WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative motion coordinates

  1. The use of symmetrized valence and relative motion coordinates for crystal potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, H. L.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrized valence coordinates are linear combinations of conventional valence coordinates which display the symmetry of a set of atoms bound by the valence bonds. Relative motion coordinates are relative translations, or relative rotations, of two or more strongly bonded groups of atoms among...... which relatively weak forces act. They are useful for expressing interactions between molecules in molecular crystals and should be chosen, also, to reflect the symmetry of the interacting groups. Since coordinates defined by these procedures possess elements of symmetry in common with the bonding...... interaction constants coupling coordinates of unlike symmetry with regard to the crystal point group are necessarily zero. They may be small, also, for coordinates which belong to different representations of the local symmetry when this is not the same as for the crystal. Procedures are given for defining...

  2. The Coordination Dynamics of Observational Learning: Relative Motion Direction and Relative Phase as Informational Content Linking Action-Perception to Action-Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this chapter is to merge together the visual perception perspective of observational learning and the coordination dynamics theory of pattern formation in perception and action. Emphasis is placed on identifying movement features that constrain and inform action-perception and action-production processes. Two sources of visual information are examined, relative motion direction and relative phase. The visual perception perspective states that the topological features of relative motion between limbs and joints remains invariant across an actor's motion and therefore are available for pickup by an observer. Relative phase has been put forth as an informational variable that links perception to action within the coordination dynamics theory. A primary assumption of the coordination dynamics approach is that environmental information is meaningful only in terms of the behavior it modifies. Across a series of single limb tasks and bimanual tasks it is shown that the relative motion and relative phase between limbs and joints is picked up through visual processes and supports observational learning of motor skills. Moreover, internal estimations of motor skill proficiency and competency are linked to the informational content found in relative motion and relative phase. Thus, the chapter links action to perception and vice versa and also links cognitive evaluations to the coordination dynamics that support action-perception and action-production processes.

  3. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  4. Collective motion and the generator coordinate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.J.V. de

    1981-01-01

    The generator coordinate method is used to construct a collective subspace of the many-body Hylbert space. The construction is based on the analysis of the properties of the overlaps of the generator states. Some well-known misbehaviours of the generator coordinate weight functions are clearly identified as of kinematical origin. A standard orthonormal representation in the collective subspace is introduced which eliminates them. It is also indicated how appropriate collective dynamical variables can be defined a posteriori. To illustrate the properties of the collective subspaces applications are made to a) translational invariant overlap kernels b) to one and two-conjugate parameter families of generator states. (Author) [pt

  5. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when....... We distinguish between statistical and clinical significance. Statistical significance is calculated using T-test. Clinical significance is the minimal amount of change in relational coordination score that is not considered noise. Sensitivity of the instrument i.e. the ability of the instrument...

  6. Interpersonal Coordination of Head Motion in Distressed Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammal, Zakia; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; George, David T.

    2015-01-01

    In automatic emotional expression analysis, head motion has been considered mostly a nuisance variable, something to control when extracting features for action unit or expression detection. As an initial step toward understanding the contribution of head motion to emotion communication, we investigated the interpersonal coordination of rigid head motion in intimate couples with a history of interpersonal violence. Episodes of conflict and non-conflict were elicited in dyadic interaction tasks and validated using linguistic criteria. Head motion parameters were analyzed using Student’s paired t-tests; actor-partner analyses to model mutual influence within couples; and windowed cross-correlation to reveal dynamics of change in direction of influence over time. Partners’ RMS angular displacement for yaw and RMS angular velocity for pitch and yaw each demonstrated strong mutual influence between partners. Partners’ RMS angular displacement for pitch was higher during conflict. In both conflict and non-conflict, head angular displacement and angular velocity for pitch and yaw were strongly correlated, with frequent shifts in lead-lag relationships. The overall amount of coordination between partners’ head movement was more highly correlated during non-conflict compared with conflict interaction. While conflict increased head motion, it served to attenuate interpersonal coordination. PMID:26167256

  7. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

  8. Collision-free motion coordination of heterogeneous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Seo, Dong Jin; Simmons, Reid G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to coordinate the motion of multiple heterogeneous robots on a network. The proposed method uses prioritization and avoidance. Priority is assigned to each robot; a robot with lower priority avoids the robots of higher priority. To avoid collision with other robots, elastic force and potential field force are used. Also, the method can be applied separately to the motion planning of a part of a robot from that of the other parts of the robot. This is useful for application to the robots of the type mobile manipulator or highly redundant robots. The method is tested by simulation, and it results in smooth and adaptive coordination in an environment with multiple heterogeneous robots

  9. Collision-free motion coordination of heterogeneous robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Yong [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong Jin [RedOne Technologies, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Simmons, Reid G. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This paper proposes a method to coordinate the motion of multiple heterogeneous robots on a network. The proposed method uses prioritization and avoidance. Priority is assigned to each robot; a robot with lower priority avoids the robots of higher priority. To avoid collision with other robots, elastic force and potential field force are used. Also, the method can be applied separately to the motion planning of a part of a robot from that of the other parts of the robot. This is useful for application to the robots of the type mobile manipulator or highly redundant robots. The method is tested by simulation, and it results in smooth and adaptive coordination in an environment with multiple heterogeneous robots

  10. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatole M.

    1992-01-01

    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  11. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating that the coordinated control of wave energy converters is an effective way to improve the energy production of wave energy farm in harmonic waves.

  12. Multi-agent System for Off-line Coordinated Motion Planning of Multiple Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. Chiddarwar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent based framework for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots. The emerging paradigm of agent based systems is implemented to address various issues related to safe and fast task execution when multiple robots share a common workspace. In the proposed agent based framework, each issue vital for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots and every robot participating in coordinated task is considered as an agent. The identified agents are interfaced with each other in order to incorporate the desired flexibility in the developed framework. This framework gives a complete strategy for determination of optimal trajectories of robots working in coordination with due consideration to their kinematic, dynamic and payload constraint. The complete architecture of the proposed framework and the detailed discussion on various modules are covered in this paper.

  13. A coordination class analysis of college students' judgments about animated motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaden-Koch, Thomas Christian

    The coordination class construct was invented by di5essa and Sherin to clarify what it means to learn and use scientific concepts. A coordination class is defined to consist of readout strategies, which guide observation, and the causal net, which contains knowledge necessary for making inferences from observations. A coordination class, as originally specified, reliably extracts a certain class of information from a variety of situations. The coordination class construct is relatively new. To examine its utility, transcripts of interviews with college students were analyzed in terms of the coordination class construct. In the interviews, students judged the realism of several computer animations depicting balls rolling on a pair of tracks. When shown animations with only one ball, students made judgments consistent with focusing on the ball's speed changes. Adding a second ball to each animation strongly affected judgments made by students taking introductory physics courses, but had a smaller effect on judgments made by students taking a psychology course. Reasoning was described in this analysis as the coordination of readouts about animations with causal net elements related to realistic motion. Decision-making was characterized both for individual students and for groups by the causal net elements expressed, by the types of readouts reported, and by the coordination processes involved. The coordination class construct was found useful for describing the elements and processes of student decision-making, but little evidence was found to suggest that the students studied possessed reliable coordination classes. Students' causal nets were found to include several appropriate expectations about realistic motion. Several students reached judgments that appeared contrary to their expectations and reported mutually incompatible expectations. Descriptions of students' decision-making processes often included faulty readouts, or feedback loops in which causal net

  14. Homothetic motions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Properties of homothetic or self-similar motions in general relativity are examined with particular reference to vacuum and perfect-fluid space-times. The role of the homothetic bivector with components Hsub((a;b)) formed from the homothetic vector H is discussed in some detail. It is proved that a vacuum space-time only admits a nontrivial homothetic motion if the homothetic vector field is non-null and is not hypersurface orthogonal. As a subcase of a more general result it is shown that a perfect-fluid space-time cannot admit a non-trivial homothetic vector which is orthogonal to the fluid velocity 4-vector. (author)

  15. Relational Coordination in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    . The dissertation present the research study and a collection of three research papers prepared during the period from May 2010 to June 2014. Relational coordination and organisational social capital are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance. Relational coordination analyse the communication...... and relationship networks through which work is coordinated across functional and organisational boundaries. Previous studies have shown that relational coordination is positively associated with delivery of care for patients with chronic illness. Organisational social capital is used when analysing...... the psychosocial work environment in organisations, and is seen as a powerful resources for improving organisational performance. Relational coordination and organisational social capital may oer new insight and opportunities for general practice to learn. General practice provides cost-efficient, first...

  16. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-21

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization, distributed minimization of submodular functions has not received significant attention. Thus, our main contribution is a framework for minimizing submodular functions in a distributed manner. The proposed framework is based on the ideas of Lovasz extension of submodular functions and distributed optimization of convex functions. The framework exploits a fundamental property of submodularity that the Lovasz extension of a submodular function is a convex function and can be computed efficiently. Moreover, a minimizer of a submodular function can be computed by computing the minimizer of its Lovasz extension. In the proposed framework, we employ a consensus based distributed optimization algorithm to minimize set-valued submodular functions as well as general submodular functions defined over set products. We also identify distributed motion coordination in multiagent systems as a new application domain for submodular function minimization. For demonstrating key ideas of the proposed framework, we select a complex setup of the capture the flag game, which offers a variety of challenges relevant to multiagent system. We formulate the problem as a submodular minimization problem and verify through extensive simulations that the proposed framework results in feasible policies for the agents.

  17. Combining coordination of motion actuators with driver steering interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagesson, Kristoffer; Laine, Leo; Jacobson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    A new method is suggested for coordination of vehicle motion actuators; where driver feedback and capabilities become natural elements in the prioritization. The method is using a weighted least squares control allocation formulation, where driver characteristics can be added as virtual force constraints. The approach is in particular suitable for heavy commercial vehicles that in general are over actuated. The method is applied, in a specific use case, by running a simulation of a truck applying automatic braking on a split friction surface. Here the required driver steering angle, to maintain the intended direction, is limited by a constant threshold. This constant is automatically accounted for when balancing actuator usage in the method. Simulation results show that the actual required driver steering angle can be expected to match the set constant well. Furthermore, the stopping distance is very much affected by this set capability of the driver to handle the lateral disturbance, as expected. In general the capability of the driver to handle disturbances should be estimated in real-time, considering driver mental state. By using the method it will then be possible to estimate e.g. stopping distance implied from this. The setup has the potential of even shortening the stopping distance, when the driver is estimated as active, this compared to currently available systems. The approach is feasible for real-time applications and requires only measurable vehicle quantities for parameterization. Examples of other suitable applications in scope of the method would be electronic stability control, lateral stability control at launch and optimal cornering arbitration.

  18. Annotated Bibliography on Relative Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    displace the sheave, and motive means operating the power ram. Preferably, the power run is subjected to i constant upward pneumatic force to provide...NCIEI- Report N- 1187 (Oct 1971). The theory is de\\ eloped for the swinging rmotion induced in a wire suspended load due to the hori7zontal motion of a

  19. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  20. Rigid Body Motion Calculated From Spatial Co-ordinates of Markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we present a unified method for calculating spatial coordinates of markers for a rigid body motion such as in bones. Kinematical analysis of bone movement in cadaveric specimens or living objects had been developed. Here, we show how spatial co-ordinates of markers in or on bone can be calculated from ...

  1. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  2. Relevance of motion-related assessment metrics in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Rodrigues, Sharon P; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-06-01

    Motion metrics have become an important source of information when addressing the assessment of surgical expertise. However, their direct relationship with the different surgical skills has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of motion-related metrics in the evaluation processes of basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills and their correlation with the different abilities sought to measure. A framework for task definition and metric analysis is proposed. An explorative survey was first conducted with a board of experts to identify metrics to assess basic psychomotor skills. Based on the output of that survey, 3 novel tasks for surgical assessment were designed. Face and construct validation was performed, with focus on motion-related metrics. Tasks were performed by 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts). Movements of the laparoscopic instruments were registered with the TrEndo tracking system and analyzed. Time, path length, and depth showed construct validity for all 3 tasks. Motion smoothness and idle time also showed validity for tasks involving bimanual coordination and tasks requiring a more tactical approach, respectively. Additionally, motion smoothness and average speed showed a high internal consistency, proving them to be the most task-independent of all the metrics analyzed. Motion metrics are complementary and valid for assessing basic psychomotor skills, and their relevance depends on the skill being evaluated. A larger clinical implementation, combined with quality performance information, will give more insight on the relevance of the results shown in this study.

  3. Research on Coordinated Robotic Motion Control Based on Fuzzy Decoupling Method in Fluidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underwater recovery of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV is a process of 6-DOF motion control, which is related to characteristics with strong nonlinearity and coupling. In the recovery mission, the vehicle requires high level control accuracy. Considering an AUV called BSAV, this paper established a kinetic model to describe the motion of AUV in the horizontal plane, which consisted of nonlinear equations. On the basis of this model, the main coupling variables were analyzed during recovery. Aiming at the strong coupling problem between the heading control and sway motion, we designed a decoupling compensator based on the fuzzy theory and the decoupling theory. We analyzed to the rules of fuzzy compensation, the input and output membership functions of fuzzy compensator, through compose operation and clear operation of fuzzy reasoning, and obtained decoupling compensation quantity. Simulation results show that the fuzzy decoupling controller effectively reduces the overshoot of the system, and improves the control precision. Through the water tank experiments and analysis of experimental data, the effectiveness and feasibility of AUV recovery movement coordinated control based on fuzzy decoupling method are validated successful, and show that the fuzzy decoupling control method has a high practical value in the recovery mission.

  4. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  5. Remote control and motion coordination of mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Aguirre, A.

    2011-01-01

    As robots destined for personal and professional applications advance towards becoming part of our daily lives, the importance and complexity of the control algorithms which regulate them should not be underestimated. This thesis is related to two fields within robotics which are of major importance

  6. Three-dimensional analysis of relationship between relative orientation and motion modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shijie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Target motion modes have a close relationship with the relative orientation of missile-to-target in three-dimensional highly maneuvering target interception. From the perspective of relationship between the sensor coordinate system and the target body coordinate system, a basic model of sensor is stated and the definition of relative angular velocity between the two coordinate systems is introduced firstly. Then, the three-dimensional analytic expressions of relative angular velocity for different motion modes are derived and simplified by analyzing the influences of target centroid motion, rotation around centroid and relative motion. Finally, the relationships of the relative angular velocity directions and values with motion modes are discussed. Simulation results validate the rationality of the theoretical analysis. It is demonstrated that there are significant differences of the relative orientation in different motion modes which include luxuriant information about motion modes. The conclusions are significant for the research of motion mode identification, maneuver detection, maneuvering target tracking and interception using target signatures.

  7. Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-Arm Manipulators with Closed Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual-arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position-level, velocity-level and acceleration-level resolved motion control methods. The desired pose, velocity and acceleration of each end-effector are then resolved according to the desired motion of the payload and the constraints on the closed-chain system without consideration of the internal force. Corresponding to the three cases above, the joint variables of each arm are then calculated using the inverse kinematic equations, at position-level, velocity-level or acceleration-level. Finally, a dynamic modelling and simulation platform is established based on ADAMS and Matlab software. The proposed methods are verified by typical cases. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can realize the dual-arm coordinated operation and the internal force of the closed chain during the operation is controlled in a reasonable range at the same time.

  8. Relative Motion Modeling and Autonomous Navigation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    74-79. [39] T. Carter and M. Humi, “Clohessy-Wiltshire Equations Modified to Include Quadratic Drag,” Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics...the effect of the absolute and differential effects of the equatorial bulge term, J2, in the linearized equations for the relative motion of...perturbation equations up to third-order used for separating the secular and periodic effects can be written as where , , , and are the Kamiltonians of

  9. It's, Like, Relative Motion at the Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2003-03-01

    Almost all introductory textbooks, both algebra- and calculus-based, include sections on relative motion and relative velocity, in both one and two dimensions. The most popular examples in discussions of 2-D relative velocity in such texts seem to be the motion of airplanes/blimps flying in the presence of wind or the conceptually identical cases of boats/rafts piloted across rivers/streams, including the effects of currents. These and similar cases are rather removed from the everyday experience of some students, and the use of simple lecture demonstrations to illustrate these concepts can be quite useful. For example, the motion of a simple toy "wind-up" car moving at constant speed across a horizontal tabletop, with a plastic sheet underneath providing the "moving frame of reference," can illustrate many aspects of such problems, including the need to "point" the plane/boat in an appropriate direction, just as illustrated in many textbook figures. On the other hand, it is also useful if students can directly experience concepts for themselves, especially in a kinesthetic manner, but there are seemingly far fewer human-sized lecture demonstrations on this topic. In this paper, we will point out one such example which might well be just a short drive away.

  10. Dynamics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Several variational principles which lead to the first and the second geodesic deviation equations, recently formulated by the author and used for the description of the relative motion of test particles in general relativity are presented. Relations between these principles are investigated and exhibited. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is also studied for these generalized deviations and the conservation laws appearing here are discussed

  11. Proton exchange in acid–base complexes induced by reaction coordinates with heavy atom motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Saman; Taghikhani, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proton exchange in acid–base complexes is studied. ► The structures, binding energies, and normal mode vibrations are calculated. ► Transition state structures of proton exchange mechanism are determined. ► In the complexes studied, the reaction coordinate involves heavy atom rocking. ► The reaction coordinate is not simply localized in the proton movements. - Abstract: We extend previous work on nitric acid–ammonia and nitric acid–alkylamine complexes to illustrate that proton exchange reaction coordinates involve the rocking motion of the base moiety in many double hydrogen-bonded gas phase strong acid–strong base complexes. The complexes studied involve the biologically and atmospherically relevant glycine, formic, acetic, propionic, and sulfuric acids with ammonia/alkylamine bases. In these complexes, the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies associated with the proton exchange transition states are −1 . This contrasts with widely studied proton exchange reactions between symmetric carboxylic acid dimers or asymmetric DNA base pair and their analogs where the reaction coordinate is localized in proton motions and the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies for the transition states are >1100 cm −1 . Calculations on complexes of these acids with water are performed for comparison. Variations of normal vibration modes along the reaction coordinate in the complexes are described.

  12. Motion Intention Analysis-Based Coordinated Control for Amputee-Prosthesis Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study amputee-prosthesis (AP interaction, a novel reconfigurable biped robot was designed and fabricated. In homogeneous configuration, two identical artificial legs (ALs were used to simulate the symmetrical lower limbs of a healthy person. Linear inverted pendulum model combining with ZMP stability criterion was used to generate the gait trajectories of ALs. To acquire interjoint coordination for healthy gait, rate gyroscopes were mounted on CoGs of thigh and shank of both legs. By employing principal component analysis, the measured angular velocities were processed and the motion synergy was obtained in the final. Then, one of two ALs was replaced by a bionic leg (BL, and the biped robot was changed into heterogeneous configuration to simulate the AP coupling system. To realize symmetrical stable walking, master/slave coordinated control strategy is proposed. According to information acquired by gyroscopes, BL recognized the motion intention of AL and reconstructed its kinematic variables based on interjoint coordination. By employing iterative learning control, gait tracking of BL to AL was archived. Real environment robot walking experiments validated the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  13. Effects of general relativity in the motion of minor planets and comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitarski, G.

    1983-01-01

    Basing on the solution of one-body Schwarzschild problem, the relativistic terms were included to the equations of motion of a minor planet or comet. It appeared that the using of Painleve's coordinates allowed to write the equations of motion in a very simple form. Equations of motion as well as the commonly used equations based on the Schwarzschild isotropic and nonisotropic line elements were numerically integrated by the recurrent power series method. The results of integration of the motion of Mercury and of the minor planet Icarus show strictly the perihelion motion predicted by the general relativity theory. The relativistic effects in the motion of some minor planets and comets were examined too. (author)

  14. Numerical relativity in spherical coordinates with the Einstein Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Vassilios; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela; Ruchlin, Ian; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2018-04-01

    Numerical relativity codes that do not make assumptions on spatial symmetries most commonly adopt Cartesian coordinates. While these coordinates have many attractive features, spherical coordinates are much better suited to take advantage of approximate symmetries in a number of astrophysical objects, including single stars, black holes, and accretion disks. While the appearance of coordinate singularities often spoils numerical relativity simulations in spherical coordinates, especially in the absence of any symmetry assumptions, it has recently been demonstrated that these problems can be avoided if the coordinate singularities are handled analytically. This is possible with the help of a reference-metric version of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation together with a proper rescaling of tensorial quantities. In this paper we report on an implementation of this formalism in the Einstein Toolkit. We adapt the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, originally designed for Cartesian coordinates, to handle spherical coordinates, by providing appropriate boundary conditions at both inner and outer boundaries. We perform numerical simulations for a disturbed Kerr black hole, extract the gravitational wave signal, and demonstrate that the noise in these signals is orders of magnitude smaller when computed on spherical grids rather than Cartesian grids. With the public release of our new Einstein Toolkit thorns, our methods for numerical relativity in spherical coordinates will become available to the entire numerical relativity community.

  15. An improved method for calculating self-motion coordinates for redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reister, D.B.

    1997-04-01

    For a redundant manipulator, the objective of redundancy resolution is to follow a specified path in Cartesian space and simultaneously perform another task (for example, maximize an objective function or avoid obstacles) at every point along the path. The conventional methods have several drawbacks: a new function must be defined for each task, the extended Jacobian can be singular, closed cycles in Cartesian space may not yield closed cycles in joint space, and the objective is point-wise redundancy resolution (to determine a single point in joint space for each point in Cartesian space). The author divides the redundancy resolution problem into two parts: (1) calculate self-motion coordinates for all possible positions of a manipulator at each point along a Cartesian path and (2) determination of optimal self-motion coordinates that maximize an objective function along the path. This paper will discuss the first part of the problem. The path-wise approach overcomes all of the drawbacks of conventional redundancy resolution methods: no need to define a new function for each task, extended Jacobian cannot be singular, and closed cycles in extended Cartesian space will yield closed cycles in joint space

  16. Retarded coordinates based at a world line and the motion of a small black hole in an external universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article I present a system of retarded coordinates based at an arbitrary world line of an arbitrary curved spacetime. The retarded-time coordinate labels forward light cones that are centered on the world line, the radial coordinate is an affine parameter on the null generators of these light cones, and the angular coordinates are constant on each of these generators. The spacetime metric in the retarded coordinates is displayed as an expansion in powers of the radial coordinate and expressed in terms of the world line's acceleration vector and the spacetime's Riemann tensor evaluated at the world line. The formalism is illustrated in two examples, the first involving a comoving world line of a spatially flat cosmology, the other featuring an observer in circular motion in the Schwarzschild spacetime. The main application of the formalism is presented in the second part of the article, in which I consider the motion of a small black hole in an empty external universe. I use the retarded coordinates to construct the metric of the small black hole perturbed by the tidal field of the external universe, and the metric of the external universe perturbed by the presence of the black hole. Matching these metrics produces the MiSaTaQuWa equations of motion for the small black hole

  17. Electromagnetic radiation damping of charges in external gravitational fields (weak field, slow motion approximation). [Harmonic coordinates, weak field slow-motion approximation, Green function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany)

    1975-01-01

    As a model for gravitational radiation damping of a planet the electromagnetic radiation damping of an extended charged body moving in an external gravitational field is calculated in harmonic coordinates using a weak field, slowing-motion approximation. Special attention is paid to the case where this gravitational field is a weak Schwarzschild field. Using Green's function methods for this purpose it is shown that in a slow-motion approximation there is a strange connection between the tail part and the sharp part: radiation reaction terms of the tail part can cancel corresponding terms of the sharp part. Due to this cancelling mechanism the lowest order electromagnetic radiation damping force in an external gravitational field in harmonic coordinates remains the flat space Abraham Lorentz force. It is demonstrated in this simplified model that a naive slow-motion approximation may easily lead to divergent higher order terms. It is shown that this difficulty does not arise up to the considered order.

