  20. Mathematic modeling of the method of measurement relative dielectric permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Stepanov, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The method of measuring relative permittivity’s and the position of the interface between layers of a liquid medium is considered in the article. An electric capacitor is a system consisting of two conductors that are separated by a dielectric layer. It is mathematically proven that at any given time it is possible to obtain the values of the relative permittivity in the layers of the liquid medium and to determine the level of the interface between the layers of the two-layer liquid. The estimation of measurement errors is made.

  1. Relative permeability of fractured wellbore cement: an experimental investigation using electrical resistivity monitoring for moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Strickland, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Permeability is a critical parameter needed to understand flow in subsurface environments; it is particularly important in deep subsurface reservoirs where multiphase fluid flow is common, such as carbon sequestration and geothermal reservoirs. Cement is used in the annulus of wellbores due to its low permeable properties to seal aquifers, reducing leaks to adjacent strata. Extreme subsurface environments of CO2 storage and geothermal production conditions will eventually reduce the cement integrity, propagating fracture networks and increasing the permeability for air and/or water. To date, there have been no reproducible experimental investigations of relative permeability in fractured wellbore cement published. To address this gap, we conducted a series of experiments using fractured Portland cement monoliths with increasing fracture networks. The monolith cylinder sides were jacketed with heavy-duty moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing, then fractured using shear force applied via a hydraulic press. Fractures were generated with different severity for each of three monoliths. Stainless steel endcaps were fixed to the monoliths using the same shrink-wrapped jacket. Fracture characteristics were determined using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. Flow controllers were used to control flow of water and air to supply continuous water or water plus air, both of which were delivered through the influent end cap. Effluent air flow was monitored using a flow meter, and water flow was measured gravimetrically. To monitor the effective saturation of the fractures, a RCON2 concrete bulk electrical resistivity test device was attached across both endcaps and a 0.1M NaNO3 brine was used as the transport fluid to improve resistivity measurements. Water content correlated to resistivity measurements with a r2 > 0.96. Data from the experiments was evaluated using two relative permeability models, the Corey-curve, often used for modeling relative permeability in porous media

  2. 3D numerical surface charge model including relative permeability : the general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteren, van D.T.E.H.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the still "open" issues within low-frequency magnetics is the inclusion of µr in the calculations using the magnetic charge method. In this paper a new iterative method to take the relative permeability into account is investigated. Results show that the model accurately accounts for the

  3. Hierarchical multi-taxa models inform riparian vs. hydrologic restoration of urban streams in a permeable landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Daniel C; Middleton, Jen A; Beesley, Leah; Close, Paul; Quinton, Belinda; Storer, Tim; Davies, Peter M

    2018-03-01

    The degradation of streams caused by urbanization tends to follow predictable patterns; however, there is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity in stream response to urbanization due to the local geoclimatic context. Furthermore, there is building evidence that streams in mildly sloped, permeable landscapes respond uncharacteristically to urban stress calling for a more nuanced approach to restoration. We evaluated the relative influence of local-scale riparian characteristics and catchment-scale imperviousness on the macroinvertebrate assemblages of streams in the flat, permeable urban landscape of Perth, Western Australia. Using a hierarchical multi-taxa model, we predicted the outcomes of stylized stream restoration strategies to increase the riparian integrity at the local scale or decrease the influences of imperviousness at the catchment scale. In the urban streams of Perth, we show that local-scale riparian restoration can influence the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages to a greater degree than managing the influences of catchment-scale imperviousness. We also observed an interaction between the effect of riparian integrity and imperviousness such that the effect of increased riparian integrity was enhanced at lower levels of catchment imperviousness. This study represents one of few conducted in flat, permeable landscapes and the first aimed at informing urban stream restoration in Perth, adding to the growing appreciation for heterogeneity of the Urban Stream Syndrome and its importance for urban stream restoration. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure from mass imbibition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyafei, Nayef; Blunt, Martin J.

    2018-05-01

    We perform spontaneous imbibition experiments on three carbonates - Estaillades, Ketton, and Portland - which are three quarry limestones that have very different pore structures and span wide range of permeability. We measure the mass of water imbibed in air saturated cores as a function of time under strongly water-wet conditions. Specifically, we perform co-current spontaneous experiments using a highly sensitive balance to measure the mass imbibed as a function of time for the three rocks. We use cores measuring 37 mm in diameter and three lengths of approximately 76 mm, 204 mm, and 290 mm. We show that the amount imbibed scales as the square root of time and find the parameter C, where the volume imbibed per unit cross-sectional area at time t is Ct1/2. We find higher C values for higher permeability rocks. Employing semi-analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow and using reasonable estimates of relative permeability and capillary pressure, we can match the experimental data. We finally discuss how, in combination with conventional measurements, we can use theoretical solutions and imbibition measurements to find or constrain relative permeability and capillary pressure.

  5. The Effect of Wettability Heterogeneity on Relative Permeability of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: A Lattice Boltzmann Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Kang, Qinjun; Yao, Jun; Viswanathan, Hari; Pawar, Rajesh; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Relative permeability is a critical parameter characterizing multiphase flow in porous media and it is strongly dependent on the wettability. In many situations, the porous media are nonuniformly wet. To investigate the effect of wettability heterogeneity on relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media, a multi-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model is adopted to simulate oil/water two-phase flow in porous media with different oil-wet solid fractions. For the water phase, when the water saturation is high, the relative permeability of water increases with the increase of oil-wet solid fraction under a constant water saturation. However, as the water saturation decreases to an intermediate value (about 0.4-0.7), the relative permeability of water in fractionally wet porous media could be lower than that in purely water-wet porous media, meaning additional flow resistance exists in the fractionally wet porous media. For the oil phase, similar phenomenon is observed. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the wettability-related microscale fluid distribution. According to both our simulation results and theoretical analysis, it is found that the relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media is strongly related to three parameters: the fluid saturation, the specific interfacial length of fluid, and the fluid tortuosity in the flow direction. The relationship between the relative permeability and these parameters under different capillary numbers is explored in this paper.

  6. Impact of Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Hysteresis Models on Forecasts of Storage Associated With CO2-EOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; McPherson, Brian; Pan, Feng; Dai, Zhenxue; Moodie, Nathan; Xiao, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Geological CO2 sequestration in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) includes complex multiphase flow processes compared to CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Two of the most important factors affecting multiphase flow in CO2-EOR are three-phase relative permeability and associated hysteresis, both of which are difficult to measure and are usually represented by numerical interpolation models. The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of (1) the relative impacts of different three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 trapping mechanisms, and (2) uncertainty associated with these two factors. Four different three-phase relative permeability models and three hysteresis models were applied to simulations of an active CO2-EOR site, the SACROC unit located in western Texas. To eliminate possible bias of deterministic parameters, we utilized a sequential Gaussian simulation technique to generate 50 realizations to describe heterogeneity of porosity and permeability, based on data obtained from well logs and seismic survey. Simulation results of forecasted CO2 storage suggested that (1) the choice of three-phase relative permeability model and hysteresis model led to noticeable impacts on forecasted CO2 sequestration capacity; (2) impacts of three-phase relative permeability models and hysteresis models on CO2 trapping are small during the CO2-EOR injection period, and increase during the post-EOR CO2 injection period; (3) the specific choice of hysteresis model is more important relative to the choice of three-phase relative permeability model; and (4) using the recommended three-phase WAG (Water-Alternating-Gas) hysteresis model may increase the impact of three-phase relative permeability models and uncertainty due to heterogeneity.

  7. Verification of capillary pressure functions and relative permeability equations for gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jaewon [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-25

    The understanding of multiphase fluid flow in porous media is of great importance in many fields such as enhanced oil recovery, hydrology, CO2 sequestration, contaminants cleanup and natural gas production from hydrate bearing sediments. However, there are many unanswered questions about the key parameters that characterize gas and water flows in porous media. The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in porous media such as water retention curve, relative permeability, preferential fluid flow patterns and fluid-particle interaction should be taken into consideration for a fundamental understanding of the behavior of pore scale systems.

  8. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery

  9. Regional-Dependent Intestinal Permeability and BCS Classification: Elucidation of pH-Related Complexity in Rats Using Pseudoephedrine

    OpenAIRE

    Fairstein, Moran; Swissa, Rotem; Dahan, Arik

    2013-01-01

    Based on its lower Log P value relative to metoprolol, a marker for the low/high-permeability (Peff) class boundary, pseudoephedrine was provisionally classified as BCS low-permeability compound. On the other hand, following oral administration, pseudoephedrine fraction dose absorbed (Fabs) and systemic bioavailability approaches 100%. This represents a challenge to the generally recognized Peff–Fabs correlation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the ...

  10. Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard; Hyland, Niall P.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging links between our gut microbiome and the central nervous system (CNS) are regarded as a paradigm shift in neuroscience with possible implications for not only understanding the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, but also their treatment. Thus the gut microbiome and its influence on host barrier function is positioned to be a critical node within the brain-gut axis. Mounting preclinical evidence broadly suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate brain development, function and behavior by immune, endocrine and neural pathways of the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Detailed mechanistic insights explaining these specific interactions are currently underdeveloped. However, the concept that a “leaky gut” may facilitate communication between the microbiota and these key signaling pathways has gained traction. Deficits in intestinal permeability may underpin the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in disorders such as depression and the gut microbiome plays a critical role in regulating intestinal permeability. In this review we will discuss the possible role played by the gut microbiota in maintaining intestinal barrier function and the CNS consequences when it becomes disrupted. We will draw on both clinical and preclinical evidence to support this concept as well as the key features of the gut microbiota which are necessary for normal intestinal barrier function. PMID:26528128

  11. Information in relational data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, R B

    1982-01-01

    A new knowledge representation scheme is proposed for representing incomplete information in relational data bases. The knowledge representation scheme introduces a novel convention for negative information based on modal logic and a novel data structure obtained by introducing tuple flags in the relational model of data. Standard and minimal forms are defined for relations conforming to the new data structure. The conventional relational operators, select, project and join, the redefined so they can be used to manipulate relations containing incomplete information. Conditions are presented for the lossless decomposition of relations containing incomplete information. 20 references.

  12. Intestinal permeability of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in patients with Crohn's disease and their healthy relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, M.; Eriksen, J.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Muckadell, O.B.S. de

    1989-01-01

    An increased intestinal permeability has been proposed as an aetiologic factor in Crohn's disease. The 24-h urinary excretion of 100 μCi 51 Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to test the permeability in 15 patients with Crohn's disease and in 20 healthy first-degree relatives, who were known to have a genetic predisposition to inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty-eight healthy persons not related to patients with inflammatory bowel disease served as control material. The 51 Cr-EDTA excretion of the relatives was not significantly higher than that of the controls, whereas patients with Crohn's disease had a significantly higher excretion than both the relatives and the controls. Among patients the increased excretion was found only if the small intestine was involved. It is concluded that 1) as a group, patient with Crohn's disease in the small intestine have an increased intestinal permeability, in contrast to their healthy relatives, who have a normal permeability; 2) a considerable overlap of the results of the 51 Cr-EDTA test was found between the groups studied, and the test is not suitable for evaluating individual patients; 3) the results do not support the hypothesis of an increase in intestinal permeability as an aetiologic factor in Crohn's disease. 29 refs

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Interfacial Tension on Saturation and Relative Permeability Model Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael; Zhao, Weishu; Gmira, Ahmed; Negara, Ardiansyah; Buiting, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial tension (IFT) measurements of Dodecane/brine systems at different concentrations and Dodecane/deionized water subject to different Dodecane purification cycles were taken over extended durations at room temperature and pressure to investigate the impact of aging. When a fresh droplet was formed, a sharp drop in IFT was observed assumed to be a result of intrinsic impurity adsorption at the interface. The subsequent measurements exhibited a prolonged equilibration period consistent with diffusion from the bulk phase to the interface. Our results indicate that minute amounts of impurities present in experimental chemical fluids "used as received" have a drastic impact on the properties of the interface. Initial and equilibrium IFT are shown to be dramatically different, therefore it is important to be cautious of utilizing IFT values in numerical models. The study demonstrates the impact these variations in IFT have on relative permeability relationships by adopting a simple pore network model simulation.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Interfacial Tension on Saturation and Relative Permeability Model Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Wael

    2011-05-18

    Interfacial tension (IFT) measurements of Dodecane/brine systems at different concentrations and Dodecane/deionized water subject to different Dodecane purification cycles were taken over extended durations at room temperature and pressure to investigate the impact of aging. When a fresh droplet was formed, a sharp drop in IFT was observed assumed to be a result of intrinsic impurity adsorption at the interface. The subsequent measurements exhibited a prolonged equilibration period consistent with diffusion from the bulk phase to the interface. Our results indicate that minute amounts of impurities present in experimental chemical fluids "used as received" have a drastic impact on the properties of the interface. Initial and equilibrium IFT are shown to be dramatically different, therefore it is important to be cautious of utilizing IFT values in numerical models. The study demonstrates the impact these variations in IFT have on relative permeability relationships by adopting a simple pore network model simulation.

  15. Regional-dependent intestinal permeability and BCS classification: elucidation of pH-related complexity in rats using pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairstein, Moran; Swissa, Rotem; Dahan, Arik

    2013-04-01

    Based on its lower Log P value relative to metoprolol, a marker for the low/high-permeability (P(eff)) class boundary, pseudoephedrine was provisionally classified as BCS low-permeability compound. On the other hand, following oral administration, pseudoephedrine fraction dose absorbed (F(abs)) and systemic bioavailability approaches 100%. This represents a challenge to the generally recognized P(eff)-F(abs) correlation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the confusion in pseudoephedrine's BCS classification. Pseudoephedrine's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Pseudoephedrine was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. All of the permeability studies revealed similar phenomenon; at any given intestinal segment/pH, the permeability of metoprolol was higher than that of pseudoephedrine, however, as the intestinal region becomes progressively distal, and the pH gradually increases, pseudoephedrine's permeability rises above that of metoprolol in the former segment. This unique permeability pattern likely explains pseudoephedrine's complete absorption. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine is a BCS Class I compound; no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) is involved in its absorption. Rather, it reflects the complexity behind P(eff) when considering the whole of the intestine. We propose to allow high-permeability classification to drugs with P(eff) that matches/exceeds the low/high class benchmark anywhere throughout the intestinal tract and not restricted necessarily to the jejunum.

  16. Pore Structure and Diagenetic Controls on Relative Permeability: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Cather, M.; Mozley, P.

    2016-12-01

    Multiphase flow in clay-bearing sandstones of the Morrow Sandstone governs the efficiency of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. This formation is the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of one million metric ton of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. The sandstone hosts eight major flow units that exhibit distinct microstructural characteristics due to diagenesis, including: "clean" macro-porosity; quartz overgrowths constricting some pores; ghost grains; intergranular porosity filled by microporous authigenic clay; and feldspar dissolution. We examine the microstructural controls on macroscale (core scale) relative permeability and capillary pressure behavior through: X-ray computed tomography, Robomet.3d, and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy imaging of the pore structure of the major flow units of the Morrow Sandstone; relative permeability and capillary pressure in the laboratory using CO2, brine, and oil at reservoir pressure and effective stress conditions. The combined data sets inform links between patterns of diagenesis and multiphase flow. These data support multiphase reservoir simulation and performance assessment by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Experimental study of heavy oil-water flow structure effects on relative permeabilities in a fracture filled with heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shad, S.; Gates, I.D.; Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering]|[Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    An experimental apparatus was used to investigate the flow of water in the presence of heavy oil within a smooth-walled fracture. Different flow patterns were investigated under a variety of flow conditions. Results of the experiments were used to determine the accuracy of VC, Corey, and Shad and Gates models designed to represent the behaviour of oil wet systems. The relative permeability concept was used to describe the behaviour of multiple phases flowing through porous media. A smooth-walled plexiglass Hele-Shaw cell was used to visualize oil and water flow. Changes in flow rates led to different flow regimes. The experiment demonstrated that water flowed co-currently in the form of droplets or slugs. Decreases in the oil flow rate enlarged the size of the water droplets as well as the velocity, until eventually the droplets coalesced and became water slugs. Droplet appearance or disappearance directly impacted the oil and water saturation levels. Changes in fluid saturation altered the pressure gradient. Darcy's law for the 2 liquid phases were used to calculate relative permeability curves. The study showed that at low water saturation, oil relative permeability reached as high as 2.5, while water relative permeability was lower than unity. In the presence of a continuous water channel, water drops formed in oil, and the velocity of the drops was lower than their velocity under a discontinuous water flow regime. It was concluded that the Shad and Gates model overestimated oil relative permeability and underestimated water relative permeability. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. A casting and imaging technique for determining void geometry and relative permeability behavior of a single fracture specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.L.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1990-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for making translucent replicas of the void space of natural rock fractures. Attenuation of light shined through the cast combined with digital image analysis provides a pointwise definition of fracture apertures. The technique has been applied to a fracture specimen from Dixie Valley, Nevada, and the measured void space geometry has been used to develop theoretical predictions of two-phase relative permeability. A strong anisotropy in relative permeabilities has been found, which is caused by highly anisotropic spatial correlations among fracture apertures. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Quantum information and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as on-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Quantum information and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, A. [Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2004-12-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as on-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Quantum information and general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Asher

    2004-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as one-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks.

  2. Quantum information and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, A.

    2004-11-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (1935) is reexamined in the light of Shannon's information theory (1948). The EPR argument did not take into account that the observers' information was localized, like any other physical object. General relativity introduces new problems: there are horizons which act as on-way membranes for the propagation of quantum information, in particular black holes which act like sinks.

  3. Clogging in permeable concrete: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2017-05-15

    Permeable concrete (or "pervious concrete" in North America) is used to reduce local flooding in urban areas and is an important sustainable urban drainage system. However, permeable concrete exhibits reduction in permeability due to clogging by particulates, which severely limits service life. This paper reviews the clogging mechanism and current mitigating strategies in order to inform future research needs. The pore structure of permeable concrete and characteristics of flowing particulates influence clogging, which occurs when particles build-up and block connected porosity. Permeable concrete requires regular maintenance by vacuum sweeping and pressure washing, but the effectiveness and viability of these methods is questionable. The potential for clogging is related to the tortuosity of the connected porosity, with greater tortuosity resulting in increased potential for clogging. Research is required to develop permeable concrete that can be poured on-site, which produces a pore structure with significantly reduced tortuosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of pore-scale geometry and wettability on two-phase relative permeabilities within elementary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Janetti, Emanuela; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    We study the relative role of the complex pore space geometry and wettability of the solid matrix on the quantification of relative permeabilities characterizing steady state immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. We do so by considering elementary cells, which are typically employed in upscaling frameworks based on, e.g., homogenization or volume averaging. In this context one typically relies on the solution of pore-scale physics at a scale which is much smaller than that of an investigated porous system. Pressure-driven two-phase flow following simultaneous co-current injection of water and oil is numerically solved for a suite of regular and stochastically generated two-dimensional explicit elementary cells with fixed porosity and sharing main topological/morphological features. We show that relative permeabilities of the randomly generated elementary cells are significantly influenced by the formation of preferential percolation paths (principal pathways), giving rise to a strongly nonuniform distribution of fluid fluxes. These pathways are a result of the spatially variable resistance that the random pore structures exert on the fluid. The overall effect on relative permeabilities of the diverse organization of principal pathways, as driven by a given random realization at the scale of the unit cell, is significantly larger than that of the wettability of the host rock. In contrast to what can be observed for the random cells analyzed, relative permeabilities of regular cells display a clear trend with contact angle at the investigated scale. Our findings suggest the need to perform systematic upscaling studies in a stochastic context, to propagate the effects of uncertain pore space geometries to a probabilistic description of relative permeability curves at the continuum scale.

  5. Compositional and Relative Permeability Hysteresis Effects on Near-Miscible WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jes Reimer; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Skauge, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of compositional effects and fluid flow description on near-miscible (water-alternating-gas) WAG modeling have been studied for a North Sea oil field starting production in 1998. A sector model with four wells was applied to simulate a heterogeneous sandstone reservoir, and a compositi......Evaluation of compositional effects and fluid flow description on near-miscible (water-alternating-gas) WAG modeling have been studied for a North Sea oil field starting production in 1998. A sector model with four wells was applied to simulate a heterogeneous sandstone reservoir......, and a compositional model was used to compare different production strategies e.g. waterflooding and a near-miscible (WAG) injection. In the WAG scheme both dry and wet (rich) hydrocarbon gases have been considered for injection. The phase behaviour was quantified by comparing the performance of the different...... injection gases. Result obtained shows the WAG injection gives improved recovery compared to water injection, due to better sweep and lower residual oil saturation. Simulations with and without relative permeability hysteresis (two-phase model) were compared. The effect of trapped gas on oil recovery does...

  6. Study of pressure drop, void fraction and relative permeabilities of two phase flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Dhir, V.K.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two phase flow through porous layers formed of non-heated glass particles (nominal diameter 1 to 6 mm) has been made. Particulate bed depths of 30 cm and 70 cm were used. The effect of particle size, particle size distribution and bed porosity on void fraction and pressure drop through a particulate bed formed in a cylindrical test section has been investigated. The superficial velocity of liquid (water) is varied from 1.83 to 18.3 mm/s while the superficial velocity of gas (air) is varied from 0 to 68.4 mm/s. These superficial velocities were chosen so that pressure drop and void fraction measurement could be made for the porous layer in fixed and fluidized states. A model based on drift flux approach has been developed for the void fraction. Using the two phase friction pressure drop data, the relative permeabilities of the two phases have been concluded with void fraction. The void fraction and two phase friction pressure gradient in beds composed of mixtures of spherical particles as well as sharps of different nominal sizes have also been examined. It is found that the models for single size particles are also applicable to mixtures of particles if a mean particle diameter for the mixture is defined

  7. Tomographic evidence for enhanced fracturing and permeability within the relatively aseismic Nemaha Fault Zone, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. T.; Keranen, K. M.; Lambert, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent earthquakes in north central Oklahoma are dominantly hosted on unmapped basement faults away from and outside of the largest regional structure, the Nemaha Fault Zone (NFZ) [Lambert, 2016]. The NFZ itself remains largely aseismic, despite the presence of disposal wells and numerous faults. Here we present results from double-difference tomography using TomoDD [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] for the NFZ and the surrounding region, utilizing a seismic catalog of over 10,000 local events acquired by 144 seismic stations deployed between 2013 and 2017. Inversion results for shallow crustal depth, beneath the 2-3 km sedimentary cover, show compressional wavespeeds (Vp) of >6 km/sec and shear wavespeeds (Vs) >4 km/sec outside the NFZ, consistent with crystalline rock. Along the western margin of the NFZ, both Vp and Vs are reduced, and Vp/Vs gradients parallel the trend of major faults, suggesting enhanced fault density and potentially enhanced fluid pressure within the study region. Enhanced fracture density within the NFZ, and associated permeability enhancement, could reduce the effect of regional fluid pressurization from injection wells, contributing to the relative aseismicity of the NFZ.

  8. Relative permeabilities of supercritical CO2 and brine in carbon sequestration by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian.-Fei.; He, S.; Zu, Y. Q.; Lamy-Chappuis, B.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the migration of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in realistic sandstone rocks under conditions of saline aquifers, with applications to the carbon geological storage, has been investigated by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Firstly the digital images of sandstone rocks were reproduced utilizing the X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT), and high resolutions (up to 2.5 μm) were applied to the pore-scale LBM simulations. For the sake of numerical stability, the digital images were "cleaned" by closing the dead holes and removing the suspended particles in sandstone rocks. In addition, the effect of chemical reactions occurred in the carbonation process on the permeability was taken into account. For the wetting brine and non-wetting supercritical CO2 flows, they were treated as the immiscible fluids and were driven by pressure gradients in sandstone rocks. Relative permeabilities of brine and supercritical CO2 in sandstone rocks were estimated. Particularly the dynamic saturation was applied to improve the reliability of the calculations of the relative permeabilities. Moreover, the effects of the viscosity ratio of the two immiscible fluids and the resolution of digital images on the relative permeability were systematically investigated.

  9. Effect of Flow Direction on Relative Permeability Curves in Water/Gas Reservoir System: Implications in Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Rasheed Adebayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gravity on vertical flow and fluids saturation, especially when flow is against gravity, is not often a subject of interest to researchers. This is because of the notion that flow in subsurface formations is usually in horizontal direction and that vertical flow is impossible or marginal because of the impermeable shales or silts overlying them. The density difference between two fluids (usually oil and water flowing in the porous media is also normally negligible; hence gravity influence is neglected. Capillarity is also often avoided in relative permeability measurements in order to satisfy some flow equations. These notions have guided most laboratory core flooding experiments to be conducted in horizontal flow orientation, and the data obtained are as good as what the experiments tend to mimic. However, gravity effect plays a major role in gas liquid systems such as CO2 sequestration and some types of enhanced oil recovery techniques, particularly those involving gases, where large density difference exists between the fluid pair. In such cases, laboratory experiments conducted to derive relative permeability curves should take into consideration gravity effects and capillarity. Previous studies attribute directional dependence of relative permeability and residual saturations to rock anisotropy. It is shown in this study that rock permeability, residual saturation, and relative permeability depend on the interplay between gravity, capillarity, and viscous forces and also the direction of fluid flow even when the rock is isotropic. Rock samples representing different lithology and wide range of permeabilities were investigated through unsteady-state experiments covering drainage and imbibition in both vertical and horizontal flow directions. The experiments were performed at very low flow rates to capture capillarity. The results obtained showed that, for each homogeneous rock and for the same flow path along the core length

  10. Permeability prediction in chalks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Prasad, Manika

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of elastic waves is the primary datum available for acquiring information about subsurface characteristics such as lithology and porosity. Cheap and quick (spatial coverage, ease of measurement) information of permeability can be achieved, if sonic velocity is used for permeability p...... significantly using the effective specific surface as the fluid-flow concept. The FZI unit is appropriate for highly permeable sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones that have small surface areas....

  11. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  12. Hydrothermal alteration and permeability changes in granitic intrusions related to Sn-W deposits : case study of Panasqueira (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Gaetan; Sizaret, Stanislas; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Pinto, Filipe

    2017-04-01

    The Panasqueira Sn-W deposit occurs as a dense network of flat wolframite and cassiterite-bearing quartz veins concentrated in the vicinity of a hidden greisen cupola, and to a lesser extent as disseminated cassiterites in the greisen. Previous studies (Thadeu 1951; 1979) have suggested that the Panasqueira deposit is genetically related to magmatic activity for which the most part is unexposed, and being only represented by the greisen cupola. Hydrothermal fluid circulation during the final stages of granite crystallisation has probably led to the greisenisation of the cupola followed by the deposition of the mineralization in the veins system. Mineral replacement reactions that occurred during the greisenisation could affect rock properties (porosity, density and permeability) which control fluid circulation in the granite. This study aims to investigate effects of greisenisation reactions on the dynamic (time varying) permeability that ultimately leads to fluid circulation in the greisen cupola. To do so, petrological study and experimental determinations of hydrodynamic features (porosity and permeability) for different granite alteration levels and petrographic types (unaltered granite to greisen) are combined and then integrated in coupled numerical models of fluid circulation around the granitic intrusion. Greisen occurs in the apical part of the granitic body and results in the pervasive alteration of the granite along the granite-schist contact. This greisen consists mainly of quartz and muscovite formed by the replacement of feldspars and bleaching of biotites of the initial granite. Otherwise, greisen is generally vuggy which suggests a porosity increase of the granite during hydrothermal alteration processes. This porosity increase has a positive effect on the permeability of the granitic system. Indeed, experimental measurements of permeability with the Paterson press indicate that the initial granite is impermeable (10-20 m2) whereas the greisen is

  13. Investor relations and information asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrielem da Silva Rodrigues

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Companies invest significant volumes of resources in investor relations (IR departments. The professionals working in the IR department are responsible for communication between the company and the market, so that the information generated is widely disseminated and understood by investors. In this context, this research aims to investigate whether there is evidence that the IR activity decreases information asymmetry between the company and the market. Specifically, we evaluate the hypothesis that Brazilian companies with IR websites classified as more informative have a reduced bid-ask spread (proxy for asymmetry. Therefore, this paper classifies the informative content from IR websites of Brazilian companies for the years 2013 and 2014 and relates the outcomes obtained with information asymmetry metrics. Initially, the estimation considers the pooled ordinary least squares (POLS model and, at a second moment, in order to mitigate potential endogeneity problems, the pooled two-stage least squares (2SLS model is used. The results indicate that more informative IR websites are able to decrease the bid-ask spread of Brazilian listed companies. This finding strongly encourages companies to provide information to stakeholders on well-structured IR websites of their own.

  14. Relative Impacts of Low Permeability Subsurface Deposits on Recharge Basin Infiltration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, P.; Becker, M.; Pham, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Hutchinson, A.; Plumlee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through spreading basins has become an important component of water management in semi-arid climates. The rate at which water can be recharged in these basins is limited by the natural vertical permeability of the underlying deposits which may be highly variable both laterally and vertically. To help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on recharge, a newly constructed basin was surveyed and instrumented. Prior to flooding the basin, lithology was characterized by shallow hand coring, direct push coring, ground penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. After flooding, recharge was monitored through piezometers, electrical resistivity, and a network of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The DTS network used temperature as a tracer to measure infiltration rate on 25 cm intervals both laterally and vertically. Several hundred paired DTS time series datasets (from fiber optic cables located at 0 and 0.5 meters below ground surface) were processed with the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to calculate spatially and temporally continuous infiltration rates, which can be interpolated and animated to visualize heterogeneity. Time series data from 8-meter deep, vertically oriented DTS cables reveal depth intervals where infiltration rates vary. Inverted resistivity sections from repeated dipole-dipole surveys along the sidewall of a spreading basin exhibit a positive correlation with the distribution of relatively high and low infiltration rates, indicating zones of preferential downward (efficient) and lateral (inefficient) flow, respectively. In contrast to other monitored basins, no perching was observed in the vertically oriented DTS cables. The variation in recharge across the basin and the appearance of subsurface lateral flow can be explained in context of the alluvial depositional environment.

  15. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  16. Theoretical Insight Into the Empirical Tortuosity-Connectivity Factor in the Burdine-Brooks-Corey Water Relative Permeability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Ioannidis, Marios A.; Hunt, Allen G.

    2017-12-01

    A model commonly applied to the estimation of water relative permeability krw in porous media is the Burdine-Brooks-Corey model, which relies on a simplified picture of pores as a bundle of noninterconnected capillary tubes. In this model, the empirical tortuosity-connectivity factor is assumed to be a power law function of effective saturation with an exponent (μ) commonly set equal to 2 in the literature. Invoking critical path analysis and using percolation theory, we relate the tortuosity-connectivity exponent μ to the critical scaling exponent t of percolation that characterizes the power law behavior of the saturation-dependent electrical conductivity of porous media. We also discuss the cause of the nonuniversality of μ in terms of the nonuniversality of t and compare model estimations with water relative permeability from experiments. The comparison supports determining μ from the electrical conductivity scaling exponent t, but also highlights limitations of the model.

  17. Public relations as public information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninx, C.

    1983-01-01

    To the man in the street, the topic of nuclear energy on the one hand is a highly emotional subject incorporating dangers hard to assess. However, on the other hand, there is in most cases little inclination to concern oneself with problems of energy economy. Public relations activities therefore frequently must motivate their adresses to accept information before they can actually inform. In this connection, the informing party must appear trustworthy and avoid that a teacher : pupil relationship is created. In addition, the changes in the socio-political environment must be taken into account. Within the industries and organizations engaged in the nuclear field there is the problem that the effects and the impact of public relations work can hardly be gaged by individually, which greatly hampers quantification of the work actually done.

  18. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC-DISEASE AND RELATIVES OF PATIENTS WITH CELIAC-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, R. M.; Uil, J. J.; Mulder, C. J.; Heymans, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    The functional integrity of the small bowel is impaired in coeliac disease. Intestinal permeability, as measured by the sugar absorption test probably reflects this phenomenon. In the sugar absorption test a solution of lactulose and mannitol was given to the fasting patient and the

  19. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC-DISEASE AND RELATIVES OF PATIENTS WITH CELIAC-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; MULDER, CJJ; HEYMANS, HSA

    The functional integrity of the small bowel is impaired in coeliac disease. Intestinal permeability, as measured by the sugar absorption test probably reflects this phenomenon. In the sugar absorption test a solution of lactulose and mannitol was given to the fasting patient and the

  20. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  1. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations

  2. Quantum information and relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment

  3. Perovskite-related oxide materials for oxygen-permeable electrochemical membrans

    OpenAIRE

    Naumovich, E. N.; Yaremchenko, A. A.; Viskup, A. P.; Kharton, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    This brief review is focused on the studies of mixed ionic-electronic conductors on the basis of lanthanum gallate doped with transition metal cations in the В sublattice. The substitution of gallium with iron, cobalt or nickel results in greater electronic conductivity, simultaneously keeping high level of the oxy-gen ionic transport. In particular, La0 90Sr0 10Ga0 65Ni0 20Mg0 1503d perovskite exhib-its attractive oxygen permeability, which is quite similar to that of La2Ni04- and (...

  4. Measurement of choroid plexus perfusion using dynamic susceptibility MR imaging: capillary permeability and age-related changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzerar, Roger; Chaarani, Bader; Baledent, Olivier [University Hospital, Image Processing Department, Amiens (France); Gondry-Jouet, Catherine [University Hospital, Radiology Department, Amiens (France); Zmudka, Jadwiga [University Hospital, Geriatric Unit, Amiens (France)

    2013-12-15

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays a major role in the physiology of the central nervous system. The continuous turnover of CSF is mainly attributed to the highly vascularized choroid plexus (CP) located in the cerebral ventricles which represent a complex interface between blood and CSF. We propose a method for evaluating CP functionality in vivo using perfusion MR imaging and establish the age-related changes of associated parameters. Fifteen patients with small intracranial tumors were retrospectively studied. MR Imaging was performed on a 3T MR Scanner. Gradient-echo echo planar images were acquired after bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA). The software developed used the combined T1- and T2-effects. The decomposition of the relaxivity signals enables the calculation of the CP capillary permeability (K{sub 2}). The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (MTT), and signal slope decrease (SSD) were also calculated. The mean permeability K{sub 2} of the extracted CP was 0.033+/-0.18 s{sup -1}. K{sub 2} and SSD significantly decreased with subject's age whereas MTT significantly increased with subject's age. No significant correlation was found for age-related changes in rCBV and rCBF. The decrease in CP permeability is in line with the age-related changes in CSF secretion observed in animals. The MTT increase indicates significant structural changes corroborated by microscopy studies in animals or humans. Overall, DSC MR-perfusion enables an in vivo evaluation of the hemodynamic state of CP. Clinical applications such as neurodegenerative diseases could be considered thanks to specific functional studies of CP. (orig.)

  5. Crustal permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  6. Problems of increasing of thermostability of highly permeable Ni-Zn ferrites and relative materials for telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, A. E-mail: letyuk@mail.ru; Andreev, V.; Letyuk, L.; Shishkanov, A.; Maiorov, V

    2003-01-01

    The work considers ways of increasing of thermostability of ferrites of the basic systems NiO-ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO-ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and relative materials for telecommunication. Sufficient results in increasing of the thermostability were achieved by doping Cu ions and controlling rejection of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content from equimolar composition. These results allow to increase the Curie temperature to 130-140 deg. C for Ni-Zn ferrites with initial permeability 2000.

  7. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  8. Notional Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.; Van den Bos, J.P.; Maertens, J.; Verhagen, H.J.; Van der Meer, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Different layer design of a rock slope and under layers has a large effect on the strengths on the rock slope itself. In the stability formula developed of VAN DER MEER [1988] this effect is represented by the term Notional Permeability with symbol P. A more open, or permeable, structure underneath

  9. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The initial equilibration of 125 I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 μg/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using 131 I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment

  10. Gut permeability is related to body weight, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance in obese individuals undergoing weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Louis, Sandrine; Schnitzer, Anna; Volynets, Valentina; Rings, Andreas; Basrai, Maryam; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 43.7 ± 5.2; 78% with moderate or severe liver steatosis] were included in the follow-up intervention study (n = 13 by month 12). All patients reduced their weight to a mean ± SD BMI of 36.4 ± 5.1 within 12 mo. We assessed barrier functions by the oral Lac:Man and the fecal zonulin tests. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA), and liver steatosis by sonography and the fatty liver index (FLI). The Lac:Man ratio and circulating interleukin (IL) 6 concentration decreased during intervention from 0.080 (95% CI: 0.073, 0.093) to 0.027 (95% CI: 0.024, 0.034; P < 0.001) and from 4.2 ± 1.4 to 2.8 ± 1.6 pg/mL (P < 0.01), respectively. At study start, the Lac:Man ratio was higher in patients with moderate or severe steatosis than in those without any steatosis (P < 0.001). The Lac:Man ratio tended to correlate with HOMA (ρ = 0.55, P = 0.052), which correlated with FLI (ρ = 0.75, P < 0.01). A multiple-regression analysis led to a final model explaining FLI best through BMI, waist circumference, and the Lac:Man ratio. Intestinal permeability is increased in obese patients with steatosis compared with obese patients without. The increased permeability fell to within the previously reported normal range after weight reduction. The data suggest that a leaky gut barrier is linked with liver steatosis and could be a new target for future steatosis therapies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344525. © 2017 American Society

  11. Unexpected effects of peripherally administered kynurenic acid on cortical spreading depression and related blood–brain barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gáspár Oláh,1 Judit Herédi,1 Ákos Menyhárt,1 Zsolt Czinege,2 Dávid Nagy,1 János Fuzik,1 Kitti Kocsis,1 Levente Knapp,1 Erika Krucsó,1 Levente Gellért,1 Zsolt Kis,1 Tamás Farkas,1 Ferenc Fülöp,3 Árpád Párdutz,4 János Tajti,4 László Vécsei,4 József Toldi1 1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, 2Department of Software Engineering, 3Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and MTA-SZTE Research Group for Stereochemistry, 4Department of Neurology and MTA-SZTE Neuroscience Research Group, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Cortical spreading depression (CSD involves a slowly-propagating depolarization wave in the cortex, which can appear in numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as migraine with aura, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Neurons and glial cells are also depolarized transiently during the phenomena. CSD is followed by a massive increase in glutamate release and by changes in the brain microcirculation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, endogenous kynurenic acid (KYNA and dizocilpine, on CSD and the related blood–brain barrier (BBB permeability in rats. In intact animals, KYNA hardly crosses the BBB but has some positive features as compared with its precursor L-Kynurenine, which is frequently used in animal studies (KYNA cannot be metabolized to excitotoxic agents such as 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and quinolinic acid. We therefore investigated the possible effects of peripherally administered KYNA. Repetitive CSD waves were elicited by the application of 1 M KCl solution to the cortex. Direct current-electrocorticograms were measured for 1 hour. Four parameters of the waves were compared. Evans blue dye and fluorescent microscopy were used to study the possible changes in the permeability of the BBB. The results demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can reduce the number of CSD waves and decrease

  12. Permeability of porour rhyolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K.; Rust, A.; Wright, H.; Roberge, J.