  18. Generalized transformations and coordinates for static spherically symmetric general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James M.; O'Leary, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    We examine a static, spherically symmetric solution of the empty space field equations of general relativity with a non-orthogonal line element which gives rise to an opportunity that does not occur in the standard derivations of the Schwarzschild solution. In these derivations, convenient coordinate transformations and dynamical assumptions inevitably lead to the Schwarzschild solution. By relaxing these conditions, a new solution possibility arises and the resulting formalism embraces the Schwarzschild solution as a special case. The new solution avoids the coordinate singularity associated with the Schwarzschild solution and is achieved by obtaining a more suitable coordinate chart. The solution embodies two arbitrary constants, one of which can be identified as the Newtonian gravitational potential using the weak field limit. The additional arbitrary constant gives rise to a situation that allows for generalizations of the Eddington-Finkelstein transformation and the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.

  19. Generalized transformations and coordinates for static spherically symmetric general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James M; O'Leary, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    We examine a static, spherically symmetric solution of the empty space field equations of general relativity with a non-orthogonal line element which gives rise to an opportunity that does not occur in the standard derivations of the Schwarzschild solution. In these derivations, convenient coordinate transformations and dynamical assumptions inevitably lead to the Schwarzschild solution. By relaxing these conditions, a new solution possibility arises and the resulting formalism embraces the Schwarzschild solution as a special case. The new solution avoids the coordinate singularity associated with the Schwarzschild solution and is achieved by obtaining a more suitable coordinate chart. The solution embodies two arbitrary constants, one of which can be identified as the Newtonian gravitational potential using the weak field limit. The additional arbitrary constant gives rise to a situation that allows for generalizations of the Eddington-Finkelstein transformation and the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.

  20. Kinematics of relative motion of test particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed mathematical study of the concept of geodesic deviation in pseudo-riemannian geometry is presented. A generalization of this concept to geodesic deviations of a higher order is then introduced and the second geodesic deviation is investigated in some detail. A geometric interpretation of the set of generalized geodesic deviations is given and applied in general relativity to determine a covariant and local description (with a desired order of accuracy) of test motions which take place in a certain finite neighbourhood of a given world line of an observer. The proper time evolution of two other objects related to geodesic deviation is also discussed: the space separation vector and the telescopic vector. This last name is given here to a field of null vectors along observer's world line which always point towards the same adjacent world line. The telescopic equations allow to determine the evolution of the frequency shift of electromagnetic radiation sent from and received on neighbouring world lines. On the basis of these equations also certain relations have been derived which connect the frequencies or frequency shifts with the curvature of space-time

  1. Method for Collision Avoidance Motion Coordination of Multiple Mobile Robots Using Central Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, N.Y.; Seo, D.J. [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a new method driving multiple robots to their goal position without collision. Each robot adjusts its motion based on the information on the goal locations, velocity, and position of the robot and the velocity and position of the other robots. To consider the movement of the robots in a work area, we adopt the concept of avoidability measure. The avoidability measure figures the degree of how easily a robot can avoid other robots considering the following factors: the distance from the robot to the other robots, velocity of the robot and the other robots. To implement the concept in moving robot avoidance, relative distance between the robots is derived. Our method combines the relative distance with an artificial potential field method. The proposed method is simulated for several cases. The results show that the proposed method steers robots to open space anticipating the approach of other robots. In contrast, the usual potential field method sometimes fails preventing collision or causes hasty motion, because it initiates avoidance motion later than the proposed method. The proposed method can be used to move robots in a robot soccer team to their appropriate position without collision as fast as possible. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Collective coordinate models of domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized systems under the spin hall effect and longitudinal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, S. Ali, E-mail: ali.nasseri@isi.it [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Politecnico di Torino - Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moretti, Simone; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca - Cardenal Plá y Deniel, 22, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Serpico, Claudio [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); University of Naples Federico II - Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Durin, Gianfranco [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) - Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies on heterostructures of ultrathin ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and an oxide have highlighted the importance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and broken inversion symmetry in domain wall (DW) motion. Specifically, chiral DWs are stabilized in these systems due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). SOC can also lead to enhanced current induced DW motion, with the Spin Hall effect (SHE) suggested as the dominant mechanism for this observation. The efficiency of SHE driven DW motion depends on the internal magnetic structure of the DW, which could be controlled using externally applied longitudinal in-plane fields. In this work, micromagnetic simulations and collective coordinate models are used to study current-driven DW motion under longitudinal in-plane fields in perpendicularly magnetized samples with strong DMI. Several extended collective coordinate models are developed to reproduce the micromagnetic results. While these extended models show improvements over traditional models of this kind, there are still discrepancies between them and micromagnetic simulations which require further work. - Highlights: • Moving DWs in PMA material maintain their structure under longitudinal in-plane fields. • As a result of longitudinal fields, magnetization in the domains becomes canted. • A critical longitudinal field was identified and correlated with the DMI strength. • A canted collective coordinate model was developed for DW motion under in-plane fields.

  3. MARS, a Multi-Agent System for Assessing Rowers’ Coordination via Motion-Based Stigmergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. C. A. Cimino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A crucial aspect in rowing is having a synchronized, highly-efficient stroke. This is very difficult to obtain, due to the many interacting factors that each rower of the crew must perceive. Having a system that monitors and represents the crew coordination would be of great help to the coach during training sessions. In the literature, some methods already employ wireless sensors for capturing motion patterns that affect rowing performance. A challenging problem is to support the coach’s decisions at his same level of knowledge, using a limited number of sensors and avoiding the complexity of the biomechanical analysis of human movements. In this paper, we present a multi-agent information-processing system for on-water measuring of both the overall crew asynchrony and the individual rower asynchrony towards the crew. More specifically, in the system, the first level of processing is managed by marking agents, which release marks in a sensing space, according to the rowers’ motion. The accumulation of marks enables a stigmergic cooperation mechanism, generating collective marks, i.e., short-term memory structures in the sensing space. At the second level of processing, information provided by marks is observed by similarity agents, which associate a similarity degree with respect to optimal marks. Finally, the third level is managed by granulation agents, which extract asynchrony indicators for different purposes. The effectiveness of the system has been experimented on real-world scenarios. The study includes the problem statement and its characterization in the literature, as well as the proposed solving approach and initial experimental setting.

  4. Relation between coordinate systems describing the dynamics of a loaded Stewart platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The paper puts forward formulae for transformation of coordinates in three coordinate frames used for the study of motion of a loaded Stewart platform, which is the central mechanism of the dynamic bench. A new method for finding the law of variation of coordinates is proposed. This method depends on solving the problem-specific system of differential equations.

  5. SENR /NRPy + : Numerical relativity in singular curvilinear coordinate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchlin, Ian; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a new open-source, user-friendly numerical relativity code package called SENR /NRPy + . Our code extends previous implementations of the BSSN reference-metric formulation to a much broader class of curvilinear coordinate systems, making it ideally suited to modeling physical configurations with approximate or exact symmetries. In the context of modeling black hole dynamics, it is orders of magnitude more efficient than other widely used open-source numerical relativity codes. NRPy + provides a Python-based interface in which equations are written in natural tensorial form and output at arbitrary finite difference order as highly efficient C code, putting complex tensorial equations at the scientist's fingertips without the need for an expensive software license. SENR provides the algorithmic framework that combines the C codes generated by NRPy + into a functioning numerical relativity code. We validate against two other established, state-of-the-art codes, and achieve excellent agreement. For the first time—in the context of moving puncture black hole evolutions—we demonstrate nearly exponential convergence of constraint violation and gravitational waveform errors to zero as the order of spatial finite difference derivatives is increased, while fixing the numerical grids at moderate resolution in a singular coordinate system. Such behavior outside the horizons is remarkable, as numerical errors do not converge to zero near punctures, and all points along the polar axis are coordinate singularities. The formulation addresses such coordinate singularities via cell-centered grids and a simple change of basis that analytically regularizes tensor components with respect to the coordinates. Future plans include extending this formulation to allow dynamical coordinate grids and bispherical-like distribution of points to efficiently capture orbiting compact binary dynamics.

  6. The motion of a charged particle in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvigsen, M.

    1979-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of the motion of a self-interacting massive charged particle in general relativity is presented. A charged Robinson-Trautman solution is used as a general relativistic model of such a particle. Such a solution is shown to generate a unique world line in its own H space, which is interpreted as the world line of the particle. Using the R-T dynamical relations, the equation of motion of the particle is derived, which, in the limiting case of zero curvature, is shown to be the same as the classical Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion. (author)

  7. Directional bias of illusory stream caused by relative motion adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Erika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Enigma is an op-art painting that elicits an illusion of rotational streaming motion. In the present study, we tested whether adaptation to various motion configurations that included relative motion components could be reflected in the directional bias of the illusory stream. First, participants viewed the center of a rotating Enigma stimulus for adaptation. There was no physical motion on the ring area. During the adaptation period, the illusory stream on the ring was mainly seen in the direction opposite to that of the physical rotation. After the physical rotation stopped, the illusory stream on the ring was mainly seen in the same direction as that of the preceding physical rotation. Moreover, adapting to strong relative motion induced a strong bias in the illusory motion direction in the subsequently presented static Enigma stimulus. The results suggest that relative motion detectors corresponding to the ring area may produce the illusory stream of Enigma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-consistent collective coordinate method for large amplitude collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, F.; Hashimoto, Y.; Marumori, T.; Une, T.

    1982-01-01

    A recent development of the self-consistent collective coordinate method is described. The self-consistent collective coordinate method was proposed on the basis of the fundamental principle called the invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation. If this is formulated within a framework of the time dependent Hartree Fock (TDHF) theory, a classical version of the theory is obtained. A quantum version of the theory is deduced by formulating it within a framework of the unitary transformation method with auxiliary bosons. In this report, the discussion is concentrated on a relation between the classical theory and the quantum theory, and an applicability of the classical theory. The aim of the classical theory is to extract a maximally decoupled collective subspace out of a huge dimensional 1p - 1h parameter space introduced by the TDHF theory. An intimate similarity between the classical theory and a full quantum boson expansion method (BEM) was clarified. Discussion was concentrated to a simple Lipkin model. Then a relation between the BEM and the unitary transformation method with auxiliary bosons was discussed. It became clear that the quantum version of the theory had a strong relation to the BEM, and that the BEM was nothing but a quantum analogue of the present classical theory. The present theory was compared with the full TDHF calculation by using a simple model. (Kato, T.)

  9. A Sensory-Driven Trade-Off between Coordinated Motion in Social Prey and a Predator's Visual Confusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand H Lemasson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social animals are capable of enhancing their awareness by paying attention to their neighbors, and prey found in groups can also confuse their predators. Both sides of these sensory benefits have long been appreciated, yet less is known of how the perception of events from the perspectives of both prey and predator can interact to influence their encounters. Here we examined how a visual sensory mechanism impacts the collective motion of prey and, subsequently, how their resulting movements influenced predator confusion and capture ability. We presented virtual prey to human players in a targeting game and measured the speed and accuracy with which participants caught designated prey. As prey paid more attention to neighbor movements their collective coordination increased, yet increases in prey coordination were positively associated with increases in the speed and accuracy of attacks. However, while attack speed was unaffected by the initial state of the prey, accuracy dropped significantly if the prey were already organized at the start of the attack, rather than in the process of self-organizing. By repeating attack scenarios and masking the targeted prey's neighbors we were able to visually isolate them and conclusively demonstrate how visual confusion impacted capture ability. Delays in capture caused by decreased coordination amongst the prey depended upon the collection motion of neighboring prey, while it was primarily the motion of the targets themselves that determined capture accuracy. Interestingly, while a complete loss of coordination in the prey (e.g., a flash expansion caused the greatest delay in capture, such behavior had little effect on capture accuracy. Lastly, while increases in collective coordination in prey enhanced personal risk, traveling in coordinated groups was still better than appearing alone. These findings demonstrate a trade-off between the sensory mechanisms that can enhance the collective properties that

  10. Human-directed local autonomy for motion guidance and coordination in an intelligent manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W. A.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Wilkes, Don M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the problem of integrating human intelligence and skills into an intelligent manufacturing system. Our center has jointed the Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) Project, an international consortium dedicated to developing holonic systems technologies. One of our contributions to this effort is in Work Package 6: flexible human integration. This paper focuses on one activity, namely, human integration into motion guidance and coordination. Much research on intelligent systems focuses on creating totally autonomous agents. At the Center for Intelligent Systems (CIS), we design robots that interact directly with a human user. We focus on using the natural intelligence of the user to simplify the design of a robotic system. The problem is finding ways for the user to interact with the robot that are efficient and comfortable for the user. Manufacturing applications impose the additional constraint that the manufacturing process should not be disturbed; that is, frequent interacting with the user could degrade real-time performance. Our research in human-robot interaction is based on a concept called human directed local autonomy (HuDL). Under this paradigm, the intelligent agent selects and executes a behavior or skill, based upon directions from a human user. The user interacts with the robot via speech, gestures, or other media. Our control software is based on the intelligent machine architecture (IMA), an object-oriented architecture which facilitates cooperation and communication among intelligent agents. In this paper we describe our research testbed, a dual-arm humanoid robot and human user, and the use of this testbed for a human directed sorting task. We also discuss some proposed experiments for evaluating the integration of the human into the robot system. At the time of this writing, the experiments have not been completed.

  11. Final state predictions for J2 gravity perturbed motion of the Earth’s artificial satellites using Bispherical coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sharaf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, initial value problem for dynamical astronomy will be established using Bispherical coordinates. A computational algorithm is developed for the final state predictions for J2 gravity perturbed motion of the Earth’s artificial satellites. This algorithm is important in targeting, rendezvous maneuvers as well for scientific researches. The applications of the algorithm are illustrated by numerical examples of some test orbits of different eccentricities. The numerical results are extremely accurate and efficient.

  12. Features of projectile motion in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Ghassan Y

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic projectile motion in a vacuum is examined by means of elementary consequences of special relativity. Exact analytical expressions were found for the kinematics variables using basic mathematical tools. The trajectory equation was established and the area under the trajectory traversed by the relativistic projectile was determined. It was found that, unlike non-relativistic projectile motion, the launching angles that maximize both the horizontal range as well as the area under the trajectory are functions of the initial speed. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of students and serve as a resource for further problems usually encountered in the special theory of relativity

  13. Topology of the Relative Motion: Circular and Eccentric Reference Orbit Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    FontdecabaiBaig, Jordi; Metris, Gilles; Exertier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the topology of the relative trajectories in flight formations. The purpose is to study the different types of relative trajectories, their degrees of freedom, and to give an adapted parameterization. The paper also deals with the research of local circular motions. Even if they exist only when the reference orbit is circular, we extrapolate initial conditions to the eccentric reference orbit case.This alternative approach is complementary with traditional approaches in terms of cartesian coordinates or differences of orbital elements.

  14. Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

  15. The Hubble law and the spiral structures of galaxies from equations of motion in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1975-01-01

    Fully exploiting the Lie group that characterizes the underlying symmetry of general relativity theory, Einstein's tensor formalism factorizes, yielding a generalized (16-component) quaternion field formalism. The associated generalized geodesic equation, taken as the equation of motion of a star, predicts the Hubble law from one approximation for the generally covariant equations of motion, and the spiral structure of galaxies from another approximation. These results depend on the imposition of appropriate boundary conditions. The Hubble law follows when the boundary conditions derive from the oscillating model cosmology, and not from the other cosmological models. The spiral structures of the galaxies follow from the same boundary conditions, but with a different time scale than for the whole universe. The solutions that imply the spiral motion are Fresnel integrals. These predict the star's motion to be along the 'Cornu Spiral'. The part of this spiral in the first quadrant is the imploding phase of the galaxy, corresponding to a motion with continually decreasing radii, approaching the galactic center as time increases. The part of the Cornu Spiral' in the third quadrant is the exploding phase, corresponding to continually increasing radii, as the star moves out from the hub. The spatial origin in the coordinate system of this curve is the inflection point, where the explosion changes to implosion. The two- (or many-) armed spiral galaxies are explained here in terms of two (or many) distinct explosions occurring at displaced times, in the domain of the rotating, planar galaxy. (author)

  16. Equations of motion in general relativity of a small charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.; Hogan, P. A.; Itoh, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present the details of a model in general relativity of a small charged black hole moving in an external gravitational and electromagnetic field. The importance of our model lies in the fact that we can derive the equations of motion of the black hole from the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations without encountering infinities. The key assumptions which we base our results upon are that (a) the black hole is isolated and (b) near the black hole the wave fronts of the radiation generated by its motion are smoothly deformed spheres. The equations of motion which emerge fit the pattern of the original DeWitt and Brehme equations of motion (after they 'renormalize'). Our calculations are carried out in a coordinate system in which the null hypersurface histories of the wave fronts can be specified in a simple way, with the result that we obtain a new explicit form, particular to our model, for the well-known ''tail term'' in the equations of motion.

  17. Processive motions of MreB micro-filaments coordinate cell wall growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Ethan

    2012-02-01

    Rod-shaped bacteria elongate by the action of cell-wall synthesis complexes linked to underlying dynamic MreB filaments, but how these proteins function to allow continued elongation as a rod remains unknown. To understand how the movement of these filaments relates to cell wall synthesis, we characterized the dynamics of MreB and the cell wall elongation machinery using high-resolution particle tracking in Bacillus subtilis. We found that both MreB and the elongation machinery move in linear paths across the cell, moving at similar rates (˜20nm / second) and angles to the cell body, suggesting they function as single complexes. These proteins move circumferentially around the cell, principally perpendicular to its length. We find that the motions of these complexes are independent, as they can pause and reverse,and also as nearby complexes move independently in both directions across one surface of the cell. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis with antibiotics or depletions in the cell wall synthesis machinery blocked MreB movement, suggesting that the cell wall synthetic machinery is the motor in this system. We propose that bacteria elongate by the uncoordinated, circumferential movements of synthetic complexes that span the plasma membrane and insert radial hoops of new peptidoglycan during their transit.

  18. A Live-Time Relation: Motion Graphics meets Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    , liveness and atmosphere. The design model will be a framework for both academic analytical studies as well as for designing time-based narratives and visual concepts involving motion graphics in spatial contexts. I focus on cases in which both pre-rendered, and live generated motion graphics are designed......In our digital age, we frequently meet fine examples of live performances of classical music with accompanying visuals. Yet, we find very little theoretical or analytical work on the relation between classical music and digital temporal visuals, nor on the process of creating them. In this paper, I...... present segments of my work toward a working model for the process of design of visuals and motion graphics applied in spatial contexts. I show how various design elements and components: line and shape, tone and colour, time and timing, rhythm and movement interact with conceptualizations of space...

  19. Special relativity of non-inertial motions: A complementary theory to Einstein's SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocanu, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    In order to describe physical reality a special (gravity-free) relativity is needed that is founded upon general non-uniform motions as they occur in our environment and hold for the non-inertial reference frame of our laboratory. Such a generalized form of special relativity can be build upon an extension, at relativistic velocities, of Maxwell-Hertz electrodynamics (MHE), which is valid for non-uniform motions, but at small velocities only. The new electromagnetic theory called (in honor to Hertz) Hertz's Relativistic Electrodynamics (HRE), is completely independent and built-up in a completely different way as regards Einstein's Special Relativity (ESR). HRE, a coordinate-free formulation does not need postulates, but confirms the constancy principle of speed of light in vacuum. All experiments of first and second order in v/c are correctly interpreted. To this theory a Hertzian kinematics and dynamics are associated. HRE with its corresponding mechanics forms Hertz's Special Relativity (HSR), as a complementary theory to ESR. According to the principle of complementarity and neglecting the gravitational effects, the Extended Special Relativity (ExSR) is a double faced theory which becomes either ESR, when the motion is inertial or HSR when the motion is non-inertial. The complementarity of both theories assumes that the two descriptions cannot be employed for the same motion, being mutually exclusive. Consequently, to every statement of one of the ExSR corresponds a complementary statement of the other ExSR. The completeness of ESR with HSR ensures an extended view over the relativity in our physical world. (author)

  20. The difference between the perception of absolute and relative motion: A reaction time study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Smeets (Jeroen); E. Brenner (Eli)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe used a reaction-time paradigm to examine the extent to which motion detection depends on relative motion. In the absence of relative motion, the responses could be described by a simple model based on the detection of a fixed change in position. If relative motion was present, the

  1. Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng

    2017-01-01

    This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.

  2. A simplified generator coordinate treatment with analytical projected-BCS solutions for isovector pairing collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Chen, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the projected-BCS energies and reaction transition rates among the isovector pairing collective states are obtained by the recognition of symmetry properties in a class of BCS wave functions. As a consequence, a simplified generator coordinate treatment is suggested [pt

  3. Relations between Automatically Extracted Motion Features and the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions at 4 and 13 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egmose, Ida; Varni, Giovanna; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Væver, Mette S; Køppe, Simo; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Bodily movements are an essential component of social interactions. However, the role of movement in early mother-infant interaction has received little attention in the research literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between automatically extracted motion features and interaction quality in mother-infant interactions at 4 and 13 months. The sample consisted of 19 mother-infant dyads at 4 months and 33 mother-infant dyads at 13 months. The coding system Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) was used for rating the quality of the interactions. Kinetic energy of upper-body, arms and head motion was calculated and used as segmentation in order to extract coarse- and fine-grained motion features. Spearman correlations were conducted between the composites derived from the CIB and the coarse- and fine-grained motion features. At both 4 and 13 months, longer durations of maternal arm motion and infant upper-body motion were associated with more aversive interactions, i.e., more parent-led interactions and more infant negativity. Further, at 4 months, the amount of motion silence was related to more adaptive interactions, i.e., more sensitive and child-led interactions. Analyses of the fine-grained motion features showed that if the mother coordinates her head movements with her infant's head movements, the interaction is rated as more adaptive in terms of less infant negativity and less dyadic negative states. We found more and stronger correlations between the motion features and the interaction qualities at 4 compared to 13 months. These results highlight that motion features are related to the quality of mother-infant interactions. Factors such as infant age and interaction set-up are likely to modify the meaning and importance of different motion features.

  4. Ground Motion Relations While TBM Drilling in Unconsolidated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Michael; Ritter, Joachim R. R.; Gehrig, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The induced ground motions due to the tunnel boring machine (TBM), which has been used for the drilling of the urban metro tunnel in Karlsruhe (SW Germany), has been studied using the continuous recordings of seven seismological monitoring stations. The drilling has been undertaken in unconsolidated sediments of the Rhine River system, relatively close to the surface at 6-20 m depth and in the vicinity of many historic buildings. Compared to the reference values of DIN 4150-3 (1-80 Hz), no exceedance of the recommended peak ground velocity (PGV) limits (3-5 mm/s) was observed at the single recording site locations on building basements during the observation period between October 2014 and February 2015. Detailed analyses in the time and frequency domains helped with the detection of the sources of several specific shaking signals in the recorded time series and with the comparison of the aforementioned TBM-induced signals. The amplitude analysis allowed for the determination of a PGV attenuation relation (quality factor Q ~ 30-50) and the comparison of the TBM-induced ground motion with other artificially induced and natural ground motions of similar amplitudes.

  5. Relational coordination is associated with productivity in general practice: a survey and register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Reventlow, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the association between relational coordination among the practice team in general practice and number of consultations performed in a general practice per staff, i.e. a proxy of productivity. We measured relational coordination using the Relational Coordination Survey...... and combined the results with register data. We found that relational coordination was statistically significant associated with number of consultation per staff per year. We later divided consultations in to three types: Face-to-face, Email and phone consultations. We found a statistically significant...... associating between relational coordination and with number of face-to-face consultation per staff per year....

  6. Affine Transform to Reform Pixel Coordinates of EOG Signals for Controlling Robot Manipulators Using Gaze Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilhamdi Rusydi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2 produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.

  7. Affine transform to reform pixel coordinates of EOG signals for controlling robot manipulators using gaze motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusydi, Muhammad Ilhamdi; Sasaki, Minoru; Ito, Satoshi

    2014-06-10

    Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG) signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2) produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.

  8. Relative Motion of the WDS 05110+3203 STF 648 System, With a Protocol for Calculating Relative Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, E. O.

    2010-07-01

    Relative motion studies of visual double stars can be investigated using least squares regression techniques and readily accessible programs such as Microsoft Excel and a calculator. Optical pairs differ from physical pairs under most geometries in both their simple scatter plots and their regression models. A step-by-step protocol for estimating the rectilinear elements of an optical pair is presented. The characteristics of physical pairs using these techniques are discussed.

  9. Relative roughness controls on incipient sediment motion in steep channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Fuller, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    For over eight decades, researchers have noted an appreciable increase in the nondimensional shear stress (Shields number) at initiation of fluvial bedload transport with increasing bed slope. The precise cause of the trend, however, is obscured by the covariance of several factors with increased slope: a greater downstream component of the gravity acting on the grains and fluid, changes in bed morphology, increased grainsize relative to the channel width that may lead to grain bridging, and increased grainsize relative to flow depth (relative roughness) that may change flow hydraulics and particle buoyancy. Here, we report on ongoing laboratory experiments spanning a wide range of bed slopes (2% to 67%) designed to isolate these variables and determine the true cause of heightened critical Shields numbers on steep slopes. First, we eliminated bed morphology as a factor by using only planar beds. To investigate the effect of grain bridging, we used two different channel widths, representing width-to-grainsize ratios of 23:1 and 9:1. Finally, to separate the effects of slope from relative roughness, we compared incipient motion conditions for acrylic particles (submerged specific gravity of 0.15) to natural siliciclastic gravel (submerged specific gravity of 1.65). Different particle densities allowed us to explore incipient motion as a function of relative roughness, independent of channel slope, because lighter particles move at shallower flow depths than heavier ones of the same size. Results show that both materials exhibit a positive trend between bed slope and critical Shields number despite the existence of planar beds for all slopes. Furthermore, changing the grainsize-to-width ratio had a negligible effect on this trend. For all slopes, the critical Shields number for bedload transport was higher for the acrylic particles than for gravel, indicating that relative roughness has a strong control on incipient sediment motion independent of channel slope. These

  10. Motion coordination affects movement parameters in a joint pick-and-place task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubö, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influences of social context on movement parameters in a pick-and-place task. Participants’ motion trajectories were recorded while they performed sequences of natural movements either working side-by-side with a partner or alone. It was expected that movement parameters would...... person performed the task while being observed by the partner. Results indicate that participants adapted their movements temporally and spatially to the joint action situation: Overall movement duration was shorter, and mean and maximum velocity was higher when actually working together than when...... action tasks....

  11. Adaptive Changes in Sensorimotor Coordination and Motion Sickness Following Repeated Exposures to Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Initial interpretation of novel sensory information may be inappropriate and result in perceptual errors. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, unilateral labyrinthectomy and experimentally produced stimulus rearrangements. The purpose of this research was to compare disturbances in sensorimotor coordination produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays and to examine the effects of exposure duration, and repeated exposures to VR systems. The first study examined disturbances in balance control, and the second study examined disturbances in eye-head-hand (EHH) and eye-head coordination.

  12. Improving pulse oximetry accuracy by removing motion artifacts from photoplethysmograms using relative sensor motion: a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshoff, R.W.C.G.R.; Mischi, M.; Woerlee, P.H.; Aarts, R.M.; Van Huffel, S.; Naelaers, G.; Caicedo, A.; Bruley, D.F.; Harrison, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    To expand applicability of pulse oximetry in low-acuity ambulatory settings, the impact of motion on extracted parameters as saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR) needs to be reduced. We hypothesized that sensor motion relative to the skin can be used as an artifact reference in a correlation

  13. Geometry of the self-consistent collective-coordinate method for the large-amplitude collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yukio; Une, Tsutomu.

    1983-05-01

    The geometry of the self-consistent collective-coordinate (SCC) method formulated within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory is investigated by associating the variational parameters with a symplectic manifold (a TDHF manifold). With the use of a canonical-variables parametrization, it is shown that the TDHF equation is equivalent to the canonical equations of motion in classical mechanics in the TDHF manifold. This enables us to investigate geometrical structure of the SCC method in the language of the classical mechanics. The SCC method turns out to give a prescription how to dynamically extract a ''maximally-decoupled'' collective submanifold (hypersurface) out of the TDHF manifold, in such a way that a certain kind of trajectories corresponding to the large-amplitude collective motion under consideration can be reproduced on the hypersurface as precisely as possible. The stability of the hypersurface at each point on it is investigated, in order to see whether the hypersurface obtained by the SCC method is really an approximate integral surface in the TDHF manifold or not. (author)

  14. Development of a universal measure of quadrupedal forelimb-hindlimb coordination using digital motion capture and computerised analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Nick D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical spinal cord injury in domestic dogs provides a model population in which to test the efficacy of putative therapeutic interventions for human spinal cord injury. To achieve this potential a robust method of functional analysis is required so that statistical comparison of numerical data derived from treated and control animals can be achieved. Results In this study we describe the use of digital motion capture equipment combined with mathematical analysis to derive a simple quantitative parameter – 'the mean diagonal coupling interval' – to describe coordination between forelimb and hindlimb movement. In normal dogs this parameter is independent of size, conformation, speed of walking or gait pattern. We show here that mean diagonal coupling interval is highly sensitive to alterations in forelimb-hindlimb coordination in dogs that have suffered spinal cord injury, and can be accurately quantified, but is unaffected by orthopaedic perturbations of gait. Conclusion Mean diagonal coupling interval is an easily derived, highly robust measurement that provides an ideal method to compare the functional effect of therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury in quadrupeds.

  15. The effect on organizational change on relational coordination – a multi case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results from an original empirical study of 11 organizational change projects in different wards at two Danish hospitals. The purpose of the study was to study was to study changes in relation coordination as a consequence of organizational change. We measured relational...... coordination before and after the organizational change using the 7 question relational coordination questionnaire. A group of employees were interviewed after the change project to uncover the nature and extent of the changes. We find that organizations’ relational coordination score change very little – even...... for organizational change that introduces new work relations and new processes....

  16. Coordinated three-dimensional motion of the head and torso by dynamic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Hemami, H

    1998-01-01

    The problem of trajectory tracking control of a three dimensional (3D) model of the human upper torso and head is considered. The torso and the head are modeled as two rigid bodies connected at one point, and the Newton-Euler method is used to derive the nonlinear differential equations that govern the motion of the system. The two-link system is driven by six pairs of muscle like actuators that possess physiologically inspired alpha like and gamma like inputs, and spindle like and Golgi tendon organ like outputs. These outputs are utilized as reflex feedback for stability and stiffness control, in a long loop feedback for the purpose of estimating the state of the system (somesthesis), and as part of the input to the controller. Ideal delays of different duration are included in the feedforward and feedback paths of the system to emulate such delays encountered in physiological systems. Dynamical neural networks are trained to learn effective control of the desired maneuvers of the system. The feasibility of the controller is demonstrated by computer simulation of the successful execution of the desired maneuvers. This work demonstrates the capabilities of neural circuits in controlling highly nonlinear systems with multidelays in their feedforward and feedback paths. The ultimate long range goal of this research is toward understanding the working of the central nervous system in controlling movement. It is an interdisciplinary effort relying on mechanics, biomechanics, neuroscience, system theory, physiology and anatomy, and its short range relevance to rehabilitation must be noted.

  17. Geometrical determination of the constant of motion in General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catoni, F.; Cannata, R.; Zampetti, P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent time a theorem, due to E. Beltrami, through which the integration of the geodesic equations of a curved manifold is obtained by means of a merely geometric method, has been revisited. This way of dealing with the problem is well in accordance with the geometric spirit of the Theory of General Relativity. In this paper we show another relevant consequence of this method. Actually, the constants of the motion, introduced in this geometrical way that is completely independent of Newton theory, are related to the conservation laws for test particles in the Einstein theory. These conservation laws may be compared with the conservation laws of Newton. In particular, by the conservation of energy (E) and the L z component of angular momentum, the equivalence of the conservation laws for the Schwarzschild field is verified and the difference between Newton and Einstein theories for the rotating bodies (Kerr metric) is obtained in a straightforward way.

  18. Coordination chemistry of technetium as related to nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.

    1982-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the area of technetium coordination chemistry during the last five years. The main driving force behind this recent surge of interest in the field has been due to the practical application of technetium-99m in the rapidly growing speciality of nuclear medicine. Technetium-99 is one of the products of nuclear fission reactions, but it was the development of the molybdenum-99-technetium-99m generator about two decades ago that provided the basis for the development of radiopharmaceuticals routinely used in modern diagnostic applications. The chemistry of this element has proven to be quite rich owing to its multiple oxidation states and variable geometry. This can be attributed to its position in the middle of the periodic table. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals comprise predominantly III, IV and V oxidation states of Tc and involve a variety of coordination complexes. Even though the chemistry of Tc has been slow to evolve, recent synthetic advances have provided a more scientific basis for the study of a number of compounds with diverse coordination geometries and structures. Ligands with oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur donor atoms have been utilized to elucidate various aspects of the coordination chemistry of Tc. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis has been extensively used to characterize Tc complexes and thus construct a firm foundation for the study of synthetic and mechanistic aspects of the chemistry of this element. (author)

  19. Relative dynamics and motion control of nanosatellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin; Hiraki, Koju

    2016-04-01

    Orbit selection is a necessary factor in nanosatellite formation mission design/meanwhile, to keep the formation, it is necessary to consume fuel. Therefore, the best orbit design for nanosatellite formation flying should be one that requires the minimum fuel consumption. The purpose of this paper is to analyse orbit selection with respect to the minimum fuel consumption, to provide a convenient way to estimate the fuel consumption for keeping nanosatellite formation flying and to present a simplified method of formation control. The formation structure is disturbed by J2 gravitational perturbation and other perturbing accelerations such as atmospheric drag. First, Gauss' Variation Equations (GVE) are used to estimate the essential ΔV due to the J2 perturbation and atmospheric drag. The essential ΔV presents information on which orbit is good with respect to the minimum fuel consumption. Then, the linear equations which account for J2 gravitational perturbation of Schweighart-Sedwick are presented and used to estimate the fuel consumption to maintain the formation structure. Finally, the relative dynamics motion is presented as well as a simplified motion control of formation structure by using GVE.

  20. Ground Motion Relations for the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbini, V.; Granet, M.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake in Europe are primarily located within the Euro-Mediterranean domain. However, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) region regularly suffers earthquakes which are felt physically by inhabitants and cause damage to private property and the industrial infrastructure. In 1356, a major earthquake (I0 = X) destroyed part of the city of Basel. Recently, several events having M > 5 have shaken this area. In the framework of an INTERREG III project funded by the European community, a microzonation study has been achieved across the "three borders" area including the cities of Basel and Mulhouse. In particular, the ground motion was studied. The URG, which belongs to the ECRIS (European Cenozoic Rift System), is characterized by rift-related sedimentary basins with several hundreds meters of tertiary sediments overlaying the basement. Such a subsurface geology leads to strong site effects. Predictive attenuation laws and their related uncertainties are evaluated considering strong motions records and velocimetric records from small to moderate local events (Magnitude ranging 3 related to a frequency dependant quality factor). Site effects are considered by using transfer functions calculated for each station. Finally, the relationships between Ml and Mw are investigated. The results show a dependence of these laws on the frequency band and a discrepancy with general laws obtained for western and central Europe. We shall discuss these results in the tectonic and geologic context of URG.

  1. The coordinate system transformation of a serial kinematic structures and use in the derivation of systems motion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zátopek Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the use of transformation matrices to determine the motion equations of the complex mechanical structure. Use of the transformation matrix does not apply only to motion equations but has the general use in relative positions determine of objects in the 3D space. Analysed model is divided into seven physical objects, the transformation matrix and the corresponding inertia/pseudo-inertia matrix is included in each of them. This matrices are strictly necessary to the system dynamic description using the matrix form of Lagrange Equations of the Second Type. Another possibility to use the transformation matrix is shown in the camera system measurement. Model was designed in 3D CAD system SolidWorks, MATLAB was used for the mathematical calculations.

  2. Coordination of spinal motion in the transverse and frontal planes during walking in people with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Jack; de Faria Negrão Filho, Ruben; Nascimento, Dafne Port; Ferreira, Paulo

    2013-03-01

    Observational cohort study. To investigate spinal coordination during preferred and fast speed walking in pain-free subjects with and without a history of recurrent low back pain (LBP). Dynamic motion of the spine during walking is compromised in the presence of back pain (LBP), but its analysis often presents some challenges. The coexistence of significant symptoms may change gait because of pain or adaptation of the musculoskeletal structures or both. A history of LBP without the overlay of a current symptomatic episode allows a better model in which to explore the impact on spinal coordination during walking. Spinal and lower limb segmental motions were tracked using electromagnetic sensors. Analyses were conducted to explore the synchrony and spatial coordination of the segments and to compare the control and subjects with LBP. We found no apparent differences between the groups for either overall amplitude of motion or most indicators of coordination in the lumbar region; however, there were significant postural differences in the mid-stance phase and other indicators of less phase locking in controls compared with subjects with LBP. The lower thoracic spinal segment was more affected by the history of back pain than the lumbar segment. Although small, there were indicators that alterations in spinal movement and coordination in subjects with recurrent LBP were due to adaptive changes rather than the presence of pain.

  3. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang eKeshavarz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (so-called vection, however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate whether or not vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS. That is, can there be visually induced motion sickness without any sensation of self-motion? In this paper, we will describe the possible nature of this relationship, review the literature that may speak to this relationship (including theoretical accounts of vection and VIMS, and offer suggestions with respect to operationally defining and reporting these phenomena in future.

  4. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  5. Relative Status Determination for Spacecraft Relative Motion Based on Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the two-satellite formation, the relative motion and attitude determination algorithm is a key component that affects the flight quality and mission efficiency. The relative status determination algorithm is proposed based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the system state optimal estimate linearization. Aiming at the relative motion of the spacecraft formation navigation problem, the spacecraft relative kinematics and dynamics model are derived from the dual quaternion in the algorithm. Then taking advantage of EKF technique, combining with the dual quaternion integrated dynamic models, considering the navigation algorithm using the fusion measurement by the gyroscope and star sensors, the relative status determination algorithm is designed. At last the simulation is done to verify the feasibility of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the EKF algorithm has faster convergence speed and higher accuracy.

  6. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Dutch Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Frouwien D.; Stuive, Ilse; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Holty, Lian; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; van Weert, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare components of health-related physical fitness between Dutch children with clinically diagnosed developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC), and to examine associations between motor performance problems and components of health-related

  7. Singular perturbations of manifolds, with applications to the problem of motion in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kates, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis shows that a small body with possibly strong internal gravity moves through an empty region of a curved, and not necessarily asymptotically flat, external spacetime on an approximate geodesic. By approximate geodesic, the following is meant: Suppose the ratio epsilon = m/L 1 - where m is the body's mass and L is a curvature reference length of the external field - is a small parameter. Then the body's worldline deviates from a geodesic only by distances of at most THETA(epsilon) L over times of order L. The worldline is calculated directly from the Einstein field equation using a singular perturbation technique that has been generalized from the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The need for singular perturbation techniques has long been appreciated in fluid mechanics, where they are now standard procedure in problems in which the straightforward expansion in powers of a small parameter fails to give a correct qualitative picture. In part I of this thesis, singular perturbations on manifolds are formulated in a coordinate-free way suitable for treating problems in general relativity and other field theories. Most importantly for this thesis, the coordinate-free formulation of singular perturbations given in part I is essential for treatment of the problem of motion in part II

  8. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  9. Impact of relational coordination on staff and patient outcomes in outpatient surgical clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Logan, Caroline; Cronenwett, Jack; Foster, Tina C; Freeman, Richard; Godfrey, Marjorie; Vidal, Dale Collins

    2018-01-05

    Pressures are increasing for clinicians to provide high-quality, efficient care, leading to increased concerns about staff burnout. This study asks whether staff well-being can be achieved in ways that are also beneficial for the patient's experience of care. It explores whether relational coordination can contribute to both staff well-being and patient satisfaction in outpatient surgical clinics where time constraints paired with high needs for information transfer increase both the need for and the challenge of achieving timely and accurate communication. We studied relational coordination among surgeons, nurses, residents, administrators, technicians, and secretaries in 11 outpatient surgical clinics. Data were combined from a staff and a patient survey to conduct a cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using ordinary least squares and random effects regression models. Relational coordination among all workgroups was significantly associated with staff outcomes, including job satisfaction, work engagement, and burnout. Relational coordination was also significantly associated with patients' satisfaction with staff and their overall visit, though the association between relational coordination and patients' satisfaction with their providers did not reach statistical significance. Even when patient-staff interactions are relatively brief, as in outpatient settings, high levels of relational coordination among interdependent workgroups contribute to positive outcomes for both staff and patients, and low levels tend to have the opposite effect. Clinical leaders can increase the expectation of positive outcomes for both staff and their patients by implementing interventions to strengthen relational coordination.

  10. Short-Term Comparison of Several Solutinos of Elliptic Relative Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently introduced, several explicit solutions of relative motion between neighboring elliptic satellite orbits are reviewed. The performance of these solutions is compared with an analytic solution of the general linearized equation of motion. The inversion solution by the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations is used to produce the initial condition of numerical results. Despite the difference of the reference orbit, the relative motion with the relatively small eccentricity shows the similar results on elliptic case and circular case. In case of the 'chief' satellite with the relatively large eccentricity, HCW equation with the circular reference orbit has relatively larger error than other elliptic equation of motion does.

  11. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  12. Thinking in a coordinate-free way about relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leo, Joop

    How we talk about relations has a great influence on how we think about relations. By saying that Spain defeated the Netherlands we obviously say something entirely different from saying that the Netherlands defeated Spain. This makes many of us think that in the underlying relation itself one of

  13. Optimum collective submanifold in resonant cases by the self-consistent collective-coordinate method for large-amplitude collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Marumori, T.; Sakata, F.

    1987-01-01

    With the purpose of clarifying characteristic difference of the optimum collective submanifolds in nonresonant and resonant cases, we develop an improved method of solving the basic equations of the self-consistent collective-coordinate (SCC) method for large-amplitude collective motion. It is shown that, in the resonant cases, there inevitably arise essential coupling terms which break the maximal-decoupling property of the collective motion, and we have to extend the optimum collective submanifold so as to properly treat the degrees of freedom which bring about the resonances

  14. Relation of external surface to internal tumor motion studied with cine CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.-C.M.; Balter, Peter; Luo Dershan; Mohan, Radhe; Pan Tinsu

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of delivering gated-radiation therapy to lung tumors using an external respiratory surrogate relies on not only interfractional and intrafractional reproducibility, but also a strong correlation between external motion and internal tumor motion. The purpose of this work was to use the cine images acquired by four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition protocol to study the relation between external surface motion and internal tumor motion. The respiratory phase information of tumor motion and chest wall motion was measured on the cine images using a proposed region-of-interest (ROI) method and compared to measurement of an external respiratory monitoring device. On eight lung patient data sets, the phase shifts were measured between (1) the signal of a real-time positioning-management (RPM) respiratory monitoring device placed in the abdominal region and four surface locations on the chest wall (2) the RPM signal in the abdominal region and tumor motions, and (3) chest wall surface motions and tumor motions. Respiratory waveforms measured at different surface locations during the same respiratory cycle often varied and had significant phase shifts. Seven of the 8 patients showed the abdominal motion leading chest wall motion. The best correlation (smallest phase shift) was found between the abdominal motion and the superior-inferior (S-I) tumor motion. A wide range of phase shifts was observed between external surface motion and tumor anterior-posterior (A-P)/lateral motion. The result supported the placement of the RPM block in the abdominal region and suggested that during a gated therapy utilizing the RPM system, it is necessary to place the RPM block at the same location as it is during treatment simulation in order to reduce potential errors introduced by the position of the RPM block. Correlations between external motions and lateral/A-P tumor motions were inconclusive due to a combination of patient selection and the limitation of the ROI

  15. On the relative motions of long-lived Pacific mantle plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kevin; Koppers, Anthony A P; Steinberger, Bernhard; Finlayson, Valerie A; Konter, Jasper G; Jackson, Matthew G

    2018-02-27

    Mantle plumes upwelling beneath moving tectonic plates generate age-progressive chains of volcanos (hotspot chains) used to reconstruct plate motion. However, these hotspots appear to move relative to each other, implying that plumes are not laterally fixed. The lack of age constraints on long-lived, coeval hotspot chains hinders attempts to reconstruct plate motion and quantify relative plume motions. Here we provide 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages for a newly identified long-lived mantle plume, which formed the Rurutu hotspot chain. By comparing the inter-hotspot distances between three Pacific hotspots, we show that Hawaii is unique in its strong, rapid southward motion from 60 to 50 Myrs ago, consistent with paleomagnetic observations. Conversely, the Rurutu and Louisville chains show little motion. Current geodynamic plume motion models can reproduce the first-order motions for these plumes, but only when each plume is rooted in the lowermost mantle.