    2003-04-01

    The development of permeability in bubble-bearing magmas determines the efficiency of volatile escape during their ascent through volcanic conduits, which, in turn, controls their explosive potential. As permeability requires bubble connectivity, relationships between permeability and porosity in silicic magmas must be controlled by the formation, growth, deformation and coalescence of their constituent bubbles. Although permeability data on porous volcanic pyroclasts are limited, the database can be greatly extended by including data for ceramic and metallic foams1. Several studies indicate that a single number does not adequately describe the permeability of a foam because inertial effects, which predominate at high flow rates, cause deviations from Darcy's law. These studies suggest that permeability is best modeled using the Forschheimer equation to determine both the Darcy permeability (k1) and the non-Darcian (k2) permeability. Importantly, at the high porosities of ceramic foams (75-95%), both k1 and k2 are strongly dependent on pore size and geometry, suggesting that measurement of these parameters provides important information on foam structure. We determined both the connected porosity (by He-pycnometry) and the permeability (k1 and k2) of rhyolitic samples having a wide range in porosity (22-85%) and vesicle textures. In general, these data support previous observations of a power law relationship between connected porosity and Darcy permeability2. In detail, variations in k1 increase at higher porosities. Similarly, k2 generally increases in both mean and standard deviation with increasing porosity. Measurements made on three mutually perpendicular cores from individual pumice clasts suggest that some of the variability can be explained by anisotropy in the vesicle structure. By comparison with ceramic foams, we suggest that the remaining variability results from differences either in average vesicle size or, more likely, in the size of apertures

  13. Fidelity, entanglement, and information complementarity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jian-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of information in isolated multi-qubit systems. It is shown that information is in not only local form but also nonlocal form. We apply a measure of local information based on fidelity, and demonstrate that nonlocal information can be directly related to some appropriate well defined entanglement measures. Under general unitary transformations, local and nonlocal information will exhibit unambiguous complementary behavior with the total information conserved

  14. 42 CFR 447.255 - Related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Related information. 447.255 Section 447.255 Public... Facility Services Payment Rates § 447.255 Related information. The Medicaid agency must submit, with the assurances described in § 447.253(a), the following information: (a) The amount of the estimated average...

  15. Stem sapwood permeability in relation to crown dominance and site quality in self-thinning fire-origin lodgepole pine stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Douglas E B; Silins, Uldis; Lieffers, Victor J

    2003-08-01

    Stem sapwood hydraulic permeability, tree leaf area, sapwood basal area, earlywood to latewood ratio of annual rings, radial variation in hydraulic permeability and stem hydraulic capacity were examined in dominant (D), codominant (CD) and suppressed (SP) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) trees growing on medium and poor sites. Hydraulic permeability on a sapwood area basis (ks) was lower in suppressed trees (0.71 x 10(-12) m2) compared to dominants (1.97 x 10(-12) m2) and codominants (1.79 x 10(-12) m2), and higher on medium than on poor sites. The leaf/sapwood area ratio (S) varied with crown dominance position (D > CD > SP) but not by site type. Leaf specific conductivity (kL) did not vary between crown classes or site types. The relationship between leaf area and stem hydraulic supply capacity (Q*) was strong, but differed among crown classes. Dominant trees and trees from the medium sites had a greater proportion of earlywood in outer rings of sapwood than suppressed trees. Sapwood permeability declined from the cambium to the sapwood-heartwood boundary in all samples, but the decline was more gradual in dominant trees compared to codominant and suppressed trees; differences in the radial variation in sapwood permeability may be related to differences in S. Sapwood permeability is positively related to crown dominance, whereas subdominant (CD and SP) trees have greater Q* in relation to leaf area, leading us to propose that this may give subdominant trees a survival advantage, slowing self-thinning.

  16. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Mena, Filipe C., E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-07-10

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback–Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  17. Intestinal Permeability: The Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Bjarnason

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review some of the more fundamental principles underlying the noninvasive assessment of intestinal permeability in humans, the choice of test markers and their analyses, and the practical aspects of test dose composition and how these can be changed to allow the specific assessment of regional permeability changes and other intestinal functions. The implications of increased intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of human disease is discussed in relation to findings in patients with Crohn’s disease. A common feature of increased intestinal permeability is the development of a low grade enteropathy, and while quantitatively similar changes may be found in Crohn’s disease these seem to predict relapse of disease. Moreover, factors associated with relapse of Crohn’s disease have in common an action to increase intestinal permeability. While increased intestinal permeability does not seem to be important in the etiology of Crohn’s disease it may be a central mechanism in the clinical relapse of disease.

  18. Is Information Ethics Culture-Relative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Zaphiris, P.; Ang, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine whether information ethics is culture relative. If it is, different approaches to information ethics are required in different cultures and societies. This would have major implications for the current, predominantly Western approach to information ethics. If it is not,

  19. A theoretical model for gas permeability in a composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, D. A

    2009-01-01

    We present in this work an analytical expression for permeability in a two-layer composite membrane, which was derived assuming the same hypothesis as those of Adzumi model for permeability in a homogeneous membrane. Whereas in Adzumi model permeability shows a linear dependence on the mean pressure, our model for a composite membrane related permeability to pressure through a rather complex expression, which covers the whole range of flow, from molecular-Knudsen to viscous-Poiseuille regimes. The expression obtained for permeability contained information of membrane structural properties as pore size, porosity and thickness of each layer, as well as gas nature and operational conditions. Our two-layer-model expression turns into Adzumi formula when the structure of the layers approach to each other. [es

  20. Zonulin upregulation is associated with increased gut permeability in subjects with type 1 diabetes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapone, Anna; de Magistris, Laura; Pietzak, Michelle; Clemente, Maria G; Tripathi, Amit; Cucca, Francesco; Lampis, Rosanna; Kryszak, Deborah; Cartenì, Maria; Generoso, Maddalena; Iafusco, Dario; Prisco, Francesco; Laghi, Francesca; Riegler, Gabriele; Carratu, Romano; Counts, Debra; Fasano, Alessio

    2006-05-01

    Zonulin, a protein that modulates intestinal permeability, is upregulated in several autoimmune diseases and is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in the BB/Wor animal model of the disease. To verify the association between serum zonulin levels and in vivo intestinal permeability in patients with type 1 diabetes, both parameters were investigated in different stages of the autoimmune process. Forty-two percent (141 of 339) of the patients had abnormal serum zonulin levels, as compared with age-matched control subjects. The increased zonulin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability in vivo and changes in claudin-1, claudin-2, and myosin IXB genes expression, while no changes were detected in ZO1 and occludin genes expression. When tested in serum samples collected during the pre-type 1 diabetes phase, elevated serum zonulin was detected in 70% of subjects and preceded by 3.5 +/- 0.9 years the onset of the disease in those patients who went on to develop type 1 diabetes. Combined, these results suggest that zonulin upregulation is associated with increased intestinal permeability in a subgroup of type 1 diabetic patients. Zonulin upregulation seems to precede the onset of the disease, providing a possible link between increased intestinal permeability, environmental exposure to non-self antigens, and the development of autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals.

  1. Repetitive Bibliographical Information in Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a solution to the problem of loading repetitive bibliographic information in a microcomputer-based relational database management system. The alternative design described is based on a representational redundancy design and normalization theory. (12 references) (Author/CLB)

  2. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  3. PUBLIC RELATIONS AS AN INFORMATION PROCESS PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKACH L. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. If public relations as a phenomenon of information management are examined, we deal with the question of knowledge content and nature of relationship of PR with environment, ability to manage the perception and attitude of people to events in the environment; ensure priority of information over other resources. Goal. To investigate the concept of "public relations" of foreign and domestic experts; consider the typology of the public and the "laws" of public opinion; define the basic principles according to which relations with public should be built, and to identify PR activities as a kind of social communication. Conclusions. Public relations on the basis of advanced information and communication technologies create fundamentally new opportunities for information control and influence on public consciousness.

  4. Relational information in medicine: a challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolboaca, S.; Cadariu, A.; Jaentschi, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, a sizable amount of information is available in all areas medical domain including radiology. An important provocation is represented by the organization of these huge amounts of medical information, tasks that are essential in order to be used. The present paper presents a proposal of a relational structure for the organization of medical information using key terms and a Visual Fox Pro application for structure management

  5. An Integrated Capillary, Buoyancy, and Viscous-Driven Model for Brine/CO2Relative Permeability in a Compositional and Parallel Reservoir Simulator

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, X.; Delshad, M.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.

  6. An Integrated Capillary, Buoyancy, and Viscous-Driven Model for Brine/CO2Relative Permeability in a Compositional and Parallel Reservoir Simulator

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, X.

    2012-11-03

    The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.

  7. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the water vapour permeability and mechanical properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, C E; Ariahu, C C; Alakali, J S

    2015-04-01

    The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate (SPC) based edible films containing 20 % glycerol level were studied. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of edible films increased with increase in temperature and decreased with increase in relative humidity, while elongation at break decreased. Water vapour permeability of the films increased (2.6-4.3 g.mm/m(2).day.kPa) with increase in temperature and relative humidity. The temperature dependence of water vapour permeation of cassava starch-soy protein concentrate films followed Arrhenius relationship. Activation energy (Ea) of water vapour permeation of cassava starch-soy protein concentrate edible films ranged from 1.9 to 5.3 kJ/mol (R (2)  ≥ 0.93) and increased with increase in SPC addition. The Ea values were lower for the bio-films than for polyvinylidene chloride, polypropylene and polyethylene which are an indication of low water vapour permeability of the developed biofilms compared to those synthetic films.

  8. Informal eldercare and work-related strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.

  9. Evaluation of different toxicity assays applied to proliferating cells and to stratified epithelium in relation to permeability enhancement with glycocholate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirheim, Heidi Ugelstad; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different toxicity assays for use on proliferating buccal TR146 cells and on stratified TR146 epithelium and to compare these results to the permeability enhancing effect of glycocholate (GC). Both the proliferating cells and the epithelium were...... across the epithelium concurrent with a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was also determined. The robustness of the epithelium was significantly higher than that of the proliferating cells (P...

  10. Relating transport modeling to nanofiltration membrane fabrication: Navigating the permeability-selectivity trade-off in desalination pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Labban, Omar; Lienhard, John H

    2018-01-01

    Faced with a pressing need for membranes with a higher permeability and selectivity, the field of membrane technology can benefit from a systematic framework for designing membranes with the necessary physical characteristics. In this work, we present an approach through which transport modeling is employed in fabricating specialized nanofiltration membranes, that experimentally demonstrate enhanced selectivity. Specifically, the Donnan-Steric Pore Model with dielectric exclusion (DSPM-DE) is...

  11. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN RELATION WITH SOIL PERMEABILITY IN THE AREA OF VELIKA GORICA WELL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kovač

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic parameters affects behaviour of various ions in soils. The goal of this paper was to get better understanding of relationship between physical and chemical properties and soil permeability at the location of case study profile Velika Gorica, based on the physical and chemical data. Soil profile is situated in the Eutric Cambisol of the Zagreb aquifer, Croatia. Zagreb aquifer represents the only source of potable water for inhabitants of the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County. Based on the data obtained from particle size analysis, soil hydraulic parameters and measured water content, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were calculated for the estimation of soil profile permeability. Soil water retention curves and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are very similar for all depths because soil content does not change significantly through the depth. Determination of anions and cations on soil samples was performed using the method of ion chromatography. Results showed decrease of ions concentrations after 0.6 m depth. SAR distribution in the soil profile shows that SAR values are not significantly changing at the soil profile. The highest CEC and EC values are determined in horizon Bw developed in 0.6 m depth which is consistent with highest SAR value and ions concentrations. All results suggest that physical and chemical properties of investigated profile are in relationship with soil permeability.

  12. A relative permeability model to derive fractional-flow functions of water-alternating-gas and surfactant-alternating-gas foam core-floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mossawy, Mohammed Idrees; Demiral, Birol; Raja, D M Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front. (paper)

  13. Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory. (paper)

  14. Relation between histamine release and dye permeability of pulmonary blood-air barrier in x-irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    The histamine-release kinetics and the influence of released histamine on the permeability of the pulmonary blood-air(BA) barrier during the early period after either whole-body or thoracic x irradiation of the rat were studied. Histamine contents of skin and lung of the irradiated rat decreased rapidly, reaching a minimum at 5 h, and this histamine depletion continued for at least 7 days. Conversely, in circulating blood histamine increased during the early period of 5 h and then decreased gradually. This early increase was linear up to 500R and then became saturated between 500 and 1,000R. Administration of polymixine B (5mg/100g body weight) to rats liberated histamine similarly. Rat sera containg histamine released soon after irradiation enhanced the capillary permeability of Evans blue(EB) in the guinea pig skin reaction, which was effectively countered by pretreatment of the guinea pig with anti-histaminic pyribenzamine (29..mu..g/100g body weight), but not by anti-serotonic chlorpromazine (0.3mg/100g body weight). Similarly, perhaps only the EB-bound serum albumin (EB-albumin), that was seen in alveolar perfusate, penetrated more through the pulmonary BA-barrier with increasing x-ray dose, in parallel with the increase in blood histamine. Pyribenzamine inhibited this effect effectively, but cysteamine (a radical scavenger) did so only partially. Thus, it seems possible that at soon after x irradiation the enhanced permeability of EB-albumin through the BA barrier of rat lung is due preferentially to the pharmacologic action of released histamine and subsidiarily to radiation damage to pulmonary cells.

  15. Gut Microbiota Richness and Composition and Dietary Intake of Overweight Pregnant Women Are Related to Serum Zonulin Concentration, a Marker for Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, Kati; Röytiö, Henna; Munukka, Eveliina; Pietilä, Sami; Ekblad, Ulla; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Eerola, Erkki; Laiho, Asta; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2016-09-01

    Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. The extent to which the composition of the gut microbiota and diet contribute to intestinal permeability during pregnancy is unknown. The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 100 overweight women [mean age: 29 y; median body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30] in early pregnancy (zonulin (primary outcome) was determined by using ELISA, gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients from 3-d food diaries. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for pairwise comparisons and linear regression and Spearman's nonparametric correlations for relations between serum zonulin and other outcome variables. Women were divided into "low" (zonulin groups on the basis of the median concentration of zonulin (46.4 ng/mL). The richness of the gut microbiota (Chao 1, observed species and phylogenetic diversity) was higher in the low zonulin group than in the high zonulin group (P = 0.01). The abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Veillonellaceae, Bacteroides and Blautia, and Blautia sp. were lower and of Faecalibacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii higher (P zonulin group than in the high zonulin group. Dietary quantitative intakes of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals were higher (P zonulin group than those in the high zonulin group. The richness and composition of the gut microbiota and the intake of n-3 PUFAs, fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals in overweight pregnant women are associated with serum zonulin concentration. Modification of the gut microbiota and diet may beneficially affect intestinal permeability, leading to improved metabolic health of both the mother and fetus. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  16. 76 FR 28034 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... of Subjects Labor-management relations, employee management relations, and Information collection... opportunity to comment on the following information collection requests. The information collection requests...

  17. Existentially informed HIV-related psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Eugene W

    2009-09-01

    This article describes an existentially informed approach to conducting psychotherapy with individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Uses of existential concepts to guide a holistic conceptualization of the individual and illuminate core existential concerns and dilemmas in confronting HIV-related challenges are delineated. Applications of existential ideas regarding psychotherapy process and technique in HIV-related psychotherapy also are illustrated. It is concluded that existential psychotherapy offers a conceptual framework that is especially well suited to the work of psychotherapy with individuals living with HIV disease, although the approach has received only limited attention in the HIV-related psychotherapy literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  19. Numerical Aspects Related to the Dynamic Update of Anisotropic Permeability Field During the Transport of Nanoparticles in the Subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Meng-Huo; Salama, Amgad; Ei-Amin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are particles that are between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. They present possible dangers to the environment due to the high surface to volume ratio, which can make the particles very reactive or catalytic. Furthermore, rapid increase in the implementation of nanotechnologies has released large amount of the nanowaste into the environment. In the last two decades, transport of nanoparticles in the subsurface and the potential hazard they impose to the environment have attracted the attention of researchers. In this work, we use numerical simulation to investigate the problem regarding the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media. We consider the case in which the permeability in the principal direction components will vary with respect to time. The interesting thing in this case is the fact that the anisotropy could disappear with time. We investigate the effect of the degenerating anisotropy on various fields such as pressure, porosity, concentration and velocities.

  20. Numerical Aspects Related to the Dynamic Update of Anisotropic Permeability Field During the Transport of Nanoparticles in the Subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Meng-Huo

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles are particles that are between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. They present possible dangers to the environment due to the high surface to volume ratio, which can make the particles very reactive or catalytic. Furthermore, rapid increase in the implementation of nanotechnologies has released large amount of the nanowaste into the environment. In the last two decades, transport of nanoparticles in the subsurface and the potential hazard they impose to the environment have attracted the attention of researchers. In this work, we use numerical simulation to investigate the problem regarding the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media. We consider the case in which the permeability in the principal direction components will vary with respect to time. The interesting thing in this case is the fact that the anisotropy could disappear with time. We investigate the effect of the degenerating anisotropy on various fields such as pressure, porosity, concentration and velocities.

  1. Evaluation of the membrane permeability (PAMPA and skin) of benzimidazoles with potential cannabinoid activity and their relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Palavecino-González, M Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E

    2011-06-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying these molecules as very permeable, independent of their thermodynamic solubility, if and only if these have a Log P(oct) value permeability is conditioned on the solubility of the molecule so that it can only serve as a model for classifying the permeability of molecules that possess high solubility (class I: high solubility, high permeability; class III: high solubility, low permeability).

  2. Meteoric calcite cementation: diagenetic response to relative fall in sea-level and effect on porosity and permeability, Las Negras area, southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqi; Goldstein, Robert H.; Franseen, Evan K.

    2017-03-01

    A dolomitized Upper Miocene carbonate system in southeast Spain contains extensive upper and lower zones of calcite cementation that cut across the stratigraphy. Cement textures including isopachous and circumgranular, which are consistent with phreatic-zone cementation. Cements in the upper cemented zone are non-luminescent, whereas those in the lower cemented zone exhibit multiple bands of luminescent and non-luminescent cements. In the upper cemented zone, isotopic data show two meteoric calcite lines (MCL) with mean δ18O at - 5.1‰ and - 5.8‰ VPDB, whereas no clear MCL is defined in the lower cemented zone where mean δ18O for calcite cement is at - 6.7‰ VPDB. δ13C values in both cement zones are predominantly negative, ranging from - 10 to + 2‰ VPDB, suggestive of carbon from soil gas or decayed organics. Measurements of Tm ice in primary fluid inclusions yield a mode of 0.0 °C in both zones, indicating calcite cementation from fresh water. These two zones define the positions of two different paleo-water tables that formed during a relative sea-level fall and erosional downcutting during the Plio-Pleistocene. The upper cemented zone pre-dated the lower cemented zone on the basis of known relative sea-level history. Meteoric calcite cementation reduced porosity and permeability, but measured values are inconsistent with simple filling of open pore space. Each texture, boundstone, grainstone, packstone, wackestone, produces a different relationship between percent calcite cement and porosity/permeability. Distribution of cements may be predictable on the basis of known sea-level history, and the effect of the cementation can be incorporated into subsurface geomodels by defining surfaces of rock boundaries that separate cemented zones from uncemented zones, and applying texture-specific relationships among cementation, porosity and permeability.

  3. Integrated petrophysical and reservoir characterization workflow to enhance permeability and water saturation prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Meshal; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Elkatatny, Salaheldin; Al-Yousef, Hasan; Al-Ghamdi, Tariq

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of permeability is essential in reservoir characterization and in determining fluid flow in porous media which greatly assists optimize the production of a field. Some of the permeability prediction techniques such as Porosity-Permeability transforms and recently artificial intelligence and neural networks are encouraging but still show moderate to good match to core data. This could be due to limitation to homogenous media while the knowledge about geology and heterogeneity is indirectly related or absent. The use of geological information from core description as in Lithofacies which includes digenetic information show a link to permeability when categorized into rock types exposed to similar depositional environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust combined workflow integrating geology and petrophysics and wireline logs in an extremely heterogeneous carbonate reservoir to accurately predict permeability. Permeability prediction is carried out using pattern recognition algorithm called multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC). We will bench mark the prediction results with hard data from core and well test analysis. As a result, we showed how much better improvements are achieved in the permeability prediction when geology is integrated within the analysis. Finally, we use the predicted permeability as an input parameter in J-function and correct for uncertainties in saturation calculation produced by wireline logs using the classical Archie equation. Eventually, high level of confidence in hydrocarbon volumes estimation is reached when robust permeability and saturation height functions are estimated in presence of important geological details that are petrophysically meaningful.

  4. Recent geoscientific information relating to deep crustal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John

    2004-01-01

    Geoscientific information relating to conditions deep in the earth's crust, as a basis to the deposition of radioactive wastes in vertically drilled boreholes to depths of 4-5 km, has been compiled already in several reports. The objective of this present document is to provide an update of geoscientific information that has become available in the open literature since 1998. Emphasis has been put on crystalline rocks to conform to SKB's disposal concepts for radioactive wastes. These conclusions are arranged under various headings of importance with respect to deep hole disposal of radioactive wastes at 4,000-5,000 m depth. Geothermal considerations: The rock thermal conductivity is an important parameter to help dissipate the heat generated by the waste package and depends on rock composition. In this respect, since mafic-rich varieties are more conductive, a granitic host rock may be considered more problematic. Fractures tend to increase the thermal conductivity; however due to the rock stress the frequency of fractures decreases with depth so that a deterioration in thermal conductivity with depth is to be expected. Evaluating the temperature/heat production gradient is an important pre-requisite for disposal, for example the long-term stability of engineered materials. The experience from the German KTB programme has underlined that it may not always be possible to extrapolate near-surface derived predictions of temperature variations to repository depths, especially in a heterogeneous bedrock environment. Hydraulic conductivity: Main problems are the presence of gas phases and groundwater flow; of lesser importance is fluid circulation initiated by the temperature gradient resulting from the temperature increase of the waste package. Rock permeability is expected to be in the order of (1 to 3) x 10 -13 m 2 over a 1-2 km zone if exogenic fracturing is assumed, in the order of 10 -17 -10 -16 m 2 at repository depths, and in the order of 10 -20 -10 -19 m 2 at

  5. Recent geoscientific information relating to deep crustal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Geoscientific information relating to conditions deep in the earth's crust, as a basis to the deposition of radioactive wastes in vertically drilled boreholes to depths of 4-5 km, has been compiled already in several reports. The objective of this present document is to provide an update of geoscientific information that has become available in the open literature since 1998. Emphasis has been put on crystalline rocks to conform to SKB's disposal concepts for radioactive wastes. These conclusions are arranged under various headings of importance with respect to deep hole disposal of radioactive wastes at 4,000-5,000 m depth. Geothermal considerations: The rock thermal conductivity is an important parameter to help dissipate the heat generated by the waste package and depends on rock composition. In this respect, since mafic-rich varieties are more conductive, a granitic host rock may be considered more problematic. Fractures tend to increase the thermal conductivity; however due to the rock stress the frequency of fractures decreases with depth so that a deterioration in thermal conductivity with depth is to be expected. Evaluating the temperature/heat production gradient is an important pre-requisite for disposal, for example the long-term stability of engineered materials. The experience from the German KTB programme has underlined that it may not always be possible to extrapolate near-surface derived predictions of temperature variations to repository depths, especially in a heterogeneous bedrock environment. Hydraulic conductivity: Main problems are the presence of gas phases and groundwater flow; of lesser importance is fluid circulation initiated by the temperature gradient resulting from the temperature increase of the waste package. Rock permeability is expected to be in the order of (1 to 3) x 10{sup -13} m{sup 2} over a 1-2 km zone if exogenic fracturing is assumed, in the order of 10{sup -17}-10{sup -16} m{sup 2} at repository depths, and in

  6. Developments in permeable and low permeability barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.; Norris, G.H.; Thomas, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of the reactive treatment zone whereby pollutants are attenuated as they move along a pathway in the ground has enabled a re-thinking of many of the concepts of containment. In particular it offers the potential for the control of the flux from a contaminated area by controlling the contaminant concentration in the pathway(s) as well as or instead of using a low permeability barrier. The paper outlines the basic concepts of the reactive treatment zone and the use of permeable and low permeability reactive systems. The paper then gives a case history of the installation of a permeable barrier using an in-situ reaction chamber

  7. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  8. Evaluation of the Membrane Permeability (PAMPA and Skin) of Benzimidazoles with Potential Cannabinoid Activity and their Relation with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M. Javiera; Pessoa-Mahana, C. David; Palavecino-González, M. Elisa; Mella-Raipán, Jaime; Espinosa-Bustos, Cristián; Lagos-Muñoz, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of five benzimidazole derivates with potential cannabinoid activity was determined in two models of membranes, parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and skin, in order to study the relationship of the physicochemical properties of the molecules and characteristics of the membranes with the permeability defined by the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was established that the PAMPA intestinal absorption method is a good predictor for classifying thes...

  9. A lattice Boltzmann investigation of steady-state fluid distribution, capillary pressure and relative permeability of a porous medium: Effects of fluid and geometrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi; Galindo-Torres, Sergio; Yan, Guanxi; Scheuermann, Alexander; Li, Ling

    2018-06-01

    Simulations of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow in the capillary force-dominated regime were conducted using the state-of-the-art Shan-Chen multi-component lattice Boltzmann model (SCMC-LBM) based on two-dimensional porous media. We focused on analyzing the fluid distribution (i.e., WP fluid-solid, NP fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfacial areas) as well as the capillary pressure versus saturation curve which was affected by fluid and geometrical properties (i.e., wettability, adhesive strength, pore size distribution and specific surface area). How these properties influenced the relative permeability versus saturation relation through apparent effective permeability and threshold pressure gradient was also explored. The SCMC-LBM simulations showed that, a thin WP fluid film formed around the solid surface due to the adhesive fluid-solid interaction, resulting in discrete WP fluid distributions and reduction of the WP fluid mobility. Also, the adhesive interaction provided another source of capillary pressure in addition to capillary force, which, however, did not affect the mobility of the NP fluid. The film fluid effect could be enhanced by large adhesive strength and fine pores in heterogeneous porous media. In the steady-state infiltration, not only the NP fluid but also the WP fluid were subjected to the capillary resistance. The capillary pressure effect could be alleviated by decreased wettability, large average pore radius and improved fluid connectivity in heterogeneous porous media. The present work based on the SCMC-LBM investigations elucidated the role of film fluid as well as capillary pressure in the two-phase flow system. The findings have implications for ways to improve the macroscopic flow equation based on balance of force for the steady-state infiltration.

  10. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary...

  11. Film Permeability Determination Using Static Permeability Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The permeability of tarps to soil fumigant pesticides varies depending on the active ingredient chemical: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methyl bromide, chloropicrin, or other. The diffusion rate can be represented by the mass transfer coefficient (MTC).

  12. Relational Database Design in Information Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on database management system (dbms) applications designed by library school students for university community at University of Iowa. Three dbms design issues are examined: synthesis of relations, analysis of relations (normalization procedure), and data dictionary usage. Database planning prior to automation using data dictionary approach…

  13. Event-related potentials and information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel Anton

    1989-01-01

    We set out to test the hypotheses generated by Shiffrin & Schneider’s model of information procesing with our new tool, the ERP. The experiments were devised to test hypotheses that were orginally based on performance data alone, i.e. reaction time and errors. Although the overt behaviour was

  14. Reaching Out with Business-Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbes, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the Bensenville Community Public Library (Illinois) met the growing needs of the business community by subscribing to Infotrac's Web-based General BusinessFile. Topics include meeting the information needs of business; installing a computer station at the Chamber of Commerce; and grant funding. (LRW)

  15. Suitability of Torrent Permeability Tester to measure air-permeability of covercrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.; Gonzales-Gasca, C. [Institute of Construction Sciences ' Eduardo Torroja' , Madrid (Spain); Torrent, R. [Portland Cement Institute, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Suitability of the Torrent Permeability Tester (TPT) to measure the permeability of covercrete to air, both in the laboratory and the field, is investigated, and test results obtained in laboratory studies are discussed. The tests performed included the determination of air permeability (TPT method), oxygen permeability (Cembureau method) and capillary suction, rapid chloride permeability test (ASTM C 1202), as well as a one-year carbonation depth test. Concrete specimens of various compositions and curing regimes were used in the tests; the gas-permeability tests were repeated on the same specimens after 28 days, than again at 6 months and 12 months. Test results confirmed the suitability of the TPT as a useful tool in the characterization of the quality the of concrete cover. It was found to be sensitive to changes in concrete quality; repeatable for sensitive properties such as gas permeability ; also, it was found to correlate well with other durability-related properties. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatment options. AIDS-related lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... cord. The sample may also be checked for Epstein-Barr virus . This procedure is also called an LP ...

  17. An experimental study of relative permeability hysteresis, capillary trapping characteristics, and capillary pressure of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarabadi, Morteza

    We present the results of an extensive experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on permanent capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine and supercritical (sc)CO2+SO2/brine systems. We performed numerous unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, i.e., low and high-permeability Berea, Nugget sandstones, and Madison limestone carbonate rock sample. A state-of-the-art reservoir conditions core-flooding system was used to perform the tests. The core-flooding apparatus included a medical CT scanner to measure in-situ saturations. The scanner was rotated to the horizontal orientation allowing flow tests through vertically-placed core samples with about 3.8 cm diameter and 15 cm length. Both scCO2 /brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems were studied. The gaseous and supercritical CO2/brine experiments were carried out at 3.46 and 11 MPa back pressures and 20 and 55°C temperatures, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the gCO2 and scCO2 have 0.081 and 0.393 gr/cm3 densities, respectively. During unsteady-state tests, the samples were first saturated with brine and then flooded with CO2 (drainage) at different maximum flow rates. The drainage process was then followed by a low flow rate (0.375 cm 3/min) imbibition until residual CO2 saturation was achieved. Wide flow rate ranges of 0.25 to 20 cm3/min for scCO2 and 0.125 to 120 cm3min for gCO2 were used to investigate the variation of initial brine saturation (Swi) with maximum CO2 flow rate and variation of trapped CO2 saturation (SCO2r) with Swi. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO 2. During the steady-state experiments, after providing of fully-brine saturated core, scCO2 was injected along with brine to find the drainage curve and as

  18. Assessment of vascularity and permeability in brain tumor using SPECT and [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA-human serum albumin in relation to [sup 201]Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Fukuoka, Seiji; Takahashi, Shuhei; Takahashi, Masaaki; Satoh, Katsuyasu; Suematsu, Katsumi; Nakamura, Jun-ichi (Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m-DTPA-human serum albumin ([sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D) and thallium-201 chloride ([sup 201]Tl) was simultaneously performed on 25 patients with brain tumors; 10 with brain metastasis, 8 with astrocytoma (Gr. 3) and 7 with meningioma. The early image was obtained 10 minutes after [sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D (740 MBq) injection, and the delayed image was taken 5 hours after the injection. HSA-D index, based on the ratio of [sup 99m]Tc-HSA-D uptake in the tumor versus the cortical area, was calculated on each image, and compared with Tl index (tumor/contralateral cerebrum ratio). HSA-D delayed index was significantly greater than HSA-D early index in all tumor types (p<0.05 by the Wilcoxon ranked sign test). Linear correlation between HSA-D early index and HSA-D delayed index was significant in astrocytoma (GR. 3) (p<0.01) and meningioma (p<0.001), and a linear correlation between HSA-D delayed index and Tl index was significant in astrocytoma (Gr. 3) (p<0.05). It is concluded that HSA-D early index and delayed index could reflect tumor vascularity and permeability, respectively, and provide supplementary information for Tl index. (author).

  19. Characterisation and monitoring of the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) in fractured gneisses of the Roselend underground laboratory: permeability measurements, transport property changes and related radon bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Jérôme; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Richon, Patrick; Pontreau, Sébastien; Guillon, Sophie; Pili, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Roselend tunnel was drilled in the fifties by blasting in the micashists, granites and gneisses of the Méraillet massif (French Alps). It is situated on the shore of the Roselend reservoir Lake near its dam. Several tectonic shear fractures related to the Alpine orogeny intersect the dead end tunnel (with length of 128 m and section about 2 m), indeed the fracture density varies from 0.45 to 1 fracture per meter along the tunnel (Dezayes and Villemin 2002). Some fractures are partially or totally filled with secondary minerals. The flow rates of percolating water through the fractured medium are seasonal dependent. Large fractures drain a large fluid volume unlike small ones that drain limited fluid volume (Patriarche et al. 2007). The Roselend underground laboratory allows the study of the geochemical and geophysical responses of a fractured rock mass to periodic sollicitations due to water level variations of the nearby Roselend reservoir Lake. The tunnel was instrumented in the nineties to understand the relationship between radon (Rn-222) concentration and water level variations of the Roselend reservoir Lake (Trique et al. 1999). In order to characterize the geometry and the extent of the EDZ, core drilling and permeability measurements through pneumatic testing are performed along the Roselend tunnel. Drilled core analysis consists of direct observations at a macroscopic scale of fractures (density of fractures from EDZ) and also at a microscopic scale via thin sections. Method of pressure build-up in wells (Jakubick and Franz 1993, Bossart et al. 2002) is used to determine permeability profile along each borehole and hence to precise the extent and geometry of the EDZ. A strong correlation is observed between permeability profiles and the density of fractures estimated from core analysis. The extent of the EDZ appears to be about one tunnel radius i.e. one meter around the tunnel corridor. Another experiment consisting of continuous differential

  20. Effect of sucralfate on gastric permeability in an ex vivo model of stress-related mucosal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tracy L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2018-03-01

    Sucralfate is a gastroprotectant with no known systemic effects. The efficacy of sucralfate for prevention and treatment of stress-related mucosal diseases (SRMD) in dogs is unknown. To develop a canine ex vivo model of SRMD and to determine the effect of sucralfate on mucosal barrier function in this model. Gastric antral mucosa was collected immediately postmortem from 29 random-source apparently healthy dogs euthanized at a local animal control facility. Randomized experimental trial. Sucralfate (100 mg/mL) was applied to ex vivo canine gastric mucosa concurrent with and after acid injury. Barrier function was assessed by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and radiolabeled mannitol flux. Application of acidified Ringers solution to the mucosal side of gastric antrum caused a reduction in gastric barrier function, and washout of acidified Ringers solution allowed recovery of barrier function (TER: 34.0 ± 2.8% of control at maximum injury, 71.3 ± 5.5% at recovery, P < .001). Sucralfate application at the time of injury or after injury significantly hastened recovery of barrier function (TER: 118.0 ± 15.2% of control at maximum injury, P < .001 and 111.0 ± 15.5% at recovery, P = .35). Sucralfate appeared effective at restoring defects in gastric barrier function induced by acid and accelerating repair of tissues subjected to acid in this model, suggesting that sucralfate could have utility for the treatment and prevention of SRMD in dogs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  2. Pore network modelling of heavy oil depressurization : a parametric study of factors affecting critical gas saturation and three-phase relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondino, I.; McDougall, S.D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hamon, G. [TotalFina Elf Exploration and Production (France)

    2002-07-01

    A review of how the bubble nucleation process affects the efficiency of heavy oil recovery was presented along with a discussion regarding a pore-scale simulator technique to depressurize heavy oil systems. A light oil depressurization simulation is also presented in which a straightforward instantaneous nucleation (IN) model and a more intricate progressive nucleation (PN) model have been used. Simulation results are compared to those derived from the heavy oil systems. The nucleation of bubbles, their growth by solute diffusion and expansion, plus the final stages of coalescence migration and production are the main steps in the depressurization process which were accounted for in a 3-phase simulator. The model can also determine the impact of bubble density and gas-oil diffusion coefficient on critical gas saturation and 3-phase relative permeability. The difference in results for light and heavy oils was also highlighted. In the first scenario, the evolution of gas was characterized by embryonic bubbles that are quickly and randomly nucleated once bubble-point pressure is reached. A stochastic algorithm was developed for PN from experimental observations. IN and PN observations were not necessarily contradictory. It was determined that the high interfacial tension of heavy oils leads to a more compact, capillary-dominated pattern of gas evolution compared to light oils, resulting in improved recoveries for heavy oil systems. 23 refs., 6 tabs., 23 figs.

  3. Permeability Estimation of Rock Reservoir Based on PCA and Elman Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Jian, Shaoyong

    2018-03-01

    an intelligent method which based on fuzzy neural networks with PCA algorithm, is proposed to estimate the permeability of rock reservoir. First, the dimensionality reduction process is utilized for these parameters by principal component analysis method. Further, the mapping relationship between rock slice characteristic parameters and permeability had been found through fuzzy neural networks. The estimation validity and reliability for this method were tested with practical data from Yan’an region in Ordos Basin. The result showed that the average relative errors of permeability estimation for this method is 6.25%, and this method had the better convergence speed and more accuracy than other. Therefore, by using the cheap rock slice related information, the permeability of rock reservoir can be estimated efficiently and accurately, and it is of high reliability, practicability and application prospect.

  4. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling, E-mail: whl_hm@163.com [Key Laboratory of Coastal Disaster and Defence, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); LML, University of Lille, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing [Institutes of Geotechnical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO{sub 2,} shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10{sup −19} m{sup 2}; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  5. The impact of the information society on the customs relations

    OpenAIRE

    Troyan, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The Information Society is a new civilization; it is based on the information technologies. They influence on all spheres of life, including the customs service. Customs in the information society cooperates with other state bodies of the Russian Federation and the participants of foreign economic activity, so that it becomes involved in the global information process. The article examines how the information society effects on the customs legal relations, as well as identifies the positive a...

  6. Gas and Water Permeability of Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Martin, P. L.; Romero, F. J.; Gutierrez-Rodirgo, V.; Barcala, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The gas pressure of concrete samples was measured in an unsteady-state equipment working under low injection pressures and in a newly fine tuned steady-state setup working under different pressures. These measurements allowed the estimation of the intrinsic and relative gas permeability of the concrete and of the effect of boundary conditions on them. Permeability decreased with water content, but it was also greatly affected by the hydraulic history of concrete, i.e. if it had been previously dried or wetted. In particular, and for a given degree of saturation, the gas permeability of concrete previously saturated was lower than if the concrete had been just air dried or saturated after air drying. In any case, the gas permeability was about two orders of magnitude higher than the liquid water permeability (10-16 vs. 10-18 m2), probably due to the chemical reactions taking place during saturation (carbonation). The relative gas permeability of concrete increased sharply for water degrees of saturation smaller than 50%. The boundary conditions also affected the gas permeability, which seemed to be mostly conditioned by the back pressure and the confining pressure, increasing as the former increased and decreasing as the latter increased, i.e. decreasing as the effective pressure increased. Overall the increase of pressure head or injection pressure implied a decrease in gas permeability. External,microcracking during air-drying could not be ruled out as responsible for the decrease of permeability with confining pressure. The apparent permeability obtained applying the Klinkenberg method for a given effective pressure was only slightly smaller than the average of all the values measured for the same confining pressure range. For this reason it is considered that the Klinkenberg effect was not relevant in the range of pressures applied. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Field-scale permeability and temperature of volcanic crust from borehole data: Campi Flegrei, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Piochi, Monica; Tramelli, Anna; Mormone, Angela; Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Klaus, Mayer

    2018-05-01

    We report combined measurements of petrophysical and geophysical parameters for a 501-m deep borehole located on the eastern side of the active Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy), namely (i) in situ permeability by pumping tests, (ii) laboratory-determined permeability of the drill core, and (iii) thermal gradients by distributed fiber optic and thermocouple sensors. The borehole was drilled during the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and gives information on the least explored caldera sector down to pre-caldera deposits. The results allow comparative assessment of permeability obtained from both borehole (at depth between 422 a 501 m) and laboratory tests (on a core sampled at the same depth) for permeability values of 10-13 m2 (borehole test) and 10-15 m2 (laboratory test) confirm the scale-dependency of permeability at this site. Additional geochemical and petrophysical determinations (porosity, density, chemistry, mineralogy and texture), together with gas flow measurements, corroborate the hypothesis that discrepancies in the permeability values are likely related to in-situ fracturing. The continuous distributed temperature profile points to a thermal gradient of about 200 °C km-1. Our findings (i) indicate that scale-dependency of permeability has to be carefully considered in modelling of the hydrothermal system at Campi Flegrei, and (ii) improve the understanding of caldera dynamics for monitoring and mitigation of this very high volcanic risk area.