  16. Social network size relates to developmental neural sensitivity to biological motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kirby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive others’ actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain’s biological motion perception system—amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS—are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood—a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing. The aims of this study were to (1 replicate past work showing amygdala and pSTS sensitivity to biological motion in middle childhood; (2 examine age-related changes in the neural sensitivity for biological motion, and (3 determine whether neural sensitivity for biological motion relates to social network characteristics in children. Consistent with past work, we demonstrate a significant relation between social network size and neural sensitivity for biological motion in left pSTS, but do not find age-related change in biological motion perception. This finding offers evidence for the interplay between real-world social experiences and functional brain development and has important implications for understanding disorders of atypical social experience. Keywords: Biological motion, Social networks, Middle childhood, Neural specialization, Brain-behavior relations, pSTS

  17. Effects on ground motion related to spatial variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    Models of the spectral content and the space-time correlation structure of strong earthquake ground motion are combined with transient random vibration analysis to yield site-specific response spectra that can account for the effect of local spatial averaging of the ground motion across a rigid foundation of prescribed size. The methodology is presented with reference to sites in eastern North America, although the basic approach is applicable to other seismic regions provided the source and attenuation parameters are regionally adjusted. Parameters in the spatial correlation model are based on data from the SMART-I accelerograph array, and the sensitivity of response spectra reduction factors with respect to these parameters is examined. The starting point of the analysis is the Fourier amplitude spectrum of site displacement expresses as a function of earthquake source parameters and source-to-site distance. The bedrock acceleration spectral density function at a point, derived from the displacement spectrum, is modified to account for anelastic attenuation, and where appropriate, for local soil effects and/or local spatial averaging across a foundation. Transient random vibration analysis yields approximate analytical expressions for median ground motion amplitudes and median response spectra of an earthquake defined in terms of its spectral density function and strong motion duration. The methodology is illustrated for three events characterized by their m b magnitude and epicentral distance. The focus in this paper is on the stochastic response prediction methodology enabling explicit accounting for strong motion duration and the effect of local spatial averaging on response spectra. The numerical examples enable a preliminary assessment of the reduction of response spectral amplitudes attributable to local spatial averaging across rigid foundations of different sizes. 36 refs

  18. A comparison between the adiabatic time dependent Hartree-Fock and the generator coordinate methods for the description of nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villars, F.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the work is to draw attention to the essential equivalence of the two apparently quite distinct ways of describing nuclear collective dyanmics, the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method (ADTHF) on the one hand, and the Generator Coordinate (GC) method on the other hand. To demonstrate this relation, an analysis of the simplest case, in which collective motion is described by a single collective para- meter q(t) is presented. In the ATDHF approach, two self-consistency conditions are obtained; the resultant expressions for the collective potential and kinetic energies represent a special case of the more general results of Baranger and Veneroni. In the G.C. approach to the same system (with the same collective parameter q), the narrow overlap approximation must be made, as the counterpart of the adiabatic approximation in the TDHF method. In its conventional form, the G.C. method leads to a different expression for the collective kinetic energy. It is shown however, that a simple generalization of the G.C.-wave function leads to corrections determined by a variational principle. In leading order, the corrected expression for the collective kinetic energy is identical with the TDHF result In both cases, the collective inertia is determined by a self-consistent cranking formula

  19. The syntax of appositive relativization : On specifying coordination, false free relatives, and promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Appositive relative clauses differ in some essential respects from restrictive relative clauses. I argue that appositive relatives and appositions can be put together as a third class of coordination denoting specification. Thus, an appositive relative is a specifying conjunct to the visible

  20. The importance of multidisciplinary teamwork and team climate for relational coordination among teams delivering care to older patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Hartgerink (Jacqueline); J.M. Cramm (Jane); T.J.E.M. Bakker (Ton); A.M. van Eijsden (A.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAim: To identify predictors of relational coordination among professionals delivering care to older patients. Background: Relational coordination is known to enhance quality of care in hospitals. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Design: This cross-sectional

  1. Stochastic calculus for fractional Brownian motion and related processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mishura, Yuliya S

    2008-01-01

    The theory of fractional Brownian motion and other long-memory processes are addressed in this volume. Interesting topics for PhD students and specialists in probability theory, stochastic analysis and financial mathematics demonstrate the modern level of this field. Among these are results about Levy characterization of fractional Brownian motion, maximal moment inequalities for Wiener integrals including the values 0

  2. Impact of Relational Coordination on Nurse Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement and Burnout: Achieving the Quadruple Aim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Donna Sullivan; Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Vasey, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    To explore how relational coordination, known to enhance quality and efficiency outcomes for patients and hospitals, impacts direct care nurse outcomes such as burnout, work engagement, and job satisfaction, addressing the "Quadruple Aim," to improve the experience of providing care. Hospitals are complex organizations in which multiple providers work interdependently, under conditions of uncertainty and time constraints, to deliver safe quality care despite differences in specialization, training, and status. Relational coordination-communicating and relating for the purpose of task integration-is known to improve quality, safety, and efficiency under these conditions, but less is known about its impact on the well-being of direct care providers themselves. Surveys measuring relational coordination among nurses and other types of providers as well as job-related outcomes in 5 acute care community hospitals were completed by direct care RNs. Relational coordination was significantly related to increased job satisfaction, increased work engagement, and reduced burnout. Relational coordination contributes to the well-being of direct care nurses, addressing the Quadruple Aim by improving the experience of providing care.

  3. Geometric Relations for CYLEX Test Tube-Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry

    2015-06-01

    The CYLinder EXpansion (CYLEX) test is a (precision, instrumented, high-purity annealed copper) pipe bomb. Its essential measured quantities are detonation speed and tube-wall motion. Its main purpose is to calibrate detonation product equations of state (EOS) by measuring how product fluid pushes metal. In its full complexity, CYLEX is an integral test, for which EOS calibration requires the entire system to be computationally modeled and compared to salient data. Stripped to its essence, CYLEX is a non-integral test for which one may perform the inverse problem, to infer the EOS directly from data. CYLEX analysis can be simplified by the fact that the test constituents achieve a steady traveling wave structure; this allows derivation of several useful geometric relationships regarding tube wall motion. The first such treatment was by G.I. Taylor. Although his analysis was limited to small wall deflection angles, he asserted that the results remain valid for arbitrary ones. I confirm this attribute and present additional useful relationships. In the past decade, CYLEX wall-motion instrumentation has migrated almost entirely from streak camera to PDV, yet discrepancies remain between the two methods. I further present geometric relationships that shed light on this issue. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  4. Analysing collaboration among HIV agencies through combining network theory and relational coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nidhi; Marsteller, Jill Ann; Hsu, Yea Jen; Elliott, David L

    2016-02-01

    Agencies with different foci (e.g. nutrition, social, medical, housing) serve people living with HIV (PLHIV). Serving needs of PLHIV comprehensively requires a high degree of coordination among agencies which often benefits from more frequent communication. We combined Social Network theory and Relational Coordination theory to study coordination among HIV agencies in Baltimore. Social Network theory implies that actors (e.g., HIV agencies) establish linkages amongst themselves in order to access resources (e.g., information). Relational Coordination theory suggests that high quality coordination among agencies or teams relies on the seven dimensions of frequency, timeliness and accuracy of communication, problem-solving communication, knowledge of agencies' work, mutual respect and shared goals. We collected data on frequency of contact from 57 agencies using a roster method. Response options were ordinal ranging from 'not at all' to 'daily'. We analyzed data using social network measures. Next, we selected agencies with which at least one-third of the sample reported monthly or more frequent interaction. This yielded 11 agencies whom we surveyed on seven relational coordination dimensions with questions scored on a Likert scale of 1-5. Network density, defined as the proportion of existing connections to all possible connections, was 20% when considering monthly or higher interaction. Relational coordination scores from individual agencies to others ranged between 1.17 and 5.00 (maximum possible score 5). The average scores for different dimensions across all agencies ranged between 3.30 and 4.00. Shared goals (4.00) and mutual respect (3.91) scores were highest, while scores such as knowledge of each other's work and problem-solving communication were relatively lower. Combining theoretically driven analyses in this manner offers an innovative way to provide a comprehensive picture of inter-agency coordination and the quality of exchange that underlies

  5. Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…

  6. Lorentz contraction, Bell's spaceships and rigid body motion in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier treatments.

  7. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  8. Measures and Relative Motions of Some Mostly F. G. W. Struve Doubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, E. O.

    2012-04-01

    Measures of 59 pairs of double stars with long observational histories using "lucky imaging" techniques are reported. Relative motions of 59 pairs are investigated using histories of observation, scatter plots of relative motion, ordinary least-squares (OLS) and total proper motion analyses performed in "R," an open source programming language. A scatter plot of the coefficient of determinations derived from the OLS y|epoch and OLS x|epoch clearly separates common proper motion pairs from optical pairs and what are termed "long-period binary candidates." Differences in proper motion separate optical pairs from long-term binary candidates. An Appendix is provided that details how to use known rectilinear pairs as calibration pairs for the program REDUC.

  9. The Southern Double Stars of Carl Rümker II: Their Relative Rectilinear Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchford, Roderick; White, Graeme; Ernest, Allan

    2018-04-01

    A description of the relative rectilinear motion of double stars provides an important clue to the relationship of the components. The aim is to provide an objective method of obtaining Rectilinear Elements. We present a simplified method to calculate relative rectilinear motion, relying on the data obtained from the HIPPARCOS and GAIA DR1 missions, together with their uncertainties. As examples, we present the Rectilinear Elements of RMK 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 20, 25, 27, and 28.

  10. Visual event-related potentials to biological motion stimuli in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletsch, Anke; Krick, Christoph; Siniatchkin, Michael; Jarczok, Tomasz A.; Freitag, Christine M.; Bender, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical visual processing of biological motion contributes to social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the exact temporal sequence of deficits of cortical biological motion processing in ASD has not been studied to date. We used 64-channel electroencephalography to study event-related potentials associated with human motion perception in 17 children and adolescents with ASD and 21 typical controls. A spatio-temporal source analysis was performed to assess the brain structures involved in these processes. We expected altered activity already during early stimulus processing and reduced activity during subsequent biological motion specific processes in ASD. In response to both, random and biological motion, the P100 amplitude was decreased suggesting unspecific deficits in visual processing, and the occipito-temporal N200 showed atypical lateralization in ASD suggesting altered hemispheric specialization. A slow positive deflection after 400 ms, reflecting top-down processes, and human motion-specific dipole activation differed slightly between groups, with reduced and more diffuse activation in the ASD-group. The latter could be an indicator of a disrupted neuronal network for biological motion processing in ADS. Furthermore, early visual processing (P100) seems to be correlated to biological motion-specific activation. This emphasizes the relevance of early sensory processing for higher order processing deficits in ASD. PMID:23887808

  11. The distribution of cerebral activity related to visuomotor coordination indicating perceptual and executional specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; Frackowiak, RSJ; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    The distribution of increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to visuomotor coordination was studied by means of positron emission tomography (PET) in normal subjects. An experimental condition, in which a vertically presented zigzag figure had to be copied in a horizontal orientation,

  12. A Counseling Model for Self-Relation Coordination for Chinese Clients with Interpersonal Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a self-relation coordination counseling model for contemporary Taiwanese clients. The model is based on an analysis of the interpersonal disturbances of people suffering from conflict resulting from the coexistence of a Confucian cultural heritage and Western values. The goal of the proposed model is to help clients…

  13. SU-E-P-41: Imaging Coordination of Cone Beam CT, On-Board Image Conjunction with Optical Image Guidance for SBRT Treatment with Respiratory Motion Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Campbell, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To spare normal tissue for SBRT lung/liver patients, especially for patients with significant tumor motion, image guided respiratory motion management has been widely implemented in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging coordination of cone beam CT, on-board X-ray image conjunction with optical image guidance for SBRT treatment with motion management. Methods: Currently in our clinic a Varian Novlis Tx was utilized for treating SBRT patients implementing CBCT. A BrainLAB X-ray ExacTrac imaging system in conjunction with optical guidance was primarily used for SRS patients. CBCT and X-ray imaging system were independently calibrated with 1.0 mm tolerance. For SBRT lung/liver patients, the magnitude of tumor motion was measured based-on 4DCT and the measurement was analyzed to determine if patients would be beneficial with respiratory motion management. For patients eligible for motion management, an additional CT with breath holding would be scanned and used as primary planning CT and as reference images for Cone beam CT. During the SBRT treatment, a CBCT with pause and continuing technology would be performed with patients holding breath, which may require 3–4 partially scanned CBCT to combine as a whole CBCT depending on how long patients capable of holding breath. After patients being setup by CBCT images, the ExactTrac X-ray imaging system was implemented with patients’ on-board X-ray images compared to breath holding CT-based DRR. Results: For breath holding patients SBRT treatment, after initially localizing patients with CBCT, we then position patients with ExacTrac X-ray and optical imaging system. The observed deviations of real-time optical guided position average at 3.0, 2.5 and 1.5 mm in longitudinal, vertical and lateral respectively based on 35 treatments. Conclusion: The respiratory motion management clinical practice improved our physician confidence level to give tighter tumor margin for sparing normal

  14. The importance of multidisciplinary teamwork and team climate for relational coordination among teams delivering care to older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgerink, J M; Cramm, J M; Bakker, T J E M; van Eijsden, A M; Mackenbach, J P; Nieboer, A P

    2014-04-01

    To identify predictors of relational coordination among professionals delivering care to older patients. Relational coordination is known to enhance quality of care in hospitals. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study was part of a larger evaluation study examining the opportunity to prevent loss of function in older patients due to hospitalization in the Netherlands. This study was performed in spring 2010 among team members delivering care to older hospitalized patients (192 respondents; 44% response rate) in one hospital. Relational coordination was measured by the Relational Coordination survey; team climate by the Team Climate Inventory and questions were asked about participation in multidisciplinary team meetings and disciplines represented in these meetings. To account for the hierarchical structure, a multilevel analysis was performed. Correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship among being female, being a nurse and relational coordination; medical specialists showed a negative relationship. The number of disciplines represented during multidisciplinary team meetings and team climate were positively related with relational coordination. The multilevel analysis showed a positive relationship between the number of disciplines represented during multidisciplinary team meetings and team climate with relational coordination. The enhancement of team climate and attendance of diverse professionals during multidisciplinary team meetings are expected to improve relational coordination. Furthermore, this study underscores the importance of enhancing relational coordination between medical specialists and other professionals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Brownian motion, Minkowski space and principle of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caubet, J.-P.

    1977-01-01

    From the assumption that the brownian diffusion locally behaves like an ideal gas (pressure being inversely proportional to volume according to Boyle's law) one can deduce the signature +++- of the Minkowski space, the Lorentz addition of velocities, and the principle of special relativity [fr

  16. A comment on spiral motions in projective relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzio, J.C.; Lousto, C.O.; Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio de la Republica Argentina)

    1985-01-01

    Astronomical evidence has been inadequately invoked to support projective relativity. The spiral structure cannot be explained just by the existence of spiral orbits, and the use of Oort's constant to support the theory is also a misunderstanding. Besides, some mathematical inaccuracies make the application invalid. (author)

  17. Motion, inertia and special relativity-a novel perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masreliez, C Johan

    2007-01-01

    A recent paper by the author proposes that the phenomenon of inertia may be explained if the four metrical coefficients in the Minkowskian line element were to change as a consequence of acceleration. A certain scale factor multiplying the four metrical coefficients was found, which depends solely on velocity. This dynamic scale factor, which is [1-(v/c) 2 )], models inertia as a gravitational-type phenomenon. With this metric the geodesic of general relativity is an identity, and all accelerating trajectories are geodesics. This paper shows that the same scale factor also agrees with special relativity, but offers a new perspective. A new kind of dynamic process involving four-dimensional scale transition is proposed

  18. Convex optimisation approach to constrained fuel optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Massari, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes an interesting and powerful approach to the constrained fuel-optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion. The proposed approach is well suited for problems under linear dynamic equations, therefore perfectly fitting to the case of spacecraft flying in close relative motion. If the solution of the optimisation is approximated as a polynomial with respect to the time variable, then the problem can be approached with a technique developed in the control engineering community, known as "Sum Of Squares" (SOS), and the constraints can be reduced to bounds on the polynomials. Such a technique allows rewriting polynomial bounding problems in the form of convex optimisation problems, at the cost of a certain amount of conservatism. The principles of the techniques are explained and some application related to spacecraft flying in close relative motion are shown.

  19. Relative-coordinate determination for visual double stars by applying Fourier transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the software developed for the purpose of determining the relative coordinates (position angle θ and separation ρ for visual double or multiple stars. It is based on application of Fourier transforms in treating CCD frames of these systems. The objective was to determine the relative coordinates automatically to an extent as large as possible. In this way the time needed for the reduction of many CCD frames becomes shorter. The capabilities and limitations of the software are examined. Besides, the possibility of improving is also considered. The software has been tested and checked on a sample consisting of CCD frames of 165 double or multiple stars obtained with the 2m telescope at NAO Rozhen in Bulgaria in October 2011. The results have been compared with the corresponding results obtained by applying different software and the agreement is found to be very good.

  20. Assessment of intersegmental coordination of rats during walking at different speeds - Application of continuous relative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    of the CRP (ACRP) and DP and on the mean ACRP and mean DP was established by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Absolute and relative reliability were assessed by measurement error and intra-class correlation coefficient. The SPM analysis revealed time dependent......The present study investigated the feasibility and reliability of continuous relative phase (CRP) and deviation phase (DP) to assess intersegmental hind limb coordination pattern and coordination variability in rats during walking. Twenty-six adult rats walked at 8 m/min, 12 m/min and 16 m....../min while two-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Segment angles and segment angular velocities of the paw, shank and thigh on the left hind-limb were extracted from 15 strides and CRP was calculated for the paw-shank and shank-thigh coupling. The effect of walking speed on the time point average curve...

  1. Effects of relational coordination among colleagues and span of control on work engagement among home-visiting nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Takashi; Sakai, Mahiro; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-04-01

    Home-visiting nursing agencies are required to foster staff nurse's work engagement; thus, the factors related to work engagement require identification. This study examined relational coordination among colleagues and agency span of control on the work engagement of home-visiting nurses. Cross-sectional data from 93 staff nurses in 31 home-visiting nursing agencies were collected via a survey and analyzed using mixed linear regression. There was no significant main effect of relational coordination among nurse colleagues on work engagement. In large agencies with a large span of control, relational coordination among nursing colleagues predicted work engagement. Nursing managers' relational coordination was found to be positively associated with staff nurse work engagement. Agency span of control is a moderating factor on the positive effect of relational coordination with nursing colleagues on staff nurse work engagement. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. A review of some basic aspects related to integration of airplane’s equations of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan TURCANU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical integration of the airplane’s equations of motion has long been considered among the most fundamental calculations in airplane’s analysis. Numerical algorithms have been implemented and experimentally validated. However, the need for superior speed and accuracy is still very topical, as, nowadays, various optimization algorithms rely heavily on data generated from the integration of the equations of motion and having access to larger amounts of data can increase the quality of the optimization. Now, for a number of decades, engineers have relied heavily on commercial codes based on automatically selected integration steps. However, optimally chosen constant integration steps can save time and allows for larger numbers of integrations to be performed. Yet, the basic papers that presented the fundamentals of numerical integration, as applied to airplane’s equations of motion are nowadays not easy to locate. Consequently, this paper presents a review of basic aspects related to the integration of airplane’s equation of motion. The discussion covers fundamentals of longitudinal and lateral-directional motion as well as the implementation of some numerical integration methods. The relation between numerical integration steps, accuracy, computational resource usage, numerical stability and their relation with the parameters describing the dynamic response of the airplane is considered and suggestions are presented for a faster yet accurate numerical integration.

  3. Focusing narrowly or broadly attention when judging categorical and coordinate spatial relations: a MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Franciotti

    Full Text Available We measured activity in the dorsal system of the human cortex with magnetoencephalography (MEG during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, where participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical or coordinate spatial relations (e.g., exchanges of left versus right positions or changes in the relative distances between images of pairs of animals. The attention window was primed in each trial to be either small or large by using cues that immediately preceded the matching image. In this manner, we could assess the modulatory effects of the scope of attention on the activity of the dorsal system of the human cortex during spatial relations processing. The MEG measurements revealed that large spatial cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the right inferior parietal lobe for coordinate trials, whereas small cues yielded greater activations and longer peak latencies in the left inferior parietal lobe for categorical trials. The activity in the superior parietal lobe, middle frontal gyrus, and visual cortex, was also modulated by the size of the spatial cues and by the type of spatial relation change. The present results support the theory that the lateralization of each kind of spatial processing hinges on differences in the sizes of regions of space attended to by the two hemispheres. In addition, the present findings are inconsistent with the idea of a right-hemispheric dominance for all kinds of challenging spatial tasks, since response times and accuracy rates showed that the categorical spatial relation task was more difficult than the coordinate task and the cortical activations were overall greater in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere.

  4. Parkinson-Related Changes of Activation in Visuomotor Brain Regions during Perceived Forward Self-Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Renken, Remco J.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2014-01-01

    Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related

  5. Predicted Attenuation Relation and Observed Ground Motion of Gorkha Nepal Earthquake of 25 April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Ahmad, R.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of recent observed ground motion parameters of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 (Mw 7.8) with the predicted ground motion parameters using exitsing attenuation relation of the Himalayan region will be presented. The recent earthquake took about 8000 lives and destroyed thousands of poor quality of buildings and the earthquake was felt by millions of people living in Nepal, China, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. The knowledge of ground parameters are very important in developing seismic code of seismic prone regions like Himalaya for better design of buildings. The ground parameters recorded in recent earthquake event and aftershocks are compared with attenuation relations for the Himalayan region, the predicted ground motion parameters show good correlation with the observed ground parameters. The results will be of great use to Civil engineers in updating existing building codes in the Himlayan and surrounding regions and also for the evaluation of seismic hazards. The results clearly show that the attenuation relation developed for the Himalayan region should be only used, other attenuation relations based on other regions fail to provide good estimate of observed ground motion parameters.

  6. The Relative Importance of Spatial Versus Temporal Structure in the Perception of Biological Motion: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Masahiro; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how the spatiotemporal structure of animations of biological motion (BM) affects brain activity. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during the perception of BM under four conditions: normal spatial and temporal structure; scrambled spatial and normal temporal structure; normal spatial and scrambled temporal structure; and…

  7. Exploring the pedagogic relation - Supporting six-year-olds in making sense of physical motion

    OpenAIRE

    Annika Åkerblom

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how verbal relations between child and researcher may support the child’s reasoning and making sense of physical motion. In an earlier study, 64 children aged 6–14 participated in one-to-one reflective dialogues. Some of them developed their reasoning during the dialogue, and used an exploring approach to make sense of physical motion. For the present study, 6 transcripts were re-analyzed concerning the interplay between the researcher and the 6-year-olds who used this a...

  8. The accommodation of relative motion at depth on the San Andreas fault system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, W. H.; Nur, A.

    1981-01-01

    Plate motion below the seismogenic layer along the San Andreas fault system in California is assumed to form by aseismic slip along a deeper extension of the fault or may result from lateral distribution of deformation below the seismogenic layer. The shallow depth of California earthquakes, the depth of the coseismic slip during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and the presence of widely separated parallel faults indicate that relative motion is distributed below the seismogenic zone, occurring by inelastic flow rather than by aseismic slip on discrete fault planes.