  8. Relative effect of environmental factors, information literacy, course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer literacy, as an aspect of information literacy refers to effectiveness in searching for ... study, that researchers in the sciences use ICT facilities in their information .... Human Kinetics and Health Education, Creative Arts, Chemical Engineering, ... Questions were asked to obtain information on the relative effect of.

  9. 76 FR 43331 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... the following public information collection requests (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection requests are FMCS forms: Arbitrator's Report and Fee Statement (Agency Form R-19...

  10. 77 FR 56842 - Labor-Management Relations Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... the following public information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection request is the Notice to Mediation Agencies (Agency Form F-7), OMB control number 3076...

  11. Hydrogen permeability through metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.A.; Tsvetkov, I.V.; Marenkov, E.D.; Yarko, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of hydrogen permeability through one-layer and multi-layer membranes are considered. The effect of surface roughness, crystal defects, cracks and pores is described. Mathematical description of the processes is given [ru

  12. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  13. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison...... with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging...... fluid as well as levels of CXCL10 and MMP9 in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, may provide novel pathological information as a marker of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis, to some extent...

  14. Microstructure-based characterization of permeability using a random walk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F F; Yang, Y S

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative transport properties of materials are analysed using a random walk model, based on the microscopic compositional distribution of compositions in the materials. A material sample is defined on a simple-cubic lattice, with volume fractions specified for each composition on every volume pixel (voxel). The quantitative relation between bulk permeability and fine-scale anisotropy is investigated by assuming fully anisotropic and fully isotropic voxel morphology. Such a study has prompted an analytic approximate formulation to predict bulk permeability range for a heterogeneous multi-component system that lacks detailed microstructure information. The numerical approach is verified on synthetic structures with known permeability. The analysis technique is applied to a real-world rock sample, as illustrated by a case study detailed in this paper. The investigations show that the bulk permeability is affected significantly by fine length scale anisotropy. (paper)

  15. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  16. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed

  17. Universal quantum uncertainty relations between nonergodicity and loss of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-03-01

    We establish uncertainty relations between information loss in general open quantum systems and the amount of nonergodicity of the corresponding dynamics. The relations hold for arbitrary quantum systems interacting with an arbitrary quantum environment. The elements of the uncertainty relations are quantified via distance measures on the space of quantum density matrices. The relations hold for arbitrary distance measures satisfying a set of intuitively satisfactory axioms. The relations show that as the nonergodicity of the dynamics increases, the lower bound on information loss decreases, which validates the belief that nonergodicity plays an important role in preserving information of quantum states undergoing lossy evolution. We also consider a model of a central qubit interacting with a fermionic thermal bath and derive its reduced dynamics to subsequently investigate the information loss and nonergodicity in such dynamics. We comment on the "minimal" situations that saturate the uncertainty relations.

  18. Effect of Viscous Instability on Unsteady-State Relative Permeability Effet de l'instabilité visqueuse sur la perméabilité relative en régime irrégulier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma H. K.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the relationship between the extent of viscous instability involved in a laboratory displacement and the relative permeability inferred from measured displacement data. Oil displacement experiments were conducted in a triaxially confined silica sand pack. The extent of viscous instability was varied by using mineral oils of different viscosities and by conducting the displacement runs at different flow rates. Relative permeabilities were calculated using both a history matching technique developed by R. M. Sigmund and F. G. McCaffery (8 and an explicit technique suggested by H. K. Sarma and R. G. Bentsen (14. Although, in principle, this explicit technique is similar to the JBN method (11, it is simpler to use in that, it does not require graphical or numerical differentiation of the experimental data. The technique uses two monotonic functional equations, which satisfy all physical conditions that can be imposed on the system, to smooth cumulative oil production and pressure drop histories. Furthermore, these functional equations can also be utilized to predict end-point displacement parameters, such as : Sor and kwor, for displacement experiments which are terminated before reaching the actual end-point. The results show that the two techniques for calculating relative permeabilities from unsteady-state displacement data provide essentially similar results, and that viscous instability significantly affects the relative permeability measurements. The breakthrough recovery, residual oil saturation and the end-point water permeability were all affected by the extent of viscous instability present during the displacement. It was found that these parameters show a systematic dependence on the extent of viscous instability as characterized by the instability number (Isr of E. J. Peters and D. L. Flock (19. Also, the results suggest that the relative permeability curves approach a

  19. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system

  20. microRNA-4516 Contributes to Different Functions of Epithelial Permeability Barrier by Targeting Poliovirus Receptor Related Protein 1 in Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16 remain the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. The clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses are obviously different. CV-A16 usually triggers a repeated infection, and airway epithelial integrity is often the potential causative factor of respiratory repeated infections. Our previous studies have demonstrated that there were some differentially expressed miRNAs involved in the regulation of adhesion function of epithelial barrier in EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. In this study, we compared the differences between EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections on the airway epithelial barrier function in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE cells and further screened the key miRNA which leaded to the formation of these differences. Our results showed that more rapid proliferation, more serious destruction of 16HBE cells permeability, more apoptosis and disruption of intercellular adhesion-associated molecules were found in CV-A16 infection as compared to EV-A71 infection. Furthermore, we also identified that microRNA-4516 (miR-4516, which presented down-regulation in EV-A71 infection and up-regulation in CV-A16 infection was an important regulator of intercellular junctions by targeting Poliovirus receptor related protein 1(PVRL1. The expressions of PVRL1, claudin4, ZO-1 and E-cadherin in CV-A16-infected cells were significantly less than those in EV-A71-infected cells, while the expressions of these proteins were subverted when pre-treated with miR-4516-overexpression plasmid in EV-A71 infected and miR-4516-knockdown plasmid in CV-A16 infected 16HBE cells. Thus, these data suggested that the opposite expression of miR-4516 in EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections might be the initial steps leading to different epithelial impairments of 16HBE cells by destroying intercellular adhesion, which finally resulted in different outcomes of EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections.

  1. Privacy-related context information for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-03-11

    Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how data can be processed or how components

  2. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  3. 40 CFR 300.155 - Public information and community relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.155 Public information and community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt, accurate...

  4. Development of Information Technology of Object-relational Databases Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyn A. Filatov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the development of information technology of object-relational databases design and study of object features infological and logical database schemes entities and connections.

  5. Usability of consumer-related information sources for design improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lu, Y.; Ouden, den P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the findings of a study intended to assess the usability of consumer related information sources in order to improve the design processes of innovative electronic products. Specifically, an evaluation is done of the quality and content of information that would help product

  6. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-{sup 19}F-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.dickinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Arnold, John R. P. [Selby College (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julie [University of Leeds, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using {sup 19}F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  7. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-"1"9F-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth; Arnold, John R. P.; Fisher, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using "1"9F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  8. Multiple-choice pretesting potentiates learning of related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeri L; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2016-10-01

    Although the testing effect has received a substantial amount of empirical attention, such research has largely focused on the effects of tests given after study. The present research examines the effect of using tests prior to study (i.e., as pretests), focusing particularly on how pretesting influences the subsequent learning of information that is not itself pretested but that is related to the pretested information. In Experiment 1, we found that multiple-choice pretesting was better for the learning of such related information than was cued-recall pretesting or a pre-fact-study control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that the increased learning of non-pretested related information following multiple-choice testing could not be attributed to increased time allocated to that information during subsequent study. Last, in Experiment 3, we showed that the benefits of multiple-choice pretesting over cued-recall pretesting for the learning of related information persist over 48 hours, thus demonstrating the promise of multiple-choice pretesting to potentiate learning in educational contexts. A possible explanation for the observed benefits of multiple-choice pretesting for enhancing the effectiveness with which related nontested information is learned during subsequent study is discussed.

  9. Job-Structure and Job-Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 善郎

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.

  10. Nonmaterialized Relations and the Support of Information Retrieval Applications by Relational Database Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes several aspects of the problem of supporting information retrieval system query requirements in the relational database management system (RDBMS) environment and proposes an extension to query processing called nonmaterialized relations. User interactions with information retrieval systems are discussed, and nonmaterialized relations are…

  11. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  12. Permeability of gypsum samples dehydrated in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsch, Harald; Priegnitz, Mike; Blöcher, Guido

    2011-09-01

    We report on changes in rock permeability induced by devolatilization reactions using gypsum as a reference analog material. Cylindrical samples of natural alabaster were dehydrated in air (dry) for up to 800 h at ambient pressure and temperatures between 378 and 423 K. Subsequently, the reaction kinetics, so induced changes in porosity, and the concurrent evolution of sample permeability were constrained. Weighing the heated samples in predefined time intervals yielded the reaction progress where the stoichiometric mass balance indicated an ultimate and complete dehydration to anhydrite regardless of temperature. Porosity showed to continuously increase with reaction progress from approximately 2% to 30%, whilst the initial bulk volume remained unchanged. Within these limits permeability significantly increased with porosity by almost three orders of magnitude from approximately 7 × 10-19 m2 to 3 × 10-16 m2. We show that - when mechanical and hydraulic feedbacks can be excluded - permeability, reaction progress, and porosity are related unequivocally.

  13. Migration of particulates in permeable rock columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The migration of radioactive material through soil and permeable rock formations have become a major topic of concern due to the interest in the licensing of new radioactive waste disposal sites. Previously, research has been conducted in relation to deep repositories; however, similar situations arise in the vadose zone, where there is a higher probability of naturally-occurring particulates of organic nature and for the incursion of water. Test data has provided information which suggests that particulates will travel through porous media subject to various delay mechnisms and must be included in any consideration of waste migration. Data concerning particulate migration must and should be considered in the future when radioactive waste disposal sites are licensed

  14. Uncertainty relations for information entropy in wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Pittsburgh Univ., Pa.; Mycielski, J.

    1975-01-01

    New uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics are derived. They express restrictions imposed by quantum theory on probability distributions of canonically conjugate variables in terms of corresponding information entropies. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation follows from those inequalities and so does the Gross-Nelson inequality. (orig.) [de

  15. Transformable ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changjun; Jia, Chenglong; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Xue, Desheng

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic permeability, which measures the response of a material to an applied magnetic field, is crucial to the performance of magnetic devices and related technologies. Its dynamic value is usually a complex number with real and imaginary parts that describe, respectively, how much magnetic power can be stored and lost in the material. Control of permeability is therefore closely related to energy redistribution within a magnetic system or energy exchange between magnetic and other degrees of freedom via certain spin-dependent interactions. To avoid a high power consumption, direct manipulation of the permeability with an electric field through magnetoelectric coupling leads to high efficiency and simple operation, but remains a big challenge in both the fundamental physics and material science. Here we report unambiguous evidence of ferroelectric control of dynamic magnetic permeability in a Co /Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (Co/PMN-PT) heterostructure, in which the ferroelectric PMN-PT acts as an energy source for the ferromagnetic Co film via an interfacial linear magnetoelectric interaction. The electric field tuning of the magnitude and line shape of the permeability offers a highly localized means of controlling magnetization with ultralow power consumption. Additionally, the emergence of negative permeability promises a new way of realizing functional nanoscale metamaterials with adjustable refraction index.

  16. 2D and 3D imaging resolution trade-offs in quantifying pore throats for prediction of permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2013-09-03

    Although the impact of subsurface geochemical reactions on porosity is relatively well understood, changes in permeability remain difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling was used to predict permeability based on pore- and pore-throat size distributions determined from analysis of 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections and 3D X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) data. The analyzed specimens were a Viking sandstone sample from the Alberta sedimentary basin and an experimental column of reacted Hanford sediments. For the column, a decrease in permeability due to mineral precipitation was estimated, but the permeability estimates were dependent on imaging technique and resolution. X-ray CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network while 2D SEM imaging can easily analyze sub-grain and intragranular variations in mineralogy. Pore network models informed by analyses of 2D and 3D images at comparable resolutions produced permeability esti- mates with relatively good agreement. Large discrepancies in predicted permeabilities resulted from small variations in image resolution. Images with resolutions 0.4 to 4 lm predicted permeabilities differ- ing by orders of magnitude. While lower-resolution scans can analyze larger specimens, small pore throats may be missed due to resolution limitations, which in turn overestimates permeability in a pore-network model in which pore-to-pore conductances are statistically assigned. Conversely, high-res- olution scans are capable of capturing small pore throats, but if they are not actually flow-conducting predicted permeabilities will be below expected values. In addition, permeability is underestimated due to misinterpreting surface-roughness features as small pore throats. Comparison of permeability pre- dictions with expected and measured permeability values showed that the largest discrepancies resulted from the highest resolution images and the best predictions of

  17. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, soluble CD14 and plasma lipids in relation to endotoxaemia in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Schütt, C.

    2002-01-01

    of endotoxin on its target cells (LPS-binding protein and sCD14) were increased. Endotoxin antagonists, such as bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and high-density lipoprotein, were increased in the pre-cirrhotic stages, whereas a significant reduction of the latter was observed in cirrhosis. Low......-density lipoprotein remained unchanged. The elevation of binding factors in the pre-cirrhotic stages of alcoholic liver disease might attenuate the effects of endotoxaemia, whereas in cirrhosis the reduction of high density lipoprotein, to which large quantities of endotoxin bind, may contribute to its pro...

  18. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  19. Foraging for Information in the EHR: The Search for Adherence Related Information by Mental Health Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan; Butler, Jorie; Zirkle, Maryan; Hammond, Kenric; Weir, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    In this project we sought to qualitatively describe clinician's search for information related to the complex construct of adherence. Nineteen think aloud observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health providers as they prepared for a patient visit. The transcripts were coded according to constructs from information foraging theory (information goal, patch, scent, enrichment, and opportunity cost). The search strategies uncovered were complicated: provider's searches were sometimes multi-staged (e.g. a search of the EHR led to further enquiry when interviewing the patient), and involved multiple 'patches' (i.e. data from the EHR, the patient and other providers were all sought out). In addition, some information that providers considered relevant to understand adherence related questions was non-obvious (e.g. the absence of specific information was considered a useful cue). Providers' information search strategies for complex constructs are at times non-intuitive; implications for the design of EHR summarization tools are discussed.

  20. Kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response in relation to the H+-permeability of the membrane bound ATPase in spinach chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; van Kooten, O.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    1985-08-01

    The effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response and on the activity of the ATPase was investigated in isolated spinach chloroplasts. It was found that after the addition of 5 X 10(-8)mol DCCD the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by a period of 60 sec illumination was decreased to less than 5% of its original value. At this concentration, hardly any effect, if at all, could be detected on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response, neither in dark-adapted nor in light-activated chloroplasts. It was concluded that the presence of concentrations of DCCD, sufficiently high to affect the ATPase activity, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response. Since DCCD decreases the H+ permeability of the membrane-bound ATPase, it was concluded that this permeability coefficient for protons is not an important factor in the regulation of the flash-induced membrane potential and, therefore, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response.

  1. Influence of N deficiency and salinity on metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) accumulation and tolerance by Rhizophora stylosa in relation to root anatomy and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hao; Wang Youshao; Ye Zhihong; Chen Danting; Wang Yutu; Peng Yalan; Wang Liying

    2012-01-01

    Effects of N deficiency and salinity on root anatomy, permeability and metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) translocation and tolerance were investigated using mangrove seedlings of Rhizophora stylosa. The results showed that salt could directly reduce radial oxygen loss (ROL) by stimulation of lignification within exodermis. N deficiency, oppositely, would reduce lignification. Such an alteration in root permeability may also influence metal tolerance by plants. The data indicated that a moderate salinity could stimulate a lignified exodermis that delayed the entry of metals into the roots and thereby contributed to a higher metal tolerance, while N deficiency would aggravate metal toxicity. The results from sand pot trail further confirmed this issue. This study provides a barrier property of the exodermis in dealing with environments. The plasticity of root anatomy is likely an adaptive strategy to regulate the fluxes of gases, nutrients and toxins at root–soil interface. - Highlights: ► Salt induced lignified exodermis which slowed down metal entry into the plants. ► N deficiency, oppositely, aggravated metal mobility and toxicity. ► Barrier properties of the exodermis. - N deficiency and salinity regulate the apoplastic transport barrier of metals and their toxicities

  2. Role of endothelial permeability hotspots and endothelial mitosis in determining age-related patterns of macromolecule uptake by the rabbit aortic wall near branch points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, K Yean; Comerford, Andrew; Cremers, Stephanie J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    Transport of macromolecules between plasma and the arterial wall plays a key role in atherogenesis. Scattered hotspots of elevated endothelial permeability to macromolecules occur in the aorta; a fraction of them are associated with dividing cells. Hotspots occur particularly frequently downstream of branch points, where lesions develop in young rabbits and children. However, the pattern of lesions varies with age, and can be explained by similar variation in the pattern of macromolecule uptake. We investigated whether patterns of hotspots and mitosis also change with age. Evans' Blue dye-labeled albumin was injected intravenously into immature or mature rabbits and its subsequent distribution in the aortic wall around intercostal branch ostia examined by confocal microscopy and automated image analysis. Mitosis was detected by immunofluorescence after adding 5-bromo-2-deoxiuridine to drinking water. Hotspots were most frequent downstream of branches in immature rabbits, but a novel distribution was observed in mature rabbits. Neither pattern was explained by mitosis. Hotspot uptake correlated spatially with the much greater non-hotspot uptake (p hotspots were considered. The pattern of hotspots changes with age. The data are consistent with there being a continuum of local permeabilities rather than two distinct mechanisms. The distribution of the dye, which binds to elastin and collagen, was similar to that of non-binding tracers and to lesions apart from a paucity at the lateral margins of branches that can be explained by lower levels of fibrous proteins in those regions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Internet use by Chinese women seeking pregnancy-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling-ling; Larsson, Margareta; Luo, Shu-yuan

    2013-07-01

    to investigate whether and how Chinese pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. a descriptive, cross-sectional design using a waiting-room questionnaire was employed to obtain information from Chinese pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Guangzhou, mainland China from September to October in 2011. a total of 335 Chinese women pregnant at least 32 weeks participated in the study with the response rate 85%. the great majority of the women (91.9%) had access to the Internet. Most of them (88.7%) used it to retrieve health information and began from the beginning of the pregnancy. Fetal development and nutrition in pregnancy were the two most often mentioned topics of interest. More than half of the women regarded the information as reliable. The first most important criterion for judging the trustworthiness of web-based information was if the facts were consistent with information from other sources; the second most important criterion was if references were provided. Most (75.1%) of the women did not discuss the information they retrieved from the Internet with their health professionals. the Internet was a common source for pregnancy related information among Chinese pregnant women, the same as that in the western countries. Health professionals should be able to guide Chinese pregnant women to high-quality, web-based information and then take the opportunity to discuss this information with them during antenatal visits, consultations and childbirth education classes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Political Public Relations − Media and Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Zoran; Grbavac, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Political public relations, as one of the PR programmes, has slowly created strategies and tactics for communication with the public and the media. Media management and information management are the most important activities of the political public relations. These activities are frequently connected with non-ethical communication, whose aim is media manipulation and manipulation of the public. Media manipulation is well known as communication spin. These activities are created by governm...

  5. Questions related to Bitcoin and other Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    A collection of questions about Bitcoin and its hypothetical relatives Bitguilder and Bitpenny is formulated. These questions concern technical issues about protocols, security issues, issues about the formalizations of informational monies in various contexts, and issues about forms of use and

  6. Relation between entropy functional of Keizer and information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidkin, E.S.; Nettleton, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    An equation given by Keizer which relates the second-order functional derivative of the steady-state entropy to the inverse fluctuation correlation function is satisified by the information-theoretic entropy if the equation is extended to arbitrary nonequilibrium states

  7. 36 CFR 1256.60 - Information relating to financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial institutions. 1256.60 Section 1256.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... General Restrictions § 1256.60 Information relating to financial institutions. (a) In accordance with 5 U... regulation or supervision of financial institutions. (b) The Archivist of the United States may determine...

  8. Consequences of information technology usage on retailer-supplier relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    1. Retailers and suppliers increasingly tend to form long-term co-operative relationships. In the literature, the use of information technology is an enabling factor behind this trend. Nevertheless, our understanding of how information technology influences retailer-supplier relationships is still...... limited. The purpose of this paper therefore is to study the consequences of information technology usage on retailer supplier relationships, focusing on inter-organisational systems. 2. The paper begins by discussing the nature of retailer-supplier relations, noting that whereas these relationships have...... traditionally been adversarial, retailers and suppliers are beginning to realise that they can benefit from co-operating. Further, developmental processes in co-operative inter-organisational relations are discussed and the important role of social exchange in inter-organisational relationships is stressed. 3...

  9. Relative quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David S Y; Willicombe, Anita; Reid, Thomas D; Beaton, Ceri; Arnold, David; Ward, James; Davies, I Llion; Lewis, Wyn G

    2012-12-01

    Internet-derived health care information is increasingly accessed by patients, yet its quality and accuracy is variable and unregulated. The aim of this study was to assess the information available regarding common gastrointestinal cancers via three internet search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing). The top 30 websites for each of the terms: oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colon and rectal cancer were evaluated (University of Michigan Consumer Health Website Checklist) and scored [-80 (poor) to 90 (excellent)]. The median score was 53 (-7 to 81) and was significantly higher for oesophageal (61) and pancreatic (65) cancer websites, compared with gastric (49), colon (48) and rectal cancer (50) (p = 0.014). Median scores related to charitable organisations were significantly better than academic, commercial, news agency, care provider, layperson and medical information websites collectively (79 vs. 42, p < 0.0001). Overall quality of internet-derived gastrointestinal cancer information remains poor and patients and clinicians should be aware.

  10. Physician's emerging roles relating to trends in health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Johnson, J

    2014-08-12

    Objective: To determine the new roles that physicians will adopt in the near future to adjust to accelerating trends from managed care to outcome-based practice to health care reform to health information technology to the evolving role of health consumers. Methods: Trends and related developments concerning the changing roles of physicians based on prior literature reviews. Results: Six possible roles, traditional, gatekeeper, coach, navigator, informatician and one voice among many, are discussed in terms of physician's centrality, patient autonomy, decision-making and uncertainty, information seeking, satisfaction and outcomes, particularly those related to compliance. Conclusion: A greater understanding of these emerging roles could lead to more efficacious outcomes in our ever changing, increasingly complex medical system. Patients often have little understanding of emerging trends that lead to the development of specialized roles such as hospitalist and navigators and, relatedly, the evolving roles of physicians.

  11. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, Aaran; Gerada, Chris; Brown, Neil; Clare, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels. - Highlights: • A range of structural steels had their

  12. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Aaran, E-mail: aaran.sumner@nottingham.ac.uk [University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom); Gerada, Chris, E-mail: chris.gerada@nottingham.ac.uk [Electrical Machines, University of Nottingham, Tower Building, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom); Brown, Neil, E-mail: neil.brown@cummins.com [Advanced Electrical Machines Research and Technology at Cummins Power Generation, Peterborough PE2 6FZ, England (United Kingdom); Clare, Adam, E-mail: adam.clare@nottingham.ac.uk [Advanced Manufacturing, University of Nottingham, University Park Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels. - Highlights: • A range of structural steels had their

  13. Some applications of uncertainty relations in quantum information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, A. S.; Pramanik, T.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss some applications of various versions of uncertainty relations for both discrete and continuous variables in the context of quantum information theory. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation enables demonstration of the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox. Entropic uncertainty relations (EURs) are used to reveal quantum steering for non-Gaussian continuous variable states. EURs for discrete variables are studied in the context of quantum memory where fine-graining yields the optimum lower bound of uncertainty. The fine-grained uncertainty relation is used to obtain connections between uncertainty and the nonlocality of retrieval games for bipartite and tripartite systems. The Robertson-Schrödinger (RS) uncertainty relation is applied for distinguishing pure and mixed states of discrete variables.

  14. Permeability-Porosity Relationships of Subduction Zone Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, K.; Screaton, E.; Bekins, B.; Aiello, I.

    2008-12-01

    Permeability-porosity relationships for sediments from Northern Barbados, Costa Rica, Nankai, and Peru subduction zones were examined based on their sediment type and grain size distribution. Greater correlation was observed between permeability and porosity for siliciclastic sediments, diatom oozes, and nannofossil chalk than for nannofossil oozes. For siliciclastic sediments, grouping of sediments by clay content yields relationships that are generally consistent with results from other marine settings and suggest decreasing permeability for a given porosity as clay content increases. Correction of measured porosities for smectite content generally improves the quality of permeability-porosity relationships. The relationship between permeability and porosity for diatom oozes may be controlled by the amount of clay present in the ooze, causing diatom oozes to behave similarly to siliciclastic sediments. For a given porosity the nannofossil oozes have higher permeability values by 1.5 orders of magnitude than the siliciclastic sediments. However, the use of a permeability-porosity relation may not be appropriate for unconsolidated carbonates such as nannofossil oozes. This study provided insight to the effects of porosity correction for smectite, variations in lithology and grain size in permeability-porosity relationships. However, further progress in delineating controls on permeability will require more careful and better documented permeability tests on characterized samples.

  15. Wave transmission over permeable submerged breakwaters; Transmision del oleaje en rompeolas sumergidos permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-y-Zurvia-Flores, Jaime Roberto; Fragoso-Sandoval, Lucio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional(Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The permeable submerged breakwaters represent a coastal protection alternative, where some degree of wave energy transmission is acceptable. Such would be the case of tourist beach protection in Mexico. In previous researches, like those performed by D'Angremond et al. (1996), Seabrook and Hall (1998), and Briganti et al. (2003), the empirical formulas developed, give only some limited information over the spatial distribution of wave energy over the structure. Therefore, a decision was made to conduct a study on a reduced physical model of a permeable submerged breakwater based on the results presented by those researchers and with possible applications. Therefore this paper presents the development of a study of wave transmission over permeable submerged breakwaters performed in a reduced physical model of different sections of a submerged rockfill breakwater of the trapezoidal type. This was done in a narrow wave flume with a hydraulic irregular wave generator controlled by a computer that was used to generate and to reproduce different types of irregular waves to be used in the tests. It also has a wave meter with four sensors, and they are connected to a computer in order to process the wave data. The main objective of the study was to determine in an experimental way the influence of the several parameters of submerged breakwater over the wave transmission coefficient. Our experimental results were comparable to those obtained by D'Angremond et al. (1996) and Seabrook and Hall (1998). The results show that the sumerged breakwater parameters of most influence over the wave transmission coefficient were relative submergence and the relative width crest of the sumerged breakwater, and that the formula by Seabrook and Hall correlates best with our results. [Spanish] Los rompeolas sumergidos permeables representan actualmente una alternativa de proteccion de costas, donde un cierto grado de transmision de energia del oleaje es aceptable, como seria el

  16. Smoking cessation: Exploration of perceived technology-related information value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; McHaney, Roger; Hirak, Eyal; Merker, Ben

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a unique approach to information transfer affecting the perceived value of this information and related impact on smoker behavior. Data were collected via survey, sampling approximately 120 participants. An online survey tool was used for the survey creation, data collection and monitoring. Another online tool was used by participants to create short animation videos as a means of increasing their engagement with information in an experiential fashion. Study findings included that the process experienced by the test group was influential and facilitated participants' change of mind regarding enrollment in a smoking cessation workshop. This was partly attributable to the IKEA effect. The study provides evidence that a change in habits crucial to improve health and enhance positive lifestyle choices can be stimulated through active engagement with artifact creation in a technology-mediated environment.

  17. Fisher information, kinetic energy and uncertainty relation inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong

    2002-01-01

    By interpolating between Fisher information and mechanical kinetic energy, we introduce a general notion of kinetic energy with respect to a parameter of Schroedinger wavefunctions from a statistical inference perspective. Kinetic energy is the sum of Fisher information and an integral of a parametrized analogue of quantum mechanical current density related to phase. A family of integral inequalities concerning kinetic energy and moments are established, among which the Cramer-Rao inequality and the Weyl-Heisenberg inequality, are special cases. In particular, the integral inequalities involving the negative order moments are relevant to the study of electron systems. Moreover, by specifying the parameter to a scale, we obtain a family of inequalities of uncertainty relation type which incorporate the position and momentum observables symmetrically in a single quantity. (author)

  18. RANKING RELATIONS USING ANALOGIES IN BIOLOGICAL AND INFORMATION NETWORKS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo; Heller, Katherine; Ghahramani, Zoubin; Airoldi, Edoardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning depends fundamentally on the ability to learn and generalize about relations between objects. We develop an approach to relational learning which, given a set of pairs of objects S = {A(1) : B(1), A(2) : B(2), …, A(N) : B(N)}, measures how well other pairs A : B fit in with the set S. Our work addresses the following question: is the relation between objects A and B analogous to those relations found in S? Such questions are particularly relevant in information retrieval, where an investigator might want to search for analogous pairs of objects that match the query set of interest. There are many ways in which objects can be related, making the task of measuring analogies very challenging. Our approach combines a similarity measure on function spaces with Bayesian analysis to produce a ranking. It requires data containing features of the objects of interest and a link matrix specifying which relationships exist; no further attributes of such relationships are necessary. We illustrate the potential of our method on text analysis and information networks. An application on discovering functional interactions between pairs of proteins is discussed in detail, where we show that our approach can work in practice even if a small set of protein pairs is provided. PMID:24587838

  19. Integration of information and communication technologies in special relativity teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Remi; Fleck, Sonia; Perries, Stephane; Ray, Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in special relativity teaching may bring multiple and complementary methods for introducing either difficult or abstract counterintuitive concepts. This paper describes multimedia content developed at Lyon University to enhance the learning process of undergraduate students. Two categories of animated scenarios have been identified: real experiments and thought experiments. Both typical examples of these scenarios and their impacts on the teaching process are discussed

  20. Study on road surface source pollution controlled by permeable pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2018-06-01

    The increase of impermeable pavement in urban construction not only increases the runoff of the pavement, but also produces a large number of Non-Point Source Pollution. In the process of controlling road surface runoff by permeable pavement, a large number of particulate matter will be withheld when rainwater is being infiltrated, so as to control the source pollution at the source. In this experiment, we determined the effect of permeable road surface to remove heavy pollutants in the laboratory and discussed the related factors that affect the non-point pollution of permeable pavement, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the application of permeable pavement.

  1. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: information to customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    This volume relates primarily to Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3, and deals with the content and methods of providing rate and conservation information to customers when Time-of-Day rates are used. Information to customers in the Demonstration and Pilot Projects fell mainly into four categories: administrative communications; explanations of new rate structures; information and advice on load management; and facts, recommendations and encouragements about energy conservation and end-use improvement. Administrative communications were about such matters as the existence of Projects, their funding, their periods of performance, the selection of their test customers, conditions of participation, procedural changes during the tests, and the time and conditions of ending the tests. These communications were important to good customer cooperation. All Demonstration Projects devoted considerable effort to the crucial task of clearly explaining the rationale of Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing and the test rate structures. The Projects then presented the concept of TOU pricing as a means of (a) fairly charging customers the true cost of their electricity and (b) rewarding them for shifting consumption to times when costs are less. For the most part, Demonstration Projects gave specific information on the individual customer's own rate structure and none on any others that were under test. The information was presented in face-to-face interviews, group presentations, television, radio, and print media, and traveling exhibits. The results are evaluated. (LCL)

  2. Application of relative permeability modifier additives to reduce water production in different formations; Aplicacao de aditivos modificadores de permeabilidade relativa para reducao da producao de agua em diferentes formacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ricardo C.B.; Torres, Ricardo S.; Pedrosa Junior, Helio; Dean, Gregory [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Today most oil companies would be better described as water companies. Total worldwide oil production averages some 75 million barrels per day and, while estimates vary, this is associated with the production of 300 - 400 million barrels of water per day. These values of approximately 5 - 6 barrels of water for every barrel of oil are quite conservative. In the United States, where many fields are depleted, the ratio of water-to-oil production is closer to 9 to 1. In some areas around the world, fields remain on production when the ratio is as high as 48 to 1. Numerous strategies, both mechanical and chemical, have been employed over the years in attempts to achieve reduction in water production. Simple shut-off techniques, using cement, mechanical plugs and cross-linked gels have been widely used. Exotic materials such as DPR (disproportionate permeability reducers) and or new generation of relative permeability modifiers (RPM) have been applied in radial treatments with varying degrees of success. Most recently 'Conformance Fracturing' operations have increased substantially in mature fields as the synergistic effect obtained by adding a RPM to a fracturing fluid have produced increased oil production with reduced water cut in one step, consequently eliminating the cost of additional water shut off treatment later on. This paper presents laboratory testing and worldwide case histories of applications of various RPM materials, at different permeability and temperatures. The paper also describes technical design and operational methodology that we believe to have a significant impact in the development strategies of many fields worldwide. (author)

  3. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  4. Factors Related to Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil SEYREK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction of employees in any type of organization is important both for the employee and for the organization he/she works for. There are several factors researchers studied that are related to employee satisfaction. Even though there are several common factors for the job satisfaction of employees, there can be differences based on the personal and job characteristics. Information Technology (IT workers are important for current information economy and therefore factors related to their job satisfaction is an important research topic. In this study, based on survey data collected from 455 IT workers from different industries, the factors related to IT worker job satisfaction are investigated. As a result of analyses, it was found that demographic factors like gender, sector (public vs. private, work experience, and wage are not related to the job satisfaction of the worker. On the other hand, the results show that feel of belonging, feel of acceptance, job autonomy, burnout, role clarity and fairness of rewards are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  5. Information needs related to extension service and community outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Robert W

    2003-06-01

    Air quality affects everyone. Some people are affected by air quality impacts, regulations, and technological developments in several ways. Stakeholders include the medical community, ecologists, government regulators, industries, technology providers, academic professionals, concerned citizens, the news media, and elected officials. Each of these groups may perceive problems and opportunities differently, but all need access to information as it is developed. The diversity and complexity of air quality problems contribute to the challenges faced by extension and outreach professionals who must communicate with stakeholders having diverse backgrounds. Gases, particulates, biological aerosols, pathogens, and odors all require expensive and relatively complex technology to measure and control. Economic constraints affect the ability of regulators and others to measure air quality, and industry and others to control it. To address these challenges, while communicating air quality research results and concepts to stakeholders, three areas of information needs are evident. (1) A basic understanding of the fundamental concepts regarding air pollutants and their measurement and control is needed by all stakeholders; the Extension Specialist, to be effective, must help people move some distance up the learning curve. (2) Each problem or set of problems must be reasonably well defined since comprehensive solution of all problems simultaneously may not be feasible; for instance, the solution of an odor problem associated with animal production may not address atmospheric effects due to ammonia emissions. (3) The integrity of the communication process must be preserved by avoiding prejudice and protectionism; although stakeholders may seek to modify information to enhance their interests, extension and outreach professionals must be willing to present unwelcome information or admit to a lack of information. A solid grounding in fundamental concepts, careful and fair problem

  6. Understanding nephro-blastomas. Information dedicated to parents and relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, S.; Carretier, J.; Delavigne, V.; Fervers, B.; Leichtnam-Dugarin, L.; Bergeron, C.; Claude, L.; Philip, T.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Coze, C.; Leclair, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information developed in this program is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and care-givers. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas is an adapted version of various scientific publications and international clinical practice guidelines, validated by oncology experts and by the Nephro-blastomas Committee of the French Society against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE). It was elaborated with the active participation of parents and other family members. It is meant to provide a basis for the explanation of the disease, to help parents asking questions, and to facilitate discussions with the health-care team. It is available from the FNCLCC (101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 PARIS, Tel. (0033)1 76 64 78 00, www.fncicc.fr). This document was validated at the end of 2005 and published in May 2006. SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guides are systematically updated when new research becomes available. Information leaflets, extracted from the handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas and published in this edition of the Cancer et Radiotherapie, describe the physiopathology

  7. Introducing diagnosis-related groups: is the information system ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis-related group (DRG) system is a classification system widely used in health managements, the foundation of which lies in the medical information system. A large effort had been made to improve the quality of discharge data before the introduction of DRGs in Beijing. We extract discharge data from 108 local hospitals spanning 4 years before and after standardization to evaluate the impact of standardization on DRG grouping performance. The data was grouped on an annual basis in accordance with Beijing's local DRG system. Proportion of ungrouped data, coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of the DRG system. Both the descriptive and regression analysis indicate a significant reduction in terms of ungrouped data and CV for expenditure, increase of RIV for expenditure and length of stay. However, when there was no intervention, that is, between 2005 and 2006 and between 2008 and 2009, changes in these indicators were all insignificant. Therefore, the standardization of discharge data did improve data quality and consequently enhanced the performance of DRGs. Developing countries with a relatively weak information infrastructure should strengthen their medical information system before the introduction of the DRG system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  9. Active intestinal drug absorption and the solubility-permeability interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Daniel; Dahan, Arik

    2018-02-15

    The solubility-permeability interplay deals with the question: what is the concomitant effect on the drug's apparent permeability when increasing the apparent solubility with a solubility-enabling formulation? The solubility and the permeability are closely related, exhibit certain interplay between them, and ongoing research throughout the past decade shows that treating the one irrespectively of the other may be insufficient. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the solubility-permeability interplay when using solubility-enabling formulations for oral lipophilic drugs, highlighting active permeability aspects. A solubility-enabling formulation may affect the permeability in opposite directions; the passive permeability may decrease as a result of the apparent solubility increase, according to the solubility-permeability tradeoff, but at the same time, certain components of the formulation may inhibit/saturate efflux transporters (when relevant), resulting in significant apparent permeability increase. In these cases, excipients with both solubilizing and e.g. P-gp inhibitory properties may lead to concomitant increase of both the solubility and the permeability. Intelligent development of such formulation will account for the simultaneous effects of the excipients' nature/concentrations on the two arms composing the overall permeability: the passive and the active arms. Overall, thorough mechanistic understanding of the various factors involved in the solubility-permeability interplay may allow developing better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby exploiting the advantages analyzed in this article, offering oral delivery solution even for BCS class IV drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to flaxseed oil and vitamin E and maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of flaxseed oil and vitamin E and maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of flaxseed oil and vitamin E. The Panel considers that the combination of flaxseed oil and vitamin E...... be drawn from these studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of flaxseed oil and vitamin E and maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function...... is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to maintain skin permeability barrier function”. The target population proposed by the applicant is healthy adults with dry and sensitive skin. Maintenance of the permeability barrier function of the skin is a beneficial physiological effect...

  11. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embeded sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging...

  12. Ground-water flow in low permeability environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    1986-01-01

    Certain geologic media are known to have small permeability; subsurface environments composed of these media and lacking well developed secondary permeability have groundwater flow sytems with many distinctive characteristics. Moreover, groundwater flow in these environments appears to influence the evolution of certain hydrologic, geologic, and geochemical systems, may affect the accumulation of pertroleum and ores, and probably has a role in the structural evolution of parts of the crust. Such environments are also important in the context of waste disposal. This review attempts to synthesize the diverse contributions of various disciplines to the problem of flow in low-permeability environments. Problems hindering analysis are enumerated together with suggested approaches to overcoming them. A common thread running through the discussion is the significance of size- and time-scale limitations of the ability to directly observe flow behavior and make measurements of parameters. These limitations have resulted in rather distinct small- and large-scale approaches to the problem. The first part of the review considers experimental investigations of low-permeability flow, including in situ testing; these are generally conducted on temporal and spatial scales which are relatively small compared with those of interest. Results from this work have provided increasingly detailed information about many aspects of the flow but leave certain questions unanswered. Recent advances in laboratory and in situ testing techniques have permitted measurements of permeability and storage properties in progressively “tighter” media and investigation of transient flow under these conditions. However, very large hydraulic gradients are still required for the tests; an observational gap exists for typical in situ gradients. The applicability of Darcy's law in this range is therefore untested, although claims of observed non-Darcian behavior appear flawed. Two important nonhydraulic

  13. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.

  14. Searching for suicide-related information on Chinese websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Cheng, Qijin; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2017-12-01

    Growing concerns about cyber-suicide have prompted many studies on suicide information available on the web. However, very few studies have considered non-English websites. We aimed to analyze online suicide-related information accessed through Chinese-language websites. We used Taiwan's two most popular search engines (Google and Yahoo) to explore the results returned from six suicide-related search terms in March 2016. The first three pages listing the results from each search were analyzed and rated based on the attitude towards suicide (pro-suicide, anti-suicide, neutral/mixed, not a suicide site, or error). Comparisons across different search terms were also performed. In all, 375 linked webpages were included; 16.3% of the webpages were pro-suicide and 41.3% were anti-suicide. The majority of the pro-suicide sites were user-generated webpages (96.7%). Searches using the keywords 'ways to kill yourself' (31.7%) and 'painless suicide' (28.3%) generated much larger numbers of harmful webpages than the term 'suicide' (4.3%). We conclude that collaborative efforts with internet service providers and search engines to improve the ranking of anti-suicide webpages and websites and implement online suicide reporting guidelines are highly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  16. Hellmann–Feynman connection for the relative Fisher information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, R.C., E-mail: ravi@systemsresearchcorp.com [Systems Research Corporation, Aundh, Pune 411007 (India); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [IFLP, National University La Plata & National Research (CONICET) C. C., 727 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    The (i) reciprocity relations for the relative Fisher information (RFI, hereafter) and (ii) a generalized RFI–Euler theorem are self-consistently derived from the Hellmann–Feynman theorem. These new reciprocity relations generalize the RFI–Euler theorem and constitute the basis for building up a mathematical Legendre transform structure (LTS, hereafter), akin to that of thermodynamics, that underlies the RFI scenario. This demonstrates the possibility of translating the entire mathematical structure of thermodynamics into a RFI-based theoretical framework. Virial theorems play a prominent role in this endeavor, as a Schrödinger-like equation can be associated to the RFI. Lagrange multipliers are determined invoking the RFI–LTS link and the quantum mechanical virial theorem. An appropriate ansatz allows for the inference of probability density functions (pdf’s, hereafter) and energy-eigenvalues of the above mentioned Schrödinger-like equation. The energy-eigenvalues obtained here via inference are benchmarked against established theoretical and numerical results. A principled theoretical basis to reconstruct the RFI-framework from the FIM framework is established. Numerical examples for exemplary cases are provided. - Highlights: • Legendre transform structure for the RFI is obtained with the Hellmann–Feynman theorem. • Inference of the energy-eigenvalues of the SWE-like equation for the RFI is accomplished. • Basis for reconstruction of the RFI framework from the FIM-case is established. • Substantial qualitative and quantitative distinctions with prior studies are discussed.

  17. Relations between information and communication technologies and international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the topic of the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on the international migration phenomenon According to the discussed literature, there is an impression that ICTs change the essence of migration and monitoring of migration flows. It also suggests that migration and migrants’ needs shape the development of ICT services intended to them, but they also shape the content of social media. The impact of new technologies on international migration (before migration, during migration and upon arrival in the country of destination has been discussed through an overview of empirical research findings in Serbia and other countries. In this context, the ICT users relevant to the migration process (individuals and interest groups have been more closely determined and discussed, the aspects of the relations between ICTs and migration have been highlighted, as well as their implications for individuals and society. The considered aspects of relations of ICTs and international migration at different stages of the migration process and their severe implications for individuals and society, in our opinion, point to the need for cooperation of users of information and communication technologies relevant to the migration process in different domains ‒ the spheres of influence of ICTs. We believe that is how the potential of ICTs will be exploited in an adequate way, for benefit of both ‒ migrants and other relevant interested parties. While widely accepted by individuals, information and communication technologies have just begun to be recognized as important for migration policy in Serbia and generally, in terms of their opportunities and challenges. In Serbia, only recently (as of the 2011 Census there has been data available on the use of ICTs by certain migrant groups (long-term settled refugees from former Yugoslav republics. Also, the qualitative surveys on the use of ICTs during the migration by transit

  18. Effect of permeability enhancers on paracellular permeability of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Muge; Kaynak, Mustafa Sinan; Sahin, Selma

    2016-06-01

    According to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), acyclovir is a class III (high solubility, low permeability) compound, and it is transported through paracellular route by passive diffusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various pharmaceutical excipients on the intestinal permeability of acyclovir. The single-pass in-situ intestinal perfusion (SPIP) method was used to estimate the permeability values of acyclovir and metoprolol across different intestinal segments (jejunum, ileum and colon). Permeability coefficient (Peff ) of acyclovir was determined in the absence and presence of a permeation enhancer such as dimethyl β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium caprate (Cap-Na) and chitosan chloride. All enhancers increased the permeability of paracellularly transported acyclovir. Although Cap-Na has the highest permeability-enhancing effect in all segments, permeation-enhancing effect of chitosan and SLS was only significant in ileum. On the other hand, DM-β-CD slightly decreased the permeability in all intestinal segments. These findings have potential implication concerning the enhancement of absorption of paracellularly transported compounds with limited oral bioavailability. In the case of acyclovir, Cap-Na either alone or in combination with SLS or chitosan has the potential to improve its absorption and bioavailability and has yet to be explored. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Matrix injection of relative permeability modifier for water control applied in Brazil basins; Injecao matricial de modificadores de permeabilidade relativa para controle de producao de agua aplicado nas bacias petroliferas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Flavio; Stefan, Rodolfo; Mendonca, Paulo; Ferreira, Antonio; Silva, Charles; Fonseca, Ana Isoila [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Macae, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Ricardo C.B. [BJ Services Company Africa Ltd., Angola (Angola)

    2008-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges for the oil industry, even at the beginning of well's production, and principally when the well is producing, is how to reduce and handling the produced water on this process. A conservative estimation says for each barrel of produced oil you have 5 or 6 barrels of formation's water. Some factors must be considerable to establish and maintain a carefully management of this effluent, for example the volume of produced water, which is always growing due to the reservoir maturation and for the secondary recovery process; salt content; residual oil and chemical products presence. Water production is the cause of several problems on wells, like scales, organic deposits or starting the process of formation's sand production induced by fines migration. As a consequence, a cost increment of production is observed due to hydrocarbon/water separation and destination of produced water. The same way, is extremely expensive to manage the even bigger volume, which demands efforts to re-inject the water, treatment which avoid or minimize possible environment impacts, development of new equipment and materials which helps and resists to the effects of produced water. Not inherent reservoir's cause can be several, like bad isolated water zones by cement fail, wrong determination of perforated interval, which is easier to use aid methods. When the water production is directly associated to reservoir, by conning, channeling and/or fingering, generally associated to mobility difference between water and oil, the nowadays most efficient treatment is the injection of relative permeability modifier. This paper will present techniques and results obtained with matrix injection in some fields by the use of the last generation of RPM (relative permeability modifier). (author)

  20. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, P.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Doumont, C.; Mared, A.

    2000-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  1. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, B.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Mared, A.

    2001-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-Engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can then be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  2. A Reconciliation of Packed Column Permeability Data: Column Permeability as a Function of Particle Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert M. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his textbook teaching of packed bed permeability, Georges Guiochon uses mobile phase velocity as the fluid velocity term in his elaboration of the Darcy permeability equation. Although this velocity frame makes a lot of sense from a thermodynamic point of view, it is valid only with respect to permeability at a single theoretical boundary condition. In his more recent writings, however, Guiochon has departed from his long-standing mode of discussing permeability in terms of the Darcy equation and has embraced the well-known Kozeny-Blake equation. In this paper, his teaching pertaining to the constant in the Kozeny-Blake equation is examined and, as a result, a new correlation coefficient is identified and defined herein based on the velocity frame used in his teaching. This coefficient correlates pressure drop and fluid velocity as a function of particle porosity. We show that in their experimental protocols, Guiochon et al. have not adhered to a strict material balance of permeability which creates a mismatch of particle porosity and leads to erroneous conclusions regarding the value of the permeability coefficient in the Kozeny-Blake equation. By correcting the experimental data to properly reflect particle porosity we reconcile the experimental results of Guiochon and Giddings, resulting in a permeability reference chart which is presented here for the first time. This reference chart demonstrates that Guiochon’s experimental data, when properly normalized for particle porosity and other related discrepancies, corroborates the value of 267 for the constant in the Kozeny-Blake equation which was derived by Giddings in 1965.

  3. A method for investigating relative timing information on phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Daniel; Matsen, Frederick A; Stadler, Tanja

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new way to describe the timing of branching events in phylogenetic trees. Our description is in terms of the relative timing of diversification events between sister clades; as such it is complementary to existing methods using lineages-through-time plots which consider diversification in aggregate. The method can be applied to look for evidence of diversification happening in lineage-specific "bursts", or the opposite, where diversification between 2 clades happens in an unusually regular fashion. In order to be able to distinguish interesting events from stochasticity, we discuss 2 classes of neutral models on trees with relative timing information and develop a statistical framework for testing these models. These model classes include both the coalescent with ancestral population size variation and global rate speciation-extinction models. We end the paper with 2 example applications: first, we show that the evolution of the hepatitis C virus deviates from the coalescent with arbitrary population size. Second, we analyze a large tree of ants, demonstrating that a period of elevated diversification rates does not appear to have occurred in a bursting manner.

  4. TRADE EFFECTS: REGULATORY, ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND REPORTING OF INFORMATION RELATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARISTIŢA ROTILĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that within trade relations providers often credit customers for the value of goods or services which are the subject of conducted commercial transactions, this aspect being materialized in the issuance and acceptance of a trade effect. From the time of acceptance until maturity / settlement, trade effects should be reflected separately in the accounts and, to the extent that were not settled until the end of exercise, their value must be presented in the financial statements. Based on analysis of the Romanian accounting regulations, also taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specific literature concerning accounting reflection of trade effects, in this article we try to point out some aspects which, in our opinion, require clarification. We also want to point out some contradictions / inconsistencies regarding the reporting of information on the trade effects, specifically between the text of accounting regulations concerning the definition of accounting structures „cash and bank accounts” and “short term investments” and their contents when presented as positions in the balance sheet structure. In relation to the issues raised we try to prove the effects on the indicators concerning financial position and to make some suggestions that would have effects on Romanian accounting regulations, namely the improvement of financial reporting performed by the economic operators.

  5. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  6. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  7. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B; Ahlers, M

    2008-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation

  8. Mathematical Model to Predict the Permeability of Water Transport in Concrete Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Ndubuisi Eluozo

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical model to predict the permeability of water transport in concrete has been established, the model is to monitor the rate of water transport in concrete structure. The process of this water transport is based on the constituent in the mixture of concrete. Permeability established a relation on the influence of the micropores on the constituent that made of concrete, the method of concrete placement determine the rate of permeability deposition in concrete structure, permeability es...

  9. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MODERN LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY FOR SOIL MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Veinović, Želimir; Kovačević-Zelić, Biljana; Kvasnička, Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory de...

  10. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Borst, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary School, on Fort Riley, Kansas was selected for this study. An 80-space parking lot was built behind the school as part of an EPA collaboration with the U.S. Army. The parking lot design includes a permeable interlocking concrete pavement section along the downgradient edge. This study monitored the clogging progress of the pavement section using twelve water content reflectometers and three buried tipping bucket rain gauges. This clogging dynamic investigation was divided into three stages namely pre-clogged, transitional, and clogged. Recorded initial relative water content of all three stages were significantly and negatively correlated to antecedent dry weather periods with stronger correlations during clogged conditions. The peak relative water content correlation with peak rainfall 10-min intensity was significant for the water content reflectometers located on the western edge away from the eastern edge; this correlation was strongest during transition stage. Once clogged, rainfall measurements no longer correlated with the buried tipping bucket rain gauges. Both water content reflectometers and buried tipping bucket rain gauges showed the progress of surface clogging. For every 6 mm of rain, clogging advanced 1 mm across the surface. The results generally support the hypothesis that the clogging progresses from the upgradient to the downgradient edge. The magnitude of the contributing drainage area and rainfall characteristics are effective factors on rate and progression of clogging.

  11. Mechanisms for integration of information models across related domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rob

    2010-05-01

    It is well recognised that there are opportunities and challenges in cross-disciplinary data integration. A significant barrier, however, is creating a conceptual model of the combined domains and the area of integration. For example, a groundwater domain application may require information from several related domains: geology, hydrology, water policy, etc. Each domain may have its own data holdings and conceptual models, but these will share various common concepts (eg. The concept of an aquifer). These areas of semantic overlap present significant challenges, firstly to choose a single representation (model) of a concept that appears in multiple disparate models,, then to harmonise these other models with the single representation. In addition, models may exist at different levels of abstraction depending on how closely aligned they are with a particular implementation. This makes it hard for modellers in one domain to introduce elements from another domain without either introducing a specific style of implementation, or conversely dealing with a set of abstract patterns that are hard to integrate with existing implementations. Models are easier to integrate if they are broken down into small units, with common concepts implemented using common models from well-known, and predictably managed shared libraries. This vision however requires development of a set of mechanisms (tools and procedures) for implementing and exploiting libraries of model components. These mechanisms need to handle publication, discovery, subscription, versioning and implementation of models in different forms. In this presentation a coherent suite of such mechanisms is proposed, using a scenario based on re-use of geosciences models. This approach forms the basis of a comprehensive strategy to empower domain modellers to create more interoperable systems. The strategy address a range of concerns and practice, and includes methodologies, an accessible toolkit, improvements to available

  12. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  13. Permeability of cork to gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  14. Inferring facts from fiction: reading correct and incorrect information affects memory for related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Dennis, Nancy A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2012-07-01

    People can acquire both true and false knowledge about the world from fictional stories. The present study explored whether the benefits and costs of learning about the world from fictional stories extend beyond memory for directly stated pieces of information. Of interest was whether readers would use correct and incorrect story references to make deductive inferences about related information in the story, and then integrate those inferences into their knowledge bases. Participants read stories containing correct, neutral, and misleading references to facts about the world; each reference could be combined with another reference that occurred in a later sentence to make a deductive inference. Later they answered general knowledge questions that tested for these deductive inferences. The results showed that participants generated and retained the deductive inferences regardless of whether the inferences were consistent or inconsistent with world knowledge, and irrespective of whether the references were placed consecutively in the text or separated by many sentences. Readers learn more than what is directly stated in stories; they use references to the real world to make both correct and incorrect inferences that are integrated into their knowledge bases.

  15. Effect of confining pressure on permeability behavior of Beishan granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Like; Li Yunfeng; Zhao Xingguang; Tan Guohuan

    2012-01-01

    By using of the Electro-Hydraulic Servo-controlled Rock Mechanics Testing System (MTS 815.04) in the University of Hong Kong, a series of permeability tests were performed on specimens of Beishan granite at different confining pressures. The result indicates that: (1) there is a decrease of permeability due to progressive closure of initial microcracks and the corresponding volumetric strain is compressive when the confining pressures increase from 2.5 MPa to 15 MPa, (2) when the confining pressures decrease from 15 MPa to 2.5 MPa, there is an increase of permeability in this stage in relation with the volumetric dilation. (authors)

  16. Information Competencies for Chemistry Undergraduates and Related Collaborative Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marion C.

    2014-01-01

    "Information Competencies for Chemistry Undergraduates: The Elements of Information Literacy", (2012-) now in its second edition and available as a Wikibook since 2012, resulted from collaboration by chemistry librarians participating in several professional organizations. Sections covering a) the library and scientific literature and b)…

  17. Diabetes-related information-seeking behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Silke; Schiereck, Tim; Grobosch, Sandra; Paduch, Andrea; Droste, Sigrid; Halbach, Sarah; Icks, Andrea

    2017-10-24

    Information-seeking behaviour is necessary to improve knowledge on diabetes therapy and complications. Combined with other self-management skills and autonomous handling of the disease, it is essential for achieving treatment targets. However, a systematic review addressing this topic is lacking. The aims of this systematic review were to identify and analyse existing knowledge of information-seeking behaviour: (1) types information-seeking behaviour, (2) information sources, (3) the content of searched information, and (4) associated variables that may affect information-seeking behaviour. The systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) requirements. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CCMed, ERIC, Journals@OVID, Deutsches Ärzteblatt and Karlsruher virtueller Katalog (KvK) databases were searched. Publications dealing with information-seeking behaviour of people with diabetes mellitus published up to June 2015 were included. A forward citation tracking was performed in September 2016 and June 2017. Additionally, an update of the two main databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL) was conducted, considering studies published up to July 2017. Studies published in languages other than English or German were excluded, as well as letters, short reports, editorials, comments and discussion papers. A study selection and the critical appraisal of the selected studies were performed independently by two reviewers. A third reviewer was consulted if any disagreement was found. Data extraction and content analysis were performed using selected dimensions of Wilson's 'model of information behaviour'. Twenty-six studies were included. Five 'types of information-seeking behaviour' were identified, e.g. passive and active search. The 'Internet' and 'healthcare professionals' were the most frequently reported sources. 'Diet', 'complications', 'exercise' and 'medications and

  18. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BODNER, SOL R.; CHAN, KWAI S.; MUNSON, DARRELL E.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering

  19. Compression characteristics and permeability of saturated Gaomiaozi ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjing; Sun De'an; Fang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The compression characteristics and permeability of compacted Gaomiaozi Ca-bentonite saturated by the water uptake tests are studied by conducting a series of one-dimension compression tests. The permeability coefficient can be calculated by the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory after the consolidation coefficient is obtained by the square root of time method. It is found that the compression curves of compacted specimens saturated by the water uptake tests tend to be consistent in the relatively high stress range. The compression indexes show a linear decrease with increasing dry density and the swelling index is a constant. The permeability coefficient decreases with increasing compression stress, and they show the linear relationship in double logarithmic coordinates. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient shows a linear decrease with decreasing void ratio, which has no relationship with initial states, stress states and stress paths. The permeability coefficient k of GMZ Ca-bentonite at dry density Pd of 1.75 g/cm 3 can be calculated as 2.0 × 10 -11 cm/s by the linear relationship between Pd and log k. It is closed to the permeability coefficient of GMZ Ca-bentonite with the same dry density published in literature, which testifies that the method calculating the permeability coefficient is feasible from the consolidation coefficient obtained by the consolidation test. (authors)

  20. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  1. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of profile pages by adolescents to get to know more about offline friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social network sites are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online profiles are meaningful in gathering information on these 'offline' friends and acquai...

  2. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about “offline” friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and...

  3. Sexual health-related information delivery - are patient information leaflets still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rick; Chung, Charles; Townsend, Amanda; Power, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Background Patient information leaflets (PILs) are widely utilised within publically funded sexual health clinics to deliver sexual health-related information (SHRI); however, their continued value to clients in the era of social media is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate clients' opinions on three newly developed PILs and examine client views on other forms of SHRI delivery. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients attending the Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC) in 2012. High-risk population (HRP) vs non-high-risk population (non-HRP) views on PILs vs alternative methods of SHRI delivery were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, McNemar and χ(2) tests. Over half (210/315; (67%)) of the consecutive clients from a culturally diverse population completed the survey. Sex workers (SW) and young people (YP) were significantly likely to have a high school education than non-HRP (PInformation Link (SHIL), a state-wide website and telephone line, were ranked significantly higher as a means of SHRI delivery on a Likert scale than newer technologies including Facebook (P<0.001), email (P<0.001), mobile phone applications (P<0.001), TVs in waiting rooms (P<0.001) and business cards (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in opinion between HRP and non-HRP. This study provides evidence for the ongoing use of PILs to deliver SHRI to clinic attendees, in conjunction with other forms of SHRI delivery such as websites and SHIL. Novel methods may require additional consumer engagement and a greater understanding of specific population's needs.

  4. Coping with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Engaging with Information to Inform Health-Related Decision Making in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Gayle J; Simms, Alexandria M; Walker, John R; Haviva, Clove; Graff, Lesley A; Sexton, Kathryn A; Miller, Norine; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N

    2017-08-01

    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require disease and lifestyle information to make health-related decisions in their daily lives. Derived from a larger qualitative study of the lived experiences of people with IBD, we report on findings that explored how people with IBD engage with health-related information in their daily lives. Participants were recruited primarily from the Manitoba IBD Cohort Study. We used purposive sampling to select people with a breadth of characteristics and experiences. Individual interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods consistent with a phenomenological approach. Forty-five people with IBD participated; 51% were women. Findings highlighted the temporal and contextual influences on engagement with health-related information. Temporal influences were described as the changing need for health-related information over time. Participants identified 6 contextual factors influencing engagement with information to make health decisions: (1) emotional and attitudinal responses, (2) perceived benefits and risks, (3) trust in the source of the information, (4) knowledge and skills to access and use information, (5) availability of evidence to support decisions, and (6) social and economic environments. Findings illustrate the changing needs for health-related information over the course of IBD, and with evolving health and life circumstances. Practitioners can be responsive to information needs of people with IBD by having high-quality information available at the right time in a variety of formats and by supporting the incorporation of information in daily life.

  5. Bentonite Permeability at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repository designs frequently favour geological disposal of radioactive waste with a backfill material occupying void space around the waste. The backfill material must tolerate the high temperatures produced by decaying radioactive waste to prevent its failure or degradation, leading to increased hydraulic conductivity and reduced sealing performance. The results of four experiments investigating the effect of temperature on the permeability of a bentonite backfill are presented. Bentonite is a clay commonly proposed as the backfill in repository designs because of its high swelling capacity and very low permeability. The experiments were conducted in two sets of purpose-built, temperature controlled apparatus, designed to simulate isotropic pressure and constant volume conditions within the testing range of 4–6 MPa average effective stress. The response of bentonite during thermal loading at temperatures up to 200 °C was investigated, extending the previously considered temperature range. The results provide details of bentonite’s intrinsic permeability, total stress, swelling pressure and porewater pressure during thermal cycles. We find that bentonite’s hydraulic properties are sensitive to thermal loading and the type of imposed boundary condition. However, the permeability change is not large and can mostly be accounted for by water viscosity changes. Thus, under 150 °C, temperature has a minimal impact on bentonite’s hydraulic permeability.

  6. Permeability estimation from NMR diffusion measurements in reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, M; Brancolini, A; Gossenberg, P

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that in restricted geometries, such as in porous media, the apparent diffusion coefficient (D) of the fluid depends on the observation time. From the time dependence of D, interesting information can be derived to characterise geometrical features of the porous media that are relevant in oil industry applications. In particular, the permeability can be related to the surface-to-volume ratio (S/V), estimated from the short time behaviour of D(t), and to the connectivity of the pore space, which is probed by the long time behaviour of D(t). The stimulated spin-echo pulse sequence, with pulsed magnetic field gradients, has been used to measure the diffusion coefficients on various homogeneous and heterogeneous sandstone samples. It is shown that the petrophysical parameters obtained by our measurements are in good agreement with those yielded by conventional laboratory techniques (gas permeability and electrical conductivity). Although the diffusing time is limited by T1, eventually preventing an observation of the real asymptotic behaviour, and the surface-to-volume ratio measured by nuclear magnetic resonance is different from the value obtained by BET because of the different length scales probed, the measurement remains reliable and low-time consuming.

  7. Low permeability volcanics in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Canary Islands, about 2000 km to the SW of continental Spain, are fully volcanic, from mid Miocene to recent. The permeability of the formations depends very much on the age and lithology. In most instances young, pervious basalts are devoid of water due to their altitude and most water abstraction works must go into the underlaying, much less pervious, older formations. Long water galleries or large diameter wells fitted with a crown of horizontal bores are able to catch significant quantities of water from formations which permeability is less than 0.1 m/day. The anisotropic behavior of the formations, specially due to the injection of subvertical dykes parallel to the coast, explains the high hydraulic gradient found, up to 0.15, and the relative high yield of the wells and galleries. The specific yield of the volcanics is fairly high, about 0.02 to 0.05, thus allowing the use of reserves to supply the demand. Conventional finite-difference models give a sound picture of the groundwater behavior but preliminary adjustments of the hydraulic parameters need the study of simplified cross-sections. The study of the chemical characteristics of groundwater is a key factor in the understanding of groundwater flow. The discussion refers mainly to Lanzarote, Tenerife and Gran Canaria Islands, but some comment will use information from other islands. 23 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  8. Theory and test research on permeability of coal and rock body influenced by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing-xin Qi; Hong-yan Li; You-gang Wang; Zhi-gang Deng; Hang Lan; Yong-wei Peng; Chun-rui Li [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    Stress distribution rules and deformation and failure properties of coal and rock bodies influenced by mining were analyzed. Experimental research on permeability of coal and rock samples under different loading conditions was finished in the laboratory. In-situ measurement of coal permeability influenced by actual mining was done as well. Theory analysis show that permeability varied with damage development of coal and rock under stress, and the influence of fissure on permeability was greatest. Laboratory results show that under different loading conditions permeability was different and it varied with stress, which indicated that permeability was directly related to the loading process. In-situ tests showed that permeability is related to abutment stress to some degree. The above results may be referenced to gas prevention and drainage. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Issues related to the use of genetic material and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, E; Jacobs, L A

    2000-04-01

    To review issues regarding the use of genetic materials and information. Professional literature, regional and federal legislation. An analysis is provided of the relationship among advances in genetic technology, use of genetic material and information, and the development of laws that protect the interests of donors, researchers, and insurers. Rapid technological achievements have generated complex questions that are difficult to answer. The Human Genome Project began and the scientific discoveries were put to use before adequate professional and public debate on the ethical, legal, social, and clinical issues. The term "proper use" of genetic material and information is not defined consistently. An incomplete patchwork of protective state and federal legislation exists. Many complicated issues surround the use and potential misuse of genetic material and information. Rapidly advancing technology in genetics makes it difficult for regulations that protect individuals and families to keep pace. Oncology nurses need to recognize their role as change agents, understand genetic technology, and advocate for patients by participating in the debate on the proper use and prevention of misuse of genetic material and information.

  10. Improvements in or relating to information display arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blay, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    An information display arrangement for use in biomedical radiography with either X- or γ-radiation or ultrasonic waves is described. This invention overcomes the drawbacks of conventional three-dimensional displays where certain features may be partially or completely obscured from view by matter which is not of interest. This improvement is achieved by interactive means using a light pen on a cathode ray tube display to effectively draw boundaries between relevant and irrelevant features. The computerised display is then up-dated from the information store containing the transmission data. (U.K.)

  11. Designing patient-focused information: an opportunity for communicating anatomically related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darrell J R

    2008-01-01

    Literature clearly demonstrates that there has been a large increase in the time devoted to teaching oral communication skills within medical curricula worldwide. In contrast, the ability to communicate with patients through written means does not appear to be a feature in many programmes, despite its fundamental importance in creating understanding of medicine within the general population. This article investigates one way patient-centered written communication has been integrated into part of the early training years of medical students using anatomically related material as a focus. Following a series of interactive seminars and debates as part of a student-selected component, students were asked to prepare a patient-focused information leaflet on a particular birth defect. The leaflets included aspects of anatomy and embryology as well as causes of the birth defect, signs and symptoms, treatments, outlook, and support mechanisms. Evaluation of the leaflets using set marking criteria and readability indexes showed that students had successfully targeted the chosen audiences. Feedback showed that the component was rated highly by the students in terms of quality, usefulness, and interest. Students viewed sessions as an excellent forum for appreciating the importance of and developing their own effective written communication skills. It is hoped that such developments will enhance the capacity of all potential doctors to communicate more effectively with patients and colleagues in both the written and spoken form.

  12. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M.; Menko, Fred H.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties

  13. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI) : Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M.; Menko, Fred H.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties

  14. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing index patients' knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.; Aalfs, C.M.; Menko, F.H.; Sijmons, R.H.; Verdam, M.G.E.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. Purpose: This study aims to develop and test the

  15. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  16. The consequences of Edward Snowden NSA related information disclosures.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available related leaks, and discuss the reactions to these disclosures. We also explore the direct and indirect impact of these leaks. The consequences of these disclosures include strained foreign relationships, and the knowledge that mass surveillance programmes...

  17. Communications Related to Weather Information Handling and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the tasking contained in the Statement of Work and describes the results of the project. In addition, it addresses the principles, procedures, and methods of application that would be generally applicable to using the results of the project. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is involved in the Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Program, which has a goal of reducing the aircraft accident rate, by a factor of five within 10 years and by a factor of 10 within 20 years. GRC's effort concentrates on the communications means needed to disseminate effective weather data. GRC's focus in on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of weather information between airborne and ground-based users.

  18. Information Dissemination: Exploring the Librarian's Role in Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia

    Historically the special librarian's role has been to store and preserve the organization's knowledge. In today's Information Age, increasing importance is placed on information dissemination. The management of electronic resources has been an important aspect of the Gemini librarian's job since the library's inception. In this paper, I discuss the methods that the Gemini Observatory is using to share its resources with a growing audience. Note: The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  19. Transverse Chemotactic Migration of Bacteria from High to Low Permeability Regions in a Dual Permeability Porous Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Low permeability regions sandwiched between high permeability regions such as clay lenses are difficult to treat using conventional treatment methods. Trace concentrations of contaminants such as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) remain trapped in these regions and over the time diffuse out into surrounding water thereby acting as a long term source of groundwater contamination. Bacterial chemotaxis (directed migration toward a contaminant source), may be helpful in enhancing bioremediation of such contaminated sites. This study is focused on simulating a two-dimensional dual-permeability groundwater contamination scenario using microfluidic devices and evaluating transverse chemotactic migration of bacteria from high to low permeability regions. A novel bi-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device was fabricated using photolithography and soft lithography techniques to simulate contamination of a dual- permeability region due to leakage from an underground storage tank into a low permeability region. This device consists of a porous channel through which a bacterial suspension (Escherchia Coli HCB33) is flown and another channel for injecting contaminant/chemo-attractant (DL-aspertic acid) into the porous channel. The pore arrangement in the porous channel contains a 2-D low permeability region surrounded by high permeability regions on both sides. Experiments were performed under chemotactic and non-chemotactic (replacing attractant with buffer solution in the non porous channel) conditions. Images were captured in transverse pore throats at cross-sections 4.9, 9.8, and 19.6 mm downstream from the attractant injection point and bacteria were enumerated in the middle of each pore throat. Bacterial chemotaxis was quantified in terms of the change in relative bacterial counts in each pore throat at cross-sections 9.8 and 19.6 mm with respect to counts at the cross-section at 4.9 mm. Under non-chemotactic conditions, relative bacterial count was observed

  20. Characterizing Health-Related Information Needs of Domain Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Chouquet , Cécile; Latiri , Chira

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In information retrieval literature, understanding the users’ intents behind the queries is critically important to gain a better insight of how to select relevant results. While many studies investigated how users in general carry out exploratory health searches in digital environments, a few focused on how are the queries formulated, specifically by domain expert users. This study intends to fill this gap by studying 173 health expert queries issued from 3 medical in...

  1. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel R; Winkels, Renate M; Janssen, Silvie H M; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel of cancer survivors and relatives. This panel completed a survey about their experiences with nutritional information provision by healthcare professionals and the media in the period after diagnosis, their information needs regarding nutrition and cancer, and whether they changed their dietary behavior since diagnosis. The survey showed that 56% of respondents obtained nutritional information, mostly during treatment. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often reported to have altered their dietary behavior after diagnosis. This association was not altered by having information needs. The reported changes in dietary behavior were coherent with the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund: respondents reported to choose less products that promote weight gain, increased intake of plant foods, and decreased meat and alcohol use. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often changed their dietary behavior, regardless whether they had nutritional information needs. This might be an indication that healthcare professionals should provide nutritional information not only to those expressing a need for nutritional information.

  2. Modification of permeability of frog perineurium to [14C]-sucrose by stretch and hypertonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method has been developed to determine quantitatively the permeability of the perineurium to radiotracers at room temperature. The permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose of the isolated perineurium of the sciatic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, was measured at rest length, when the perineurium was stretched and after the perineurium had been subjected to hypertonic treatment. Mean permeability at rest length was calculated to be 5.6 +- 0.27 (S.E.M., n=45)x10 -7 cm/sec, and both stretch and hypertonic treatment increased the permeability. A 10% stretch increased permeability reversibly, whereas a 20% stretch or immersion of the perineurium in a hypertonic bath increased permeability irreversibly. Altered permeability under these conditions might be related to changes in the ultrastructure of tight junctions in the perineurium. (Auth.)

  3. The DELPHI distributed information system for exchanging LEP machine related information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, M.; Gaspar, C.

    1994-01-01

    An information management system was designed and implemented to interchange information between the DELPHI experiment at CERN and the monitoring/control system for the LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) accelerator. This system is distributed and communicates with many different sources and destinations (LEP) using different types of communication. The system itself communicates internally via a communication system based on a publish-and-subscribe mechanism, DIM (Distributed Information Manager). The information gathered by this system is used for on-line as well as off-line data analysis. Therefore it logs the information to a database and makes it available to operators and users via DUI (DELPHI User Interface). The latter was extended to be capable of displaying ''time-evolution'' plots. It also handles a protocol, implemented using a finite state machine, SMI (State Management Interface), for (semi-)automatic running of the Data Acquisition System and the Slow Controls System. ((orig.))

  4. A study on the water permeability of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loadsman, R.V.C.; Acres, D.H.; Stokes, C.J.; Wadeson, L.

    1988-03-01

    This report forms part of the DoE's research programme on the disposal of nuclear waste. The information available on the permeability of concrete and the effects of various factors on this value are reviewed. The effect of defects on the overall permeability of concrete structures is examined and the recorded performance of a range of existing concrete structures is considered with identification of some of the factors that are significant in practice. Deficiencies in the information available on this subject are identified and recommendations for further work are made including a list of structures suitable for future monitoring. (author)

  5. EDZ and permeability in clayey rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levasseur, Severine; Collin, Frederic; Charlier, Robert; Besuelle, Pierre; Chambon, Rene; Viggiani, Cino

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep geological layers are being considered as potential host rocks for the high level radioactivity waste disposals. During drilling in host rocks, an excavated damaged zone - EDZ is created. The fluid transmissivity may be modified in this damaged zone. This paper deals with the permeability evolution in relation with diffuse and/or localized crack propagation in the material. We mainly focus on argillaceous rocks and on some underground laboratories: Mol URL in Boom clay, Bure URL in Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Mont-Terri URL in Opalinus clay. First, observations of damage around galleries are summarized. Structure of damage in localized zone or in fracture has been observed at underground gallery scale within the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The first challenge for a correct understanding of all the processes occurring within the EDZ is the characterization at the laboratory scale of the damage and localization processes. The observation of the initiation and propagation of the localized zones needs for advanced techniques. X-ray tomography is a non-destructive imaging technique that allows quantification of internal features of an object in 3D. If mechanical loading of a specimen is applied inside a X-ray CT apparatus, successive 3D images at different loading steps show the evolution of the specimen. However, in general volumetric strain in a shear band is small compared to the shear strain and, unfortunately, in tomographic images grey level is mainly sensitive to the local mass density field. Such a limitation has been recently overcome by complementing X-ray tomography with 3D Volumetric Digital Image Correlation (V-DIC) which allows the determination of the full strain tensor field. Then it is possible to further explore the progression of localized deformation in the specimen. The second challenge is the robust modelling of the strain localized process. In fact, modelling the damage process with finite

  6. Forecast on Water Locking Damage of Low Permeable Reservoir with Quantum Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Sun, Yuxue; Feng, Fuping; Zhao, Fulei; Sui, Dianjie; Xu, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    It is of great importance in oil-gas reservoir protection to timely and correctly forecast the water locking damage, the greatest damage for low permeable reservoir. An analysis is conducted on the production mechanism and various influence factors of water locking damage, based on which a quantum neuron is constructed based on the information processing manner of a biological neuron and the principle of quantum neural algorithm, besides, the quantum neural network model forecasting the water locking of the reservoir is established and related software is also made to forecast the water locking damage of the gas reservoir. This method has overcome the defects of grey correlation analysis that requires evaluation matrix analysis and complicated operation. According to the practice in Longxi Area of Daqing Oilfield, this method is characterized by fast operation, few system parameters and high accuracy rate (the general incidence rate may reach 90%), which can provide reliable support for the protection technique of low permeable reservoir.

  7. Impact of Noncaregiving-Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2014-08-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients' needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to report the most stressful events experienced by spouse caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer s disease during a 6-month period. 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher's exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5% of the time, 1-2 stressors 25% of the time, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors reported in total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between the Most Stressful Events and depression (p = 0.016), mobility (p = 0.024) and caregiver issues (p = 0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Results can be used to develop targeted intervention and support strategies for spouse caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressorsas well as the traditional challenges with caregiving related issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  9. National Strategy for Information Sharing: Successes and Challenges in Improving Terrorism-Related Information Sharing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... While this Strategy describes the vision that has guided the Administration for the past six years, it also sets forth our plan to build upon progress and establish a more integrated information...

  10. Determinants of information behaviour and information literacy related to healthy eating among Internet users in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedźwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were gr...... literacy of the information-poor, men, the uneducated, and the economically disadvantaged.......Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were...... grouped by age and sex (n=3003, age +16) in Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Poland, and the UK. Analysis. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyse the influence of social, demographic, psychological and economic characteristics on the information seeking of the respondents. Results...

  11. Using soft computing techniques to predict corrected air permeability using Thomeer parameters, air porosity and grain density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooruddin, Hasan A.; Anifowose, Fatai; Abdulraheem, Abdulazeez

    2014-03-01

    Soft computing techniques are recently becoming very popular in the oil industry. A number of computational intelligence-based predictive methods have been widely applied in the industry with high prediction capabilities. Some of the popular methods include feed-forward neural networks, radial basis function network, generalized regression neural network, functional networks, support vector regression and adaptive network fuzzy inference system. A comparative study among most popular soft computing techniques is presented using a large dataset published in literature describing multimodal pore systems in the Arab D formation. The inputs to the models are air porosity, grain density, and Thomeer parameters obtained using mercury injection capillary pressure profiles. Corrected air permeability is the target variable. Applying developed permeability models in recent reservoir characterization workflow ensures consistency between micro and macro scale information represented mainly by Thomeer parameters and absolute permeability. The dataset was divided into two parts with 80% of data used for training and 20% for testing. The target permeability variable was transformed to the logarithmic scale as a pre-processing step and to show better correlations with the input variables. Statistical and graphical analysis of the results including permeability cross-plots and detailed error measures were created. In general, the comparative study showed very close results among the developed models. The feed-forward neural network permeability model showed the lowest average relative error, average absolute relative error, standard deviations of error and root means squares making it the best model for such problems. Adaptive network fuzzy inference system also showed very good results.