  9. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  10. Absence of direction-specific cross-modal visual-auditory adaptation in motion-onset event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeschik, Ramona; Lewald, Jörg; Verhey, Jesko L; Hoffmann, Michael B; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to visual or auditory motion affects within-modality motion processing as reflected by visual or auditory free-field motion-onset evoked potentials (VEPs, AEPs). Here, a visual-auditory motion adaptation paradigm was used to investigate the effect of visual motion adaptation on VEPs and AEPs to leftward motion-onset test stimuli. Effects of visual adaptation to (i) scattered light flashes, and motion in the (ii) same or in the (iii) opposite direction of the test stimulus were compared. For the motion-onset VEPs, i.e. the intra-modal adaptation conditions, direction-specific adaptation was observed--the change-N2 (cN2) and change-P2 (cP2) amplitudes were significantly smaller after motion adaptation in the same than in the opposite direction. For the motion-onset AEPs, i.e. the cross-modal adaptation condition, there was an effect of motion history only in the change-P1 (cP1), and this effect was not direction-specific--cP1 was smaller after scatter than after motion adaptation to either direction. No effects were found for later components of motion-onset AEPs. While the VEP results provided clear evidence for the existence of a direction-specific effect of motion adaptation within the visual modality, the AEP findings suggested merely a motion-related, but not a direction-specific effect. In conclusion, the adaptation of veridical auditory motion detectors by visual motion is not reflected by the AEPs of the present study. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Teamwork methods for accountable care: relational coordination and TeamSTEPPS®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Beswick, Joanne; Goldmann, Don; Wallack, Stanley S

    2015-01-01

    To deliver greater value in the accountable care context, the Institute of Medicine argues for a culture of teamwork at multiple levels--across professional and organizational siloes and with patients and their families and communities. The logic of performance improvement is that data are needed to target interventions and to assess their impact. We argue that efforts to build teamwork will benefit from teamwork measures that provide diagnostic information regarding the current state and teamwork interventions that can respond to the opportunities identified in the current state. We identify teamwork measures and teamwork interventions that are validated and that can work across multiple levels of teamwork. We propose specific ways to combine them for optimal effectiveness. We review measures of teamwork documented by Valentine, Nembhard, and Edmondson and select those that they identified as satisfying the four criteria for psychometric validation and as being unbounded and therefore able to measure teamwork across multiple levels. We then consider teamwork interventions that are widely used in the U.S. health care context, are well validated based on their association with outcomes, and are capable of working at multiple levels of teamwork. We select the top candidate in each category and propose ways to combine them for optimal effectiveness. We find relational coordination is a validated multilevel teamwork measure and TeamSTEPPS® is a validated multilevel teamwork intervention and propose specific ways for the relational coordination measure to enhance the TeamSTEPPS intervention. Health care systems and change agents seeking to respond to the challenges of accountable care can use TeamSTEPPS as a validated multilevel teamwork intervention methodology, enhanced by relational coordination as a validated multilevel teamwork measure with diagnostic capacity to pinpoint opportunities for improving teamwork along specific dimensions (e.g., shared knowledge

  12. Technical note: validation of a motion analysis system for measuring the relative motion of the intermediate component of a tripolar total hip arthroplasty prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingshan; Lazennec, Jean Yves; Guyen, Olivier; Kinbrum, Amy; Berry, Daniel J; An, Kai-Nan

    2005-07-01

    Tripolar total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis had been suggested as a method to reduce the occurrence of hip dislocation and microseparation. Precisely measuring the motion of the intermediate component in vitro would provide fundamental knowledge for understanding its mechanism. The present study validates the accuracy and repeatability of a three-dimensional motion analysis system to quantitatively measure the relative motion of the intermediate component of tripolar total hip arthroplasty prostheses. Static and dynamic validations of the system were made by comparing the measurement to that of a potentiometer. Differences between the mean system-calculated angle and the angle measured by the potentiometer were within +/-1 degrees . The mean within-trial variability was less than 1 degrees . The mean slope was 0.9-1.02 for different angular velocities. The dynamic noise was within 1 degrees . The system was then applied to measure the relative motion of an eccentric THA prosthesis. The study shows that this motion analysis system provides an accurate and practical method for measuring the relative motion of the tripolar THA prosthesis in vitro, a necessary first step towards the understanding of its in vivo kinematics.

  13. The phenomenological version of modified Newtonian dynamics from the relativity principle of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giné, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show that it is possible to deduce the first phenomenological version of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) proposed by Milgrom from the relativity principle of motion in connection with the observed accelerated expansion of the universe. A new form of μ(x) in the Milgrom formula for Newton's second law is obtained. Moreover, we establish the relation between MOND and the deceleration parameter. (paper)

  14. Is severity of motor coordination difficulties related to co-morbidity in children at risk for developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Marina M; Lingam, Raghu; Jongmans, Marian J; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Emond, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N=6959) from a population based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were divided into three groups based on their scores on the ALSPAC Coordination Test at age 7: control children (scores above 15th centile; N=5719 [82.1%]); children with moderate (between 5th and 15th centile; N=951 [13.7%]); and children with severe motor difficulties (below 5th centile N=289 [4.2%]). Children with neurological disorders or an IQactivities of daily living (ADL); academic skills (reading, spelling and handwriting); attention; social skills (social cognition and nonverbal skills). Children with severe motor difficulties demonstrated a higher risk of difficulties in ADL, handwriting, attention, reading, and social cognition than children with moderate motor difficulties, who in turn had a higher risk of difficulties than control children in five out of seven domains. Screening and intervention of co-morbid problems is recommended for children with both moderate and severe motor difficulties. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Magnetic Coordinate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  16. Parkinson-related changes of activation in visuomotor brain regions during perceived forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk van der Hoorn

    Full Text Available Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related cerebral circuitry were explored with functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy controls (HC and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Fifteen HC and 22 PD patients, of which 7 experienced freezing of gait (FOG, watched wide-field flow, interruptions by narrowing or deceleration and equivalent control conditions with static dots. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that wide-field flow interruption evoked activation of the (pre-supplementary motor area (SMA in HC, which was decreased in PD. During wide-field flow, dorsal occipito-parietal activations were reduced in PD relative to HC, with stronger functional connectivity between right visual motion area V5, pre-SMA and cerebellum (in PD without FOG. Non-specific 'changes' in stimulus patterns activated dorsolateral fronto-parietal regions and the fusiform gyrus. This attention-associated network was stronger activated in HC than in PD. PD patients thus appeared compromised in recruiting medial frontal regions facilitating internally generated virtual locomotion when visual motion support falls away. Reduced dorsal visual and parietal activations during wide-field optic flow in PD were explained by impaired feedforward visual and visuomotor processing within a magnocellular (visual motion functional chain. Compensation of impaired feedforward processing by distant fronto-cerebellar circuitry in PD is consistent with motor responses to visual motion stimuli being either too strong or too weak. The 'change'-related activations pointed at covert (stimulus-driven attention.

  17. Identification of High Confidence Nuclear Forensics Signatures. Results of a Coordinated Research Project and Related Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    The results of a Coordinated Research Project and related research on the identification of high confidence nuclear forensic isotopic, chemical and physical data characteristics, or signatures, provides information on signatures that can help identify the origin and history of nuclear and other radioactive material encountered out of regulatory control. This research report compiles findings from investigations of materials obtained from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle to include radioactive sources. The report further provides recent results used to identify, analyse in the laboratory, predict and interpret these signatures relative to the requirements of a nuclear forensics examination. The report describes some of the controls on the incorporation and persistence of these signatures in these materials as well as their potential use in a national system of identification to include a national nuclear forensics library.

  18. Attenuation relation for strong motion in Eastern Java based on appropriate database and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Rian; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Rudyanto, Ariska

    2017-07-01

    The selection and determination of attenuation relation has become important for seismic hazard assessment in active seismic region. This research initially constructs the appropriate strong motion database, including site condition and type of the earthquake. The data set consisted of large number earthquakes of 5 ≤ Mw ≤ 9 and distance less than 500 km that occurred around Java from 2009 until 2016. The location and depth of earthquake are being relocated using double difference method to improve the quality of database. Strong motion data from twelve BMKG's accelerographs which are located in east Java is used. The site condition is known by using dominant period and Vs30. The type of earthquake is classified into crustal earthquake, interface, and intraslab based on slab geometry analysis. A total of 10 Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are tested using Likelihood (Scherbaum et al., 2004) and Euclidean Distance Ranking method (Kale and Akkar, 2012) with the associated database. The evaluation of these methods lead to a set of GMPEs that can be applied for seismic hazard in East Java where the strong motion data is collected. The result of these methods found that there is still high deviation of GMPEs, so the writer modified some GMPEs using inversion method. Validation was performed by analysing the attenuation curve of the selected GMPE and observation data in period 2015 up to 2016. The results show that the selected GMPE is suitable for estimated PGA value in East Java.

  19. The importance of multidisciplinary teamwork and team climate for relational coordination among teams delivering care to older patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hartgerink, Jacqueline; Cramm, Jane; Bakker, Ton; Eijsden, A.; Mackenbach, Johan; Nieboer, Anna

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAim: To identify predictors of relational coordination among professionals delivering care to older patients. Background: Relational coordination is known to enhance quality of care in hospitals. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Design: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger evaluation study examining the opportunity to prevent loss of function in older patients due to hospitalization in the Netherlands. Methods: This study was performed in sp...

  20. The importance of multidisciplinary teamwork and team climate for relational coordination among teams delivering care to older patients

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Hartgerink; J.M. Cramm; T.J.E.M. Bakker; A.M. van Eijsden; J.P. Mackenbach; A.P. Nieboer

    2013-01-01

    Aim To identify predictors of relational coordination among professionals delivering care to older patients. Background Relational coordination is known to enhance quality of care in hospitals. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Design This cross-sectional study was part of a larger evaluation study examining the opportunity to prevent loss of function in older patients due to hospitalization in the Netherlands. Methods This study was performed in spring 2010 among ...

  1. Long-term passive distance-bounded relative motion in the presence of TeX perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, J.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the problem of long-term satellite relative motion in the presence of J2 perturbations, and introduces a design methodology for long-term passive distance-bounded relative motion. There are two key ingredients of closed-form solutions.One is the model of

  2. Analytical solution of perturbed relative motion: an application of satellite formations to geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, Edwin

    In the upcoming years, several space missions will be operated using a number of spacecraft flying in formation. Clusters of spacecraft with a carefully designed orbits and optimal formation geometry enable a wide variety of applications ranging from remote sensing to astronomy, geodesy and basic physics. Many of the applications require precise relative navigation and autonomous orbit control of satellites moving in a formation. For many missions a centimeter level of orbit control accuracy is required. The GRACE mission, since its launch in 2002, has been improving the Earth's gravity field model to a very high level of accuracy. This mission is a formation flying one consisting of two satellites moving in coplanar orbits and provides range and range-rate measurements between the satellites in the along-track direction. Future geodetic missions probably will employ alternative architectures using additional satellites and/or performing out-of-plane motion, e.g cartwheel orbits. The paper presents an analytical model of a satellite formation motion that enables propagation of the relative spacecraft motion. The model is based on the analytical theory of satellite relative motion that was presented in the previous our papers (Wnuk and Golebiewska, 2005, 2006). This theory takes into account the influence of the following gravitational perturbation effects: 1) zonal and tesseral harmonic geopotential coefficients up to arbitrary degree and order, 2) Lunar gravity, 3) Sun gravity. Formulas for differential perturbations were derived with any restriction concerning a plane of satellite orbits. They can be applied in both: in plane and out of plane cases. Using this propagator we calculated relative orbits and future relative satellite positions for different types of formations: in plane, out of plane, cartwheel and others. We analyzed the influence of particular parts of perturbation effects and estimated the accuracy of predicted relative spacecrafts positions

  3. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) aremeasures of novel aspects of an organisation’s performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives.The aim of this studywas to analyse the associations between RC and OSC......, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC...... and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type...

  4. Movement-related theta rhythm in humans: coordinating self-directed hippocampal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Kaplan

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is crucial for episodic or declarative memory and the theta rhythm has been implicated in mnemonic processing, but the functional contribution of theta to memory remains the subject of intense speculation. Recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus might function as a network hub for volitional learning. In contrast to human experiments, electrophysiological recordings in the hippocampus of behaving rodents are dominated by theta oscillations reflecting volitional movement, which has been linked to spatial exploration and encoding. This literature makes the surprising cross-species prediction that the human hippocampal theta rhythm supports memory by coordinating exploratory movements in the service of self-directed learning. We examined the links between theta, spatial exploration, and memory encoding by designing an interactive human spatial navigation paradigm combined with multimodal neuroimaging. We used both non-invasive whole-head Magnetoencephalography (MEG to look at theta oscillations and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to look at brain regions associated with volitional movement and learning. We found that theta power increases during the self-initiation of virtual movement, additionally correlating with subsequent memory performance and environmental familiarity. Performance-related hippocampal theta increases were observed during a static pre-navigation retrieval phase, where planning for subsequent navigation occurred. Furthermore, periods of the task showing movement-related theta increases showed decreased fMRI activity in the parahippocampus and increased activity in the hippocampus and other brain regions that strikingly overlap with the previously observed volitional learning network (the reverse pattern was seen for stationary periods. These fMRI changes also correlated with participant's performance. Our findings suggest that the human hippocampal theta rhythm supports memory by coordinating

  5. Special relativity and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, C.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between special relativity and the theory of the time-rescaled Gaussian stochastic processes is brought to light. It is given the general expression of the Karhunen-Loewe expansion for the Brownian motion whose variable is the proper time. The relevant eigenfunctions are proved to be Bessel functions, and their stability is discussed. The eigenvalues are shown to be the zeros of certain linear combinations of the Bessel functions and their partials. The energy distribution of such a class of processes is investigated, and it is given explicit formulae for both its mean value and variance. Finally it is studied in detail the Karhumen-Loeve expansion for a case of relativistic decelerated motion whose analysis is feasible in closed form

  6. On the relation of earthquake stress drop and ground motion variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oth, Adrien; Miyake, Hiroe; Bindi, Dino

    2017-07-01

    One of the key parameters for earthquake source physics is stress drop since it can be directly linked to the spectral level of ground motion. Stress drop estimates from moment corner frequency analysis have been shown to be extremely variable, and this to a much larger degree than expected from the between-event ground motion variability. This discrepancy raises the question whether classically determined stress drop variability is too large, which would have significant consequences for seismic hazard analysis. We use a large high-quality data set from Japan with well-studied stress drop data to address this issue. Nonparametric and parametric reference ground motion models are derived, and the relation of between-event residuals for Japan Meteorological Agency equivalent seismic intensity and peak ground acceleration with stress drop is analyzed for crustal earthquakes. We find a clear correlation of the between-event residuals with stress drops estimates; however, while the island of Kyushu is characterized by substantially larger stress drops than Honshu, the between-event residuals do not reflect this observation, leading to the appearance of two event families with different stress drop levels yet similar range of between-event residuals. Both the within-family and between-family stress drop variations are larger than expected from the ground motion between-event variability. A systematic common analysis of these parameters holds the potential to provide important constraints on the relative robustness of different groups of data in the different parameter spaces and to improve our understanding on how much of the observed source parameter variability is likely to be true source physics variability.

  7. Gravity Cues Embedded in the Kinematics of Human Motion Are Detected in Form-from-Motion Areas of the Visual System and in Motor-Related Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Chabeauti, Pierre-Yves; Menant, Jasmine; Anton, Jean-Luc J J; Schmitz, Christina; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices). These findings suggest that compliance of observed movements with normal gravity was carried out by mapping them onto the observer's motor system and by extracting their overall form from local motion of the moving light points. We propose that judgment on graviceptive information embedded in BM can be established based on motor resonance and visual familiarity mechanisms and not necessarily by accessing the internal model of gravitational motion stored in the vestibular cortex.

  8. On stability relative to vector elements of the orbit in general relativity motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdil'din, M.M.; Bejsenova, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work a question of a new type of stability - stability relative to vector elements of the orbit is considered in general relativity mechanics in case of the Lenze-Thirring and two body rotation. (author)

  9. Experimenting relations between artists and scientists : the appropriation of motion sensors by dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne MARTIN-JUCHAT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We want to show here how recent innovations called Motion Capture, still being tested in laboratory on their potential uses, invite us to change our way to relate to the “technique”. We don’t want to question what the technique does to the social, nor what the social structures does to the technique, but we want to highlight the shifting principles that define interactions between technologies and humans. We therefore underline how using these motion sensors gives birth to different human modes of being present, co-present, or in a sensory and thymic interaction with technology. This article is based on experimental use tests, convoking both artists and engineers, questioning differently the relationship between technology, human and the interaction order. Our result is to question how using and being with these motion sensors, as a dancer, displace epistemological oppositions such as person/machine. It finally sheds light on how some others classical models can move, especially the semiotic decomposition of interaction processes and status.

  10. North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, D.B.; Lottes, A.L.; Ziegler, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1) North America and Eurasia remained relatively fixed to each other until the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene opening of the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay and Greenland-Norwegian and Eurasian basins (earlier convergence between North America and Eurasia in the Bering Sea region shown on many reconstructions are artifacts of incorrect plate reconstructions); (2) the North Slope-Seward-Chukotka block has constituted an isthmus connection between North America and northeast Asia since at least the middle Paleozoic and did not rotate away from the Canadian Arctic; (3) the Canada basin opened behind a clockwise-rotating Alpha Cordillera-Mendeleyev ridge arc during the Early to middle Cretaceous and consumed older, Paleozoic(.) Makarov basin ocean floor (the Chukchi cap is a detached continental fragment derived from the Beaufort Sea; the North Slope Arctic margin is a left-lateral transform fault associated with the opening of the Canada basin); and (4) the Nares Strait fault has a net relative displacement of approximately 25 km, but actual motion between Greenland and northern Ellesmere was about 250 km of strongly transpressive motion that resulted in the Eurekan and Svalbardian orogenies.

  11. Case management for high-intensity service users: towards a relational approach to care co-ordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Escott, Diane; Bee, Penny

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a formative evaluation of a case management service for high-intensity service users in Northern England. The evaluation had three main purposes: (i) to assess the quality of the organisational infrastructure; (ii) to obtain a better understanding of the key influences that played a role in shaping the development of the service; and (iii) to identify potential changes in practice that may help to improve the quality of service provision. The evaluation was informed by Gittell's relational co-ordination theory, which focuses upon cross-boundary working practices that facilitate task integration. The Assessment of Chronic Illness Care Survey was used to assess the organisational infrastructure and qualitative interviews with front line staff were conducted to explore the key influences that shaped the development of the service. A high level of strategic commitment and political support for integrated working was identified. However, the quality of care co-ordination was variable. The most prominent operational factor that appeared to influence the scope and quality of care co-ordination was the pattern of interaction between the case managers and their co-workers. The co-ordination of patient care was much more effective in integrated co-ordination networks. Key features included clearly defined, task focussed, relational workspaces with interactive forums where case managers could engage with co-workers in discussions about the management of interdependent care activities. In dispersed co-ordination networks with fewer relational workspaces, the case managers struggled to work as effectively. The evaluation concluded that the creation of flexible and efficient task focused relational workspaces that are systemically managed and adequately resourced could help to improve the quality of care co-ordination, particularly in dispersed networks. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  13. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sea disposal operations of packaged low-level radioactive waste are carried out under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, also referred to as the London Dumping Convention. The environmental impact of this disposal method is continuously kept under review, in particular within the IAEA which has provided the ''Definition of High-Level Radioactive Waste or Other High-Level Radioactive Matter Unsuitable for Dumping at Sea'' for the purpose of the Convention and within the OECD-NEA in the framework of its Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The NEA Co-Ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) is focussed on the actual North-East Atlantic dump site. Its objective is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Future site suitability reviews, as periodically requested under the terms of the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism, will therefore be based on a more accurate and comprehensive scientific basis

  14. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)]|[Bergamo Univ., Bergamo (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria]|[State Univ. of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Fontana, F. [Pirelli Cavi, Milan (Italy). R and D sector; Garavaglia, R. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Informazione

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even mounic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity.

  15. Special relativity and superluminal motions: a discussion of some recent experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Fontana, F.; Garavaglia, R.

    2000-03-01

    Some experiments, performed at Berkeley, Cologne, Florence, Vienna, Orsay and Rennes led to the claim that something seems to travel with a group velocity larger than the speed c of light in vacuum. Various other experimental results seem to point in the same direction. For instance, localized wavelet-type solutions of Maxwell equations have been found, both theoretically and experimentally, that travel with superluminal speed. Even muonic and electronic neutrinos - it has been proposed - might be tachyons, since their square mass appears to be negative. With regard to the first mentioned experiments, it was very recently claimed by Guenter Nimtz that those results with evanescent waves or tunnelling photons - implying superluminal signal and impulse transmission - violate Einstein causality. This note, on the contrary, discusses that all such results do not place relativistic causality in jeopardy, even if they refer to actual tachyonic motions. In fact, special relativity can cope even with also the known paradoxes , devised for faster than light motion, even if this is not widely recognized. Here the paper shows, in detail and rigorously, how to solve the oldest casual paradox. originally proposed by Tolman, which is the kernel of many further tachyon paradoxes. The key to the solution is a careful application of tachyon mechanics, as it unambiguously follows from special relativity

  16. Relative Attitude Estimation for a Uniform Motion and Slowly Rotating Noncooperative Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel relative attitude estimation approach for a uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative spacecraft. It is assumed that the uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative chief spacecraft is in failure or out of control and there is no a priori rotation rate information. We utilize a very fast binary descriptor based on binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF to obtain the features of the target, which are rotational invariance and resistance to noise. And then, we propose a novel combination of single candidate random sample consensus (RANSAC with extended Kalman filter (EKF that makes use of the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesis stage. The advantage of this combination obviously reduces the sample size to only one, which results in large computational savings without the loss of accuracy. Experimental results from real image sequence of a real model target show that the relative angular error is about 3.5% and the mean angular velocity error is about 0.1 deg/s.

  17. Vertical Motion Changes Related to North-East Brazil Rainfall Variability: a GCM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucou, Pascal; Oribe Rocha de Aragão, José; Harzallah, Ali; Fontaine, Bernard; Janicot, Serge

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric structure over north-east Brazil during anomalous rainfall years is studied in the 11 levels of the outputs of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric general circulation model (LMD AGCM). Seven 19-year simulations were performed using observed sea-surface temperature (SST) corresponding to the period 1970- 1988. The ensemble mean is calculated for each month of the period, leading to an ensemble-averaged simulation. The simulated March-April rainfall is in good agreement with observations. Correlations of simulated rainfall and three SST indices relative to the equatorial Pacific and northern and southern parts of the Atlantic Ocean exhibit stronger relationships in the simulation than in the observations. This is particularly true with the SST gradient in the Atlantic (Atlantic dipole). Analyses on 200 ;hPa velocity potential, vertical velocity, and vertical integral of the zonal component of mass flux are performed for years of abnormal rainfall and positive/negative SST anomalies in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in March-April during the rainy season over the Nordeste region. The results at 200 hPa show a convergence anomaly over Nordeste and a divergence anomaly over the Pacific concomitant with dry seasons associated with warm SST anomalies in the Pacific and warm (cold) waters in the North (South) Atlantic. During drought years convection inside the ITCZ indicated by the vertical velocity exhibits a displacement of the convection zone corresponding to a northward migration of the ITCZ. The east-west circulation depicted by the zonal divergent mass flux shows subsiding motion over Nordeste and ascending motion over the Pacific in drought years, accompanied by warm waters in the eastern Pacific and warm/cold waters in northern/southern Atlantic. Rainfall variability of the Nordeste rainfall is linked mainly to vertical motion and SST variability through the migration of the ITCZ and the east-west circulation.