  12. Permeability model of sintered porous media: analysis and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez Mera, Juan Pablo; Chiamulera, Maria E.; Mantelli, Marcia B. H.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the permeability of porous media fabricated from copper powder sintering process was modeled and measured, aiming the use of the porosity as input parameter for the prediction of the permeability of sintering porous media. An expression relating the powder particle mean diameter with the permeability was obtained, based on an elementary porous media cell, which is physically represented by a duct formed by the arrangement of spherical particles forming a simple or orthorhombic packing. A circular duct with variable section was used to model the fluid flow within the porous media, where the concept of the hydraulic diameter was applied. Thus, the porous is modeled as a converging-diverging duct. The electrical circuit analogy was employed to determine two hydraulic resistances of the cell: based on the Navier-Stokes equation and on the Darcýs law. The hydraulic resistances are compared between themselves and an expression to determine the permeability as function of average particle diameter is obtained. The atomized copper powder was sifted to reduce the size dispersion of the particles. The porosities and permeabilities of sintered media fabricated from powders with particle mean diameters ranging from 20 to 200 microns were measured, by means of the image analysis method and using an experimental apparatus. The permeability data of a porous media, made of copper powder and saturated with distilled water, was used to compare with the permeability model. Permeability literature models, which considers that powder particles have the same diameter and include porosity data as input parameter, were compared with the present model and experimental data. This comparison showed to be quite good.

  13. Polio Endgame, Information Gaps Related to Vaccines and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil; Kunwar, Abhishek

    2016-08-07

    Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries. A clearer picture is also needed on few operational issues, interference between polio vaccines and other EPI vaccines and products related to polio endgame. It is also extremely important to develop mechanisms to identify and manage long-term poliovirus excretors who may pose a risk of reintroduction into the population after global eradication of poliovirus.

  14. Permeability log using new lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Boyd, J.F.; Fuchs, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative measurements of thermal neutron decay time are obtained for a formation after irradiation with a pulsed neutron source. Chloride ions in formation fluids are concentrated by the electrosmosis effect using charged poles on a well logging sonde. The formation is irradiated with fast neutrons and a first comparative measure of the thermal neutron decay time or neutron lifetime is taken. The chloride ions are then dispersed by acoustic pumping with a magnetostrictive transducer. The formation is then again irradiated with fast neutrons and a comparative measure of neutron lifetime is taken. The comparison is a function of the variation in chloride concentration between the two measurements which is related to formation permeability

  15. Nitric oxide turnover in permeable river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Frank; Stief, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-01-01

    We measured nitric oxide (NO) microprofiles in relation to oxygen (O2) and all major dissolved N-species (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide [N2O]) in a permeable, freshwater sediment (River Weser, Germany). NO reaches peak concentrations of 0.13 μmol L-1 in the oxic zone and is consumed......-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (1) confirmed denitrification as the main NO consumption pathway, with N2O as its major product, (2) showed that denitrification combines one free NO molecule with one NO molecule formed from nitrite to produce N2O, and (3) suggested that NO inhibits N2O reduction....

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Spatial Uncertainty in Fracture Permeability on CO2 Leakage through Columbia River Basalt Flow Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierzynski, A.; Pollyea, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that continental flood basalts may be suitable for geologic carbon sequestration, due to fluid-rock reactions that mineralize injected CO2 on relatively short time-scales. Flood basalts also possess a morphological structure conducive to injection, with alternating high-permeability (flow margin) and low-permeability (flow interior) layers. However, little information exists on the behavior of CO2 migration within field-scale fracture networks, particularly within flow interiors and at conditions near the critical point for CO2. In this study, numerical simulation is used to investigate the influence of fracture permeability uncertainty during gravity-driven CO2 migration within a jointed basalt flow interior as CO2 undergoes phase change from supercritical fluid to a subcritical phase. The model domain comprises a 2D fracture network mapped with terrestrial LiDAR scans of Columbia River Basalt acquired near Starbuck, WA. The model domain is 5 m × 5 m with bimodal heterogeneity (fracture and matrix), and initial conditions corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure gradient between 750 and 755 m depth. Under these conditions, the critical point for CO2 occurs 1.5 m above the bottom of the domain. For this model scenario, CO2 enters the base of the fracture network at 0.5 MPa overpressure, and matrix permeability is assumed constant. Fracture permeability follows a lognormal distribution on the basis of fracture aperture values from literature. In order to account for spatial uncertainty, the lognormal fracture permeability distribution is randomly located in the model domain and CO2 migration is simulated within the same fracture network for 50 equally probable realizations. Model results suggest that fracture connectivity, which is independent of permeability distribution, governs the path taken by buoyant CO2 as it rises through the flow interior; however, the permeability distribution strongly governs the CO2 flux magnitude. In particular

  17. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  18. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  19. 78 FR 5873 - Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial... 9610] RIN 1545-BK68 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and... (Code) regarding information reporting by foreign financial institutions (FFIs) with respect to U.S...

  20. Quantifying porosity, compressibility and permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Frykman, Peter

    strain data. We found that Kozeny's modelled permeability fall in the same order of magnitude with measured permeability for shale rich in kaolinite but overestimates permeability by two to three orders of magnitudes for shale with high content of smectite. The empirical Yang and Aplin model gives good...... permeability estimate comparable to the measured one for shale rich in smectite. This is probably because Yang and Aplin model was calibrated in London clay which is rich in smectite....

  1. Information needs related to teaching about air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William P; Stubbs, Harriett S

    2003-06-01

    Translating knowledge of air quality into a form that can be understood by students and the general public is a major challenge for scientists, public officials, and teachers. Social science studies have shown that both educators and the general public are relatively uninformed about recent findings in environmental research. It is especially difficult to get students of today excited about environmental issues because environmental education has become institutionalized. Students believe they know about major environmental problems even when their knowledge is rudimentary or even wrong. One problem in getting public attention is the general level of hyperbole and hysteria common in most media. Thus, do we try to be even more shrill and apocalyptic than other advocates clamoring for public notice, or should we refuse to participate in this competition for attention?A model is presented to bring K-12 teachers, scientists, and students together to develop innovative, inquiry-based, active learning materials for environmental education. Curricular materials utilizing the discovery process can be created and tested in an iterative process that incorporates the results of current science research into highly effective teaching materials for schools. Following extensive evaluative procedures and review, exemplary materials are prepared for publication. This collaborative method also gives teachers and students a more realistic understanding of how science works by giving them access to active scientists and practical scientific experience.Finally, we argue that scientists need to reveal why they care about environmental issues. It is not enough to remain aloof and objective. If we are going to motivate students and the public to make changes in their lives, we need to make a convincing case for the importance of air quality and what it means in practical terms to our common environment.

  2. Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale

  3. Tata Kelola Pada Perguruan Tinggi Menggunakan Control Objective for Information & Related Technology (COBIT) 5

    OpenAIRE

    asriyanik, asriyanik; Hendayun, Mokhamad

    2017-01-01

    A College needs a good governance in implementation of information technology, especially which related with information security because information is an important asset. Framework which can be used for the preparation of information security governance is COBIT 5 from ISACA. The first step to start the preparation of the governance using COBIT is mapping between the goal of college with enterprise goals (EG), IT Related Goals and domain process COBIT 5. From 15 colleges that have been acc...

  4. Health-Related Information-Seeking Behaviors and Preferences Among Mexican Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Perez-Montessoro, Viridiana; Rojo-Castillo, Patricia; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the preferred sources of health-related information among patients with cancer is essential for designing successful cancer education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about health-related information-seeking practices among patients living in low- and middle-income countries. We studied the preferred sources of health-related information among Mexican patients with cancer and explored which factors influence these choices. The health-related information-seeking practices among patients with cancer treated at a public hospital in Mexico City were evaluated using questions from the Spanish Version of the Health Information National Trends Survey. The characteristics of patients who sought health-related information, and of those who chose the internet as their preferred source of information, were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. One hundred forty-eight patients answered the survey (median age 60 years, 70% female), of which 88 (59%) had sought for health-related information. On multivariate analysis, the only characteristic associated with lower odds of seeking health-related information was increasing age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Sixty-one respondents (69%) listed the internet as their preferred source of health-related information. On multivariate analysis, only being of the female gender (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3-18.3) was related with higher odds of preferring other sources of information over the internet. Among Mexican patients with cancer, the Internet is the most widely used information source. Older age was the characteristic most strongly associated with not seeking health-related information, while being female was strongly associated with preferring other sources of information over the Internet.

  5. Modeling of Multiphase with Respect to Low Interfacial Tension by Pseudo-Two-Phase Relative Permeability Functions Modélisation d'un écoulement polyphasique à faible tension interfaciale par des fonctions pseudo-biphasiques de perméabilité relative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusch G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new 2-parameter desaturation function is introduced which offers a broader range of applicability to reservoir rock. Based on this function two-phase relative permeabilities are derived for oil phase and microemulsion flow. These functions are used to match a laboratory experiment by using surfactant flooding for a single surfactant system. Les auteurs présentent une nouvelle fonction de désaturation à deux paramètres qui offre une plus large gamme de possibilités d'application aux roches réservoir. On tire de cette fonction des perméabilités relatives biphasiques pour l'écoulement de la phase pétrole et d'une microémulsion. Ces fonctions sont utilisées pour reproduire une expérience de laboratoire avec injection de surfactant pour un seul système surfactant.

  6. Development of the Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI): Assessing Index Patients' Knowledge, Motivation and Self-Efficacy Regarding the Disclosure of Hereditary Cancer Risk Information to Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, Eveline; Aalfs, Cora M; Menko, Fred H; Sijmons, Rolf H; Verdam, Mathilde G E; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the use of genetic services, counselees do not always share hereditary cancer information with at-risk relatives. Reasons for not informing relatives may be categorized as a lack of: knowledge, motivation, and/or self-efficacy. This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Informing Relatives Inventory, a battery of instruments that intend to measure counselees' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy regarding the disclosure of hereditary cancer risk information to at-risk relatives. Guided by the proposed conceptual framework, existing instruments were selected and new instruments were developed. We tested the instruments' acceptability, dimensionality, reliability, and criterion-related validity in consecutive index patients visiting the Clinical Genetics department with questions regarding hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer or colon cancer. Data of 211 index patients were included (response rate = 62%). The Informing Relatives Inventory (IRI) assesses three barriers in disclosure representing seven domains. Instruments assessing index patients' (positive) motivation and self-efficacy were acceptable and reliable and suggested good criterion-related validity. Psychometric properties of instruments assessing index patients knowledge were disputable. These items were moderately accepted by index patients and the criterion-related validity was weaker. This study presents a first conceptual framework and associated inventory (IRI) that improves insight into index patients' barriers regarding the disclosure of genetic cancer information to at-risk relatives. Instruments assessing (positive) motivation and self-efficacy proved to be reliable measurements. Measuring index patients knowledge appeared to be more challenging. Further research is necessary to ensure IRI's dimensionality and sensitivity to change.

  7. A non-erasable magnetic memory based on the magnetic permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, J.R.; Wieland, K.A.; Burke, R.A.; Newburgh, G.A.; Burnette, J.E.; Fischer, G.A.; Edelstein, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    A non-erasable memory based on using differences in the magnetic permeability is demonstrated. The method can potentially store information indefinitely. Initially the high permeability bits were 10–50 μm wide lines of sputtered permalloy (Ni 81 Fe 19 ) on a glass substrate. In a second writing technique a continuous film of amorphous, high permeability ferromagnetic Metglas (Fe 78 Si 13 B 9 ) was sputtered onto a similar glass substrate. Low permeability, crystalline 50 μm wide lines were then written in the film by laser heating. Both types of written media were read by applying an external probe field that is locally modified by the permeability of each bit. The modifications in the probe field were read by a nearby set of 10 micron wide magnetic tunnel junctions with a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 45 dB. This large response to changes in bit permeability is not altered after the media has been exposed to a 6400 Oe field. While being immediately applicable for data archiving and secure information storage, higher densities are possible with smaller read and write heads. - Highlights: • We demonstrate a non-erasable memory based on changes in the magnetic permeability. • Large change in permeability occur when Metglas changes from amorphous to crystalline. • Micron size regions of Metglas can be crystallized using a laser. • Permeability changes read by observing deviations of a probe field with an MTJ

  8. Permeability of protective coatings to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The permeability of four protective coatings to tritium gas and tritiated water was investigated. The coatings, including two epoxies, one vinyl and one urethane, were selected for their suitability in CANDU plant service in Ontario Hydro. Sorption rates of tritium gas into the coatings were considerably larger than for tritiated water, by as much as three to four orders of magnitude. However, as a result of the very large solubility of tritiated water in the coatings, the overall permeability to tritium gas and tritiated water are comparable, being somewhat larger for HTO. Marked differences were also evident among the four coatings, the vinyl proving to be unique in behaviour and morphology. Because of a highly porous surface structure water condensation takes place at high relative humidities, leading to an abnormally high retention of free water. Desorption rates from the four coatings were otherwise quite similar. Of practical importance was the observation that more effective desorption of tritiated water could be carried out at relatively high humidities, in this case 60%. It was believed that isotopic exchange was responsible for this phenomenon. It appears that epoxy coatings having a high pigment-to-binder ratio are most suited for coating concrete in tritium handling facilities

  9. Permeability of granular beds emplaced in vertical drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, S.K.; Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the permeabilities of granular materials emplaced in vertical drill holes used for underground nuclear tests, an experiment at the USDOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted. As the hole is being filled, falling material increases pressure above and within the granular beds beneath. When the filling operation starts or stops, a transient pressure response occurs within the beds; measurements of this response in beds of various compositions were made. The permeabilities after emplacement were found by matching analytical predictions of the response to these data. This information is useful in assuring the containment of nuclear tests conducted in such drill holes

  10. Is vertebrate mortality correlated to potential permeability by underpasses along low-traffic roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan D; Morelli, Federico; Arroyo, Natalia L; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Rosal, Antonio; Palenzuela, María Del Valle; Rodríguez, Jesús D G P

    2018-09-01

    Road permeability to animal movements depends among several factors on structures which, integrated in the road design, operate as safe conducts to mitigate vehicle collision and barrier effects. There is abundant evidence that wildlife makes use of such structures as safe passages to cross roads. We analyzed the spatial relationship between road drainage elements (N = 253; mostly culverts) as potential faunal underpasses, and mortality due to vehicle collisions in two seasons and on four relatively low-traffic roads (roads, identifying and characterizing all potential underpasses. Overall frequencies of casualties and spatial distribution were highly variable both within and among these roads. We obtained an estimation of potential permeability for the different roads. We detected, located and described a wide supply and a very variable pattern of drainage culverts and other underpasses, with differences among roads in passage attributes potentially affecting permeability for wildlife, such as spatial arrangement, number, density (frequency or concentration of passages) and dimensions. We used Mantel tests to assess spatial congruence of passages and road-killed animals. We applied generalized linear mixed models fitted by maximum likelihood through Akaike Information Criterion to explain the variation in the distance of the 238 casualties to the nearest underpasses, with road transect and season as random factors, and traffic intensity, speed and vertebrate class as fixed effects. Both road-killed animals and underpass distribution followed aggregated patterns, and casualties were not significantly related to underpasses along any of the 4 roads. There were no differences in distance of casualties to the nearest underpass for the three vertebrate classes. Although existing underpasses were abundant, we could not correlate potential permeability with reduced mortality along these roads, and other factors potentially affecting roadkill aggregations should be

  11. Effect of aggregate grain size distribution on properties of permeable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) ratio on the mechanical properties of permeable concrete is investigated. The aim of this study is to prepare permeable concrete mixture with optimum properties in terms of strength and permeability. For this purpose, five different permeable ...

  12. Permeability of hydrogen isotopes through Pd-Ag membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    This paper represents the permeabilities, diffusion coefficients and isotope effects for hydrogen and deuterium through Pd-25 wt.% Ag alloy tubes The feed gas H 2 or D 2 flowing into the permeation cell was preheated before it reached to the outer surface of the permeation tube made of palladium-silver alloy. Permeation time lag method could be successfully carried out with the present apparatus to measure both permeability and diffusion coefficient. The square-root pressure dependence for the permeation of hydrogen isotopes was observed. The observed systematic temperature dependence indicates that the approximation of the Arrhenius' relation was effective within this experimental conditions. Some tendency of permeation fluxes in relation to the reciprocal temperature, 1/T, was seen. The permeability ratio was larger than the square root of isotopic mass ratio, and it decreased with temperature rise. On the contrary, the diffusion coefficient ratio was much smaller than the square root of isotopic mass ratio. (Kato, T.)

  13. Studies analysing the need for health-related information in Germany - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Jülich, Fabian; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Bächle, Christina; Chernyak, Nadja; Genz, Jutta; Eikermann, Michaela; Icks, Andrea

    2015-09-23

    Exploring health-related information needs is necessary to better tailor information. However, there is a lack of systematic knowledge on how and in which groups information needs has been assessed, and which information needs have been identified. We aimed to assess the methodology of studies used to assess information needs, as well as the topics and extent of health-related information needs and associated factors in Germany. A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase, Psycinfo, and all databases of the Cochrane Library. All studies investigating health-related information needs in patients, relatives, and the general population in Germany that were published between 2000 and 2012 in German or English were included. Descriptive content analysis was based on predefined categories. We identified 19 studies. Most studies addressed cancer or rheumatic disease. Methods used were highly heterogeneous. Apart from common topics such as treatment, diagnosis, prevention and health promotion, etiology and prognosis, high interest ratings were also found in more specific topics such as complementary and alternative medicine or nutrition. Information needs were notable in all surveyed patient groups, relatives, and samples of the general population. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, poorer health status and higher anxiety and depression scores appeared to be associated with higher information needs. Knowledge about information needs is still scarce. Assuming the importance of comprehensive information to enable people to participate in health-related decisions, further systematic research is required.

  14. INIS - International Nuclear Information System. CEA-users relations. Nuclear information in total freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmont, J.; Paillard, M.D.; Constant, A.; Guille, N.; Le Blanc, A.; Mouffron, O.; Anguise, P.; Jouve, J.J.; Lilin, A.

    2009-01-01

    This poster, prepared for the seventh edition of the meetings of scientific and technical information professionals (RPIST, Nancy (France)), presents the principle of operation of the INIS system, based on a cooperative and decentralized preparation of the data which are centralized by the IAEA for the preparation of the INIS products: the database (on Internet and on CD/DVD-Rom), the collection of grey literature documents in full text (microfiches and CD/DVD-roms), and the multilingual thesaurus available in 7 different languages and under various formats. The poster presents these different products, and the role of the INIS members in the distribution of these products towards their national users. One insert presents the French INIS team of the CEA-Saclay and its daily work. (J.S.)

  15. The permeability of concrete for reactor containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.H.

    1983-07-01

    Review of the literature pertaining to water, water vapour and gas transmission through concrete revealed conflicting views on the mechanisms involved and the influence of mix design parameters such as initial porosities and water/cement ratio. Consideration of the effects of ageing and of construction defects in field concrete were totally neglected in published work. Permeability data from three published papers were compared with permeability calculated according to Powers. The ratio of calculated to observed permeability varied from 40 x 10 -3 to 860 x 10 -3 for one group: from 0.17 x 10 3 to 8.6 x 10 3 in the second; and from 24 x 10 3 to 142 x 10 3 for the third. There were therefore wide discrepancies within each group of data and between groups. A bibliography was prepared and an exploratory experimental programme was mounted to determine the relative importance of key parameters such as cement type, porosity and water/cement ratio. Contrary to frequently cited references it was found that permeability of concrete was not significantly influenced by water/cement ratio when the starting porosity was constant. If water/cement ratio was held constant, however, the permeability was strongly influenced by starting porosity. It was also found that with constant water/cement ratio permeability increased with cement content. The value of fly ash and blast furnace slag in partial substitution for Portland cement is neglected in the literature but it is important since such substitutions alleviate alkali-silicate reactions. Permeability of concrete was significantly decreased by partial substitution of Portland cement with fly ash but there was no benefit in the use of blast furnace slag

  16. Relational autonomy in informed consent (RAIC) as an ethics of care approach to the concept of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Peter I

    2018-03-01

    The perspectives of the dominant Western ethical theories, have dominated the concepts of autonomy and informed consent for many years. Recently this dominant understanding has been challenged by ethics of care which, although, also emanates from the West presents a more nuanced concept: relational autonomy, which is more faithful to our human experience. By paying particular attention to relational autonomy, particularity and Process approach to ethical deliberations in ethics of care, this paper seeks to construct a concept of informed consent from the perspective of ethics of care which is here called relational autonomy-in-informed consent (RAIC). Thus, providing a broader theoretical basis for informed consent beyond the usual theoretical perspectives that are particularly Western. Care ethics provides such a broader basis because it appeals to a global perspective that encompasses lessons from other cultures, and this will help to enrich the current ideas of bioethics principles of autonomy and informed consent. This objective will be achieved by exploring the ethics of care emphasis on relationships based on a universal experience of caring; and by contrasting its concept of autonomy as relational with the understanding of autonomy in the approaches of the dominant moral theories that reflect rational, individualistic, and rights-oriented autonomy of the American liberalism.

  17. Investigate the relation between the media literacy and information literacy of students of communication science and information science and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Esmaeil Pounaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is called Information Age, in which information and communication technologies have been developed. The transfer from industrial society to information society has changed the form and level of education and information from those of the past times. In the past, literacy meant the ability of reading and writing, but today the meaning of literacy has been changed through the time and such a type of literacy is not enough to meet people’s needs in the industrial society of the 21st century. Today’s life requires media and information literacy especially for the students, whose duty is to research and who have a significant role in the development of their country from any perspective. This research aims to study the relation between the media literacy and information literacy of the students of the fields of communication science and information science and knowledge. This is an applied research in terms of its objective and uses a survey-correlation method. The statistical population of this research consists of the postgraduate students studying in the fields of study of information science and knowledge and communication science at Tehran University and Allameh Tabatabai University. The data required for this research were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire has been evaluated by Cronbach’s Alpha, which was equal to 0.936. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic methods. The results showed that the level of media literacy and information literacy of students is desirable. There is a significant relationship between the economic status of students and their media literacy. However, the social status of students was directly related to their "ability to communicate" variable of media literacy. Also the Pearson correlation test showed a significant relationship between the variables of media literacy and information literacy.

  18. Current and evolving approaches for improving the oral permeability of BCS Class III or analogous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Vivek S; Gupta, Deepak; Yu, Monica; Nguyen, Phuong; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba

    2017-02-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classifies pharmaceutical compounds based on their aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS Class III compounds are hydrophilic molecules (high aqueous solubility) with low permeability across the biological membranes. While these compounds are pharmacologically effective, poor absorption due to low permeability becomes the rate-limiting step in achieving adequate bioavailability. Several approaches have been explored and utilized for improving the permeability profiles of these compounds. The approaches include traditional methods such as prodrugs, permeation enhancers, ion-pairing, etc., as well as relatively modern approaches such as nanoencapsulation and nanosizing. The most recent approaches include a combination/hybridization of one or more traditional approaches to improve drug permeability. While some of these approaches have been extremely successful, i.e. drug products utilizing the approach have progressed through the USFDA approval for marketing; others require further investigation to be applicable. This article discusses the commonly studied approaches for improving the permeability of BCS Class III compounds.

  19. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 x 10 -22 m 2 to 9.7 x 10 -17 m 2 . Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members

  20. METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATION OF HORIZONTAL WATER PERMEABILITY COEFFICIENT IN SOIL CAPILLARY BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Michnevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that for overall estimation of soil water permeability it is necessary to know a horizontal water permeability value of a soil capillary border in addition to coefficients of filtration and permeability. Relations allowing to determine soil permeability in the area of incomplete saturation, are given in the paper. For a fully developed capillary border some calculation formulae have been obtained in the form of algebraic polynomial versus soil grading (grain composition. These formulae allow to make more accurate calculations while designing and operating  reclamation works.

  1. 17 CFR 39.5 - Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to derivatives clearing organization operations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.5 Information relating to derivatives...

  2. 77 FR 10370 - Rewards and Awards for Information Relating to Violations of Internal Revenue Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... whistleblowers should be rewarded for the prevention of future tax avoidance based on the whistleblower's... regulations do not address awards relating to the prevention of future tax avoidance. Special Analysis It has... information provided to the Secretary when the information relates to the detection of underpayments of tax or...

  3. 36 CFR 1256.62 - Geological and geophysical information relating to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geological and geophysical... MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.62 Geological and geophysical information relating to wells. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), NARA may withhold information in records that relates to geological and...

  4. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  5. The Quality of Online Health-Related Information – an Emergent Consumer Health Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nădăşan Valentin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become one of the main means of communication used by people who search for health-related information. The quality of online health-related information affects the users’ knowledge, their attitude, and their risk or health behaviour in complex ways and influences a substantial number of users in their decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  6. 78 FR 55202 - Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding on Certain... (78 FR 5874). The regulations related to information reporting by foreign financial institutions (FFIs... foreign branch of a U.S. financial institution that is a reporting Model 1 FFI must withhold in accordance...

  7. 77 FR 9021 - Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions and Withholding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 301 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial...-121647-10] RIN 1545-BK68 Regulations Relating to Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions... respect to withholding and reporting under chapter 4. If a territory financial institution is a flow...

  8. Permeability of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study was the water flow through the bentonite which is caused by hydraulic gradients. The study comprised laboratory tests and theoretical considerations. It was found that high bulk densities reduced the permeability to very low values. It was concluded that practically impervious conditions prevail when the gradients are low. Thus with a regional gradient of 10 -2 and a premeability of 10 -13 m/s the flow rate will not be higher than approximately 1 mm in 30 000 years. (G.B.)

  9. Determination of hydrogen permeability in commercial and modified superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.

    1983-01-01

    The results of hydrogen permeability measurements on several iron- and cobalt-base alloys as well as on two long-ranged ordered alloys over the range of 705 to 870 C (1300 to 1600 F) are summarized. The test alloys included wrought alloys N-155, IN 800, A-286, 19-9DL, and 19-9DL modifications with aluminum, niobium, and misch metal. In addition, XF-818, CRM-6D, SA-F11, and HS-31 were evaluated. Two wrought long-range ordered alloys, Ni3Al and (Fe,Ni)3(V,Al) were also evaluated. All tests were conducted at 20.7 MPa pressure in either pure and/or 1% CO2-doped H2 for test periods as long as 133 h. Detailed analyses were conducted to determine the relative permeability rankings of these alloys and the effect of doping, exit surface oxidation, specimen design variations, and test duration on permeability coefficient, and permeation activation energies were determined. The two long-range ordered alloys had the lowest permeability coefficients in pure H2 when compared with the eight commercial alloys and their modifications. With CO2 doping, significant decrease in permeability was observed in commercial alloys--no doped tests were conducted with the long-range ordered alloys.

  10. Modeling stress/strain-dependent permeability changes for deep geoenergy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Rock permeability is a key parameter in deep geoenergy systems. Stress and strain changes induced at depth by fluid injection or extraction may substantially alter the rock permeability in an irreversible way. With regard to the geoenergies, some applications require the permeability to be enhanced to improve productivity. The rock permeability is generally enhanced by shearing process of faults and fractures (e.g. hydroshearing for Enhanced and Deep Geothermal Systems), or the creation of new fractures (e.g. hydrofracturing for shale gas). However, such processes may, at the same time, produce seismicity that can be felt by the local population. Moreover, the increased permeability due to fault reactivation may pose at risk the sealing capacity of a storage site (e.g. carbon sequestration or nuclear waste disposal), providing then a preferential pathway for the stored fluids to escape at shallow depth. In this work we present a review of some recent applications aimed at understanding the coupling between stress (or strain) and permeability. Examples of geoenergy applications include both EGS and CO2 sequestration. To investigate both "wanted" and "unwanted" effects, THM simulations have been carried out with the TOUGH-FLAC simulator. Our studies include constitutive equations relating the permeability to mean effective stress, effective normal stress, volumetric strain, as well as accounting for permeability variation as related to fault/fracture reactivation. Results show that the geomechanical effects have a large role in changing the permeability, hence affecting fluids leakage, reservoir enhancement, as well as the induced seismicity.

  11. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  12. Environmental Complexity Related Information for the Assessment of Country Logistics Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2015-01-01

    logistics assessment generates some of this information, its relevance for the decision makers, and relationship to their unpredictability from foreign national logistics systems remains indefinite. This paper identifies and categorises the relevant, available information on country logistics environments...... by using a content analysis approach. We demonstrate the immensity and nature of this information, are able to confirm the changing spatial transaction cost structures, and to reflect upon the overall conditions of information-related complexity and globalisation in the environment. Besides making...

  13. Maintenance of relational information in working memory leads to suppression of the sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkai, Akiko; Blacker, Kara J; Lakshmanan, Balaji M; Ewen, Joshua B; Courtney, Susan M

    2014-10-15

    Working memory (WM) for sensory-based information about individual objects and their locations appears to involve interactions between lateral prefrontal and sensory cortexes. The mechanisms and representations for maintenance of more abstract, nonsensory information in WM are unknown, particularly whether such actively maintained information can become independent of the sensory information from which it was derived. Previous studies of WM for individual visual items found increased electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha (8-13 Hz) power over posterior electrode sites, which appears to correspond to the suppression of cortical areas that represent irrelevant sensory information. Here, we recorded EEG while participants performed a visual WM task that involved maintaining either concrete spatial coordinates or abstract relational information. Maintenance of relational information resulted in higher alpha power in posterior electrodes. Furthermore, lateralization of alpha power due to a covert shift of attention to one visual hemifield was marginally weaker during storage of relational information than during storage of concrete information. These results suggest that abstract relational information is maintained in WM differently from concrete, sensory representations and that during maintenance of abstract information, posterior sensory regions become task irrelevant and are thus suppressed. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flow...

  15. Permeability and dispersivity of variable-aperture fracture systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Tsang, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of recent experiments have pointed out the need of including the effects of aperture variation within each fracture in predicting flow and transport properties of fractured media. This paper introduces a new approach in which medium properties, such as the permeability to flow and dispersivity in tracer transport, are correlated to only three statistical parameters describing the fracture aperture probability distribution and the aperture spatial correlation. We demonstrate how saturated permeability and relative permeabilities for flow, as well as dispersion for solute transport in fractures may be calculated. We are in the process of examining the applicability of these concepts to field problems. Results from the evaluation and analysis of the recent Stripa-3D field data are presented. 13 refs., 10 figs

  16. An intelligent detecting system for permeability prediction of MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Zhang, Shuo; Qiao, Junfei; Wang, Xiaoshuang

    2018-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been widely used to purify wastewater in wastewater treatment plants. However, a critical difficulty of the MBR is membrane fouling. To reduce membrane fouling, in this work, an intelligent detecting system is developed to evaluate the performance of MBR by predicting the membrane permeability. This intelligent detecting system consists of two main parts. First, a soft computing method, based on the partial least squares method and the recurrent fuzzy neural network, is designed to find the nonlinear relations between the membrane permeability and the other variables. Second, a complete new platform connecting the sensors and the software is built, in order to enable the intelligent detecting system to handle complex algorithms. Finally, the simulation and experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed intelligent detecting system, underlying the potential of this system for the online membrane permeability for detecting membrane fouling of MBR.

  17. Preferential processing of task-irrelevant beloved-related information and task performance: Two event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2017-09-18

    People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition. We examined whether beloved-related information is preferentially processed even when it is task-irrelevant and whether this hurts task performance. In two event-related potential studies, participants who had recently fallen in love performed a visuospatial short-term memory task. Task-irrelevant beloved, friend, and stranger faces were presented during maintenance (Study 1), or encoding (Study 2). The Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) reflecting early automatic attentional capturing and the Late Positive Potential (LPP) reflecting sustained motivated attention were largest for beloved pictures. Thus, beloved pictures are preferentially processed even when they are task-irrelevant. Task performance and reaction times did not differ between beloved, friend, and stranger conditions. Nevertheless, self-reported obsessive thinking about the beloved tended to correlate negatively with task performance, and positively with reaction times, across conditions. So, although task-irrelevant beloved-related information does not impact task performance, more obsessive thinking about the beloved might relate to poorer and slower overall task performance. More research is needed to clarify why people experience trouble focusing on beloved-unrelated tasks and how this negative effect of love on cognition could be reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased attention and memory for beloved-related information during infatuation: behavioral and electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Olivier, Jamie R; Köhlen, Martine E; Nijs, Ilse M; Van Strien, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information. In a passive viewing task (Study 1), the late positive potential, an event-related potential (ERP) component reflecting motivated attention, was enhanced for beloved-related vs friend-related words/phrases. In a recognition task (Study 2), memory performance and the frontal and parietal ERP old/new effects, reflecting familiarity and recollection, respectively, were not enhanced for beloved-related compared with friend-related words/phrases. In free recall tasks in both studies, memory was better for beloved-related than friend-related words/phrases. This research reveals that attention and memory are enhanced for beloved-related information. These attention and memory biases for beloved-related information were not due to valence, semantic relatedness, or experience, but to arousal. To conclude, romantic love has profound effects on cognition that play a clear role in daily life. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Different Methods of Predicting Permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    by two to five orders of magnitudes at lower vertical effective stress below 40 MPa as the content of clay minerals increases causing heterogeneity in shale material. Indirect permeability from consolidation can give maximum and minimum values of shale permeability needed in simulating fluid flow......Permeability is often very difficult to measure or predict in shale lithology. In this work we are determining shale permeability from consolidation tests data using Wissa et al., (1971) approach and comparing the results with predicted permeability from Kozeny’s model. Core and cuttings materials...... effective stress to 9 μD at high vertical effective stress of 100 MPa. The indirect permeability calculated from consolidation tests falls in the same magnitude at higher vertical effective stress, above 40 MPa, as that of the Kozeny model for shale samples with high non-clay content ≥ 70% but are higher...

  20. Intellectual Capital Disclosure at Czech Public Universities in Relation to the Stakeholder Information Need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kuralová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students. This research is based on the theoretical framework for voluntary intellectual capital disclosure, the proposed intellectual capital disclosure index, the identification of stakeholders including their information need as well as the content analysis of the universities’ annual reports has been applied. The quality of disclosed information on intangible resources in public universities in the Czech Republic is in the middle level. In the highest quality is disclosed relational capital, followed by structural and human capital. Information need of students is highest for information falling under the relational capital followed by structural capital and human capital. This study opens new approach regarding intellectual capital disclosure including suggested recommendations for Czech public universities, as there was no research related to the issue conducted in the past.

  1. Determination of Three-Phase Relative Permeabilities under Reservoir Conditions by Hot Water and Steamflood Experiments Détermination de perméabilités relatives tri-phasiques en conditions de réservoir, à partir d'expériences de balayages à l'eau chaude et à la vapeur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quettier L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to help the physical and numerical interpretation of Emeraude's steam pilot, two-phase waterfloods at four temperatures (between 30 and 240°C and a steamflood were performed in the laboratory using the same porous medium (compacted silt and under reservoir conditions. Dynamic isothermal displacements were interpreted with a thermal simulator taking into account capillary end effects. The corresponding oil-water relative permeability curves were obtained by matching observed pressure drop and oil production. Results show that temperature influences the end-point saturations but not the shape of the curves. The steamflood experiment was carried out in an adiabatic core holder. Oil stripping and production of a large amount of CO2 caused by dissolution of carbonates were pointed out. The numerical interpretation of this experiment, by making use of the oil-water relative permeabilities, provided the three-phase oil relative permeability which is an essential datum for numerical interpretation of a steam drive pilot. Then a parameter study was used to quantify the influence of the different mechanisms involved in hot water and steam floods. Dans le but de faciliter l'interprétation physique et numérique du pilote vapeur d' Emeraude, des balayages eau-huile à quatre températures (entre 30 et 240°C et un balayage à la vapeur ont été réalisés au laboratoire. Toutes ces expériences ont été effectuées sur le même milieu poreux (silt compacté et en conditions de réservoir. Les déplacements bi-phasiques isothermes, en écoulement transitoire, ont été interprétés avec un modèle numérique thermique qui prend en compte les effets capillaires aux extrémités de l'échantillon. Les courbes de perméabilités relatives dynamiques eau-huile sont déterminées par calage, sur les courbes expérimentales, de la différence de pression et de la production d'huile simulées. Les résultats montrent que la température influe sur les

  2. Finding online health-related information: usability issues of health portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel Koybasi, Nergis A; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    As Internet and computers become widespread, health portals offering online health-related information become more popular. The most important point for health portals is presenting reliable and valid information. Besides, portal needs to be usable to be able to serve information to users effectively. This study aims to determine usability issues emerging when health-related information is searched on a health portal. User-based usability tests are conducted and eye movement analyses are used in addition to traditional performance measures. Results revealed that users prefer systematic, simple and consistent designs offering interactive tools. Moreover, content and partitions needs to be shaped according to the medical knowledge of target users.

  3. Patterns of students' computer use and relations to their computer and information literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Gerick, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that there is a complex relationship between students’ computer and information literacy (CIL) and their use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for both recreational and school use. Methods: This study seeks to dig deeper into these complex...... relations by identifying different patterns of students’ school-related and recreational computer use in the 21 countries participating in the International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS 2013). Results: Latent class analysis (LCA) of the student questionnaire and performance data from......, raising important questions about differences in contexts. Keywords: ICILS, Computer use, Latent class analysis (LCA), Computer and information literacy....

  4. Establishing management information system to solve the information management problem of nuclear safety related personnel's qualification management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haipeng; Liu Zhijun; Li Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid progress of nuclear energy and nuclear technology utilization, nuclear safety related personnel play an increasingly important role in ensuring nuclear safety. NNSA personnel qualification management information system conducts a multi-faceted, effective, real-time monitoring and information collection for nuclear safety staff practice unit management, knowledge management, license application, appraisal management or supervision, training management or supervision and certified staff management, and also is a milestone for NNSA to build the state department with 'five-feature' (learning-oriented, service-oriented, economical, innovative, clean-type). (authors)

  5. Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort...

  6. Modelling of water permeability in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guang, Ye; Lura, Pietro; van Breugel, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a network model to predict the permeability of cement paste from a numerical simulation of its microstructure. Based on a linked list pore network structure, the effective hydraulic conductivity is estimated and the fluid flow is calculated according to the Hagen-Poiseuille law....... The pressure gradient at all nodes is calculated with the Gauss elimination method and the absolute permeability of the pore network is calculated directly from Darcy's law. Finally, the permeability model is validated by comparison with direct water permeability measurements. According to this model...

  7. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  8. Dual permeability FEM models for distributed fiber optic sensors development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Juan Pablo; Bogaard, Thom

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic cables are commonly known for being robust and reliable mediums for transferring information at the speed of light in glass. Billions of kilometers of cable have been installed around the world for internet connection and real time information sharing. Yet, fiber optic cable is not only a mean for information transfer but also a way to sense and measure physical properties of the medium in which is installed. For dike monitoring, it has been used in the past for detecting inner core and foundation temperature changes which allow to estimate water infiltration during high water events. The DOMINO research project, aims to develop a fiber optic based dike monitoring system which allows to directly sense and measure any pore pressure change inside the dike structure. For this purpose, questions like which location, how many sensors, which measuring frequency and which accuracy are required for the sensor development. All these questions may be initially answered with a finite element model which allows to estimate the effects of pore pressure change in different locations along the cross section while having a time dependent estimation of a stability factor. The sensor aims to monitor two main failure mechanisms at the same time; The piping erosion failure mechanism and the macro-stability failure mechanism. Both mechanisms are going to be modeled and assessed in detail with a finite element based dual permeability Darcy-Richards numerical solution. In that manner, it is possible to assess different sensing configurations with different loading scenarios (e.g. High water levels, rainfall events and initial soil moisture and permeability conditions). The results obtained for the different configurations are later evaluated based on an entropy based performance evaluation. The added value of this kind of modelling approach for the sensor development is that it allows to simultaneously model the piping erosion and macro-stability failure mechanisms in a time

  9. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette–Related Information: Social Media Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-01-01

    Background Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette–related information propagation on social media. Methods We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette–related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post’s frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette–related information propagation. Results We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette–related information propagation, indicating the users’ tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor–related factors were associated with information propagation. Conclusions Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette–related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users’ lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette–related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. PMID:29572202

  10. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette-Related Information: Social Media Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingpeng; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-03-23

    Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette-related information propagation on social media. We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette-related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post's frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette-related information propagation. We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette-related information propagation, indicating the users' tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor-related factors were associated with information propagation. Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette-related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users' lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette-related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. ©Jiaqi Zhou, Qingpeng Zhang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Kwok Leung Tsui. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  11. Estimation of In Situ Stress and Permeability from an Extended Leak-off Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiep Quach, Quoc; Jo, Yeonguk; Chang, Chandong; Song, Insun

    2016-04-01

    stress regime with the information of the maximum principal stress that will be estimated based on borehole breakout geometry analysis. To estimate the in situ permeability from the XLOT data, we derived a theoretical equation that relates the slope of pressure versus injected water volume (P-V) curve to permeability based on the Darcy's law. The equation is expressed in terms of permeability as a function of some key parameters such as open-hole dimensions, flowrate, porosity, pressure change and injected water volume. We applied this equation to the early stage of the P-V curves prior to the leak-off point to prevent the effect of induced fractures on permeability. The estimated in situ permeability was (3.1±0.4)×10-17m2, which turns out to be quite similar to the laboratory measurements in recovered cores.

  12. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  13. Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2007-01-01

    .... It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance...

  14. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers? needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electr...

  15. Experimental study on the soil structure and permeability in aerated zone at CIRP's field test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongde; Zhao Yingjie; Guo Zhiming

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of soil grain and pore size distribution, observation of soil microstructure and permeability test are used to study soil structure and permeability. The results show that soil heterogeneity in vertical soil profile is much great. The mean heterogeneity coefficient is 14.7. The eccentric rate of saturated permeability coefficient in vertical and horizontal direction is from 0.65 to 1.00. The mean coefficient is 0.93. So the soil can be considered to be isotropic from the view point of the groundwater dynamics. The permeability coefficient has more difference in different soil layers. In vertical profile, the saturated permeability coefficient is relatively great in upper and under layers. It is relatively small in middle layers

  16. Thermomechanical effects on permeability for a 3-D model of YM rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P A; Blair, S C; Wang, H F

    1999-01-01

    The authors estimate how thermomechanical processes affect the spatial variability of fracture permeability for a 3-D model representing Topopah Spring tuff at the nuclear-waste repository horizon in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Using a finite-difference code, they compute thermal stress changes. They evaluate possible permeability enhancement resulting from shear slip along various mapped fracture sets after 50 years of heating, for rock in the near-field environment of the proposed repository. The results indicate permeability enhancement of a factor of 2 for regions about 10 to 30 m above drifts, for north-south striking vertical fractures. Shear slip and permeability increases of a factor of 4 can occur in regions just above drifts, for east-west striking vertical fractures. Information on how permeability may change over the lifetime of a geologic repository is important to the prediction and evaluation of repository performance

  17. Exploring the Use of Internet by University Students for Seeking Health Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asad; Khan, Mohammed Naved; Rahman, Obaidur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Internet is both a medium and a platform for information exchange. This characteristic of internet is gradually metamorphosing it into an e-learning enabler. A significant percentage of internet users access health-related information through the medium of internet, but little is known about the factors that determine such behaviour. This…

  18. Relative Performance Information, Rank Ordering and Employee Performance: A Research Note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.; Maas, V.S.; van Rinsum, M.

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether the provision of detailed relative performance information (i.e., information about the specific performance levels of peers) affects employee performance. We also investigate how – if at all – explicit ranking of performance levels affects how

  19. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  20. Internet skill-related problems in accessing online health information and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite the amount of health information available online, there are several barriers that limit the Internet from being adopted as a source of health information. The purpose of this study was to identify individual skill-related problems that users experience when accessing the Internet

  1. 77 FR 50757 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are announcing the standardized administrative fees we will charge to recover our full cost of... will ensure fees are consistent and that we collect the full cost of supplying our information when a... standard fees that are calculated to reflect the full cost of providing information for nonprogram-related...

  2. 76 FR 52659 - Access by EPA Contractors to Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Confidential Business Information (CBI) Related to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program AGENCY: Environmental... contractors named in this notice to access information that will be submitted to EPA under the Greenhouse Gas...), EPA created the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), 40 CFR part 98 (part 98), which requires...

  3. Internet Information-Seeking and Its Relation to Support for Access to Government Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillier, David; Piotrowski, Suzanne J.

    2009-01-01

    Public access to government records is essential for democratic self-governance, and attitudes toward that right can facilitate or hinder public policy regarding transparency. As more people use the internet for gathering information about their governments and communities, it is unknown whether such online information-seeking is related to…

  4. What factors determine use of quality-related marketing research information? an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birgelen, van M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    For effective total quality management (TQM), internal, process-related, as well as external, market-oriented, information is crucial. In particular, external marketing information seems to be very valuable since customers are the ultimate evaluators of the quality of an organization. In this paper,

  5. Employment-related information for clients receiving mental health services and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joanne; Cleary, Catherine; Harris, Meredith G; Lloyd, Chris; Waghorn, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Clients receiving public mental health services and clinicians require information to facilitate client access to suitable employment services. However, little is known about the specific employment-related information needs of these groups. This study aimed to identify employment-related information needs among clients, clinicians and employment specialists, with a view to developing a new vocational information resource. Employment-related information needs were identified via a series of focus group consultations with clients, clinicians, and employment specialists (n=23). Focus group discussions were guided by a common semi-structured interview schedule. Several categories of information need were identified: countering incorrect beliefs about work; benefits of work; disclosure and managing personal information; impact of earnings on welfare entitlements; employment service pathways; job preparation, planning and selection; and managing illness once working. Clear preferences were expressed about effective means of communicating the key messages in written material. This investigation confirmed the need for information tailored to clients and clinicians in order to activate clients' employment journey and to help them make informed decisions about vocational assistance.

  6. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  7. Wetting phase permeability in a partially saturated horizontal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures within geologic media can dominate the hydraulic properties of the system. Therefore, conceptual models used to assess the potential for radio-nuclide migration in unsaturated fractured rock such as that composing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, must be consistent with flow processes in individual fractures. A major obstacle to the understanding and simulation of unsaturated fracture flow is the paucity of physical data on both fracture aperture structure and relative permeability. An experimental procedure is developed for collecting detailed data on aperture and phase structure from a transparent analog fracture. To facilitate understanding of basic processes and provide a basis for development of effective property models, the simplest possible rough-walled fracture is used. Stable phase structures of varying complexity are created within the horizontal analog fracture. Wetting phase permeability is measured under steady-state conditions. A process based model for wetting phase relative permeability is then explored. Contributions of the following processes to reduced wetting phase permeability under unsaturated conditions are considered: reduction in cross-sectional flow area, increased path length, localized flow restriction, and preferential occupation of large apertures by the non-wetting phase

  8. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  9. Soil gas measurements at high permeabilities and below foundation depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, H.U; Surbeck, H.

    2000-01-01

    We started a project of soil gas measurements beneath houses. Since the foundations of houses often lie deeper than 0.5 to 1 m - the depth where soil gas measurements are often made - the first approach was to apply the method developed previously to deeper soil layers. The radon availability index (RAI), which was defined empirically, proved to be a reliable indicator for radon problems in nearby houses. The extreme values of permeability, non-Darcy flow and scale dependence of permeability stimulated the development of a multi-probe method. A hydrological model was applied to model the soil gas transport. The soil gas measurements below foundation depth provided a wealth of new information. A good classification of soil properties could be achieved. If soil gas measurements are to be made, the low permeability layer has to be traversed. A minimum depth of 1 .5 m is suggested, profiles to below the foundation depth are preferable. There are also implications for mitigation works. A sub-slab suction system should reach the permeable layer to function well. This also holds for radon wells. If a house is located on a slope, it is most convenient to install the sub-slab suction system on the hillside, as the foundation reaches the deepest levels there

  10. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  11. Effects of temperature, mechanical loading and of their interactions on the permeability of structural concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choinska, M.

    2006-11-01

    Concrete permeability may influence the durability of structures indirectly by controlling the penetration rate of aggressive agents, but also directly if the structure has a confinement role, like containment vessels of nuclear power plants for instance. In the industrial background on the safety of these structures, the objective of this study is to characterize the evolution of concrete permeability under the effects of temperature and mechanical loading. The permeability tests are performed on hollow concrete cylinders, subjected to temperature up to 150 C and compressive loading up to failure. Experimental results reveal that the effects of temperature and damage may be decoupled for the estimation of permeability and enable us to propose a relation between permeability, damage and temperature. However, this relation may only be applied in the pre-peak phase as concrete remains micro-cracked. In order to overcome this limit to be able to model also permeability increase in the post-peak phase, another parameter, which is crack opening, is introduced in the relation between permeability and damage. This problem, investigated by modelling, is exploited according to two approaches. The first one is based on the definition of a matching law between existing relations of permeability evolution with damage and with crack opening. With this approach the tendencies are similar to the observed ones on the experimental results. The second approach consists in linking from a mechanical point of view damage with crack opening in order to apply the Poiseuille's law for permeability determination. Experimental validation of this approach, emerging towards a continuous model capable to reproduce permeability variations of a concrete structure, constitutes a major perspective of this work. (author)

  12. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Colloid transport in dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leij, Feike J.; Bradford, Scott A.

    2013-07-01

    It has been widely reported that colloids can travel faster and over longer distances in natural structured porous media than in uniform structureless media used in laboratory studies. The presence of preferential pathways for colloids in the subsurface environment is of concern because of the increased risks for disease caused by microorganisms and colloid-associated contaminants. This study presents a model for colloid transport in dual-permeability media that includes reversible and irreversible retention of colloids and first-order exchange between the aqueous phases of the two regions. The model may also be used to describe transport of other reactive solutes in dual-permeability media. Analytical solutions for colloid concentrations in aqueous and solid phases were obtained using Laplace transformation and matrix decomposition. The solutions proved convenient to assess the effect of model parameters on the colloid distribution. The analytical model was used to describe effluent concentrations for a bromide tracer and 3.2- or 1-μm-colloids that were observed after transport through a composite 10-cm long porous medium made up of a cylindrical lens or core of sand and a surrounding matrix with sand of a different grain size. The tracer data were described very well and realistic estimates were obtained for the pore-water velocity in the two flow domains. An accurate description was also achieved for most colloid breakthrough curves. Dispersivity and retention parameters were typically greater for the larger 3.2-μm-colloids while both reversible and irreversible retention rates tended to be higher for the finer sands than the coarser sand. The relatively small sample size and the complex flow pattern in the composite medium made it difficult to reach definitive conclusions regarding transport parameters for colloid transport.

  14. YAdumper: extracting and translating large information volumes from relational databases to structured flat files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Valencia, Alfonso

    2004-10-12

    Downloading the information stored in relational databases into XML and other flat formats is a common task in bioinformatics. This periodical dumping of information requires considerable CPU time, disk and memory resources. YAdumper has been developed as a purpose-specific tool to deal with the integral structured information download of relational databases. YAdumper is a Java application that organizes database extraction following an XML template based on an external Document Type Declaration. Compared with other non-native alternatives, YAdumper substantially reduces memory requirements and considerably improves writing performance.

  15. Effect of temperature on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus

    Hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers is considered for seasonal energy storage in Denmark. However, an increase in the aquifer temperature might reduce permeability, and thereby increase production costs. An understanding of the factors that control permeability is required in order...... and the Klinkenberg procedure showed the expected correlation between the two measures, however, differences could be around one order of magnitude. In tight gas sandstones, permeability is often sensitive to net stress, which might change due to the pore pressure change in the Klinkenberg procedure. Besides...... affecting the Klinkenberg procedure, the combined effect of slip and changes in permeability would affect production during pressure depletion in tight gas sandstone reservoirs; therefore effects of gas slip and net stress on permeability were combined in a model based on the Klinkenberg equation. A lower...

  16. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  17. Informal interpreting in general practice: Are interpreters' roles related to perceived control, trust, and satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was twofold. First, we examined how often and which roles informal interpreters performed during consultations between Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and general practitioners (GPs). Second, relations between these roles and patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust in informal interpreters and satisfaction with the consultation were assessed. A coding instrument was developed to quantitatively code informal interpreters' roles from transcripts of 84 audio-recorded interpreter-mediated consultations in general practice. Patients' and GPs' perceived control, trust and satisfaction were assessed in a post consultation questionnaire. Informal interpreters most often performed the conduit role (almost 25% of all coded utterances), and also frequently acted as replacers and excluders of patients and GPs by asking and answering questions on their own behalf, and by ignoring and omitting patients' and GPs' utterances. The role of information source was negatively related to patients' trust and the role of GP excluder was negatively related to patients' perceived control. Patients and GPs are possibly insufficiently aware of the performed roles of informal interpreters, as these were barely related to patients' and GPs' perceived trust, control and satisfaction. Patients and GPs should be educated about the possible negative consequences of informal interpreting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining Multiple Forms Of Visual Information To Specify Contact Relations In Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Hal A.

    1990-03-01

    An expert system, called Layout2, has been described, which models a subset of available visual information for spatial layout. The system is used to examine detailed interactions between multiple, partially redundant forms of information in an environment-centered geometrical model of an environment obeying certain rather general constraints. This paper discusses the extension of Layout2 to include generalized contact relations between surfaces. In an environment-centered model, the representation of viewer-centered distance is replaced by the representation of environmental location. This location information is propagated through the representation of the environment by a network of contact relations between contiguous surfaces. Perspective information interacts with other forms of information to specify these contact relations. The experimental study of human perception of contact relations in extended spatial layouts is also discussed. Differences between human results and Layout2 results reveal limitations in the human ability to register available information; they also point to the existence of certain forms of information not yet formalized in Layout2.

  19. Permeability During Magma Expansion and Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge. M.; Giachetti, Thomas; Fliedner, Céline; Nguyen, Chinh T.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Crozier, Joshua A.; Carey, Rebecca J.

    2017-12-01

    Plinian lapilli from the 1060 Common Era Glass Mountain rhyolitic eruption of Medicine Lake Volcano, California, were collected and analyzed for vesicularity and permeability. A subset of the samples were deformed at a temperature of 975°, under shear and normal stress, and postdeformation porosities and permeabilities were measured. Almost all undeformed samples fall within a narrow range of vesicularity (0.7-0.9), encompassing permeabilities between approximately 10-15 m2 and 10-10 m2. A percolation threshold of approximately 0.7 is required to fit the data by a power law, whereas a percolation threshold of approximately 0.5 is estimated by fitting connected and total vesicularity using percolation modeling. The Glass Mountain samples completely overlap with a range of explosively erupted silicic samples, and it remains unclear whether the erupting magmas became permeable at porosities of approximately 0.7 or at lower values. Sample deformation resulted in compaction and vesicle connectivity either increased or decreased. At small strains permeability of some samples increased, but at higher strains permeability decreased. Samples remain permeable down to vesicularities of less than 0.2, consistent with a potential hysteresis in permeability-porosity between expansion (vesiculation) and compaction (outgassing). We attribute this to retention of vesicle interconnectivity, albeit at reduced vesicle size, as well as bubble coalescence during shear deformation. We provide an equation that approximates the change in permeability during compaction. Based on a comparison with data from effusively erupted silicic samples, we propose that this equation can be used to model the change in permeability during compaction of effusively erupting magmas.

  20. Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Information Entropy and Relative Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional principle component analysis (PCA, because of the neglect of the dimensions influence between different variables in the system, the selected principal components (PCs often fail to be representative. While the relative transformation PCA is able to solve the above problem, it is not easy to calculate the weight for each characteristic variable. In order to solve it, this paper proposes a kind of fault diagnosis method based on information entropy and Relative Principle Component Analysis. Firstly, the algorithm calculates the information entropy for each characteristic variable in the original dataset based on the information gain algorithm. Secondly, it standardizes every variable’s dimension in the dataset. And, then, according to the information entropy, it allocates the weight for each standardized characteristic variable. Finally, it utilizes the relative-principal-components model established for fault diagnosis. Furthermore, the simulation experiments based on Tennessee Eastman process and Wine datasets demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the new method.

  1. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Lisk, Stephen C; Mikita, Nina; Mitchell, Sophie; Huijding, Jorg; Rinck, Mike; Field, Andy P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on fear-related cognitive and behavioural responses about novel animals. One hundred and sixty children (7-11 years) were randomly allocated to receive: a) positive verbal information about one novel animal and threat information about a second novel animal (verbal information condition); b) approach-avoidance training in which they repeatedly pushed away (avoid) or pulled closer (approach) pictures of the animals (approach-avoidance training), c) a combined condition in which verbal information was given prior to approach-avoidance training (verbal information + approach-avoidance training) and d) a combined condition in which approach-avoidance training was given prior to verbal information (approach-avoidance training + verbal information). Threat and positive information significantly increased and decreased fear beliefs and avoidance behaviour respectively. Approach-avoidance training was successful in training the desired behavioural responses but had limited effects on fear-related responses. Verbal information and both combined conditions resulted in significantly larger effects than approach-avoidance training. We found no evidence for an additive effect of these pathways. This study used a non-clinical sample and focused on novel animals rather than animals about which children already had experience or established fears. The study also compared positive information/approach with threat information/avoid training, limiting specific conclusions regarding the independent effects of these conditions. The present study finds little evidence in support of a possible causal role for behavioural response training in the aetiology of childhood fear. However, the provision of verbal information appears to be an important pathway involved in the aetiology of childhood fear. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Information needs and requirements in patients with brain tumours and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Christiane; Rathberger, Katharina; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika; Kölbl, Oliver; Proescholdt, Martin; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Schuierer, Gerhard; Hutterer, Markus; Gerken, Michael; Hau, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Patients with brain tumours face a number of medical and social challenges. Previous studies have shown that these patients and their relatives need a high level of patient-oriented information and counselling. However, these needs are often underestimated. In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we evaluated, for the first time, the information needs of patients with brain tumours and their relatives depending on diagnosis, age and level of education. The participants were interviewed using pre-specified questionnaires. Answers were evaluated descriptively using standard statistical methods. A total of 888 questionnaires were sent out. The return rate was 50.7%. The majority of patients (nP = 103; 59.9%) and a higher proportion of relatives (nR = 103; 72.5%; p = 0.019) wished to receive a maximum of information. The majority (79.7% of patients; 83.1% of relatives) also stated that they preferred a personal, face-to-face meeting as primary source of information. The need for information increased with education (p = 0.015), and decreased with tumour grade (p = 0.025) and age (p = 0.118). Our data indicate that patients with brain tumours and their relatives have high information needs throughout their disease and continuously require information and counselling. Optimal provision of information is based on personal preferences, which needs to be evaluated appropriately. Patient-oriented information and counselling are parts of a successful communication strategy that can improve cancer care significantly.

  3. Information Retrieval System Design Issues in a Microcomputer-Based Relational DBMS Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Dietmar

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the file structure requirements for a microcomputer-based information retrieval system using FoxPro, a relational database management system (DBMS). Issues relating to the design and implementation of such systems are discussed, and two possible designs are examined in terms of space economy and practicality of implementation. (15…

  4. 77 FR 65702 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...-0037] Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Form Number I-730... request. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if... households. Form I- 730 will be used by an asylee or refugee to file on behalf of his or her spouse and/or...

  5. 77 FR 38307 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition, Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative...: Extension, without change, of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee...

  6. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. General practice in The Netherlands. A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients.

  7. People with epilepsy and their relatives want more information about risks of injuries and premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Oliver; Nakken, Karl O; Lossius, Morten I

    2018-05-01

    For most people with chronic diseases such as epilepsy, thorough knowledge of the disease is important in order to reduce feelings of insecurity and to enable better management of everyday life. Whether and when to inform patients and their families about all the risks associated with epilepsy is a matter of controversy. Using a web-based survey, patients with epilepsy (PWE) (n=1183) and carers, family members, or guardians of PWE, who could either answer on behalf of the patients (CBP) (n=676) or on their own behalf (CAR) (n=231) were asked whether they wanted information about the risk of epilepsy-related injuries and premature death and also whether they had received such information. Ninety percent or more of PWE, CBP, and CAR reported that they wanted such information, and 50% of CAR, 81% of CBP, and 70% of PWE had received some information about seizure-related injuries. Regarding risk of unexpected death, 31% of PWE, 35% of CBP, and 28% of CAR had received information on this issue. Those with tonic-clonic seizures were most eager to obtain information on these matters, and those best informed about epilepsy-related risks were males and the youngest part of the cohort. The wish for more information or the likelihood of having already received information was independent of the individual's seizure situation. This study demonstrates that there is a considerable gap between what the patients want regarding information and what they are actually given by healthcare providers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 62363 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bees and Related Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bees and Related Articles... an information collection associated with regulations for the importation of bees and related... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of bees and related articles, contact...

  9. Development of a classification scheme for disease-related enzyme information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söhngen Carola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase, http://www.brenda-enzymes.org is a major resource for enzyme related information. First and foremost, it provides data which are manually curated from the primary literature. DRENDA (Disease RElated ENzyme information DAtabase complements BRENDA with a focus on the automatic search and categorization of enzyme and disease related information from title and abstracts of primary publications. In a two-step procedure DRENDA makes use of text mining and machine learning methods. Results Currently enzyme and disease related references are biannually updated as part of the standard BRENDA update. 910,897 relations of EC-numbers and diseases were extracted from titles or abstracts and are included in the second release in 2010. The enzyme and disease entity recognition has been successfully enhanced by a further relation classification via machine learning. The classification step has been evaluated by a 5-fold cross validation and achieves an F1 score between 0.802 ± 0.032 and 0.738 ± 0.033 depending on the categories and pre-processing procedures. In the eventual DRENDA content every category reaches a classification specificity of at least 96.7% and a precision that ranges from 86-98% in the highest confidence level, and 64-83% for the smallest confidence level associated with higher recall. Conclusions The DRENDA processing chain analyses PubMed, locates references with disease-related information on enzymes and categorises their focus according to the categories causal interaction, therapeutic application, diagnostic usage and ongoing research. The categorisation gives an impression on the focus of the located references. Thus, the relation categorisation can facilitate orientation within the rapidly growing number of references with impact on diseases and enzymes. The DRENDA information is available as additional information in BRENDA.

  10. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  11. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  12. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  13. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  14. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhee; Kim, Heejung; Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-03-03

    Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers' needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of "health-related Internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose(s)," "Web-based resource(s)," and "online resources," combined with informal caregiver (or "parents") of "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower educated minorities. Most studies had methodological challenges resulting from

  15. Informal settlements and a relational view of health in Nairobi, Kenya: sanitation, gender and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Karanja, Irene

    2016-06-01

    On an urban planet, slums or informal settlements present an increasing challenge for health promotion. The living conditions in complex informal settlements interact with how people navigate through their daily lives and political institutions to shape health inequities. In this article, we suggest that only a relational place-based characterization of informal settlements can accurately capture the forces contributing to existing urban health inequities and inform appropriate and effective health promotion interventions. We explore our relational framework using household survey, spatial mapping and qualitative focus group data gathered in partnership with residents and non-governmental organizations in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. All data interpretation included participation with local residents and organizations. We focus on the inter-relationships between inadequate sanitation and disease, social, economic and human rights for women and girls, who we show are most vulnerable from poor slum infrastructure. We suggest that this collaborative process results in co-produced insights about the meanings and relationships between infrastructure, security, resilience and health. We conclude that complex informal settlements require relational and context-specific data gathering and analyses to understand the multiple determinants of health and to inform appropriate and effective healthy city interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Relating Maxwell’s demon and quantitative analysis of information leakage for practical imperative programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaria, Kushal; Mishra, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Shannon observed the relation between information entropy and Maxwell demon experiment to come up with information entropy formula. After that, Shannon’s entropy formula is widely used to measure information leakage in imperative programs. But in the present work, our aim is to go in a reverse direction and try to find possible Maxwell’s demon experimental setup for contemporary practical imperative programs in which variations of Shannon’s entropy formula has been applied to measure the information leakage. To establish the relation between the second principle of thermodynamics and quantitative analysis of information leakage, present work models contemporary variations of imperative programs in terms of Maxwell’s demon experimental setup. In the present work five contemporary variations of imperative program related to information quantification are identified. They are: (i) information leakage in imperative program, (ii) imperative multithreaded program, (iii) point to point leakage in the imperative program, (iv) imperative program with infinite observation, and (v) imperative program in the SOA-based environment. For these variations, minimal work required by an attacker to gain the secret is also calculated using historical Maxwell’s demon experiment. To model the experimental setup of Maxwell’s demon, non-interference security policy is used. In the present work, imperative programs with one-bit secret information have been considered to avoid the complexity. The findings of the present work from the history of physics can be utilized in many areas related to information flow of physical computing, nano-computing, quantum computing, biological computing, energy dissipation in computing, and computing power analysis. (paper)

  17. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  18. Comparison of Mass Transfer Models for Determination of the Intestinal Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Zakeri-Milani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: In determination of the permeability of the intestinal wall by external perfusion techniques, several models have been proposed. In the present study three models were used for experimental results that differ in their convection and diffusion assumptions. Material and Methods: Permeability coefficients for 13 compounds (metoprolol, propranolol, naproxen, ketoprofen, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, cimetidine, ranitidine, atenolol, piroxicam, antipyrine, ibuprofen and carbamazepine with known human intestinal permeability values were determined in anaesthetized rats by different mass transfer models and plotted versus the observed human intestinal permeabilities. Results: The calculated dimensionless wall permeability values were in the range of 0.37 - 4.85, 0.38-6.54 and 0.41-16.59 for complete radial mixing, mixing tank and laminar flow models respectively. The results indicated that all of the models work relatively well for our data despite fundamentally different assumptions. The wall permeabilities were in the order laminar flow > mixing tank > complete radial mixing. Conclusion: Although laminar flow model provides the most direct measure of the intrinsic wall permeability, it has limitations for highly permeable drugs such as ibuprofen. The normal physiological hydrodynamics is more complex and more investigation is required to find out the real hydrodynamics.

  19. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  20. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  1. Relative cue encoding in the context of sophisticated models of categorization: Separating information from categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S; McMurray, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Traditional studies of human categorization often treat the processes of encoding features and cues as peripheral to the question of how stimuli are categorized. However, in domains where the features and cues are less transparent, how information is encoded prior to categorization may constrain our understanding of the architecture of categorization. This is particularly true in speech perception, where acoustic cues to phonological categories are ambiguous and influenced by multiple factors. Here, it is crucial to consider the joint contributions of the information in the input and the categorization architecture. We contrasted accounts that argue for raw acoustic information encoding with accounts that posit that cues are encoded relative to expectations, and investigated how two categorization architectures-exemplar models and back-propagation parallel distributed processing models-deal with each kind of information. Relative encoding, akin to predictive coding, is a form of noise reduction, so it can be expected to improve model accuracy; however, like predictive coding, the use of relative encoding in speech perception by humans is controversial, so results are compared to patterns of human performance, rather than on the basis of overall accuracy. We found that, for both classes of models, in the vast majority of parameter settings, relative cues greatly helped the models approximate human performance. This suggests that expectation-relative processing is a crucial precursor step in phoneme categorization, and that understanding the information content is essential to understanding categorization processes.

  2. Public support for energy sources and related technologies: The impact of simple information provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobman, Elizabeth V.; Ashworth, Peta

    2013-01-01

    Increasing public awareness and understanding of alternative energy sources and related technologies is an essential component of informed decision-making regarding new options of generating energy for a low carbon future. The current study examined the influence of psychological factors (i.e., pro-environmental beliefs, and subjective norms) and the provision of factual information on public support for a range of energy sources and related technologies. A representative sample of 1907 Australians completed an on-line survey that measured perceptions of a range of climate change and energy issues. Results showed that support for renewables is stronger than support for traditional fossil-fuel based energy sources (i.e., coal or gas) or nuclear energy. The provision of factual information about generation cost and emissions significantly changed support ratings, particularly when cost information was provided. Regression analyses revealed that pro-environmental beliefs were significantly related to support ratings for alternative energy sources. Subjective norms, however, were the strongest positive explanatory factor, suggesting that social mechanisms may be key drivers of support for new and emerging energy sources and related technologies. - Highlights: • We examine support for a wide range of energy sources and technologies. • Support changes when information on cost and emissions is provided. • Pro-environmental beliefs and social norms positively relate to support

  3. Pregnant Women Sharing Pregnancy-Related Information on Facebook: Web-Based Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Tammy

    2018-03-22

    Research indicates expectant and new mothers use the Internet, specifically social media, to gain information and support during the transition to parenthood. Although parents regularly share information about and photos of their child or children on Facebook, researchers have neither explored the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information nor investigated factors that influence such sharing. The aim of this study was to address a gap in the literature by exploring the use of Facebook by pregnant women. Specifically, the study examined the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information, as well as any association between prenatal attachment and the aforementioned aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook. Pregnant women who were at least 18 years of age were recruited for participation in the study through posts and paid advertisements on Facebook and posts to professional organization listservs. Individuals interested in participating were directed to a secure Web-based survey system where they completed the consent form and the survey that focused on their current pregnancy. Participants completed the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale and answered questions that assessed how often they shared pregnancy-related information on Facebook, who they shared it with, why they shared it, and what they shared. A total of 117 pregnant women completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the pregnancy announcement was most commonly shared (75/108, 69.4%), with most women sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook less than monthly (52/117, 44.4%) with only family and friends (90/116, 77.6% and 91/116, 78.4%, respectively) and for the purpose of involving others or sharing the experience (62/107, 57.9%). Correlation and regression analyses showed that prenatal attachment, in general, was positively and significantly related to all aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information at the PFacebook for a variety of

  4. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  5. Data Aggregation System: A system for information retrieval on demand over relational and non-relational distributed data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, G. [Imperial Coll., London; Kuznetsov, V. [Cornell U.; Evans, D. [Fermilab; Metson, S. [Bristol U.

    2011-01-01

    We present the Data Aggregation System, a system for information retrieval and aggregation from heterogenous sources of relational and non-relational data for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment on the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment currently has a number of organically-developed data sources, including front-ends to a number of different relational databases and non-database data services which do not share common data structures or APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), and cannot at this stage be readily converged. DAS provides a single interface for querying all these services, a caching layer to speed up access to expensive underlying calls and the ability to merge records from different data services pertaining to a single primary key.

  6. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  7. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  8. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  9. The Emergence of Knowledge and How it Supports the Memory for Novel Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Current theories suggest that memories for novel information and events, over time and with repeated retrieval, lose the association to their initial learning context. They are consolidated into a more stable form and transformed into semantic knowledge, that is, semanticized. Novel, related information can then be rapidly integrated into such knowledge, leading to superior memory. We tested these hypotheses in a longitudinal, 302-day, human functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which participants first overlearned and consolidated associative structures. This phase was associated with a shift from hippocampal- to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)-mediated retrieval, consistent with semanticization. Next, participants encoded novel, related information whose encoding into the already acquired knowledge was orchestrated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Novel related information exhibited reduced forgetting compared with novel control information, which corresponded to a faster shift from hippocampal- to vlPFC-mediated retrieval. In sum, the current results suggest that memory for novel information can be enhanced by anchoring it to prior knowledge via acceleration of the processes observed during semanticization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n = 79 and their family members (n = 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that

  11. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n= 79 and their family members (n= 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that although

  12. Permeable Barrier Materials for Strontium Immobilization: - UFA Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. - Column Sorption Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, T

    1996-01-01

    Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the: (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium in Hanford groundwater...

  13. Information related to postal flows and big data analysis potential. The case of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alvaro, O.; Nuñez Gonzalez, A.

    2016-07-01

    National Post Offices manage huge volumes of letters and parcels. Data associated to these flows are growing fast, with a great variety related to the diversity of postal products. The research described in this paper has classified all information flows of Correos, the Spanish National Post Office. In spite of the complexity of the current postal service portfolio, only four categories of matrices allow the classification of all postal information flows. Thanks to the migration towards new products, analyses with simple techniques will provide more and better information in the future, due to the structured nature of existing databases. (Author)

  14. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  15. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  16. Understanding and retention of trial-related information among participants in a clinical trial after completing the informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexas, Fernanda; Efron, Anne; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Chaisson, Richard E; Conde, Marcus B

    2014-02-01

    for assessing the level of understanding of trial-related information during the informed consent (IC) process in developing countries are lacking. To assess the understanding and retention of trial-related information presented in the IC process by administering an informed consent assessment instrument (ICAI) to participants in a clinical trial for a new tuberculosis (TB) regimen being conducted in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Methods The format of the ICAI was based on the language and structure of the United States National Cancer Institute's IC comprehension checklist. The ICAI was designed to assess points of the RioMAR study IC process that addressed the principles of research ethics requested by Brazilian Regulatory Authority: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Briefly, (1) Is the respondent participating in a clinical trial? (2) Are two different treatments being evaluated? (3) Is the treatment arm chosen by chance? (4) Is an HIV test required? (5) Are liver function tests required? (6) Can participants leave the study at any time? (7) Are the risks and benefits of taking part in the study clear? (8) May pregnant women participate in the study? (9) Can one of the study drugs reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives? (10) Are patients paid to participate in the study? The ICAI was applied at two time points: immediately after enrollment in the clinical trial and 2 months later. A total of 61 patients who enrolled in the RioMAR study participated in this study. The percentage of correct answers to all questions was 82% at the time of the first ICAI; 31 participants (51%) did not recall that an HIV test was required (question 4) and 43 (70%) did not know that they could leave the study (question 6). Other individual questions were answered correctly by at least 76% of participants. There was no association between incorrect answers and age, gender, monthly family income, neighborhood, or level of education (p > 0.07). When the responses to the

  17. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  18. Perceptions of Health-Related Information on Facebook: Cross-Sectional Study Among Vietnamese Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Tran, Bach Xuan; Le, Huong Thi; Nguyen, Hinh Duc; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Tran, Tho Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Ho, Roger Cm

    2017-09-07

    While health information websites may have previously been the core source of information about health-related conditions on the Internet, social networking sites are increasingly replacing those websites as a source of health-related information. The increasingly popularity of social networking sites among the general population has consequential impact on health policies as well as health-related interventions. To date, there remains a paucity of research conducted in developing countries like Vietnam looking at the influence of social networking sites. Our goal is to establish the baseline use of Facebook among Vietnamese youths and establish their perception of the reliability and usefulness of health-related information that they previously encountered while using the social networking site. An online cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2015 to October 2015. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique was used in the recruitment of participants. Sociodemographic, health status, behaviors, Facebook use and belief of information on Facebook, and interpersonal influence of social network sites were collected via an online structured questionnaire. Among 1080 participants, 72.87% (787/1080) reported being interested in health information on Facebook, and 50.74% (548/1080) and 17.50% (189/1080) perceived the information to be reliable and useful, respectively. A total of 10.93% (118/1080) of the participants also reported that they would follow the health advice they obtained from Facebook. Of significance, 7.13% (77/1080) of the participants also reported peer influences on their behavior. Factors that mediate Vietnamese perceptions of the information online include gender, level of perceived stress, age, educational level, and interpersonal influences from Facebook. Our study is perhaps one of the first conducted in Vietnam that looks at the relationship between health information on Facebook and factors that might influence young Vietnamese

  19. Borehole stoneley waves and permeability: Laboratory results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.W.; Plona, T.J.; Froelich, B.; Liu, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent interest in full waveform sonic logging has created the need for full waveform laboratory experiments on model boreholes. Of particular interest is the investigation of Stoneley waves and their interaction with permeable formations. The authors describe experimental results that show how Stoneley wave slowness and attenuation are affected by formation permeability. Both slowness and attenuation (1/Q) are observed to increase with formation permeability. This increase is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. The presence of simulated mudcakes on the borehole wall reduces the permeability effect on Stoneley waves, but does not eliminate it. The mudcake effect is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. In our experiments on rocks, the laboratory data is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. In a very well characterized synthetic porous material, theory and experiment are in good quantitative agreement

  20. Octopus microvasculature: permeability to ferritin and carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, J

    1979-01-01

    The permeability of Octopus microvasculature was investigated by intravascular injection of carbon and ferritin. Vessels were tight to carbon while ferritin penetrated the pericyte junction, and was found extravascularly 1-2 min after its introduction. Vesicles occurred rarely in pericytes; fenestrae were absent. The discontinuous endothelial layer did not consitute a permeability barrier. The basement membrane, although retarding the movement of ferritin, was permeable to it; carbon did not penetrate the basement membrane. Evidence indicated that ferritin, and thus similarly sized and smaller water soluble materials, traverse the pericyte junction as a result of bulk fluid flow. Comparisons are made with the convective (or junctional) and slower, diffusive (or vesicular) passage of materials known to occur across the endothelium of continuous capillaries in mammals. Previous macrophysiological determinations concerning the permeability of Octopus vessels are questioned in view of these findings. Possible reasons for some major structural differences in the microcirculatory systems of cephalopods and vertebrates are briefly discussed.

  1. Dentin Permeability of Carious Primary Teeth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary dental pulp make it difficult to determine which modality offers the best ... The most common pathology of the dentine is dental caries. ... to evaluate dentine permeability is to calculate its hydraulic conductance (Lp) using fluid filtration ...

  2. Permeability After Impact Testing of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Since composite laminates are beginning to be identified for use in reusable launch vehicle propulsion systems, an understanding of their permeance is needed. A foreign object impact event can cause a localized area of permeability (leakage) in a polymer matrix composite and it is the aim of this study to assess a method of quantifying permeability-after-impact results. A simple test apparatus is presented and variables that could affect the measured values of permeability-after-impact were assessed. Once it was determined that valid numbers were being measured, a fiber/resin system was impacted at various impact levels and the resulting permeability measured, first with a leak check solution (qualitative) then using the new apparatus (quantitative). The results showed that as the impact level increased, so did the measured leakage. As the pressure to the specimen was increased, the leak rate was seen to increase in a non-linear fashion for almost all of the specimens tested.