  18. Apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis: An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, E.F.; Maloney, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    In 1959, Rudkjobing called attention to the 8th magnitude, eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis as an important test case for studying relativistic apsidal motion, since the theoretical relativistic apsidal motion is greater than that expected from the classical effects (i.e., from the tidal and rotational deformation of the stellar components). Excellent determinations of the orbital and stellar parameters of the system have been made by Popper (1982) from the combined analysis of the system's radial-velocity data and UBV light curves of Martynov and Khaliullin (1980), which permit the theoretical relativistic and classical components of the apsidal motion to be determined with reasonable certainty: omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR/ = 2X34/100 yr and omega-dot/sup theor//sub CL/ = 1X93/100 yr. Least-squares solutions of the timings of primary and secondary minima, extending over an 84-yr interval, and including eclipse timings obtained as recently as 1984, yield a small advance of periastron omega-dot/sup obs/ = 0X65/100 yr +- 0X18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one-seventh the theoretical value of omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR+CL/ = 4X27/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects, and results in a discrepancy of -3X62/100 yr, a value which has a magnitude of approx.20 sigma. Classical mechanisms that can possibly explain this apparent discrepancy are discussed, along with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity

  19. High Fidelity Modeling of SRP and Its Effect on the Relative Motion of Starshade and WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farres, Ariadna; Webster, Cassandra; Folta, Dave

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we perform a detailed analysis of how Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) affects the relative motion of two spacecrafts, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Starshade, orbiting in the vicinity of the Sun-Earth L2. While WFIRST orbits about its own Libration Point Orbit (LPO), Starshade will fly a specific trajectory to align with WFIRST and observe a Design Reference Mission of pre-determined target stars. In this analysis, we focus on the transfer orbit for Starshade from one observation to the other. We will describe how SRP affects the dynamics of the Starshade relative to WFIRSTand how relevant this effect is in order to get an accurate estimate of the total difference in velocity (delta v).

  20. Relative Vessel Motion Tracking using Sensor Fusion, Aruco Markers, and MRU Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondre Sanden Tordal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for estimating the relative motion between two moving offshore vessels. The method is based on a sensor fusion algorithm including a vision system and two motion reference units (MRUs. The vision system makes use of the open-source computer vision library OpenCV and a cube with Aruco markers placed onto each of the cube sides. The Extended Quaternion Kalman Filter (EQKF is used for bad pose rejection for the vision system. The presented sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Indirect Feedforward Kalman Filter for error estimation. The system is self-calibrating in the sense that the Aruco cube can be placed in an arbitrary location on the secondary vessel. Experimental 6-DOF results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed sensor fusion method compared with the internal joint sensors of two Stewart platforms and the industrial robot. The standard deviation error was found to be 31mm or better when the Arcuo cube was placed at three different locations.

  1. Universal current-velocity relation of skyrmion motion in chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Current-driven motion of the magnetic domain wall requires large critical current density jc ~109 -1012 A/m2, at which the joule heating is a serious problem. The skyrmions recently discovered in chiral magnets, on the other hand, have much smaller critical current of jc ~105 -106 A/m2. We present a numerical simulation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, which reveals a remarkably robust and universal current-velocity relation of the slyrmion motion driven by the spin transfer torque unaffected by either impurities or nonadiabatic effect in sharp contrast to the case of domain wall or spin helix (HL). Simulation results are analyzed using a theory based on Thiele's equation, and it is concluded that this surprising behavior is due to the Magnus force and flexible shape-deformation of individual skyrmions and skyrmion crystal (SkX), which enable them to avoid pinning centers and then weaken the net pinning force. Dynamical deformation of SkX leads to the fluctuation of Bragg peak with large amplitude, which can be detected by the recent neutron-scattering experiment.

  2. Teacher Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Coteaching Relationships in a Clinical Skills Course: A Relational Coordination Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle M; Ross, Paula; Stalmeijer, Renée E; de Grave, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 12 semistructured interviews (6 MD and 6 SBS) and 2 monodisciplinary focus groups. Sampling was purposive and aimed at maximal variation from among 64 possible faculty. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to develop a grounded theory. Five major themes resulted from the analysis that outline a framework for interdisciplinary coteaching: respect, shared goals, shared knowledge and understanding, communication, and complementary pairings. Insights: The first 4 themes align with elements of relational coordination theory, an organizational theory of collaborative practice that describes how work roles interact. The complementary pairings extend this theory from work roles to individuals, with unique identities and personal beliefs and values about teaching. Prior studies on coteaching have not provided a clear linkage to theory. The conceptual framework helps suggest future directions for coteaching research and has practical implications for administrative practices and faculty development. These findings contribute to the sparse research in medical education on interdisciplinary coteaching relationships.

  3. The roles of categorical and coordinate spatial relations in recognizing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Categorical spatial information is considered more useful for recognizing objects, and coordinate spatial information for guiding actions--for example, during navigation or grasping. In contrast with this assumption, we hypothesized that buildings, unlike other categories of objects, require both categorical and coordinate spatial information in order to be recognized. This hypothesis arose from evidence that right-brain-damaged patients have deficits in both coordinate judgments and recognition of buildings and from the fact that buildings are very useful for guiding navigation in urban environments. To test this hypothesis, we assessed 210 healthy college students while they performed four different tasks that required categorical and coordinate judgments and the recognition of common objects and buildings. Our results showed that both categorical and coordinate spatial representations are necessary to recognize a building, whereas only categorical representations are necessary to recognize an object. We discuss our data in view of a recent neural framework for visuospatial processing, suggesting that recognizing buildings may specifically activate the parieto-medial-temporal pathway.

  4. Coordination in contractual relations: Some preliminary findings from the Malaysian housing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraya Ismail

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional general procurement route found in many housing projects in Malaysia is conceptualized as a governance structure following the transaction cost economics (TCE approach. This approach has been used to examine governance structures in different economic sectors in several countries but evidence of its use in the context of developing countries is limited. This lack of evidence has prompted the authors to conduct a preliminary study to ascertain whether a TCE approach can explain construction governance structures in developing countries. This research does not discuss the trade-off that governs the choice of hybrids, market or hierarchies for organizing transactions. Rather, it takes advantage of existing research to substantiate the specific properties of hybrid organizations as governance structures. The main focus is coordination. Coordination is specified at two levels. At Level 1 is the coordination of specialization (i.e. the formation of the project team members and at Level 2 is the coordination mode of the contracting parties (client and contractor and the agents involved (the lead designer and project manage r. A case survey method was adopted. Preliminary findings seem to suggest that clients have used hierarchical themes in the contracts and high powered incentives to coordinate with in the contracting parties. The research findings suggest that all participants involved in the sample studied used governance structures symptomatic of a hybrid organization.

  5. RELATIONS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND COORDINATION IN PEOPLE WITH ABOVE-AVERAGE MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sample of 149 male persons whose average age is 20.15 in decimal years (±0.83, and all of whom are students at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, underwent a battery of tests consisting of 17 anthropometric measures taken from the measures index of the International Biological Program and 4 tests designed to assess coordination as follows: Coordination with stick, Hand and leg drumming, Nonrhythmic drumming and Slalom with three balls. One statistically significant canonical correlation was determined by means of the canonical correlation analysis. The isolated canonical correlation from the space of coordination variables, was the one used for assessment of coordination of the whole body – Coordination with stick. On the other hand, out of the variables from the right array, the ones which covered longinality were singled out – Body height and Arm length, circular dimensionality – Circumference of stretched upper arm, Circumference of bent upper arm and Circumference of upper leg, as well as subcutaneous fat tissue – Skin fold of the back.

  6. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical insight into the thermodynamic uncertainty relation using Brownian motion in tilted periodic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Changbong; Hwang, Wonseok

    2017-07-01

    Using Brownian motion in periodic potentials V (x ) tilted by a force f , we provide physical insight into the thermodynamic uncertainty relation, a recently conjectured principle for statistical errors and irreversible heat dissipation in nonequilibrium steady states. According to the relation, nonequilibrium output generated from dissipative processes necessarily incurs an energetic cost or heat dissipation q , and in order to limit the output fluctuation within a relative uncertainty ɛ , at least 2 kBT /ɛ2 of heat must be dissipated. Our model shows that this bound is attained not only at near-equilibrium [f ≪V'(x ) ] but also at far-from-equilibrium [f ≫V'(x ) ] , more generally when the dissipated heat is normally distributed. Furthermore, the energetic cost is maximized near the critical force when the barrier separating the potential wells is about to vanish and the fluctuation of Brownian particles is maximized. These findings indicate that the deviation of heat distribution from Gaussianity gives rise to the inequality of the uncertainty relation, further clarifying the meaning of the uncertainty relation. Our derivation of the uncertainty relation also recognizes a bound of nonequilibrium fluctuations that the variance of dissipated heat (σq2) increases with its mean (μq), and it cannot be smaller than 2 kBT μq .

  8. Motion of the MMS Spacecraft Relative to the Magnetic Reconnection Structure Observed on 16 October 2015 at 1307 UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, R. E.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Hasegawa, H.; Phan, T. D.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D.; Torbert, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a magnetopause crossing by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft at 1307 UT on 16 October 2016 that showed features of electron-scale reconnection. For this event, we find orthonormal LMN coordinates from the magnetic field, with N and L varying respectively along the maximum gradient and maximum variance directions. We find the motion along N from the Spatio-Temporal Difference analysis and motion along L from measured particle velocities. We locate the position of the magnetic X point, finding that MMS-4 passed within about 1A km from the X point and that MMS-3 and MMS-2 passed within about 1.7 km and 2.4 km, respectively, from the position of maximum out of plane current.

  9. The roles of non-retinotopic motions in visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei eNakayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In visual search, a moving target among stationary distracters is detected more rapidly and more efficiently than a static target among moving distracters. Here we examined how this search asymmetry depends on motion signals from three distinct coordinate system – retinal, relative, and spatiotopic (head/body-centered. Our search display consisted of a target element, distracters elements, and a fixation point tracked by observers. Each element was composed of a spatial carrier grating windowed by a Gaussian envelope, and the motions of carriers, windows, and fixation were manipulated independently and used in various combinations to decouple the respective effects of motion coordinates systems on visual search asymmetry. We found that retinal motion hardly contributes to reaction times and search slopes but that relative and spatiotopic motions contribute to them substantially. Results highlight the important roles of non-retinotopic motions for guiding observer attention in visual search.

  10. Three-dimensional organization of vestibular related eye movements to rotational motion in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.; Beyer, M.; Hess, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    During rotational motions, compensatory eye movement adjustments must continually occur in order to maintain objects of visual interest as stable images on the retina. In the present study, the three-dimensional organization of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in pigeons was quantitatively examined. Rotations about different head axes produced horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements, whose component magnitude was dependent upon the cosine of the stimulus axis relative to the animal's visual axis. Thus, the three-dimensional organization of the VOR in pigeons appears to be compensatory for any direction of head rotation. Frequency responses of the horizontal, vertical, and torsional slow phase components exhibited high pass filter properties with dominant time constants of approximately 3 s.

  11. Tangent Orbital Rendezvous Using Linear Relative Motion with J2 Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tangent-impulse coplanar orbit rendezvous problem is studied based on the linear relative motion for J2-perturbed elliptic orbits. There are three cases: (1 only the first impulse is tangent; (2 only the second impulse is tangent; (3 both impulses are tangent. For a given initial impulse point, the first two problems can be transformed into finding all roots of a single variable function about the transfer time, which can be done by the secant method. The bitangent rendezvous problem requires the same solution for the first two problems. By considering the initial coasting time, the bitangent rendezvous solution is obtained with a difference function. A numerical example for two coplanar elliptic orbits with J2 perturbations is given to verify the efficiency of these proposed techniques.

  12. Analysing employment practices in Western European multinationals: coordination, industrial relations and employment flexibility in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahancová, M.; van der Meer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that multinational companies (MNCs) in Central Eastern Europe significantly contribute to employment growth in the region, qualitative knowledge about diffusion of employment practices in this region, and about coordination of MNCs with local labour market actors and institutions is

  13. Fatigue-related changes in the coordination of lifting and their effect of low back load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Toussaint, Huub M.; Maurice, Cora; Mientjes, Martine

    1996-01-01

    In this study, changes in movement coordination caused by fatigue that developed during repetitive lifting were examined. Five men performed 6 times a 5-min bout of lifting an 8-kg barbell at 15 lifts/min, using two lifting techniques; one minimized trunk rotation (squat lift), and the other

  14. The relation between respiratory motion artifact correction and lung standardized uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lijie; Liu Xiaojian; Liu Jie; Xu Rui; Yan Jue

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT is playing an important role in disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. But the respiratory motion artifact may bring trouble in diagnosis and therapy. There are many methods to correct the respiratory motion artifact. Respiratory gated PET/CT is applied most extensively of them. Using respiratory gated PET/CT to correct respiratory motion artifact can increase the maximum standardized uptake value of lung lesion obviously, thereby improving the quality of image and accuracy of diagnosis. (authors)

  15. Self-consistent collective-coordinate method for ''maximally-decoupled'' collective subspace and its boson mapping: Quantum theory of ''maximally-decoupled'' collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumori, T.; Sakata, F.; Maskawa, T.; Une, T.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a full quantum theory, which is capable by itself of determining a ''maximally-decoupled'' collective motion. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the motivation and basic idea of the theory are explained, and the ''maximal-decoupling condition'' on the collective motion is formulated within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, in a general form called the invariance principle of the (time-dependent) Schrodinger equation. In the second part, it is shown that when the author positively utilize the invariance principle, we can construct a full quantum theory of the ''maximally-decoupled'' collective motion. This quantum theory is shown to be a generalization of the kinematical boson-mapping theories so far developed, in such a way that the dynamical ''maximal-decoupling condition'' on the collective motion is automatically satisfied

  16. Esophagus and spinal cord motion relative to GTV motion in four-dimensional CTs of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Keall, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Respiration-related variations in the distance between the center of mass of gross tumor volume and both esophagus and spinal cord in the transversal plane were on average 3 mm (range 1-10 mm) and 2 mm (range 1-5 mm), respectively. Depending on the tumor location and treatment technique, variations might become important for treatment planning

  17. Geometrically motivated coordinate system for exploring spacetime dynamics in numerical-relativity simulations using a quasi-Kinnersley tetrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Brink, Jeandrew; Szilágyi, Béla; Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the suitability and properties of a quasi-Kinnersley tetrad and a geometrically motivated coordinate system as tools for quantifying both strong-field and wave-zone effects in numerical relativity (NR) simulations. We fix two of the coordinate degrees of freedom of the metric, namely, the radial and latitudinal coordinates, using the Coulomb potential associated with the quasi-Kinnersley transverse frame. These coordinates are invariants of the spacetime and can be used to unambiguously fix the outstanding spin-boost freedom associated with the quasi-Kinnersley frame (and thus can be used to choose a preferred quasi-Kinnersley tetrad). In the limit of small perturbations about a Kerr spacetime, these geometrically motivated coordinates and quasi-Kinnersley tetrad reduce to Boyer-Lindquist coordinates and the Kinnersley tetrad, irrespective of the simulation gauge choice. We explore the properties of this construction both analytically and numerically, and we gain insights regarding the propagation of radiation described by a super-Poynting vector, further motivating the use of this construction in NR simulations. We also quantify in detail the peeling properties of the chosen tetrad and gauge. We argue that these choices are particularly well-suited for a rapidly converging wave-extraction algorithm as the extraction location approaches infinity, and we explore numerically the extent to which this property remains applicable on the interior of a computational domain. Using a number of additional tests, we verify numerically that the prescription behaves as required in the appropriate limits regardless of simulation gauge; these tests could also serve to benchmark other wave extraction methods. We explore the behavior of the geometrically motivated coordinate system in dynamical binary-black-hole NR mergers; while we obtain no unexpected results, we do find that these coordinates turn out to be useful for visualizing NR simulations (for example, for

  18. Geometrically motivated hyperbolic coordinate conditions for numerical relativity: Analysis, issues and implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Carles; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela-Luque, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    We study the implications of adopting hyperbolic-driver coordinate conditions motivated by geometrical considerations. In particular, conditions that minimize the rate of change of the metric variables. We analyze the properties of the resulting system of equations and their effect when implementing excision techniques. We find that commonly used coordinate conditions lead to a characteristic structure at the excision surface where some modes are not of outflow type with respect to any excision boundary chosen inside the horizon. Thus, boundary conditions are required for these modes. Unfortunately, the specification of these conditions is a delicate issue as the outflow modes involve both gauge and main variables. As an alternative to these driver equations, we examine conditions derived from extremizing a scalar constructed from Killing's equation and present specific numerical examples

  19. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository

  20. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  1. Nuisance Flooding and Relative Sea-Level Rise: the Importance of Present-Day Land Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar, Makan A; Dixon, Timothy H; Malservisi, Rocco; Kusche, Jürgen; Engelhart, Simon E

    2017-09-11

    Sea-level rise is beginning to cause increased inundation of many low-lying coastal areas. While most of Earth's coastal areas are at risk, areas that will be affected first are characterized by several additional factors. These include regional oceanographic and meteorological effects and/or land subsidence that cause relative sea level to rise faster than the global average. For catastrophic coastal flooding, when wind-driven storm surge inundates large areas, the relative contribution of sea-level rise to the frequency of these events is difficult to evaluate. For small scale "nuisance flooding," often associated with high tides, recent increases in frequency are more clearly linked to sea-level rise and global warming. While both types of flooding are likely to increase in the future, only nuisance flooding is an early indicator of areas that will eventually experience increased catastrophic flooding and land loss. Here we assess the frequency and location of nuisance flooding along the eastern seaboard of North America. We show that vertical land motion induced by recent anthropogenic activity and glacial isostatic adjustment are contributing factors for increased nuisance flooding. Our results have implications for flood susceptibility, forecasting and mitigation, including management of groundwater extraction from coastal aquifers.

  2. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-09-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  3. Relative motions of fragments of the split comets. I - A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1977-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed which interprets the relative motion of two fragments of a split comet in terms of a slight difference between their effective solar attraction rather than in terms of the impulse imparted to them at separation. A quantitative version of this hypothesis is formulated by assuming that the difference in effective solar attraction varies with heliocentric distance in direct proportion to the actual solar attraction so that the ratio of the two forces is constant and equal to a measure of the relative effect between the two fragments under consideration. Results obtained using this formulation are compared with observational evidence on the split comets P/Biela, Liais 1860 I, 1882 II, P/Brooks 2 1889 V, Swift 1899 I, Kopff 1905 IV, Mellish 1915 II, Taylor 1916 I, 1947 XII, Wirtanen 1957 VI, Ikeya-Seki 1965 VIII, Kohoutek 1970 III, and West 1975n. The hypothesis is found to fail only in the case of comet Wirtanen 1957 VI. Some unusual phenomena associated with split comets are examined.

  4. Auditory event-related potentials associated with perceptual reversals of bistable pitch motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gray D; Pitts, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) experiments have consistently identified two components associated with perceptual transitions of bistable visual stimuli, the "reversal negativity" (RN) and the "late positive complex" (LPC). The RN (~200 ms post-stimulus, bilateral occipital-parietal distribution) is thought to reflect transitions between neural representations that form the moment-to-moment contents of conscious perception, while the LPC (~400 ms, central-parietal) is considered an index of post-perceptual processing related to accessing and reporting one's percept. To explore the generality of these components across sensory modalities, the present experiment utilized a novel bistable auditory stimulus. Pairs of complex tones with ambiguous pitch relationships were presented sequentially while subjects reported whether they perceived the tone pairs as ascending or descending in pitch. ERPs elicited by the tones were compared according to whether perceived pitch motion changed direction or remained the same across successive trials. An auditory reversal negativity (aRN) component was evident at ~170 ms post-stimulus over bilateral fronto-central scalp locations. An auditory LPC component (aLPC) was evident at subsequent latencies (~350 ms, fronto-central distribution). These two components may be auditory analogs of the visual RN and LPC, suggesting functionally equivalent but anatomically distinct processes in auditory vs. visual bistable perception.

  5. The Relation Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching. Twenty-three articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. All stretching typologies showed ROM improvements over a long-term period, however the static protocols showed significant gains (p<0.05) when compared to the ballistic or PNF protocols. Time spent stretching per week seems fundamental to elicit range of movement improvements when stretches are applied for at least or more than 5 min, whereas the time spent stretching within a single session does not seem to have significant effects for ROM gains. Weekly frequency is positively associated to ROM. Evaluated data indicates that performing stretching at least 5 days a week for at least 5 min per week using static stretching may be beneficial to promote ROM improvements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. On the relative rotational motion between rigid fibers and fluid in turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchioli, C. [Department of Electrical, Management and Mechanical Engineering, University of Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Zhao, L., E-mail: lihao.zhao@ntnu.no [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Andersson, H. I. [Department of Electrical, Management and Mechanical Engineering, University of Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the rotation of small rigid fibers relative to the surrounding fluid in wall-bounded turbulence is examined by means of direct numerical simulations coupled with Lagrangian tracking. Statistics of the relative (fiber-to-fluid) angular velocity, referred to as slip spin in the present study, are evaluated by modelling fibers as prolate spheroidal particles with Stokes number, St, ranging from 1 to 100 and aspect ratio, λ, ranging from 3 to 50. Results are compared one-to-one with those obtained for spherical particles (λ = 1) to highlight effects due to fiber length. The statistical moments of the slip spin show that differences in the rotation rate of fibers and fluid are influenced by inertia, but depend strongly also on fiber length: Departures from the spherical shape, even when small, are associated with an increase of rotational inertia and prevent fibers from passively following the surrounding fluid. An increase of fiber length, in addition, decouples the rotational dynamics of a fiber from its translational dynamics suggesting that the two motions can be modelled independently only for long enough fibers (e.g., for aspect ratios of order ten or higher in the present simulations)

  7. Target and peripheral dose from radiation sector motions accompanying couch repositioning of patient coordinates with the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Wu, Vincent; Malhotra, Harish; Steinman, James P.; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    The GammaPlan ™ treatment planning system (TPS) does not fully account for shutter dose when multiple shots are required to deliver a patient’s treatment. The unaccounted exposures to the target site and its periphery are measured in this study. The collected data are compared to a similar effect from the Gamma Knife ® model 4C. A stereotactic head frame was attached to a Leksell ® 16 cm diameter spherical phantom; using a fiducial-box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the TPS. Measurements give the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions with the patient positioning system (PPS) and to the collimator size. An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site and all measurements were acquired with an ionization chamber. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with collimator size. As the radiation sectors transition between the beam on and beam off states, the target receives more shutter dose than the periphery. Shutter doses of 3.53±0.04 and 1.59±0.04 cGy/reposition to the target site are observed for the 16 and 8 mm collimators, respectively. The target periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. The radiation sector motions for the Gamma Knife ® Perfexion ™ result in an additional dose due to the shutter effect. The magnitude of this exposure is comparable to that measured for the model 4C

  8. Age-Related Differences in Motor Coordination during Simultaneous Leg Flexion and Finger Extension: Influence of Temporal Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference b...

  9. Coordination chemistry of gadolinium complexes having pyridine carboxylate units in relation with the medical imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gateau, C.; Chatterton, N.; Nonat, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Pecaut, J.; Borel, A.; Merbach, A.; Heim, L.

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the influence of the coordination sphere on the properties which govern the relaxivity, ligands containing pyridine carboxylates units have been particularly studied. It has been shown that the tripodal ligand tpaa forms with gadolinium (III) a neutral complex having a relaxivity (r1p=13.3 mM -1 at 298 K and 60 MHz) which is three times superior to the contrast agents currently used in NMR Imaging. To explain this remarkably relaxivity, two new ligands analogous to the tpaa: the tpatcn and the bpeda containing pyridine carboxylate units bound to one or several aliphatic nitrogen have been studied in modulating the number of coordination sites and the symmetry degree. The study of the relaxivity of the corresponding gadolinium (III) complexes gives precious data on the understanding of the results in the case of the complex [Gd(tpaa)]. The synthesis and the properties of these gadolinium (III) complexes will be presented during this conference. (O.M.)

  10. Executive functions, visual-motor coordination, physical fitness and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2018-04-01

    The present longitudinal study included different school readiness factors measured in kindergarten with the aim to predict later academic achievement in second grade. Based on data of N = 134 children, the predictive power of executive functions, visual-motor coordination and physical fitness on later academic achievement was estimated using a latent variable approach. By entering all three predictors simultaneously into the model to predict later academic achievement, significant effects of executive functions and visual-motor coordination on later academic achievement were found. The influence of physical fitness was found to be substantial but indirect via executive functions. The cognitive stimulation hypothesis as well as the automaticity hypothesis are discussed as an explanation for the reported relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Motion Of Bodies And Its Stability In The General Relativity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabushko, Anton P.; Zhur, Tatyana A.; Nemanova, Inna T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the works by the Belarusian school investigators on relativistic motion and its stability for a system of bodies, each of which may have its own rotation, charge, and magnetic field of the dipole type. The corresponding Lagrangian and conservation laws are derived, several secular effects are predicted. For motion of bodies in the medium the secular effect of the periastron reverse shift is predicted as compared to the Mercury perihelion shift. The cause for the Pioneer anomaly is explained.

  12. Very long baseline interferometry applied to polar motion, relativity, and geodesy. Ph.D. thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.

    1978-01-01

    The causes and effects of diurnal polar motion are described. An algorithm was developed for modeling the effects on very long baseline interferometry observables. A selection was made between two three-station networks for monitoring polar motion. The effects of scheduling and the number of sources observed on estimated baseline errors are discussed. New hardware and software techniques in very long baseline interferometry are described

  13. Recent achievements in the Hamiltonian treatment of the dynamics and motion of compact binaries in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The current knowledge in the post-Newtonian (PN) dynamics and motion of non-spinning and spinning compact binaries will be presented based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian approach to general relativity. The presentation will cover the binary dynamics with non-spinning components up to the 4PN order and for spinning binaries up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in the spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings. Radiation reaction will be treated for both non-spinning and spinning binaries. Explicit analytic expressions for the motion will be given, innermost stable circular orbits will be discussed

  14. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) was created in 1981 in the framework of the 1977 Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. CRESP was essentially a scientific research programme. Its main objective was to increase the knowledge of processes controlling the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that safety assessments could be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data. From 1986, in response to a request from the Paris Commission, CRESP also considered the scientific aspects of coastal releases. CRESP made it possible to co-ordinate national research activities and generated an important international co-operation in its areas of work. The vast amount of scientific information gathered in this framework increased strongly our knowledge of the impact of radionuclides introduced to the deep sea environment. In particular, CRESP provided the basis for a comprehensive safety analysis of sea dumping operations. This study, published by the NEA in 1985, is still e reference on the subject. In November 1993, the Sixteenth Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 voted a total ban on the disposal at sea of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter. Considering this decision, the conclusions of the 1985 safety analysis, and CRESP's view that new scientific findings are unlikely to alter these conclusions, the NEA Steering Committee for nuclear Energy decided in October 1995 to terminate the programme. The present report summarises the knowledge accumulated within CRESP over its fifteen years of existence. (author)

  15. Relation between efficiency and energy cost with coordination in aquatic locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Toussaint, Huub M; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the intracycle velocity variation (IVV) and Froude efficiency (η(T)), energy cost (C), and index of coordination (IdC) throughout a 200-m freestyle race. Ten male international level swimmers performed a maximum 200 m front crawl swim. Performance was recorded with four below- and two above-water synchronized cameras. Oxygen consumption was measured continuously during the effort, and blood samples were collected before and after the test. IdC, body center of mass' IVV (x, y and z), and η(T) were also calculated. For assessing C swimmers performed also 50, 100 and 150 m at the same pace as in the 200-m splits to capture blood lactate samples after each 50-m lap of the 200-m effort. Swimmers attained a stable IVV (x, y, and z), as fatigue development along the 200-m effort induced a decrease in velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, η(T), and an increase of IdC. Direct relationships between C and IdC for the second and fourth lap were found: R = 0.63 and R = 0.69 (P < 0.05), respectively. Computing partial correlation, also IdC and η(T) in the first lap were significantly correlated (R = -0.63, P < 0.05). IdC and η(T) showed to be significant for the within-subjects correlation (R = -0.45, P = 0.01), and IdC and C for the between-subjects correlation (R = 0.66, P = 0.04). Patterns of coordination modified during the 200-m event in response to the task constraints, observed by the changes in the other studied parameters, and allowing the IVV stability along the effort.

  16. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons

  17. Motion of the Rivera plate since 10 Ma relative to the Pacific and North American plates and the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Traylen, Stephen

    2000-03-01

    To better understand the influence of Rivera plate kinematics on the geodynamic evolution of western Mexico, we use more than 1400 crossings of seafloor spreading magnetic lineations along the Pacific-Rivera rise and northern Mathematician ridge to solve for rotations of the Rivera plate relative to the underlying mantle and the Pacific and North American plates at 14 times since 9.9 Ma. Our comparison of magnetic anomaly crossings from the undeformed Pacific plate to their counterparts on the Rivera plate indicates that significant areas of the Rivera plate have deformed since 9.9 Ma. Dextral shear along the southern edge of the plate from 3.3-2.2 Ma during a regional plate boundary reorganization deformed the Rivera plate farther into its interior than previously recognized. In addition, seafloor located north of two rupture zones within the Rivera plate sutured to North America after 1.5 Ma. Anomaly crossings from these two deformed regions thus cannot be used to reconstruct motion of the Rivera plate. Finite rotations that best reconstruct Pacific plate anomaly crossings onto their undeformed counterparts on the Rivera plate yield stage spreading rates that decrease gradually by 10% between 10 and 3.6 Ma, decrease rapidly by 20% after ˜3.6 Ma, and recover after 1 Ma. The slowdown in Pacific-Rivera seafloor spreading at 3.6 Ma coincided with the onset of dextral shear across the then-incipient southern boundary of the Rivera plate with the Pacific plate. The available evidence indicates that the Rivera plate has been an independent microplate since at least 10 Ma, contrary to published assertions that it fragmented from the Cocos plate at ˜5 Ma. Motion of the Rivera plate relative to North America has changed significantly since 10 Ma, in concert with significant changes in Pacific-Rivera motion. A significant and robust feature of Rivera-North America motion not previously recognized is the cessation of margin-normal convergence and thus subduction from 2

  18. A Simple Time Domain Collocation Method to Precisely Search for the Periodic Orbits of Satellite Relative Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Yue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach for obtaining periodic orbits of satellite relative motion is proposed, based on using the time domain collocation (TDC method to search for the periodic solutions of an exact J2 nonlinear relative model. The initial conditions for periodic relative orbits of the Clohessy-Wiltshire (C-W equations or Tschauner-Hempel (T-H equations can be refined with this approach to generate nearly bounded orbits. With these orbits, a method based on the least-squares principle is then proposed to generate projected closed orbit (PCO, which is a reference for the relative motion control. Numerical simulations reveal that the presented TDC searching scheme is effective and simple, and the projected closed orbit is very fuel saving.

  19. Attenuation relations of strong motion in Japan using site classification based on predominant period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimasa Takahashi; Akihiro Asano; Hidenobu Okada; Kojiro Irikura; Zhao, J.X.; Zhang Jian; Thio, H.K.; Somerville, P.G.; Yasuhiro Fukushima; Yoshimitsu Fukushima

    2005-01-01

    A spectral acceleration attenuation model for Japan is presented. The data set includes a very large number of strong ground motion records up to the end of 2003. Site class terms, instead of individual site correction terms, are used based on a recent study on site classification for strong motion recording stations in Japan. By using site class terms, tectonic source type effects are identified and accounted in the present model. Effects of faulting mechanism for crustal earthquakes are also accounted for. For crustal and interface earthquakes, a simple form of attenuation model is able to capture the main strong motion characteristics and achieves unbiased estimates. For subduction slab events, a simple distance modification factor is employed to achieve plausible and unbiased prediction. Effects of source depth, tectonic source type, and faulting mechanism for crustal earthquakes are significant. (authors)

  20. Distinguishing between taskwork and teamwork planning in teams: relations with coordination and interpersonal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M

    2014-05-01

    Planning in teams represents a critical process that lays the groundwork for effective team functioning. The current investigation examined whether emergent team planning can be meaningfully characterized in terms of a distinction between planning that focuses on taskwork and planning that focuses on teamwork. In Study 1, items written to reflect commonly identified indicators of team planning were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2, slightly modified items were provided to a separate sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. In Study 3, the relationships between the different forms of planning and other team processes (i.e., coordination, interpersonal processes) were examined in order to determine whether there are unique relationships for task-focused and team-focused planning. Results from the first 2 studies provided support for a 2-factor structure of team planning, whereas Study 3 found independent relationships for taskwork and teamwork planning with subsequent team processes. Both forms of planning also exhibited indirect relationships with team performance via the mediating role of subsequent team processes. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. An encoder for the measurement of relative motions between two objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, M.

    1995-01-01

    The motion encoder is composed of a measuring rule, mounted on one of the object, which bears at least two tracks (X, Y) with multiple simple marks distributed following a similar pattern on the two tracks, and at least one specific mark (each mark limit is defining a step variation on the rule), and at least two mark readers, mounted on the second object, each one associated to a track. Data processing means are used to estimate distance and motion direction. Application to robotics and metrology

  2. On the motion od the Caribbean relative to South-America: New results from GPS geodesy 1999-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, R.; Marquez, J.; Bravo, M.; Madriz, Y.; Mencin, D.; Wesnousky, S. G.; Molnar, P. H.; Bilham, R.; Perez, O. J.

    2013-05-01

    Our previous (1994-2006) collaborative GPS studies in southern Caribbean and northern South-America (SA) show that along its southern boundary in north-central and northeastern Venezuela (Vzla) the Caribbean plate (CP) slips easterly at ~20 mm/a relative to SA, and that in northwestern South-America slip-partitioning takes place resulting in 12 mm/a of dextral motion across the Venezuelan Andes, ~6 mm/a of which occur along the main trace of the NE-trending Bocono fault, and the rest is taken up by SE-subduction of the CP beneath northwestern SA. A series of new velocity vectors obtained in the region from GPS geodesy in 1999-2012 and their corresponding elastic modelings shows that in north-central Vzla part (~3 mm/a) of the C-SA relative dextral shear is taken up by the east-trending continental La Victoria fault, which runs ~50 kms south of San Sebastian fault off-shore and is sub-parallel to it, the later taken up the rest of the motion. The velocity we find for Aruba Is (~20 mm/y due ~east) is consistent with the motion predicted by the Euler pole (61,9° N; 75,7 °W; ω = 0,229 °/Ma) we previously calculated to describe the C-SA relative plate motion. New velocity vectors obtained across the Venezuelan Andes are consistent with a modeled surface velocity due to 12 mm/a of dextral shear below a locking depth of 14 km on one or more vertical N50°E striking faults located within the 100-km wide Andean ranges. The Andes also show a horizontal convergence rate of 2 to 4 mm/a suggesting an uplift rate of ~1.7 mm/a if thrust motion takes place on shallowly dipping faults parallel to the Andes.

  3. Transcriptional interference networks coordinate the expression of functionally related genes clustered in the same genomic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldogköi, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for normal functioning of biological systems in every form of life. Gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription, especially at the phase of initiation. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major players at every level of genetic regulation, including the control of chromatin organization, transcription, various post-transcriptional processes, and translation. In this study, the Transcriptional Interference Network (TIN) hypothesis was put forward in an attempt to explain the global expression of antisense RNAs and the overall occurrence of tandem gene clusters in the genomes of various biological systems ranging from viruses to mammalian cells. The TIN hypothesis suggests the existence of a novel layer of genetic regulation, based on the interactions between the transcriptional machineries of neighboring genes at their overlapping regions, which are assumed to play a fundamental role in coordinating gene expression within a cluster of functionally linked genes. It is claimed that the transcriptional overlaps between adjacent genes are much more widespread in genomes than is thought today. The Waterfall model of the TIN hypothesis postulates a unidirectional effect of upstream genes on the transcription of downstream genes within a cluster of tandemly arrayed genes, while the Seesaw model proposes a mutual interdependence of gene expression between the oppositely oriented genes. The TIN represents an auto-regulatory system with an exquisitely timed and highly synchronized cascade of gene expression in functionally linked genes located in close physical proximity to each other. In this study, we focused on herpesviruses. The reason for this lies in the compressed nature of viral genes, which allows a tight regulation and an easier investigation of the transcriptional interactions between genes. However, I believe that the same or similar principles can be applied to cellular organisms too.

  4. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  5. Impaired heel to toe progression during gait is related to reduced ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarakis, Michael; Greene, David; Moresi, Mark; Baker, Michael; Stubbs, Peter; Brodie, Matthew; Lord, Stephen; Hoang, Phu

    2017-11-01

    Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Twelve participants with Multiple Sclerosis and twelve healthy age-matched participants were assessed. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait and individual footprint data were used to investigate group differences. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to divide each footprint into three phases (contact, mid-stance, propulsive) and calculate the heel-to-toe progression during the stance phase of gait. Compared to healthy controls, people with Multiple Sclerosis spent relatively less time in contact phase (7.8% vs 25.1%) and more time in the mid stance phase of gait (57.3% vs 33.7%). Inter-limb differences were observed in people with Multiple Sclerosis between the affected and non-affected sides for contact (7.8% vs 15.3%) and mid stance (57.3% and 47.1%) phases. Differences in heel-to-toe progression remained significant after adjusting for walking speed and were correlated with walking distance and ankle range of motion. Impaired heel-to-toe progression was related to poor ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Heel-to-toe progression provided a sensitive measure for assessing gait impairments that were not detectable using standard spatiotemporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  7. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  8. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  9. A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2009-12-16

    The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

  10. Model development of SAS4A and investigation on the initiating phase consequences in LMFRs related with material motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analytical aspect of the initiating phase scenario and consequences of postulated core disruptive accident in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. An analytical code, SAS4A, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, and introduced to PNC. Improvement and validation effort have been performed for the mixed-oxide version of SAS4A at PNC. This paper describes firstly recent development of SAS4A's material motion related models briefly. A fission gas mass transfer model and solid fuel chunk jamming model are developed and introduced to SAS4A, and validated using CABRI-2 E13 experimental data. Secondly, an investigation of the mechanism of energetics in the initiating phase of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident has identified major control parameters which are intimately related to core design parameters and material motion phenomena. (author)

  11. Relating lateralization of eye use to body motion in the avoidance behavior of the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2013-01-01

    Lateralization is mostly analyzed for single traits, but seldom for two or more traits while performing a given task (e.g. object manipulation). We examined lateralization in eye use and in body motion that co-occur during avoidance behaviour of the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon. A chameleon facing a moving threat smoothly repositions its body on the side of its perch distal to the threat, to minimize its visual exposure. We previously demonstrated that during the response (i) eye use and body motion were, each, lateralized at the tested group level (N = 26), (ii) in body motion, we observed two similar-sized sub-groups, one exhibiting a greater reduction in body exposure to threat approaching from the left and one--to threat approaching from the right (left- and right-biased subgroups), (iii) the left-biased sub-group exhibited weak lateralization of body exposure under binocular threat viewing and none under monocular viewing while the right-biased sub-group exhibited strong lateralization under both monocular and binocular threat viewing. In avoidance, how is eye use related to body motion at the entire group and at the sub-group levels? We demonstrate that (i) in the left-biased sub-group, eye use is not lateralized, (ii) in the right-biased sub-group, eye use is lateralized under binocular, but not monocular viewing of the threat, (iii) the dominance of the right-biased sub-group determines the lateralization of the entire group tested. We conclude that in chameleons, patterns of lateralization of visual function and body motion are inter-related at a subtle level. Presently, the patterns cannot be compared with humans' or related to the unique visual system of chameleons, with highly independent eye movements, complete optic nerve decussation and relatively few inter-hemispheric commissures. We present a model to explain the possible inter-hemispheric differences in dominance in chameleons' visual control of body motion during avoidance.

  12. Relating lateralization of eye use to body motion in the avoidance behavior of the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avichai Lustig

    Full Text Available Lateralization is mostly analyzed for single traits, but seldom for two or more traits while performing a given task (e.g. object manipulation. We examined lateralization in eye use and in body motion that co-occur during avoidance behaviour of the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon. A chameleon facing a moving threat smoothly repositions its body on the side of its perch distal to the threat, to minimize its visual exposure. We previously demonstrated that during the response (i eye use and body motion were, each, lateralized at the tested group level (N = 26, (ii in body motion, we observed two similar-sized sub-groups, one exhibiting a greater reduction in body exposure to threat approaching from the left and one--to threat approaching from the right (left- and right-biased subgroups, (iii the left-biased sub-group exhibited weak lateralization of body exposure under binocular threat viewing and none under monocular viewing while the right-biased sub-group exhibited strong lateralization under both monocular and binocular threat viewing. In avoidance, how is eye use related to body motion at the entire group and at the sub-group levels? We demonstrate that (i in the left-biased sub-group, eye use is not lateralized, (ii in the right-biased sub-group, eye use is lateralized under binocular, but not monocular viewing of the threat, (iii the dominance of the right-biased sub-group determines the lateralization of the entire group tested. We conclude that in chameleons, patterns of lateralization of visual function and body motion are inter-related at a subtle level. Presently, the patterns cannot be compared with humans' or related to the unique visual system of chameleons, with highly independent eye movements, complete optic nerve decussation and relatively few inter-hemispheric commissures. We present a model to explain the possible inter-hemispheric differences in dominance in chameleons' visual control of body motion during avoidance.

  13. Managing work-related psychological complaints by general practitioners, in coordination with occupational physicians: A pilot Study - Developing and testing a guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, P.C.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Evers, M.; Klink, J.J.L. van de; Anema, H.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, workers have psychological work-related complaints, endangering their work ability and causing considerable economic losses. Many employees consult their general practitioner (GP). He, however, often pays insufficient attention to work-relatedness or to coordination with occupational

  14. {sup 252}Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum measured at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the fragment motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanglian, Bao; Jinquan, Liu [Beijing Univ., BJ (China); Batenkov, O I; Blinov, M V; Smirnov, S N [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, ST. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    The {sup 252}Cf spontaneous prompt fission neutron spectrum at 0 degree and 180 degree relative to the motion direction of corresponding fission fragments was measured. High angular resolution for fragment measurements and high energy resolution for neutron measurements were obtained using multi-parameter TOF spectrometer. The results showed that there is a symmetric distribution of `forward` and `backward` for low energy in C.M.S. neutrons, which was an evidence of nonequilibrium neutrons existed in fission process.

  15. Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion relations for earthquakes that occur in subduction zones are an important input to seismic-hazard analyses in many parts of the world. In the Cascadia region (Washington, Oregon, northern California, and British Columbia), for example, there is a significant hazard from megathrust earthquakes along the subduction interface and from large events within the subducting slab. These hazards are in addition to the hazard from shallow earthquakes in the overlying crust. We have compiled a response spectra database from thousands of strong-motion recordings from events of moment magnitude (M) 5-8.3 occurring in subduction zones around the world, including both interface and in-slab events. The 2001 M 6.8 Nisqually and 1999 M 5.9 Satsop earthquakes are included in the database, as are many records from subduction zones in Japan (Kyoshin-Net data), Mexico (Guerrero data), and Central America. The size of the database is four times larger than that available for previous empirical regressions to determine ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes. The large dataset enables improved determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling, for both interface and in-slab events. Soil response parameters are also better determined by the data. We use the database to develop global ground-motion relations for interface and in-slab earthquakes, using a maximum likelihood regression method. We analyze regional variability of ground-motion amplitudes across the global database and find that there are significant regional differences. In particular, amplitudes in Cascadia differ by more than a factor of 2 from those in Japan for the same magnitude, distance, event type, and National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil class. This is believed to be due to regional differences in the depth of the soil profile, which are not captured by the NEHRP site classification scheme. Regional correction factors to account for these differences are

  16. Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  17. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose  Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods  Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results  For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion  We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:   · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is similar between the USA, Japan and Germany.. · To date, no validated risk factors for TSM could be identified.. Citation Format · Well L, Rausch VH, Adam G et al. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a

  18. Isla Guadalupe, Mexico (GUAX, SCIGN/PBO) a Relative Constraint for California Borderland and Northern Gulf of California Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Using ITRF2000 as a common reference frame link, I analyzed survey mode and permanent GPS published results, together with SOPAC public data and results (http://sopac.ucsd.edu), in order to evaluate relative present day crustal deformation in California and northern Mexico. The crustal velocity field of Mexico (Marquez-Azua and DeMets, 2003) obtained from continuous GPS measurements conducted by Instituto Nacional de Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) for 1993-2001, was partially used. The preferred model for an instantaneous rigid motion between North-America and Pacific plates (NAPA), is obtained using results of Isla Guadalupe GPS surveys (1991-2002) giving a new constraint for Pacific plate (PA) motion (Gonzalez-Garcia et al., 2003). It produces an apparent reduction of 1 mm/yr in the absolute motion in the border zone between PA and North-America (NA) plates in this region, as compared with other GPS models (v.g. Prawirodirdjo and Bock, 2004); and it is 3 mm/yr higher than NNRNUVEL-1A. In the PA reference frame, westernmost islands from San Francisco (FARB), Los Angeles (MIG1), and Ensenada (GUAX); give current residuals of 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9 mm/yr and azimuths that are consistent with local tectonic setting, respectively. In the NA reference frame, besides the confirmation of 2 mm/yr E-W extension for the southern Basin and Range province in northern Mexico; a present day deformation rate of 40.5 mm/yr between San Felipe, Baja California (SFBC) and Hermosillo, Sonora, is obtained. This rate agrees with a 6.3 to 6.7 Ma for the "initiation of a full sea-floor spreading" in the northern Gulf of California. SFBC has a 7 mm/yr motion in the PA reference frame, giving then, a full NAPA theoretical absolute motion of 47.5 mm/yr. For Puerto Penasco, Sonora (PENA) there is a NAPA motion of 46.2 mm/yr and a residual of 1.2 mm/yr in the NA reference frame, this site is located only 75 km to the northeast from the Wagner basin center. For southern Isla Guadalupe (GUAX) there

  19. Constant of motion for a one-dimensional and nth-order autonomous system and its relation to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    1993-12-01

    A constant of motion is defined for a one-dimensional and nth-differenital-order autonomous svstem. A generalization of the Legendre transformation is given that allows one to obtain a relation among the constant of motion the Lagrangian, and the Hamiltonian. The approach is used to obtain the constant of motion associated with the nonrelativistic third-differential-order Abraham-Lorentz radiation damping equation

  20. A series of three-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with rutile and unprecedented rutile-related topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Wang, En-Bo; Su, Zhong-Min

    2005-10-03

    The complexes of formulas Ln(pydc)(Hpydc) (Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2), Gd (3); H2pydc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) and Ln(pydc)(bc)(H2O) (Ln = Sm (4), Gd (5); Hbc = benzenecarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 are isomorphous and crystallize in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbcn. Their final three-dimensional racemic frameworks can be considered as being constructed by helix-linked scalelike sheets. Compounds 4 and 5 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/c. pydc ligands bridge dinuclear lanthanide centers to form the three-dimensional frameworks featuring hexagonal channels along the a-axis that are occupied by one-end-coordinated bc ligands. From the topological point of view, the five three-dimensional nets are binodal with six- and three-connected nodes, the former of which exhibit a rutile-related (4.6(2))(2)(4(2).6(9).8(4)) topology that is unprecedented within coordination frames, and the latter two species display a distorted rutile (4.6(2))(2)(4(2).6(10).8(3)) topology. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of 2 were studied.

  1. Aspects of the motion of extended bodies in the post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Etienne

    We give a surface integral derivation of post-1-Newtonian translational equations of motion for a system of arbitrarily structured bodies, including the coupling to all the bodies' mass and current multipole moments. The explicit form of these translational equations of motion has not been previously derived. The derivation requires only that the post-1-Newtonian vacuum field equations are satisfied in weak-field regions between the bodies; the bodies' internal gravity can be arbitrarily strong. In particular black holes are not excluded. The derivation extends previous results due to Damour, Soffel and Xu (DSX) for weakly self-gravitating bodies in which the post-1- Newtonian field equations are satisfied everywhere. We also give a surface integral derivation of the leading-order evolution equations for the spin and energy of a relativistic body interacting with other bodies in the post-Newtonian expansion. As part of the computational method, new explicit expansions of general solutions of post-2-Newtonian vacuum field equations are derived. These expansions can serve as foundation for future work in a number of directions, including for example conserved quantities at post- 2-Newtonian order, definitions of angular momentum and studies of gauge invariance of tidal heating. As an astrophysical application of the translational equations of motion, we study gravitomagnetic resonant tidal excitations of r -modes in neutron star binary coalescence. We show that the effect of the resonance on the phase of the binary can be parametrized by a single number. We compute this number explicitly and discuss the detectability of this effect from its imprint on the gravitational wave signal emitted by the binary.

  2. Equations of motion according to the asymptotic post-Newtonian scheme for general relativity in the harmonic gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mayeul

    2005-10-01

    The asymptotic scheme of post-Newtonian approximation defined for general relativity in the harmonic gauge by Futamase & Schutz (1983) is based on a family of initial data for the matter fields of a perfect fluid and for the initial metric, defining a family of weakly self-gravitating systems. We show that Weinberg’s (1972) expansion of the metric and his general expansion of the energy-momentum tensor T, as well as his expanded equations for the gravitational field and his general form of the expanded dynamical equations, apply naturally to this family. Then, following the asymptotic scheme, we derive the explicit form of the expansion of T for a perfect fluid, and the expanded fluid-dynamical equations. (These differ from those written by Weinberg.) By integrating these equations in the domain occupied by a body, we obtain a general form of the translational equations of motion for a 1PN perfect-fluid system in general relativity. To put them into a tractable form, we use an asymptotic framework for the separation parameter η, by defining a family of well-separated 1PN systems. We calculate all terms in the equations of motion up to the order η3 included. To calculate the 1PN correction part, we assume that the Newtonian motion of each body is a rigid one, and that the family is quasispherical, in the sense that in all bodies the inertia tensor comes close to being spherical as η→0. Apart from corrections that cancel for exact spherical symmetry, there is in the final equations of motion one additional term, as compared with the Lorentz-Droste (Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann) acceleration. This term depends on the spin of the body and on its internal structure.

  3. SU-E-J-57: First Development of Adapting to Intrafraction Relative Motion Between Prostate and Pelvic Lymph Nodes Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y; Colvill, E; O’Brien, R; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Booth, J [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Large intrafraction relative motion of multiple targets is common in advanced head and neck, lung, abdominal, gynaecological and urological cancer, jeopardizing the treatment outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a real-time adaptation strategy, for the first time, to accurately correct for the relative motion of multiple targets by reshaping the treatment field using the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Methods The principle of tracking the simultaneously treated but differentially moving tumor targets is to determine the new aperture shape that conforms to the shifted targets. Three dimensional volumes representing the individual targets are projected to the beam’s eye view. The leaf openings falling inside each 2D projection will be shifted according to the measured motion of each target to form the new aperture shape. Based on the updated beam shape, new leaf positions will be determined with optimized trade-off between the target underdose and healthy tissue overdose, and considerations of the physical constraints of the MLC. Taking a prostate cancer patient with pelvic lymph node involvement as an example, a preliminary dosimetric study was conducted to demonstrate the potential treatment improvement compared to the state-of- art adaptation technique which shifts the whole beam to track only one target. Results The world-first intrafraction adaptation system capable of reshaping the beam to correct for the relative motion of multiple targets has been developed. The dose in the static nodes and small bowel are closer to the planned distribution and the V45 of small bowel is decreased from 110cc to 75cc, corresponding to a 30% reduction by this technique compared to the state-of-art adaptation technique. Conclusion The developed adaptation system to correct for intrafraction relative motion of multiple targets will guarantee the tumour coverage and thus enable PTV margin reduction to minimize the high target dose to the adjacent organs

  4. Protein flexibility: coordinate uncertainties and interpretation of structural differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); LH Baker Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 112 Office and Lab Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Rashin, Abraham H. L. [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 22371 BPO WAY, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8123 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [LH Baker Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 112 Office and Lab Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Criteria for the interpretability of coordinate differences and a new method for identifying rigid-body motions and nonrigid deformations in protein conformational changes are developed and applied to functionally induced and crystallization-induced conformational changes. Valid interpretations of conformational movements in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography require that the movement magnitudes exceed their uncertainty threshold. Here, it is shown that such thresholds can be obtained from the distance difference matrices (DDMs) of 1014 pairs of independently determined structures of bovine ribonuclease A and sperm whale myoglobin, with no explanations provided for reportedly minor coordinate differences. The smallest magnitudes of reportedly functional motions are just above these thresholds. Uncertainty thresholds can provide objective criteria that distinguish between true conformational changes and apparent ‘noise’, showing that some previous interpretations of protein coordinate changes attributed to external conditions or mutations may be doubtful or erroneous. The use of uncertainty thresholds, DDMs, the newly introduced CDDMs (contact distance difference matrices) and a novel simple rotation algorithm allows a more meaningful classification and description of protein motions, distinguishing between various rigid-fragment motions and nonrigid conformational deformations. It is also shown that half of 75 pairs of identical molecules, each from the same asymmetric crystallographic cell, exhibit coordinate differences that range from just outside the coordinate uncertainty threshold to the full magnitude of large functional movements. Thus, crystallization might often induce protein conformational changes that are comparable to those related to or induced by the protein function.

  5. Impaired postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder is related to less efficient central as well as peripheral control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Andersen, Ken Kjøller

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental impairment that affects approximately 6% of children in primary school age. Children with DCD are characterized by impaired postural control. It has yet to be determined what effect peripheral and central neuromuscular...... control has on their balance control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms to impaired postural control in children with DCD using the rambling-trembling decomposition of the center of pressure (CoP). METHOD: Nine children with DCD (9.0±0.5years, 7 boys, 2 girls...... with fixed support surface. In ML direction children with DCD had a lower relative contribution of rambling to total sway (p=0.013). CONCLUSION: This study showed that impaired postural control in children with DCD is associated with less efficient supraspinal control represented by increased rambling...

  6. Embodiment of intersubjective time: relational dynamics as attractors in the temporal coordination of interpersonal behaviors and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Julien; Berardi, Anna Maria; Brangier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of "being together," and more specifically the issue of "being together in time." We provide with an integrative framework that is inspired by phenomenology, the enactive approach and dynamical systems theories. To do so, we first define embodiment as a living and lived phenomenon that emerges from agent-world coupling. We then show that embodiment is essentially dynamical and therefore we describe experiential, behavioral and brain dynamics. Both lived temporality and the temporality of the living appear to be complex, multiscale phenomena. Next we discuss embodied dynamics in the context of interpersonal interactions, and briefly review the empirical literature on between-persons temporal coordination. Overall, we propose that being together in time emerges from the relational dynamics of embodied interactions and their flexible co-regulation.

  7. Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A; Cousins, Asaph B; Edwards, Gerald E

    2013-07-01

    The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO(2) access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thick(leaf)), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (S(mes)), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO(2) diffusion (g(m)), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (g(s)), and the g(m)/g(s) ratio.While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (S(mes)) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thick(leaf) and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thick(leaf) and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high g(m) together with high g(m)/g(s) and a low S(mes)/g(m) ratio (M resistance to CO(2) diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance.

  8. Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field

  9. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions.

  10. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hussein

    Full Text Available Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]. Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of

  11. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to deal

  12. Age-Related Differences in Motor Coordination during Simultaneous Leg Flexion and Finger Extension: Influence of Temporal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the “extrapolated centre-of-mass”, remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to

  13. Current practices for screening, consent and care of related donors in France: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation coordinator nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polomeni, A; Bompoint, C; Gomez, A; Brissot, E; Ruggeri, A; Belhocine, R; Mohty, M

    2017-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation-coordinating nurses (HSCT-CNs) play an important role in informing related donors (RDs) and in organising human leucocyte antigen (HLA) tests, pre-donation workup and stem cells collection. Our pilot study aimed to explore French HSCT-CNs' perceptions of RD care issues. Twenty-nine French HSCT adult units were sent a questionnaire on the subject of donation procedures, HSCT-CNs' data and their professional experience of related donation issues. Twenty-two HSCT-CNs returned a completed questionnaire, and 90% of HSCT units were involved to some degree in both patient and donor care. Responses indicated that the provision of information to potential donors prior to HLA tests was insufficient, while donors were given a medical consultation only during the pre-donation workup. Questions were raised about the consent and voluntary status of RDs. None of the HSCT teams organised a post-donation consultation, while 57% provided follow-up by phone or via a questionnaire. Our results draw attention to the conflict of interest experienced by HSCT-CNs when caring simultaneously for patients and donors. The specific psychosocial difficulties associated with becoming an RD are also highlighted. French HSCT-CNs' perceptions of related donation reveal many ethical and clinical problems that have yet to be fully explored. Data on this topic remain scarce, and our pilot study may contribute to the current debate on the organisation of RD care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Is Nubia plate rigid? A geodetic study of the relative motion of different cratonic areas within Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, M. W.; Malservisi, R.; Hugentobler, U.; Mokhtari, M.; Voytenko, D.

    2014-12-01

    Plate rigidity is one of the main paradigms of plate tectonics and a fundamental assumption in the definition of a global reference frame as ITRF. Although still far for optimal, the increased GPS instrumentation of the African region can allow us to understand how rigid one of the major plate can be. The presence of diffused band of seismicity, the Cameroon volcanic line, Pan African Kalahari orogenic belt and East Africa Rift suggest the possibility of relative motion among the different regions within the Nubia. The study focuses on the rigidity of Nubia plate. We divide the plate into three regions: Western (West Africa craton plus Nigeria), Central (approximately the region of the Congo craton) and Southern (Kalahari craton plus South Africa) and we utilize Euler Vector formulation to study internal rigidity and eventual relative motion. Developing five different reference frames with different combinations of the 3 regions, we try to understand the presence of the relative motion between the 3 cratons thus the stability of the Nubia plate as a whole. All available GPS stations from the regions are used separately or combined in creation of the reference frames. We utilize continuous stations with at least 2.5 years of data between 1994 and 2014. Given the small relative velocity, it is important to eliminate eventual biases in the analysis and to have a good estimation in the uncertainties of the observed velocities. For this reason we perform our analysis using both Bernese and Gipsy-oasis codes to generate time series for each station. Velocities and relative uncertainties are analyzed using the Allan variance of rate technique, taking in account for colored noise. An analysis of the color of the noise as function of latitude and climatic region is also performed to each time series. Preliminary results indicate a slight counter clockwise motion of West Africa craton with respect to South Africa Kalahari, and South Africa Kalahari-Congo Cratons. In addition

  15. Motion monitoring during a course of lung radiotherapy with anchored electromagnetic transponders. Quantification of inter- and intrafraction motion and variability of relative transponder positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Daniela [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Roeder, Falk [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Munich (LMU), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix [University of Heidelberg, Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); German Center for Lung Research, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Anchored electromagnetic transponders for tumor motion monitoring during lung radiotherapy were clinically evaluated. First, intrafractional motion patterns were analyzed as well as their interfractional variations. Second, intra- and interfractional changes of the geometric transponder positions were investigated. Intrafractional motion data from 7 patients with an upper or middle lobe tumor and three implanted transponders each was used to calculate breathing amplitudes, overall motion amount and motion midlines in three mutual perpendicular directions and three-dimensionally (3D) for 162 fractions. For 6 patients intra- and interfractional variations in transponder distances and in the size of the triangle defined by the transponder locations over the treatment course were determined. Mean 3D values of all fractions were up to 4.0, 4.6 and 3.4 mm per patient for amplitude, overall motion amount and midline deviation, respectively. Intrafractional transponder distances varied with standard deviations up to 3.2 mm, while a maximal triangle shrinkage of 36.5% over 39 days was observed. Electromagnetic real-time motion monitoring was feasible for all patients. Detected respiratory motion was on average modest in this small cohort without lower lobe tumors, but changes in motion midline were of the same size as the amplitudes and greater midline motion can be observed in some fractions. Intra- and interfractional variations of the geometric transponder positions can be large, so for reliable motion management correlation between transponder and tumor motion needs to be evaluated per patient. (orig.) [German] Verankerte, elektromagnetische Transponder fuer die Bewegungserkennung des Tumors waehrend der Strahlentherapie der Lunge wurden klinisch evaluiert. Dafuer wurden intrafraktionelle Bewegungsmuster und ihre interfraktionellen Variationen analysiert und intra- und interfraktionelle Veraenderungen der geometrischen Transponderpositionen untersucht. Intrafraktionelle

  16. Integrable motion of curves in self-consistent potentials: Relation to spin systems and soliton equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Mamyrbekova, G.K.; Nugmanova, G.N.; Yesmakhanova, K.R. [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Lakshmanan, M., E-mail: lakshman@cnld.bdu.ac.in [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2014-06-13

    Motion of curves and surfaces in R{sup 3} lead to nonlinear evolution equations which are often integrable. They are also intimately connected to the dynamics of spin chains in the continuum limit and integrable soliton systems through geometric and gauge symmetric connections/equivalence. Here we point out the fact that a more general situation in which the curves evolve in the presence of additional self-consistent vector potentials can lead to interesting generalized spin systems with self-consistent potentials or soliton equations with self-consistent potentials. We obtain the general form of the evolution equations of underlying curves and report specific examples of generalized spin chains and soliton equations. These include principal chiral model and various Myrzakulov spin equations in (1+1) dimensions and their geometrically equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations, including Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch equations, all in the presence of self-consistent potential fields. The associated gauge equivalent Lax pairs are also presented to confirm their integrability. - Highlights: • Geometry of continuum spin chain with self-consistent potentials explored. • Mapping on moving space curves in R{sup 3} in the presence of potential fields carried out. • Equivalent generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations identified. • Integrability of identified nonlinear systems proved by deducing appropriate Lax pairs.

  17. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  18. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  19. Equations of motion in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broucke, R.

    1979-01-01

    The article gives a general review of methods of constructing equations of motion of a classical dynamical system. The emphasis is however on the linear Lagrangian in phase space and the corresponding form of Pfaff's equations of motion. A detailed examination of the problem of changes of variables in phase space is first given. It is shown that the Linear Lagrangian theory falls very naturally out of the classical quadratic Lagrangian theory; we do this with the use of the well-known Lagrange multiplier method. Another important result is obtained very naturally as a by-product of this analysis. If the most general set of 2n variables (coordinates in phase space) is used, the coefficients of the equations of motion are the Poisson Brackets of these variables. This is therefore the natural way of introducing not only Poisson Brackets in Dynamics formulations but also the associated Lie Algebras and their important properties and consequences. We give then several examples to illustrate the first-order equations of motion and their simplicity in relation to general changes of variables. The first few examples are elementary (the harmonic Oscillator) while the last one concerns the motion of a rigid body about a fixed point. In the next three sections we treat the first-order equations of motion as derived from a Linear differential form, sometimes called Birkhoff's equations. We insist on the generality of the equations and especially on the unity of the space-time concept: the time t and the coordinates are here completely identical variables, without any privilege to t. We give a brief review of Cartan's 2-form and the corresponding equations of motion. As an illustration the standard equations of aircraft flight in a vertical plane are derived from Cartan's exterior differential 2-form. Finally we mention in the last section the differential forms that were proposed by Gallissot for the derivation of equations of motion

  20. A canonical perturbation method for computing the guiding-center motion in magnetized axisymmetric plasma columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratreau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The motion of charged particles in a magnetized plasma column, such as that of a magnetic mirror trap or a tokamak, is determined in the framework of the canonical perturbation theory through a method of variation of constants which preserves the energy conservation and the symmetry invariance. The choice of a frame of coordinates close to that of the magnetic coordinates allows a relatively precise determination of the guiding-center motion with a low-ordered approximation in the adiabatic parameter. A Hamiltonian formulation of the motion equations is obtained

  1. The effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyuck

    2017-07-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. 69 women participated in this study and then they were randomly allocated to complex exercise group (n = 35) or the conventional decongestive therapy group (n = 34). All subjects received 8 sessions for 4 weeks. To identify the effects on shoulder range of motion and pain, goniometer and visual analog scale were used, respectively. The outcome measurements were performed before and after the 4 week intervention. After 4 weeks, complex exercise group had greater improvements in shoulder range of motion and pain compared with the conventional decongestive therapy group (p women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Complex exercise would be useful to improve shoulder range of motion and pain of the women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

  2. Impact of respiratory motion on variable relative biological effectiveness in 4D-dose distributions of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silke; Wieser, Hans-Peter; Cao, Wenhua; Mohan, Radhe; Bangert, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Organ motion during radiation therapy with scanned protons leads to deviations between the planned and the delivered physical dose. Using a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 linearly maps these deviations into RBE-weighted dose. However, a constant value cannot account for potential nonlinear variations in RBE suggested by variable RBE models. Here, we study the impact of motion on recalculations of RBE-weighted dose distributions using a phenomenological variable RBE model. 4D-dose calculation including variable RBE was implemented in the open source treatment planning toolkit matRad. Four scenarios were compared for one field and two field proton treatments for a liver cancer patient assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy and (α∕β) x  = 10 Gy: (A) the optimized static dose distribution with constant RBE, (B) a static recalculation with variable RBE, (C) a 4D-dose recalculation with constant RBE and (D) a 4D-dose recalculation with variable RBE. For (B) and (D), the variable RBE was calculated by the model proposed by McNamara. For (C), the physical dose was accumulated with direct dose mapping; for (D), dose-weighted radio-sensitivity parameters of the linear quadratic model were accumulated to model synergistic irradiation effects on RBE. Dose recalculation with variable RBE led to an elevated biological dose at the end of the proton field, while 4D-dose recalculation exhibited random deviations everywhere in the radiation field depending on the interplay of beam delivery and organ motion. For a single beam treatment assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy, D 95 % was 1.98 Gy (RBE) (A), 2.15 Gy (RBE) (B), 1.81 Gy (RBE) (C) and 1.98 Gy (RBE) (D). The homogeneity index was 1.04 (A), 1.08 (B), 1.23 (C) and 1.25 (D). For the studied liver case, intrafractional motion did not reduce the modulation of the RBE-weighted dose postulated by variable RBE models for proton treatments.

  3. Bayesian noise-reduction in Arabia/Somalia and Nubia/Arabia finite rotations since ˜20 Ma: Implications for Nubia/Somalia relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of Nubia/Somalia relative motion since the Early Neogene is of particular importance in the Earth Sciences, because it (i) impacts on inferences on African dynamic topography; and (ii) allows us to link plate kinematics within the Indian realm with those within the Atlantic basin. The contemporary Nubia/Somalia motion is well known from geodetic observations. Precise estimates of the past-3.2-Myr average motion are also available from paleo-magnetic observations. However, little is known of the Nubia/Somalia motion prior to ˜3.2 Ma, chiefly because the Southwest Indian Ridge spread slowly, posing a challenge to precisely identify magnetic lineations. This also makes the few observations available particularly prone to noise. Here we reconstruct Nubia/Somalia relative motions since ˜20 Ma from the alternative plate-circuit Nubia-Arabia-Somalia. We resort to trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian Inference, which has proved effective in reducing finite-rotation noise, to unravel the Arabia/Somalia and Arabia/Nubia motions. We combine the resulting kinematics to reconstruct the Nubia/Somalia relative motion since ˜20 Ma. We verify the validity of the approach by comparing our reconstruction with the available record for the past ˜3.2 Myr, obtained through Antarctica. Results indicate that prior to ˜11 Ma the total motion between Nubia and Somalia was faster than today. Furthermore, it featured a significant strike-slip component along the Nubia/Somalia boundary. It is only since ˜11 Ma that Nubia diverges away from Somalia at slower rates, comparable to the present-day one. Kinematic changes of some 20% might have occurred in the period leading to the present-day, but plate-motion steadiness is also warranted within the uncertainties.

  4. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  5. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention,...... with lowest effective cost. A formal agreement regarding follow-up should be implemented. The relatives should be more involved during both investigation period and in the socio-medical follow-up....

  6. Changes in the Width of the Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Related to Lower Extremity Joint Dynamics and Neuromuscular Coordination on Drop Landing During the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Michie; Kaneko, Masaaki; Ishida, Yukisato; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2017-09-01

    Many injuries of the lower extremities, especially the knee and ankle, occur during sports activity, and the incidence rate is higher in women than in men. The hypothesis was that phases of the menstrual cycle affect the width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis during drop landing in healthy young women and that such changes at the tibiofibular joint also affect the dynamics and neuromuscular coordination of the lower extremities. Descriptive laboratory study. Participants included 28 healthy young women (mean age, 21.0 ± 0.8 years). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone immediately before the performance of the task: drop landing on a single leg from a 30-cm platform. Using ultrasonography, the distance between the tibia and the distal end of the fibula, regarded as the width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis, was measured in an upright position without flexion of the ankle. The peak ground-reaction force (GRF) on landing was measured using a force platform. The time to peak GRF (Tp-GRF) was measured as the time from initial ground contact to the peak GRF. Hip, knee, and ankle joint angles during the single-leg landing were calculated using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Muscle activities of the lower extremities were measured using surface electromyography. The width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis was significantly greater in the luteal phase when compared with the menstrual, follicular, and ovulation phases (by 5%-8% of control). Also, during the luteal phase, the Tp-GRF was significantly shorter than in the follicular phase (by 6%); hip internal rotation and knee valgus were significantly greater than in the menstrual phase (by 43% and 34%, respectively); knee flexion was significantly less than in the menstrual and follicular phases (by 7%-9%); ankle dorsiflection was significantly less than in the follicular phase (by 11%); ankle adduction and eversion were significantly greater than in the menstrual and

  7. [Body experience and motion in a biographical context: about the necessity of a body- and motion-related biographical view in gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anke

    2008-06-01

    According to the special view of natural sciences, ageing processes are connected with measurable changes in the body. At the same time we know little about how bodily change is experienced and the subjective acceptance of the body during aging. Therefore a perspective with respect to the body has to be systematically embraced in gerontology. Knowledge perspectives and the view of the body are exemplified in theory and by analysing a case. The knowledge of experience and sense of body and motion in a person's life allows the creation of stimulating offers of growth development and health in