  3. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  4. Surface sedimentation at permeable pavement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Jan; Dam, Torben; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2018-01-01

    Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance of restorat......Newly installed permeable pavement (PP) systems provide high surface infiltration capacity, but the accumulation of sediments causes a decrease in capacity over time, eventually leading to surface clogging. With the aim of investigating local sedimentation processes and the importance...

  5. Permeability and stress-jump effects on magnetic drug targeting in a permeable microvessel using Darcy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, S., E-mail: sachinshaw@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistical Sciences, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private Bag 16, Palapye (Botswana); Sutradhar, A.; Murthy, PVSN [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2017-05-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the influence of permeability of the carrier particle and stress jump condition on the porous spherical surface in magnetic drug targeting through a permeable microvessel. The nature of blood is defined by non-Newtonian Casson fluid in the core region of the microvessel and Newtonian fluid in the peripheral region which is located near the surface of the wall of the microvessel. The magnetic particles are considered as spherical and in nanosize, embedded in the carrier particle along with drug particles. A magnet is placed near the tumor position to generate a magnetic field. The relative motion of the carrier particle is the resultant of the fluidic force, magnetic force and Saffman drag force which are calculated for the spherical carrier particle. Trajectories of the carrier particle along the radial and axial direction are calculated. Effect of different parameters such as stress-jump constant, permeability of the carrier particle, pressure gradient, yield stress, Saffman force, volume fraction of the embedded magnetic nanoparticles, permeability of the microvessel wall, and the radius of the carrier particle on the trajectory of the carrier particle are discussed and displayed graphically. - Highlights: • In the present manuscript, we considered the porous carrier particle which provide a larger surface area contact with the fluid than the solid spherical carrier particle. It shows that the porous carrier particle are captured easily than the solid carrier particle. • Introduce Suffman force on the carrier particle which commences an additional resistance which acts opposite to the surface wall and helps the particles to go away from the tumor position. • Considered stress jump condition at the surface of the porous carrier particle which enhanced the tendency of the carrier particle to be capture near the tumor. • Used Darcy model to define the permeability of the wall of the microvessel.

  6. Characterization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine-Related Consultations in an Academic Drug Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Philip J; Jalloh, Mohamed A; Abe, Andrew M; Hu, James; Hein, Darren J

    2016-12-01

    To characterize requests received through an academic drug information consultation service related to complementary and alternative medicines. A retrospective review and descriptive analysis of drug information consultations was conducted. A total of 195 consultations related to complementary and alternative medicine were evaluated. All consultation requests involved questions about dietary supplements. The most common request types were related to safety and tolerability (39%), effectiveness (38%), and therapeutic use (34%). Sixty-eight percent of the requests were from pharmacists. The most frequent consultation requests from pharmacists were questions related to drug interactions (37%), therapeutic use (37%), or stability/compatibility/storage (34%). Nearly 60% of complementary and alternative medicine-related consultation requests were able to be completely addressed using available resources. Among review sources, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, and Pharmacist's Letter were the most common resources used to address consultations. Utilization of a drug information service may be a viable option for health care professionals to help answer a complementary and alternative medicine-related question. Additionally, pharmacists and other health care professionals may consider acquiring resources identified to consistently answering these questions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN and feedback-related negativity (FRN components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process.

  8. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  9. A 3-Factor Model Relating Communication to Risk Mitigation of Extended Information System Failover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Podaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the relation between timely and effective communication and risk mitigation of late recovery after an unexpected information system outage in enterprises. An unforeseen information system failure in modern enterprise units, may result to significant operational and financial damage. In such a critical incident, effective communication between the team leaders and the recovery team involved, can minimize or even eliminate this negative impact. An extended information system outage can be perceived as a time deviation from the Maximum Accepted Outage (ΜΑΟ timeframe, proposed by the business continuity management, according to the value of which dependent business functions may be interrupted without any serious effects to the company. The paper examines the relation between 3 basic factors and the efficient communication between team members. The factors are: timely information distribution, staff availability and network availability. Through the current paper, the author proposes a risk analysis model, based on the Composite Risk Index theory of Risk Management, which can significantly diminish the possibility of an extended information system outage, as well as calculate the extended time required to recover a system when the aforementioned factors emerge in their worst form. The precise calculation of recovery time can be achieved via the execution of business continuity tests which include scenarios, according to which an unexpected system outage coexists with delayed information distribution as well as low staff and network availability.

  10. Legal framework related to access to information and public participation on nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M. C.; Bernaldez, A.L.; Ghiggeri, M.; Tula, C.

    2011-01-01

    The right of access to information by citizens about activities related to scientific and technological development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, has evolved over time. Governments began to perceive the necessity and the benefits of informing the community, who manifested certain prejudices about nuclear activity as a consequence of the propelling of nuclear bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. With the advent of environmental law and the influence of its principles, the idea of transparency of information in the nuclear field was imposed, and also the importance of both the inhabitants of countries with nuclear developments and neighbouring countries who may be affected by the bordering effects of ionizing radiation, could have access to information and to participate actively. The access to information and citizen participation has been institutionalized and reflected in international regulations through international conventions subscribed by our country and nationally through the National Constitution, the Provincials Constitutions, the City of Buenos Aires Constitution, Laws No. 25.675, 25.831 and PEN Decree No. 1172/03, among others. The present work aims to make an overview of the legal framework related to access to information on nuclear activity. (authors) [es

  11. Defining clogging potential for permeable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Alalea; Wong, Hong S; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2018-08-15

    Permeable concrete is used to reduce urban flooding as it allows water to flow through normally impermeable infrastructure. It is prone to clogging by particulate matter and predicting the long-term performance of permeable concrete is challenging as there is currently no reliable means of characterising clogging potential. This paper reports on the performance of a range of laboratory-prepared and commercial permeable concretes, close packed glass spheres and aggregate particles of varying size, exposed to different clogging methods to understand this phenomena. New methods were developed to study clogging and define clogging potential. The tests involved applying flowing water containing sand and/or clay in cycles, and measuring the change in permeability. Substantial permeability reductions were observed in all samples, particularly when exposed to sand and clay simultaneously. Three methods were used to define clogging potential based on measuring the initial permeability decay, half-life cycle and number of cycles to full clogging. We show for the first time strong linear correlations between these parameters for a wide range of samples, indicating their use for service-life prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R J

    1991-08-01

    Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Cell permeability beyond the rule of 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsson, Pär; Doak, Bradley C; Over, Björn; Kihlberg, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Drug discovery for difficult targets that have large and flat binding sites is often better suited to compounds beyond the "rule of 5" (bRo5). However, such compounds carry higher pharmacokinetic risks, such as low solubility and permeability, and increased efflux and metabolism. Interestingly, recent drug approvals and studies suggest that cell permeable and orally bioavailable drugs can be discovered far into bRo5 space. Tactics such as reduction or shielding of polarity by N-methylation, bulky side chains and intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be used to increase cell permeability in this space, but often results in decreased solubility. Conformationally flexible compounds can, however, combine high permeability and solubility, properties that are keys for cell permeability and intestinal absorption. Recent developments in computational conformational analysis will aid design of such compounds and hence prediction of cell permeability. Transporter mediated efflux occurs for most investigated drugs in bRo5 space, however it is commonly overcome by high local intestinal concentrations on oral administration. In contrast, there is little data to support significant impact of transporter-mediated intestinal absorption in bRo5 space. Current knowledge of compound properties that govern transporter effects of bRo5 drugs is limited and requires further fundamental and comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Permeability of Granite Including Macro-Fracture Naturally Filled with Fine-Grained Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kato, Masaji; Niri, Ryuhei; Kohno, Masanori; Sato, Toshinori; Fukuda, Daisuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Information on the permeability of rock is essential for various geoengineering projects, such as geological disposal of radioactive wastes, hydrocarbon extraction, and natural hazard risk mitigation. It is especially important to investigate how fractures and pores influence the physical and transport properties of rock. Infiltration of groundwater through the damage zone fills fractures in granite with fine-grained minerals. However, the permeability of rock possessing a fracture naturally filled with fine-grained mineral grains has yet to be investigated. In this study, the permeabilities of granite samples, including a macro-fracture filled with clay and a mineral vein, are investigated. The permeability of granite with a fine-grained mineral vein agrees well with that of the intact sample, whereas the permeability of granite possessing a macro-fracture filled with clay is lower than that of the macro-fractured sample. The decrease in the permeability is due to the filling of fine-grained minerals and clay in the macro-fracture. It is concluded that the permeability of granite increases due to the existence of the fractures, but decreases upon filling them with fine-grained minerals.

  15. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  16. 17 CFR 37.8 - Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information relating to transactions on derivatives transaction execution facilities. 37.8 Section 37.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.8...

  17. 78 FR 72151 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Information Collection Tools Relating to Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery. AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the collection of qualitative...: Title: Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery OMB Number: 1545-NEW. Form Number...

  18. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)

  19. Social Information Processing in Children: Specific Relations to Anxiety, Depression, and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.; Allwood, Maureen A.; Swenson, Lance P.; Early, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined shared and unique relations of social information processing (SIP) to youth's anxious and depressive symptoms. Whether SIP added unique variance over and above trait affect in predicting internalizing symptoms was also examined. In Study 1, 215 youth (ages 8-13) completed symptom measures of anxiety and depression and a…

  20. Text Processing of Domain-Related Information for Individuals with High and Low Domain Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilich, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The way in which previously acquired knowledge affects the processing on new domain-related information was investigated. Text processing was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of the domain of baseball. A knowledge structure for the domain was constructed, and text propositions were classified. (SW)

  1. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  2. What really matters: An inquiry into the relative importance of dimensions of informal caregiver burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exel, N.J.A. van; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Berg, B. van den; Koopmanschap, M.A.; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prevailing measures of subjective caregiver burden either have no overall summary score or do not consider the relative importance caregivers attach to different dimensions of burden. Our aim was to assess which dimensions informal caregivers perceive as being important to their overall

  3. What really matters: an inquiry into the relative importance of dimensions of informal caregiver burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Exel, N. J. A.; Brouwer, W. B. F.; van den Berg, B.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Prevailing measures of subjective caregiver burden either have no overall summary score or do not consider the relative importance caregivers attach to different dimensions of burden. Our aim was to assess which dimensions informal caregivers perceive as being important to their overall

  4. 36 CFR 1256.58 - Information related to law enforcement investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information related to law enforcement investigations. 1256.58 Section 1256.58 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.58...

  5. 78 FR 5828 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-0028] Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition To Classify Orphan as an Immediate Relative, Form I-600; Application for Advance Processing of Orphan Petition, Form I-600A; Listing of Adult Member... are encouraged and will be accepted until February 27, 2013. This process is conducted in accordance...

  6. 78 FR 3499 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    .... In regard to online services, this feedback will provide insights into customer preferences for... Information Collection Tools Relating to Customer Satisfaction Surveys AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... use a data-driven approach to understanding customer satisfaction at the Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  7. On the Determinants of Employment-Related Organised Education and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Staffan; Rubenson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of employment-related organised education and informal learning in the Canadian workforce. The paper draws on a large-scale survey, the Changing Nature of Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL), which was based on structured and standardised telephone interviews with a representative sample of 5783 Canadian members…

  8. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  9. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  10. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on upgrade on nuclear control related open source information website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. T.; Park, S. S.; Park, W. S.; Choi, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    The open source information relevant to the nuclear control is regularly collected, analyzed, and published to the three web sites by the Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These web sites are world-wide, KAERI-wide, and TCNC-wide, respectively. We are to upgrade the KAERI-wide website to the access-controlled world-wide web site with some additional functionality. In this research, the current status of the three nuclear control related open source information websites managed by the TCNC was introduced and methods for upgrading the KAERI-wide open source information website and associated information security technology were reviewed

  12. Event-related potential N270 as an index of social information conflict in explicit processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tan, Chen-Hao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yi-Bo; Luo, Jun-Long

    2018-01-01

    As N270 has been widely shown to be sensitive to nonsocial information conflict, the present study investigated whether social information conflict can elicit increased N270 in either explicit or implicit processing conditions. Gender stereotype-related picture-word pairs and picture-word pairs in specific colors were used as social and nonsocial information, respectively. Participants performed an explicit task based on the S1-S2 paradigm in Study 1, and both social and nonsocial information conditions elicited larger N270 than the no-conflict condition. In Study 2, participants performed a word judgment task that was modified from the S1-S2 paradigm of Study 1. However, neither social information nor nonsocial information elicited larger N270 within the conflict condition. Social trials generally elicited a more negative ERP waveform than nonsocial trials overall. These findings suggest that N270 may reflect the processing of social information conflict only in explicit conditions and also that the cognitive basis of N270 is thus a general but explicit processing of working memory representation conflict. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  14. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  15. [Perceived satisfaction and usefulness of suicide prevention information for patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triñanes, Y; Senra-Rivera, C; Seoane-Pesqueira, G; González-García, A; Álvarez-Ariza, M; de-Las-Heras-Liñero, E; Atienza, G

    2014-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction of persons with suicidal behaviour and their relatives using patient information material included in the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Suicidal Behaviour. The sample was made up of 57 patients with suicidal ideation or behaviour, and 52 relatives. The participants were recruited through a suicide prevention programme (Programa de intervención intensiva en conducta suicida [PII] - Suicidal Behaviour Intensive Intervention Programme) and a family association (Federación de Asociaciones de Familiares y Personas con enfermedad mental de Galicia [FEAFES] - Galician Federation of Associations of Relatives and Persons with mental diseases). An ad-hoc questionnaire was designed to ascertain the degree of perceived satisfaction and usefulness of using the information included in the guidelines. The descriptive data of the sample is presented, along with an exploratory factorial analysis of the questionnaire that yielded two dimensions, i.e., format and usefulness. Patients scored significantly lower than the relatives in two dimensions; nevertheless, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the level of general satisfaction. The socio-demographic variables did not influence the results. Similarly, no differences were observed between patients with and without history of suicidal behaviour. Participants stressed that Primary Care was the setting best suited for dissemination of this type of information. In general, both patients and relatives displayed a high level of satisfaction with the patient information material assessed. Furnishing information of this type to patients with suicidal ideation and/or behaviour could act as a preventive-educational tool. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Permeability computation on a REV with an immersed finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laure, P.; Puaux, G.; Silva, L.; Vincent, M.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method to compute permeability of fibrous media is presented. An immersed domain approach is used to represent the porous material at its microscopic scale and the flow motion is computed with a stabilized mixed finite element method. Therefore the Stokes equation is solved on the whole domain (including solid part) using a penalty method. The accuracy is controlled by refining the mesh around the solid-fluid interface defined by a level set function. Using homogenisation techniques, the permeability of a representative elementary volume (REV) is computed. The computed permeabilities of regular fibre packings are compared to classical analytical relations found in the bibliography.

  17. Experimental Verification of a Jarzynski-Related Information-Theoretic Equality by a Single Trapped Ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, T P; Yan, L L; Zhou, F; Rehan, K; Liang, D F; Chen, L; Yang, W L; Ma, Z H; Feng, M; Vedral, V

    2018-01-05

    Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements. By considering both initially pure and mixed states, respectively, we verify, in an exact and fundamental fashion, the nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics relevant to the mutual information and Jarzynski equality.

  18. Smooth handling: the lack of safety-related consumer information in car advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2007-10-01

    To examine the content and trends of safety-related consumer information in magazine vehicle advertisements, as a case study within the worldwide marketing of vehicles. Content analysis of popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the 5-year period 2001-2005 was undertaken (n = 514 advertisements), supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Safety information in advertisements for light passenger vehicles was relatively uncommon with only 27% mentioning one or more of nine key safety features examined (average: 1.7 out of nine features in this 27%). Also included were potentially hazardous features of: speed imagery (in 29% of advertisements), power references (14%), and acceleration data (4%). The speed and power aspects became relatively more common over the 5-year period (p advertisements and vehicle marketing - as already occurs with many other consumer products.

  19. Pregnant Women Sharing Pregnancy-Related Information on Facebook: Web-Based Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Research indicates expectant and new mothers use the Internet, specifically social media, to gain information and support during the transition to parenthood. Although parents regularly share information about and photos of their child or children on Facebook, researchers have neither explored the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information nor investigated factors that influence such sharing. Objective The aim of this study was to address a gap in the literature by exploring the use of Facebook by pregnant women. Specifically, the study examined the use of Facebook to share pregnancy-related information, as well as any association between prenatal attachment and the aforementioned aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook. Methods Pregnant women who were at least 18 years of age were recruited for participation in the study through posts and paid advertisements on Facebook and posts to professional organization listservs. Individuals interested in participating were directed to a secure Web-based survey system where they completed the consent form and the survey that focused on their current pregnancy. Participants completed the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale and answered questions that assessed how often they shared pregnancy-related information on Facebook, who they shared it with, why they shared it, and what they shared. Results A total of 117 pregnant women completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the pregnancy announcement was most commonly shared (75/108, 69.4%), with most women sharing pregnancy-related information on Facebook less than monthly (52/117, 44.4%) with only family and friends (90/116, 77.6% and 91/116, 78.4%, respectively) and for the purpose of involving others or sharing the experience (62/107, 57.9%). Correlation and regression analyses showed that prenatal attachment, in general, was positively and significantly related to all aspects of sharing pregnancy-related information

  20. Internet use by pregnant women seeking pregnancy-related information: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2016-03-28

    The Internet has become one of the most popular sources of information for health consumers and pregnant women are no exception. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the ways in which pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information. We conducted a systematic review to answer this question. In November 2014, electronic databases: Scopus, Medline, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed were searched for papers with the terms "Internet"; "pregnancy"; "health information seeking", in the title, abstract or as keywords. Restrictions were placed on publication to within 10 years and language of publication was restricted to English. Quantitative studies were sought, that reported original research and described Internet use by pregnant women. Seven publications met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sample size ranged from 182 - 1347 pregnant women. The majority of papers reported that women used the Internet as a source of information about pregnancy. Most women searched for information at least once a month. Fetal development and nutrition in pregnancy were the most often mentioned topics of interest. One paper included in this review found that women with higher education were three times more likely to seek advice than women with less than a high school education, and also that single and multiparous women were less likely to seek advice than married and nulliparous women. The majority of women found health information on the Internet to be reliable and useful. Most women did not discuss the information they retrieved from the Internet with their health providers. Thus, health providers may not be aware of potentially inaccurate information or mistaken beliefs about pregnancy, reported on the Internet. Future research is needed to address this issue of potentially unreliable information.

  1. Look Who's Talking. Explaining Water-Related Information Sharing and Demand for Action Among Ugandan Villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara; Molenaers, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Many national water policies propagate community-based participatory approaches to overcome weaknesses in supply-driven rural water provision, operation, and maintenance. Citizen involvement is thought to stimulate bottom-up accountability and broaden the information base, which may enrich design and implementation processes and foster improved water accessibility and sustainability. Practices on the ground, however, are embedded in socio-political realities which mediate possible beneficial effects of participatory approaches. This paper builds on full social network data collected in a Ugandan village to study the social and political reality of two distinct levels of participation, i.e. local information sharing among citizens and a more active appeal to fellow citizens to improve water services. We use Logistic Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure to explore what type of actor and network traits influence information sharing and whether the same factors are in play in the demand for action to remedy water-related problems. Whereas social aspects (social support relations) and homophily (using the same water source, the same gender) play an important role in information sharing, it is the educational level, in particular, of the villager who is called upon that is important when villagers demand action. Our findings also demonstrate that those most in need of safe water do not mobilize their information sharing ties to demand for action. This indicates that building local water policies and practice exclusively on locally existing demand for action may fail to capture the needs of the most deprived citizens.

  2. Key Health Information Technologies and Related Issues for Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) requires applying a systematic approach when conducting foresight studies. The aim of this study was to identify key health information technologies and related issues for Iran until 2025. This was a qualitative study and the participants included experts and policy makers in the field of health information technology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by using framework analysis and MAXQDA software. The findings revealed that the development of national health information network, electronic health records, patient health records, a cloud-based service center, interoperability standards, patient monitoring technologies, telehealth, mhealth, clinical decision support systems, health information technology and mhealth infrastructure were found to be the key technologies for the future. These technologies could influence the economic, organizational and individual levels. To achieve them, the economic and organizational obstacles need to be overcome. In this study, a number of key technologies and related issues were identified. This approach can help to focus on the most important technologies in the future and to priorities these technologies for better resource allocation and policy making.

  3. PERMEABILITY OF SAVCIBEY DAM (BİLECİK AXIS LOCATION AND DESIGN OF GROUT CURTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Can Canoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study comprise the design of the planned grout curtain in Savcıbey Dam (Söğüt/Bilecik in order to provide impermeability along the dam axis. Within the context of field studies, engineering geology map was generated, ground investigation drilling was realized and permeability tests were performed. Within the field studies, the joint conditions of the geological units (Triassic aged Bozuyük Metamorphic schists under the dam axis and its effect on permeability was observed considering the positions of the discontinuities with regard to the dam axis location. Orientation of discontinuities generally have strikes changing between N – S and NNE – SSW. 5 boreholes on dam axis, 2 boreholes on cofferdam, 3 boreholes on diversion tunnel and 2 boreholes on spillway total 245 m ground investigation borehole were drilled. In order to determine the permeability profile of dam axis and design the grout curtain, Lugeon tests in Bozuyük Metamorphic units observed in dam axis, falling head permeability tests in alluviums observed in thalveg and slope debris observed in right abutment were performed. Lugeon tests realized in Bozuyük Metamorphic units show that the unit is generally permeable and partly low permeable. Alluvium and slope debris are highly permeable. In addition, drilling works realized in dam axis shows that the augmentation of the weathering degree cause an increase of permeability in Triassic aged Bozüyük Metamorphic schists. As a result of these studies information about the permeability of Savcıbey Dam was collected and the grout curtain hole was designed. Accordingly, it is predicted that approximately 40 m depth of grout curtain from the stripping excavation with the depth of 1.50 m would prevent the possible leakages.

  4. Disclosing genetic information to at-risk relatives: new Australian privacy principles, but uniformity still elusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2015-04-06

    There is growing understanding of the need for genetic information to be shared with genetic relatives in some circumstances. Since 2006, s 95AA of the Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth) has permitted the disclosure of genetic information to genetic relatives without the patient's consent, provided that the health practitioner reasonably believes that disclosure is necessary to lessen or prevent a serious threat to the life, health or safety of the genetic relatives. Enabling guidelines were introduced in 2009. These were limited to the private sector, and excluded doctors working in the public sector at both Commonwealth and state and territory levels. Privacy legislation was amended in March 2014, and new Australian Privacy Principles, which replace the National Privacy Principles and Information Privacy Principles, now cover the collection and use of personal information. The Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles now extend to practitioners employed by the Commonwealth but not to health practitioners working in state and territory public hospitals. In this article, I review these legislative developments and highlight the implications of the lack of uniformity and the consequent need for a collaborative, uniform approach by states and territories.

  5. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  6. Immediate relativity: EEG reveals early engagement of comparison in social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmann, Katharina; Stahl, Jutta; Mussweiler, Thomas; Kedia, Gayannée

    2016-11-01

    A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension. Here, we manipulated the distance of face characteristics regarding their levels of attractiveness (Study 1) and trustworthiness (Study 2), 2 essential social dimensions. In both studies, size comparisons served as a nonsocial control condition. In Study 1, distance related effects were apparent 170 ms (vertex positive potential, VPP) and 200 ms (N2) after stimulus onset for attractiveness comparisons. In Study 2, trustworthiness comparisons took effect already after 100 ms (N1) and likewise carried over to an event-related N2. Remarkably, we observed a similar temporal pattern for social (attractiveness, trustworthiness) and nonsocial (size) dimensions. These results speak in favor of an early encoding of comparative information and emphasize the primary role of comparison in social information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Extraction and Analysis of Information Related to Research & Development Declared Under an Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idinger, J.; Labella, R.; Rialhe, A.; Teller, N.

    2015-01-01

    The additional protocol (AP) provides important tools to strengthen and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards system. Safeguards are designed to verify that States comply with their international commitments not to use nuclear material or to engage in nuclear-related activities for the purpose of developing nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Under an AP based on INFCIRC/540, a State must provide to the IAEA additional information about, and inspector access to, all parts of its nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the State has to supply information about its nuclear fuel cycle-related research and development (R&D) activities. The majority of States declare their R&D activities under the AP Articles 2.a.(i), 2.a.(x), and 2.b.(i) as part of initial declarations and their annual updates under the AP. In order to verify consistency and completeness of information provided under the AP by States, the Agency has started to analyze declared R&D information by identifying interrelationships between States in different R&D areas relevant to safeguards. The paper outlines the quality of R&D information provided by States to the Agency, describes how the extraction and analysis of relevant declarations are currently carried out at the Agency and specifies what kinds of difficulties arise during evaluation in respect to cross-linking international projects and finding gaps in reporting. In addition, the paper tries to elaborate how the reporting quality of AP information with reference to R&D activities and the assessment process of R&D information could be improved. (author)

  8. Urban development, and emerging relations of informal property and land based authority in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Paul Austin

    2018-01-01

    Rural–urban migration leads to ever increasing numbers of Africans living in informal settlements. In Accra's largest informal settlement, Old Fadama, residents by definition have no statutory rights to the land and their building activities undermine formal state law and state-recognized customary......, building and development in the settlement that involve a variety of local, national and global actors. Their actions show the contemporaneous making and unmaking of different relations of property and land-based control and authority in the densely populated urban site. Important features of urban...

  9. Interviews of living kidney donors to assess donation-related concerns and information-gathering practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Jessica M; Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Sarah E; Henderson, Macey L; Massie, Allan B; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-06-08

    Efforts are underway to improve living kidney donor (LKD) education, but current LKD concerns and information-gathering preferences have not been ascertained to inform evidence-based resource development. As a result, prior studies have found that donors desire information that is not included in current informed consent and/or educational materials. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 LKDs who donated at our center to assess (1) concerns about donation that they either had personally before or after donation or heard from family members or friends, (2) information that they had desired before donation, and (3) where they sought information about donation. We used thematic analysis of verbatim interview transcriptions to identify donation-related concerns. We compared the demographic characteristics of participants reporting specific concerns using Fisher's exact test. We identified 19 unique concerns that participants had or heard about living kidney donation. 20% of participants reported having had no pre-donation concerns; 38% reported no post-donation concerns. The most common concern pre-donation was future kidney failure (22%), post-donation was the recovery process (24%), and from family was endangering their family unit (16%). 44% of participants reported being less concerned than family. 26% of participants wished they had had additional information prior to donating, including practical advice for recovery (10%) and information about specific complications (14%). Caucasian participants were more likely to hear at least one concern from family (76% vs. 33%, p = 0.02). The most commonly consulted educational resources were health care providers (100%) and websites (79% of donors since 2000). 26% of participants had had contact with other donors; an additional 20% desired contact with other LKDs. Potential donors not only have personal donation-related concerns but frequently hear donation-related concerns from family members and friends

  10. The Seven Deadly Tensions of Health-Related Human Information Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Johnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tensions are a ubiquitous feature of social life and are manifested in a number of particular forms: contradictory logics, competing demands, clashes of ideas, contradictions, dialectics, irony, paradoxes, and/or dilemmas. This essay aims to explore in detail tensions surrounding seven common findings of the information seeking literature relating to: interpersonal communication, accessibility, level of skill, individual preferences, psychological limits, inertia, and costs. Our incomplete understanding of these tensions can lead us to suggest resolutions that do not recognize their underlying dualities. Human information behavior stands at the intersection of many important theoretical and policy issues (e.g., personalized medicine. Policy makers need to be more attuned to these basic tensions of information seeking recognizing the real human limits they represent to informing the public. So, even if you build a great information system, people will not necessarily use it because of the force of these underlying tensions. While rationality rules systems, irrationality rules people. The proliferation of navigator roles over the last several years is actually a hopeful sign: recognition that people need a human interface to inform them about our ever more complex health care systems.

  11. Breach of belongingness: Newcomer relationship conflict, information, and task-related outcomes during organizational socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of newcomer socialization have underlined the importance of newcomers' information seeking for their adjustment to the organization, and the conflict literature has consistently reported negative effects of relationship conflict with coworkers. However, to date, no study has examined the consequences of relationship conflict on newcomers' information seeking. In this study, we examined newcomers' reactions when they have relationship conflict with their coworkers, and hence cannot obtain necessary information from them. Drawing upon belongingness theory, we propose a model that moves from breach of belongingness to its proximal and distal consequences, to newcomer information seeking, and then to task-related outcomes. In particular, we propose that second paths exist-first coworker-centric and the other supervisor-centric-that may have simultaneous yet contrasting influence on newcomer adjustment. To test our model, we employ a 3-wave data collection research design with egocentric and Likert-type multisource surveys among a sample of new software engineers and their supervisors working in India. This study contributes to the field by linking the literatures on relationship conflict and newcomer information seeking and suggesting that despite conflict with coworkers, newcomers may succeed in organizations by building relationships with and obtaining information from supervisors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The solubility-permeability interplay and oral drug formulation design: Two heads are better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Beig, Avital; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M

    2016-06-01

    Poor aqueous solubility is a major challenge in today's biopharmaceutics. While solubility-enabling formulations can significantly increase the apparent solubility of the drug, the concomitant effect on the drug's apparent permeability has been largely overlooked. The mathematical equation to describe the membrane permeability of a drug comprises the membrane/aqueous partition coefficient, which in turn is dependent on the drug's apparent solubility in the GI milieu, suggesting that the solubility and the permeability are closely related, exhibit a certain interplay between them, and treating the one irrespectively of the other may be insufficient. In this article, an overview of this solubility-permeability interplay is provided, and the available data is analyzed in the context of the effort to maximize the overall drug exposure. Overall, depending on the type of solubility-permeability interplay, the permeability may decrease, remain unchanged, and even increase, in a way that may critically affect the formulation capability to improve the overall absorption. Therefore, an intelligent design of solubility-enabling formulation needs to consider both the solubility afforded by the formulation and the permeability in the new luminal environment resulting from the formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision trees to characterise the roles of permeability and solubility on the prediction of oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Danielle; Freitas, Alex A; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-27

    Oral absorption of compounds depends on many physiological, physiochemical and formulation factors. Two important properties that govern oral absorption are in vitro permeability and solubility, which are commonly used as indicators of human intestinal absorption. Despite this, the nature and exact characteristics of the relationship between these parameters are not well understood. In this study a large dataset of human intestinal absorption was collated along with in vitro permeability, aqueous solubility, melting point, and maximum dose for the same compounds. The dataset allowed a permeability threshold to be established objectively to predict high or low intestinal absorption. Using this permeability threshold, classification decision trees incorporating a solubility-related parameter such as experimental or predicted solubility, or the melting point based absorption potential (MPbAP), along with structural molecular descriptors were developed and validated to predict oral absorption class. The decision trees were able to determine the individual roles of permeability and solubility in oral absorption process. Poorly permeable compounds with high solubility show low intestinal absorption, whereas poorly water soluble compounds with high or low permeability may have high intestinal absorption provided that they have certain molecular characteristics such as a small polar surface or specific topology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  15. An analysis method of the press information related with the nuclear activity in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsina, Griselda.

    1989-01-01

    The articles published by the newspapers during the year 1987 were analyzed and classified according to their contents. An attribute was assigned to each article (positive, negative or neutral) in agreement with its connotation regarding the nuclear activity in Argentina. An ISIS base system was developed using these data. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the influence of the press in the public opinion. The relation between the different variables show the importance and approach (environmental, technico-scientifical or political) given by the press to the different subjects. The results show a general lack of knowledge about nuclear activities and a concern among the readers associated with the environmental risks, which calls for the need to develop an information program for the community. The fundamentals of this program should improve the organization in order to make the information reach the external demands, to promote educational programs and to continuously provide information to the press. (S.M.) [es

  16. The relative importance of information sources in consumers' choice of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, S K

    1995-01-01

    The research presented focuses on an examination of the relative importance of word-of-mouth, expert opinion, external communication, and past experience in the context of hospital choice. Past research has examined the effect of each individually and various combinations of the four sources, but not all four simultaneously. Results of the present study suggest that past experience plays a greater role in hospital choice than other information sources, including expert opinion. The strength of word-of-mouth as a source of information is also verified. The implications of this research include the following: (1) health care researchers need to incorporate word-of-mouth when investigating informations sources, and (2) local hospitals need to be aware of "negative perceptions" and strive for consumer satisfaction. Health care delivery systems incorporating consumer-based choice render these findings especially valuable as researchers and practitioners address the challenges that these evolving systems will bring.

  17. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J. (eds.)

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  18. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted

  19. Effect of desensitizing agents on dentin permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihata, Hiroshi; Kanehira, Masafumi; Nagai, Tomoko; Finger, Werner J; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro efficacy of two dentin desensitizing products at reducing liquid permeability through human dentin discs. The tested hypothesis was that the products, in spite of different chemical mechanisms were not different at reducing or eliminating flow through dentin discs. Dentin slices (1 mm thick) were prepared from 16 extracted human third molars and their permeability was indirectly recorded in a split chamber model, using a chemiluminescence technique, after EDTA treatment (control), after soaking with albumin, and after desensitizer application. Two products were studied: MS Coat, a self-curing resin-containing oxalate product, and Gluma Desensitizer, a glutaraldehyde/HEMA-based agent without initiator. The dentin slices were mounted between an upper chamber, filled with an aqueous solution of 1% potassium ferricyanide and 0.3% hydrogen peroxide, and a lower chamber filled with 1% sodium hydroxide solution and 0.02% luminol. The upper solution was pressurized, and upon contact with the luminol solution a photochemical signal was generated and recorded as a measure of permeability throughout two consecutive pressurizing cycles at 2.5 and 13 kPa (26 and 133 cm H2O), respectively. The permeability of the control and albumin-soaked samples was similarly high. After application of the desensitizing agents, dentin permeability was reduced to virtually zero at both pressure levels (P < 0.001).

  20. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non......-smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine....... The disappearance rate of nicotine increased significantly as the pH increased, which resulted in P(app) values of 0.57+/-0.55 x 10(-4), 2.10+/-0.23 x 10(-4), and 3.96+/-0.54 x 10(-4)cms(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.993) was obtained between the P...

  1. Permeability measurements on rock samples from Unzen Scientific Drilling Project Drill Hole 4 (USDP-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tohru; Shimizu, Yuhta; Noguchi, Satoshi; Nakada, Setsuya

    2008-07-01

    Permeability measurement was made on five rock samples from USDP-4 cores. Rock samples were collected from the conduit zone and its country rock. One sample (C14-1-1) is considered as a part of the feeder dyke for the 1991-1995 eruption. The transient pulse method was employed under confining pressure up to 50 MPa. Compressional wave velocity was measured along with permeability. The measured permeability ranges from 10 - 19 to 10 - 17 m 2 at the atmospheric pressure, and is as low as that reported for tight rocks such as granite. The permeability decreases with increasing confining pressure, while the compressional wave velocity increases. Assuming that pores are parallel elliptical tubes, the pressure dependence of permeability requires aspect ratio of 10 - 4 -10 - 2 at the atmospheric pressure. The pore aperture is estimated to be less than 1 μm. The estimated aspect ratio and pore aperture suggest that connectivity of pores is maintained by narrow cracks. The existence of cracks is supported by the pressure dependence of compressional wave velocity. Narrow cracks (< 1 μm) are observed in dyke samples, and they must have been created after solidification. Dyke samples do not provide us information of pore structures during degassing, since exsolved gas has mostly escaped and pores governing the gas permeable flow should have been lost. Both dyke and country rock samples provide us information of materials around ascending magma. Although the measured small-scale permeability cannot be directly applied to geological-scale processes, it gives constrains on studies of large-scale permeability.

  2. The search for person-related information in general practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrans, Diego; Avonts, Dirk; Christiaens, Thierry; Willems, Sara; de Smet, Kaat; van Boven, Kees; Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Kühlein, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    General practice is person-focused. Contextual information influences the clinical decision-making process in primary care. Currently, person-related information (PeRI) is neither recorded in a systematic way nor coded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and therefore not usable for scientific use. To search for classes of PeRI influencing the process of care. GPs, from nine countries worldwide, were asked to write down narrative case histories where personal factors played a role in decision-making. In an inductive process, the case histories were consecutively coded according to classes of PeRI. The classes found were deductively applied to the following cases and refined, until saturation was reached. Then, the classes were grouped into code-families and further clustered into domains. The inductive analysis of 32 case histories resulted in 33 defined PeRI codes, classifying all personal-related information in the cases. The 33 codes were grouped in the following seven mutually exclusive code-families: 'aspects between patient and formal care provider', 'social environment and family', 'functioning/behaviour', 'life history/non-medical experiences', 'personal medical information', 'socio-demographics' and 'work-/employment-related information'. The code-families were clustered into four domains: 'social environment and extended family', 'medicine', 'individual' and 'work and employment'. As PeRI is used in the process of decision-making, it should be part of the EMR. The PeRI classes we identified might form the basis of a new contextual classification mainly for research purposes. This might help to create evidence of the person-centredness of general practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Using Active Learning to Identify Health Information Technology Related Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Howe, Jessica L; Adams, Katharine T; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-01-18

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) has led to new patient safety hazards that are often difficult to identify. Patient safety event reports, which are self-reported descriptions of safety hazards, provide one view of potential HIT-related safety events. However, identifying HIT-related reports can be challenging as they are often categorized under other more predominate clinical categories. This challenge of identifying HIT-related reports is exacerbated by the increasing number and complexity of reports which pose challenges to human annotators that must manually review reports. In this paper, we apply active learning techniques to support classification of patient safety event reports as HIT-related. We evaluated different strategies and demonstrated a 30% increase in average precision of a confirmatory sampling strategy over a baseline no active learning approach after 10 learning iterations.

  4. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy also has various unique aspects. For one thing, this industry also suffers from a problem partly rooted in the incredibly broad definition of the term “cybercrime”. This article seeks to provide insights and analysis into this phenomenon, which is expected to advance our understanding into cybercrime-related information.

  5. [Trauma-Informed Peer Counselling in the Care of Refugees with Trauma-Related Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöller, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Providing adequate culture-sensitive care for a large number of refugees with trauma-related disorders constitutes a major challenge. In this context, peer support and trauma-informed peer counselling can be regarded as a valuable means to complement the psychosocial care systems. In recent years, peer support and peer education have been successfully implemented e. g. in health care education, in psychiatric care, and in the treatment of traumatized individuals. Only little research data is available for traumatized refugees. However, results are encouraging. A program is presented which integrates trauma-informed peer educators (TIP) with migration background in the care of traumatized refugees. Peers' responsibility includes emotional support and understanding the refugees' needs, sensitizing for trauma-related disorders, providing psychoeducation, and teaching trauma-specific stabilization techniques under supervision of professional psychotherapists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. State information needs related to onshore and nearshore effects of OCS petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.C.; Stang, P.R.; Hyde, B.

    1977-01-01

    The United States currently has underway a program to develop tracts on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for their petroleum resources that can have significant impact on and near the shore. The potentially affected States bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico have expressed serious concerns about the availability and adequacy of the information they need to make planning and management decisions about onshore activities and impacts related to OCS petroleum development. This report discusses state policies, major concerns, organization, planning approaches and relation to other state planning efforts.

  7. Disentangling brain activity related to the processing of emotional visual information and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniecki, Michał; Wołoszyn, Kinga; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Pilarczyk, Joanna

    2018-05-01

    Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal. We show that arousal induced by the negative images, as compared to the neutral ones, is primarily related to greater amygdala activity while increasing visibility of negative content to enhanced activity in the lateral occipital complex (LOC). We argue that more intense visual processing of negative scenes can occur irrespective of the level of arousal. It may suggest that higher areas of the visual stream are fine-tuned to process emotionally relevant objects. Both arousal and processing of emotional visual information modulated activity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Overlapping activations within the vmPFC may reflect the integration of these aspects of emotional processing. Additionally, we show that emotionally-evoked pupil dilations are related to activations in the amygdala, vmPFC, and LOC.

  8. Colon cancer information as a source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Erin L; Prapavessis, Harry

    2010-12-01

    Using a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) framework, this study examined whether factual colon cancer information is a meaningful source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer. One hundred sixty-six inactive relatives were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PMT group (intervention); and non-PMT group (attention control). At baseline (T1) participants completed demographic information, a questionnaire designed to assess their beliefs toward exercise and colon cancer as well as their exercise intentions. At T2 (one week following T1) participants watched one of two DVD videos that were created for the study. The intervention DVD contained exercise and colon cancer information that was yoked within the four major components of PMT: perceived vulnerability (PV); perceived severity (PS); response efficacy (RE); and self-efficacy (SE), while the attention control DVD contained general diet and cancer information. Immediately following watching the DVD, participants completed the same measures as in T1. Participants assigned to the PMT intervention group showed significant improvement in PV, RE, SE and exercise intentions, whereas participants assigned to the attention control group showed significant improvement only in RE. RE, SE, and PS made significant and unique contributions to prediction of exercise intention. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate that a single exposure media intervention grounded in a PMT framework can change individuals' exercise and colon cancer beliefs, as well as change their exercise intentions. Implications of these findings and direction for future research are discussed.

  9. The Ecological Behaviour Related to Green Information and Communication Technology in Romanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An increased focus on environmental issues and the fulminant development of information and communication technologies led to the appearance and increased interest in the green characteristics of the available products and services. The ecological behaviour related to these technologies used by organizations, has become a widely studied and applied topic nowadays. In this context, this paper aims to analyse the perception of managers and employees of the Romanian companies in relation to the green information and communication technologies in the attempt to offer a genuine image of their attitude and see if their views are close to the international vision on environment protection. Starting from the literature regarding information and communication technologies and the available empirical studies, we have made an analysis on two categories of organizations: the ones that apply environment policies supported by the institutions and the ones that do not apply any policies, including comparisons between them. The conclusions of the study pointed out the presence of environmental concerns, not always clearly drawn or applied, but they could form the basis for the future actions and initiatives of consumers of information and communication technologies products and services in the wider context and will to fall into line with the Western level of economic and social development.

  10. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  11. Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Kshetri

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy ...

  12. Factors related to cancer information scanning and seeking behavior among high school students in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Yun, E Hwa; Park, Keeho

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to determine the relationship between cancer information scanning and seeking experience of adolescents and cancer preventive behavior, perceived cancer risk, and levels of cancer- related knowledge. The study sample comprised 1,000 second-year students from 6 high schools: the general and vocational school systems were each represented by 1 boys', 1 girls', and 1 coeducational high school. In July 2011, trained researchers visited each classroom, explained the purpose of the study, distributed questionnaires to the students who agreed to participate, instructed them to complete the survey by self-reporting, and collected the completed questionnaires. The students who attended general high schools (as compared with vocational high schools), earned higher grades, consumed more vegetables, had a higher perceived cancer risk, and answered the cancer-related questions more correctly and had more cancer information scanning and seeking experience. These results reinforce the importance of cancer prevention health education. Furthermore, the results may help in preparing a strategy that enables people to acquire accurate cancer-related information easily and quickly.

  13. Factors Related to the Selection of Information Sources: A Study of Ramkhamhaeng University Regional Campuses Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angchun, Peemasak

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed students' satisfaction with Ramkhamhaeng University regional library services (RURLs) and the perceived quality of information retrieved from other information sources. In particular, this study investigated factors relating to regional students' selection of information sources to meet their information needs. The researcher…

  14. Hydrotropic Solubilization of Lipophilic Drugs for Oral Delivery: The Effects of Urea and Nicotinamide on Carbamazepine Solubility–Permeability Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Avital; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M.; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2016-01-01

    Hydrotropy refers to increasing the water solubility of otherwise poorly soluble compound by the presence of small organic molecules. While it can certainly increase the apparent solubility of a lipophilic drug, the effect of hydrotropy on the drugs’ permeation through the intestinal membrane has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solubility–permeability interplay when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. The concentration-dependent effects of the commonly used hydrotropes urea and nicotinamide, on the solubility and the permeability of the lipophilic antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were studied. Then, the solubility–permeability interplay was mathematically modeled, and was compared to the experimental data. Both hydrotropes allowed significant concentration-dependent carbamazepine solubility increase (up to ∼30-fold). A concomitant permeability decrease was evident both in vitro and in vivo (∼17-fold for nicotinamide and ∼9-fold for urea), revealing a solubility–permeability tradeoff when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. A relatively simplified simulation approach based on proportional opposite correlation between the solubility increase and the permeability decrease at a given hydrotrope concentration allowed excellent prediction of the overall solubility–permeability tradeoff. In conclusion, when using hydrotropic drug solubilization it is prudent to not focus solely on solubility, but to account for the permeability as well; achieving optimal solubility–permeability balance may promote the overall goal of the formulation to maximize oral drug exposure. PMID:27826241

  15. Hydrotropic solubilization of lipophilic drugs for oral delivery: The effects of urea and nicotinamide on carbamazepine solubility-permeability interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Beig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotropy refers to increasing the water solubility of otherwise poorly soluble compound by the presence of small organic molecules. While it can certainly increase the apparent solubility of a lipophilic drug, the effect of hydrotropy on the drugs' permeation through the intestinal membrane has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to investigate the solubility-permeability interplay when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. The concentration-dependent effects of the commonly used hydrotropes urea and nicotinamide, on the solubility and the permeability of the lipophilic antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were studied. Then, the solubility-permeability interplay was mathematically modeled, and was compared to the experimental data. Both hydrotropes allowed significant concentration-dependent carbamazepine solubility increase (up to ~30-fold. A concomitant permeability decrease was evident both in-vitro and in-vivo (~17-fold for nicotinamide and ~9-fold for urea, revealing a solubility-permeability tradeoff when using hydrotropic drug solubilization. A relatively simplified simulation approach based on proportional opposite correlation between the solubility increase and the permeability decrease at a given hydrotrope concentration allowed excellent prediction of the overall solubility-permeability tradeoff. In conclusion, when using hydrotropic drug solubilization it is prudent to not focus solely on solubility, but to account for the permeability as well; achieving optimal solubility-permeability balance may promote the overall goal of the formulation to maximize oral drug exposure.

  16. Experimental study on the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure under loading and unloading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Dingyi; Zhang, Cun; Wang, Chen

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the response characteristics of coal permeability to pore pressure, seepage experiments under different simulated in situ stresses on loading and unloading paths are carried out using the self-developed Gas Flow and Displacement Testing Apparatus (GFDTA) system. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the relationship between average pore pressure and permeability is found to basically obey the function distribution of a two degree polynomial. In this paper, two aspects of the relationship between permeability and pore pressure are explained: the Klinbenberg effect and expansion, and the penetration of the initial fracture. Under low pore pressure, the decrease in the Klinbenberg effect is the main reason for the decrease in permeability with increased pore pressure. Under relatively high pore pressure, the increase in pore pressure leads to the initial fracture expansion and penetration of the coal sample, which causes an increase in permeability. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the permeability response to pore pressure changes, the permeability dispersion and pore pressure sensitivity coefficients are defined. After the sensitivity analysis, it was concluded that the loading history changed the fracture structure of the original coal sample and reduced its permeability sensitivity to pore pressure. Under low pore pressure, the Klinbenberg effect is the reason for the decrease in pore pressure sensitivity. Lastly, the permeability-pore pressure relationship is divided into three stages to describe the different response characteristics individually.

  17. Predicting permeability and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks from microgeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, E.M.; Cook, N.G.W.

    1991-02-01

    The determination of hydrologic parameters that characterize fluid flow through rock masses on a large scale (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability) is crucial to activities such as the planning and control of enhanced oil recovery operations, and the design of nuclear waste repositories. Hydraulic permeability and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks are predicted from the microscopic geometry of the pore space. The cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the individual pores are estimated from two-dimensional scanning electron micrographs of rock sections. The hydraulic and electrical conductivities of the individual pores are determined from these geometrical parameters, using Darcy's law and Ohm's law. Account is taken of the fact that the cross-sections are randomly oriented with respect to the channel axes, and for possible variation of cross-sectional area along the length of the pores. The effective medium theory from solid-state physics is then used to determine an effective average conductance of each pore. Finally, the pores are assumed to be arranged on a cubic lattice, which allows the calculation of overall macroscopic values for the permeability and the electrical conductivity. Preliminary results using Berea, Boise, Massilon and Saint-Gilles sandstones show reasonably close agreement between the predicted and measured transport properties. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Permeability and compression characteristics of municipal solid waste samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu, Ertan; Sanchez, Itza M.; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    2006-08-01

    Four series of laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the permeability and compression characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples. While the two series of tests were conducted using a conventional small-scale consolidometer, the two others were conducted in a large-scale consolidometer specially constructed for this study. In each consolidometer, the MSW samples were tested at two different moisture contents, i.e., original moisture content and field capacity. A scale effect between the two consolidometers with different sizes was investigated. The tests were carried out on samples reconsolidated to pressures of 123, 246, and 369 kPa. Time settlement data gathered from each load increment were employed to plot strain versus log-time graphs. The data acquired from the compression tests were used to back calculate primary and secondary compression indices. The consolidometers were later adapted for permeability experiments. The values of indices and the coefficient of compressibility for the MSW samples tested were within a relatively narrow range despite the size of the consolidometer and the different moisture contents of the specimens tested. The values of the coefficient of permeability were within a band of two orders of magnitude (10-6-10-4 m/s). The data presented in this paper agreed very well with the data reported by previous researchers. It was concluded that the scale effect in the compression behavior was significant. However, there was usually no linear relationship between the results obtained in the tests.

  19. Investigating inlay permeability by means of labelled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajchev, L; Chakmakov, D

    1979-01-01

    An isotope method was used in the study of marginal space permeability (space between cavity walls and obturation) and its relation to the qualities of cementing material. To this end, V class cavities were elaborated and microdentures preprared under unified conditions for recently extracted intact human teeth. The inlays were adjusted by being riveted at first and then cemented. Microdentures were fixed with ''Adhesor'' phosphate cement, zinc-eugenol paste or adhesive wax, applied upon the phase and part of the cavity wall. Twenty four hours later the teeth were covered with wax. The inlay and a strip around it remained uncovered and immersed in iodine 125 solution of sulphur 35-methionine. The teeth were then washed and incorporated in epoxide resin. Longitudinal incisions were made through the inlay and, after appropriate processing, autoradiography of the sections was made. The marginal space was shown to be permeable in a different degree, depending on the fixing material: whereas wax gluing makes it impermeable for either isotope, gluing with zinc-eugenol paste allows minor permeability for sulphur 35 and a rather high one for iodine 125. With phosphate cement gluing, iodine 125 reaches the cavity bottom, while penetration of sulphur 35 is rather limited.

  20. Water and nonelectrolyte permeability of isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpini, G.; Garrick, R.A.; Jones, M.J.; Nunes, R.; Tavoloni, N.

    1986-01-01

    We have measured the diffusive permeability coefficients of isolated rat hepatocytes to 3 H 2 O, [ 14 C]urea, [ 14 C]erythritol, [ 14 C]mannitol, [ 3 H]sucrose, and [ 3 H]inulin, employing a technique previously developed for erythrocytes (Redwood et al., J. Gen. Physiol 64:706-729, 1974). Diffusion coefficients for the tracer molecules were measured in packed hepatocytes, supernatant fluid, and intracellular medium (lysed hepatocytes) and were calculated assuming one-dimensional semi-infinite diffusion through a homogeneous medium. By applying the series-parallel pathway model, the following permeability coefficients (10(-5) cm/sec) for the hepatocyte plasma membrane were obtained. 3 H 2 O, 98.6 +/- 18.4; [ 14 C]urea, 18.2 +/- 5.3; [ 14 C]erythritol, 4.8 +/- 1.6; [ 14 C]mannitol, 3.1 +/- 1.4; [ 3 H]sucrose, 0; [ 3 H]inulin, 0. These results indicate that isolated rat hepatocytes are highly permeable to water and polar nonelectrolytes, when compared with other transporting epithelia. This relatively high cellular permeability is consistent with a model in which nonelectrolyte permeation is via an aqueous pathway of equivalent pore diameter of 8-12 A. The finding that [ 14 C]erythritol and [ 14 C]mannitol cross the hepatocyte plasma membrane indicates that these molecules enter the bile canaliculus through the transcellular route. Conversely, the failure of [ 3 H]sucrose and [ 3 H]inulin to permeate the hepatocyte in the isolated condition supports the concept that biliary entry of these large carbohydrates, at least that fraction which cannot be accounted for by a vesicular mechanism, must occur via the transjunctional shunt pathway

  1. Adaptive memory: young children show enhanced retention of fitness-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on reproductive adults, but also on pre-reproductive children, the present study examined whether young children show superior memory for information that is processed in terms of its survival value. In two experiments, we found such survival processing to enhance retention in 4- to 10-year-old children, relative to various control conditions that also required deep, meaningful processing but were not related to survival. These results suggest that, already in very young children, survival processing is a special and extraordinarily effective form of memory encoding. The results support the functional-evolutionary proposal that young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain fitness-related information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.

  3. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  4. Designing the Monitoring of Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals Based on Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to collective action and targeted interventions at global, regional, and national scales. Existing monitoring and data infrastructures are inadequate for producing the variety of environmental and socioeconomic information needed to ensure efficient and effective outcomes across the range of interlinked SDGs and targets. The scientific community needs to take a lead in developing new tools and approaches that, at reasonable cost, provide monitoring data of sufficient quality and spatial and temporal coverage to support informed decision making by diverse stakeholders. The expanded SDGs related to water offer the opportunity to explore potential new monitoring approaches and data system architectures in a key sector, building on existing water monitoring capabilities and incorporating new technologies and methods. Since additional investments in monitoring will undoubtedly be limited, it is important to assess carefully the value of information produced by different options and their associated risks and tradeoffs. We review here the existing set of water monitoring systems, known gaps and limitations, stakeholder inputs on data needs, and the potential value of information in light of alternative water sector interventions. Of particular interest are opportunities to share investments in monitoring across sectors and stakeholders (e.g., public and private entities) and to identify where incremental improvements in water monitoring could have significant benefits for other SDGs (e.g., related to health, energy, agriculture, and climate change). Value of information is also driven by the numbers of people affected by decisions or able to take advantage of improved data, which implies the need not only to collect and archive data, but also to invest in making data accessible and usable to diverse and geographically dispersed users.

  5. Health care providers' use of a drug information service for pregnancy-related inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash S; Patil, Neelima P; Lewis, Ashley N; Swamy, Geeta K; Murtha, Amy P

    2014-01-01

    To characterize pregnancy and lactation-related medication inquiries to a drug information center to identify classes of medications of most concern to providers. A secondary objective was to identify any trends in provider inquiries over the study period. A retrospective descriptive study of pregnancy and lactation-related inquiries to the University of North Carolina Health Care System Drug Information Center database between January 2001 and December 2010. University of North Carolina Health Care System Drug Information Center. Provider inquiries and responses were extracted and characterized by indication for treatment and reason for inquiry. Comparison of the first and second 5-year periods was performed to delineate trends. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact and χ2 tests were used for analysis. Inquiry origin, time, and subject. 433 inquiries were retrieved over the study period from physicians (50%), pharmacists (21%), and nurses (18%). Inquiries were most often made during the antepartum period (34%), followed by the postpartum (28%) and preconception (22%) periods. The most frequent indications for inquiry were psychiatry (15%) and infectious diseases (14%), which remained constant throughout the study period. Safety was the most common reason for inquiry (52%). The responses provided to callers were limited due to lack of information availability 37% of the time. Psychiatry and infectious disease-related indications are the most frequent subjects of provider inquiry regarding medication use in pregnancy. Rates of inquiry remained constant throughout the past decade in most therapeutic areas. These findings are consistent with previous observations in other developed countries and suggest high-yield areas for pharmacist education.

  6. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  7. Ammonia and urea permeability of mammalian aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Søgaard, Rikke; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    significant at alkaline pH. It is debated whether the H(+) ion passes via the aquaporin or by some external route; the investigation of this problem requires the aquaporin-expressing cell to be voltage-clamped. The ammonia-permeable aquaporins differ from other aquaporins by having a less restrictive aromatic...... groups differ in the amino acid composition of their aromatic/arginine regions. The location of the ammonia-permeable aquaporins in the body parallels that of the Rh proteins. This applies to erythrocytes and to cells associated with nitrogen homeostasis and high rates of anabolism. In the liver, AQPs 8...

  8. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  9. Diagnosis of hydrostatic versus increased permeability pulmonary edema with chest radiographic criteria in critically ILL patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, D.R.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Webb, W.R.; Matthay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate chest radiographic criteria in distinguishing mechanisms of pulmonary edema, the authors studied 45 intubated patients with extensive edema. Edema type was clinically classified by the ratio of alveolar edema-to-plasma protein concentration in association with compatible clinical/hemodynamic parameters. Chest films were scored as hydrostatic, permeability, or mixed by three readers in blinded fashion based on cardiac size, vascular pedicle width, distribution of edema, effusions, peribronchial cuffs, septal lines, or air bronchograms. Overall radiographic score accurately identified 87% of patients with hydrostatic edema but only 60% of those with permeability edema. Edema distribution was most discriminating, with a patchy peripheral pattern relatively specific for clinical permeability edema. Hydrostatic features on chest radiograph were common with permeability edema, including effusions (36%), widened pedicle (56%), cuffs (72%), or septa (40%). The authors conclude that the chest radiograph is limited in distinguishing edema mechanism in the face of extensive pulmonary edema

  10. Unified method to integrate and blend several, potentially related, sources of information for genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Colinet, Frederic G; Gengler, Nicolas

    2014-09-30

    A condition to predict unbiased estimated breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction is to use simultaneously all available data. However, this condition is not often fully met. For example, in dairy cattle, internal (i.e. local) populations lead to evaluations based only on internal records while widely used foreign sires have been selected using internally unavailable external records. In such cases, internal genetic evaluations may be less accurate and biased. Because external records are unavailable, methods were developed to combine external information that summarizes these records, i.e. external estimated breeding values and associated reliabilities, with internal records to improve accuracy of internal genetic evaluations. Two issues of these methods concern double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. These issues could be worse if external information came from several evaluations, at least partially based on the same records, and combined into a single internal evaluation. Based on a Bayesian approach, the aim of this research was to develop a unified method to integrate and blend simultaneously several sources of information into an internal genetic evaluation by avoiding double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. This research resulted in equations that integrate and blend simultaneously several sources of information and avoid double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. The performance of the developed equations was evaluated using simulated and real datasets. The results showed that the developed equations integrated and blended several sources of information well into a genetic evaluation. The developed equations also avoided double-counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records. Furthermore, because all available external sources of information were correctly propagated, relatives of external animals benefited from the integrated

  11. Text mining of cancer-related information: review of current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasić, Irena; Livsey, Jacqueline; Keane, John A; Nenadić, Goran

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the research literature on text mining (TM) with the aim to find out (1) which cancer domains have been the subject of TM efforts, (2) which knowledge resources can support TM of cancer-related information and (3) to what extent systems that rely on knowledge and computational methods can convert text data into useful clinical information. These questions were used to determine the current state of the art in this particular strand of TM and suggest future directions in TM development to support cancer research. A review of the research on TM of cancer-related information was carried out. A literature search was conducted on the Medline database as well as IEEE Xplore and ACM digital libraries to address the interdisciplinary nature of such research. The search results were supplemented with the literature identified through Google Scholar. A range of studies have proven the feasibility of TM for extracting structured information from clinical narratives such as those found in pathology or radiology reports. In this article, we provide a critical overview of the current state of the art for TM related to cancer. The review highlighted a strong bias towards symbolic methods, e.g. named entity recognition (NER) based on dictionary lookup and information extraction (IE) relying on pattern matching. The F-measure of NER ranges between 80% and 90%, while that of IE for simple tasks is in the high 90s. To further improve the performance, TM approaches need to deal effectively with idiosyncrasies of the clinical sublanguage such as non-standard abbreviations as well as a high degree of spelling and grammatical errors. This requires a shift from rule-based methods to machine learning following the success of similar trends in biological applications of TM. Machine learning approaches require large training datasets, but clinical narratives are not readily available for TM research due to privacy and confidentiality concerns. This issue remains the main

  12. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tediosi, Alice, E-mail: alice.tediosi@aeiforia.eu [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Jacobs, Silke [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verbeke, Wim [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); Diogene, Jorge [IRTA, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Reuver, Marieke [AquaTT, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Marques, António [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. - Highlights: • We consulted stakeholders to identify their needs about seafood safety. • An on-line survey was prepared and sent to gather stakeholders' opinions. • Communication among stakeholders needs to be improved. • There is a deficit of information and data in the

  13. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. - Highlights: • We consulted stakeholders to identify their needs about seafood safety. • An on-line survey was prepared and sent to gather stakeholders' opinions. • Communication among stakeholders needs to be improved. • There is a deficit of information and data in the field of

  14. Intestinal permeability and its regulation by zonulin: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alessio

    2012-10-01

    One of the most important and overlooked functions of the gastrointestinal tract is to provide a dynamic barrier to tightly controlled antigen trafficking through both the transcellular and paracellular pathways. Intercellular tight junctions (TJ) are the key structures regulating paracellular trafficking of macromolecules. Although steady progress has been made in understanding TJ ultrastructure, relatively little is known about their pathophysiological regulation. Our discovery of zonulin, the only known physiological modulator of intercellular TJ described so far, increased understanding of the intricate mechanisms that regulate gut permeability and led us to appreciate that its up-regulation in genetically susceptible individuals may lead to immune-mediated diseases. This information has translational implications, because the zonulin pathway is currently exploited to develop both diagnostic and therapeutic applications pertinent to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P; Cheng, X; Xue, H; Wang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M

    2015-04-01

    Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related IMB factors in this population. Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n = 35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Commonly known IMB factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). IMB factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). IMB strengths and deficits varied by individual. Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population.

  17. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flows through built spaces and forms (streets, park/garden, buildings, and makes use of access graphs and numerical measures to indicate permeability of a given residential settlement. Since the method is still in the initial development, further study will be required for refinement and validation. Nevertheless, the method can be employed to provide information for ventilation design of low-rise residential settlements, particularly at the schematic level. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Informasi untuk perancangan ventilasi alam pada permukiman selama ini sangat bergantung dari hasil-hasil yang diperoleh dari studi terowongan angin ataupun studi simulasi komputer dengan menggunakan CFD. Namun demikian ketersediaan informasi tersebut sangatlah terbatas bagi arsitek. Studi yang dilakukan penulis berusaha untuk mengisi kesenjangan yang ada dengan menyediakan tampilan grafis untuk menunjukkan permiabilitas sebuah permukiman. Perilaku angin di dalam dan permiablitas permukiman dijabarkan dengan menggunakan grafik akses dan pengukuran-pengukuran numerik. Oleh karena pengembangan metoda ini berada pada tahap awal, beberapa studi lanjutan sangatlah diperlukan. Kata kunci: morfologi permukiman, sains arsitektur, ventilasi alam, iklim tropis.

  18. Assessment of vaccination-related information for consumers available on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel; Beckett, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    To assess the magnitude, interest, purpose and validity of vaccination-related information on Facebook and to determine whether information varies by site viewpoint. The 10 largest vaccination-focused Facebook pages, groups and places in each category were identified and classified by viewpoint (i.e. anti-, pro-, neutral) and purpose. Number of members, posts per week, likes, comments and shares per post were recorded. Posts were assessed for concordance with CDC and FDA recommendations. Of 30 sites, 43% (n = 13) were anti-vaccination, 7% (n = 2) neutral and 50% (n = 15) pro-vaccination. Most sites were most popular with American users. Median members were similar between anti-vaccination (2703 members, range 337-33 631 members) and pro-vaccination sites (2142 members, range 456-61,565 members, P = 0.262); however, anti-vaccination sites accumulated more posts per week by authors (median 15 vs. 3, P = 0.031) and members (median 33 vs. 1, P Facebook regardless of viewpoint; however, anti-vaccination information generates more interest. Anti-vaccination sites were likely to provide medical advice and disagree with regulatory bodies. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  19. The complex initial reluctivity, permeability and susceptibility spectra of magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, N. C.

    2015-03-01

    The HF complex permeability spectrum of a magnetic material is deduced from the measured impedance spectrum, which is then normalized to a series permeability spectrum. However, this series permeability spectrum has previously been shown to correspond to a parallel magnetic circuit, which is not appropriate. Some of the implications of this truth are examined. This electric/magnetic duality has frustrated efforts to interpret the shape of the complex magnetic permeability spectra of materials, and has hindered the application of impedance spectroscopy to magnetic materials. In the presence of magnetic loss, the relationship between the relative magnetic permeability and the magnetic susceptibility is called into question. The use of reluctivity spectra for expressing magnetic material properties is advocated. The relative loss factor, tanδm/μi is shown to be an approximation for the imaginary part of the reluctivity. A single relaxation model for the initial reluctivity spectra of magnetic materials is presented, and its principles are applied to measurements of a high permeability ferrite. The results are presented as contour plots of the spectra as a function of temperature.

  20. Intestinal Permeability of β-Lapachone and Its Cyclodextrin Complexes and Physical Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Jorge; Echezarreta-López, Magdalena; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Casabó, Vicente-Germán; Bermejo, Marival; Landin, Mariana

    2016-12-01

    β-Lapachone (βLAP) is a promising, poorly soluble, antitumoral drug. βLAP combination with cyclodextrins (CDs) improves its solubility and dissolution but there is not enough information about the impact of cyclodextrins on βLAP intestinal permeability. The objectives of this work were to characterize βLAP intestinal permeability and to elucidate cyclodextrins effect on the dissolution properties and on the intestinal permeability. The final goal was to evaluate CDs influence on the oral absorption of βLAP. Binary systems (physical mixtures and inclusion complexes) including βLAP and CDs (β-cyclodextrin: βCD, random-methyl-β-cyclodextrin: RMβCD and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin: SBEβCD) have been prepared and analysed by differential scanning calorimetry. βLAP (and its combinations with CDs) absorption rate coefficients and effective permeability values have been determined in vitro in MDCK or MDCK-Mdr1 monolayers and in situ in rat by a closed loop perfusion technique. DSC results confirmed the formation of the inclusion complexes. βLAP-CDs inclusion complexes improve drug solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with physical mixtures. βLAP presented a high permeability value which can provide complete oral absorption. Its oral absorption is limited by its low solubility and dissolution rate. Cyclodextrin (both as physical mixtures and inclusion complexes) showed a positive effect on the intestinal permeability of βLAP. Complexation with CDs does not reduce βLAP intestinal permeability in spite of the potential negative effect of the reduction in free fraction of the drug. The use of RMβCD or SBEβCD inclusion complexes could benefit βLAP oral absorption by enhancing its solubility, dissolution rate and permeability.

  1. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector.

  2. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.

    2012-11-01

    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  3. Object–relational architecture of information support of the multi-circuit calculation multilayer semiconductor nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina K. Abgaryan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the object–relational approach to the creation of a database designed to provide informational support to the multiscale computational scheme of multilayer semiconductor nanostructures. The MSNS computational scheme developed earlier by our group uses a hierarchic representation of computational data obtained by various computational modules. Each layer of MSNS is treated separately. In contrast to well-known materials databases which serve for storing and retrieving of information on existing structures and their properties the database described in this paper is the central unit of the MSNS computational scheme. The database provides data interchange between various computational units. In this paper we describe the modern approach to material database design. More specifically, a data storage relational model which applies to solving resource-intensive and different-scale problems is proposed. An object–relational scheduler architecture is used in our work. It provides for high-speed data exchange between various computational units of the MSNS computational scheme. We introduce a simple and user-friendly interface allowing criteria-based data retrieving as well as creation of input files for computational modules. These approaches can be applied in various branches of science, including the aviation and space industry, in particular in control systems of engineering (materials science data.

  4. Suppression of no-longer relevant information in Working Memory: An alpha-power related mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo

    2018-03-27

    Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Smooth handling: The lack of safety‐related consumer information in car advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Maher, Anthony; Thomson, George; Keall, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the content and trends of safety‐related consumer information in magazine vehicle advertisements, as a case study within the worldwide marketing of vehicles. Methods Content analysis of popular current affairs magazines in New Zealand for the 5‐year period 2001–2005 was undertaken (n  =  514 advertisements), supplemented with vehicle data from official websites. Results Safety information in advertisements for light passenger vehicles was relatively uncommon with only 27% mentioning one or more of nine key safety features examined (average: 1.7 out of nine features in this 27%). Also included were potentially hazardous features of: speed imagery (in 29% of advertisements), power references (14%), and acceleration data (4%). The speed and power aspects became relatively more common over the 5‐year period (p consumer choice and improve injury prevention, governments should consider regulating the content of vehicle advertisements and vehicle marketing – as already occurs with many other consumer products. PMID:17916885

  6. High-permeability criterion for BCS classification: segmental/pH dependent permeability considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M; Hilfinger, John M; Yamashita, Shinji; Yu, Lawrence X; Lennernäs, Hans; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-10-04

    The FDA classifies a drug substance as high-permeability when the fraction of dose absorbed (F(abs)) in humans is 90% or higher. This direct correlation between human permeability and F(abs) has been recently controversial, since the β-blocker sotalol showed high F(abs) (90%) and low Caco-2 permeability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the scientific basis for this disparity between permeability and F(abs). The effective permeabilities (P(eff)) of sotalol and metoprolol, a FDA standard for the low/high P(eff) class boundary, were investigated in the rat perfusion model, in three different intestinal segments with pHs corresponding to the physiological pH in each region: (1) proximal jejunum, pH 6.5; (2) mid small intestine, pH 7.0; and (3) distal ileum, pH 7.5. Both metoprolol and sotalol showed pH-dependent permeability, with higher P(eff) at higher pH. At any given pH, sotalol showed lower permeability than metoprolol; however, the permeability of sotalol determined at pH 7.5 exceeded/matched metoprolol's at pH 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. Physicochemical analysis based on ionization, pK(a) and partitioning of these drugs predicted the same trend and clarified the mechanism behind these observed results. Experimental octanol-buffer partitioning experiments confirmed the theoretical curves. An oral dose of metoprolol has been reported to be completely absorbed in the upper small intestine; it follows, hence, that metoprolol's P(eff) value at pH 7.5 is not likely physiologically relevant for an immediate release dosage form, and the permeability at pH 6.5 represents the actual relevant value for the low/high permeability class boundary. Although sotalol's permeability is low at pH 6.5 and 7.0, at pH 7.5 it exceeds/matches the threshold of metoprolol at pH 6.5 and 7.0, most likely responsible for its high F(abs). In conclusion, we have shown that, in fact, there is no discrepancy between P(eff) and F(abs) in sotalol's absorption; the data emphasize that

  7. An evaluation of inter-organisational information systems development on business partnership relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organisational information systems (IOS are being used within SCM to improve businesses processes and to facilitate closer working relations with business partners. However, the technologies themselves impact on this relationship as they allow various levels of information flows, communications, function integration and partner integration.The aim of this paper is to evaluate IOS development influencing partnership integration within Supply Chain Management (SCM by investigating thirteen businesses that use a variety of IOS. IOS are classified into Elementary IOS, Intermediate IOS and Advanced IOS. Organisational variables such as information flows, partner co-ordination and integration, partner trust and confidence are measured against the level of IOS development. Variables such as management commitment, financial costs, system standards and partner resistance are investigated as forces or barriers, and related to different levels of IOS development.This research concludes that IOS development results in increased information flows and coordination which supports the development of trust and confidence in business partners. However, the customer position in the supply chain, whether it be retailer, distributor or manufacturer can influence the use of IOS of its business partners. Also, although IOS allows businesses to source and contact a larger range of business partners, the tendency is for businesses to use a smaller number of partners. This work also shows that IOS development changes a business’s relationship with its partners and moves it towards partnership integration.However, a number of organisational factors impact on this integration. These factors vary with the level of IOS development. Management commitment and showing the requirement for IOS development can act as a positive force in developing IOS or as a barrier against IOS development. Other barriers include resistance from business partners, financial costs, lack of

  8. Forecasting of Information Security Related Incidents: Amount of Spam Messages as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Anton; Okamoto, Eiji

    With the increasing demand for services provided by communication networks, quality and reliability of such services as well as confidentiality of data transfer are becoming ones of the highest concerns. At the same time, because of growing hacker's activities, quality of provided content and reliability of its continuous delivery strongly depend on integrity of data transmission and availability of communication infrastructure, thus on information security of a given IT landscape. But, the amount of resources allocated to provide information security (like security staff, technical countermeasures and etc.) must be reasonable from the economic point of view. This fact, in turn, leads to the need to employ a forecasting technique in order to make planning of IT budget and short-term planning of potential bottlenecks. In this paper we present an approach to make such a forecasting for a wide class of information security related incidents (ISRI) — unambiguously detectable ISRI. This approach is based on different auto regression models which are widely used in financial time series analysis but can not be directly applied to ISRI time series due to specifics related to information security. We investigate and address this specifics by proposing rules (special conditions) of collection and storage of ISRI time series, adherence to which improves forecasting in this subject field. We present an application of our approach to one type of unambiguously detectable ISRI — amount of spam messages which, if not mitigated properly, could create additional load on communication infrastructure and consume significant amounts of network capacity. Finally we evaluate our approach by simulation and actual measurement.

  9. Effects of drinker self-schema on drinking- and smoking-related information processing and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuie; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen

    2018-01-02

    Co-occurrence of drinking and smoking is prevalent in undergraduate students. A drinker self-schema-cognition about the self as the drinker-is a common identity in undergraduates and a well-known predictor of drinking behaviors. Given that smoking commonly occurs in the context of drinking, a drinker self-schema may be a cognitive mechanism to motivate co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use (i.e., cross-substance facilitation hypothesis). This study was to determine whether the drinker self-schema influences the processing of drinking- and smoking-related information and facilitates the co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students who drink and smoke but do not self-identify as smokers. This study was the second phase of a 2-phase study. Of the 330 who completed phase 1 (online survey), 99 completed the phase 2 study. Phase 2 was an in-person session that included a computerized information processing task to measure endorsements and response latencies for drinking- and smoking-related attributes, and a computerized Timeline Followback that was used to measure 90-day alcohol- and tobacco-use behaviors. The 5-item drinker self-schema scale, administered in phase 1, was used to measure the strength of the drinker self-schema. A higher drinker self-schema score was associated with more endorsements of positive attributes for drinking and smoking, fewer endorsements of negative attributes for smoking, faster processing of agreements with positive alcohol-use-related attributes, higher levels of drinking and smoking, and more days of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the cross-substance facilitation hypothesis that the drinker self-schema facilitates the processing of not only drinking-related but also smoking-related stimuli and behaviors. Undergraduates who have higher drinker self-schema scores may be vulnerable to co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use.

  10. Decision-making in information seeking on texts: an eye-fixation-related potentials investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Ionescu, Gelu; Lemaire, Benoit; López-Orozco, Francisco; Baccino, Thierry; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading, and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs). We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related, and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search) may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision) or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision). EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target), subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent), subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51 to 120 ms after fixation onset) spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400), reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N + 1 and N + 2. PMID:23966913

  11. Decision-making in information seeking on texts: an eye-fixation-related potentials investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Ionescu, Gelu; Lemaire, Benoit; López-Orozco, Francisco; Baccino, Thierry; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading, and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs). We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related, and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search) may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision) or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision). EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target), subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent), subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51 to 120 ms after fixation onset) spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400), reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N + 1 and N + 2.

  12. Evaluating the Dental Caries-Related Information on Brazilian Websites: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Patricia Estefania Ayala; Coelho, Melina Martins; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Cruvinel, Agnes Fátima Pereira; Cruvinel, Thiago

    2017-12-13

    Dental caries is the most common chronic oral disease, affecting 2.4 billion people worldwide who on average have 2.11 decayed, missing, or filled teeth. It impacts the quality of life of patients, socially and economically. However, the comprehension of dental caries may be difficult for most people, as it involves a multifactorial etiology with the interplay between the tooth surface, the dental biofilm, dietary fermentable carbohydrates, and genetic and behavioral factors. Therefore, the production of effective materials addressed to the education and counseling of patients for the prevention of dental caries requires a high level of specialization. In this regard, the dental caries-related contents produced by laypersons and their availability on the Internet may be low-quality information. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and the quality of dental caries-related information on Brazilian websites. A total of 75 websites were selected through Google, Bing, Yahoo!, and Baidu. The websites were organized in rankings according to their order of appearance in each one of the 4 search engines. Furthermore, 2 independent examiners evaluated the quality of websites using the DISCERN questionnaire and the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria. The readability of the websites was assessed by the Flesch Reading Ease adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (FRE-BP). In addition, the information presented on the websites was categorized as etiology, prevention, and treatment of dental caries. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney U test, hierarchical clustering analysis by Ward minimum variance method, Kruskal-Wallis test, and post hoc Dunn test. Pcaries information showed significantly higher quality scores than those with limited contents (P=.009). On the basis of this sample, dental caries-related contents available on Brazilian websites were considered simple, accessible

  13. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  14. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane ...

  15. Foam film permeability: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Krastev, R; Zitha, Pacelli L J

    2008-02-28

    The mass transfer of gas through foam films is a prototype of various industrial and biological processes. The aim of this paper is to give a perspective and critical overview of studies carried out to date on the mass transfer of gas through foam films. Contemporary experimental data are summarized, and a comprehensive overview of the theoretical models used to explain the observed effects is given. A detailed description of the processes that occur when a gas molecule passes through each layer that forms a foam film is shown. The permeability of the film-building surfactant monolayers plays an important role for the whole permeability process. It can be successfully described by the models used to explain the permeability of surfactant monolayers on aqueous sub-phase. For this reason, the present paper briefly discusses the surfactant-induced resistance to mass transfer of gases through gas-liquid interface. One part of the paper discusses the experimental and theoretical aspects of the foam film permeability in a train of foam films in a matrix or a cylinder. This special case is important to explain the gas transfer in porous media or in foams. Finally, this paper will highlight the gaps and challenges and sketch possible directions for future research.

  16. Color-magnetic permeability of QCD vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K

    1980-03-01

    In the very strong background gauge field the QCD true vacuum has been shown to have lower energy than the ''perturbative vacuum.'' The color-magnetic permeability of the QCD true vacuum is then calculated to be 1/2 within the quark-one-loop approximation.

  17. The Permeability of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, A.F.; Burcharth, H. F.; Adel, H. den

    1992-01-01

    . A new series of tests designed to test for deviations from the Forchheimer equation and investigate the effects of material shape are described. While no evidence can be found to indicate a deviation from the Forchheimer equation a dependency of permeability and the surface roughness the material...

  18. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ...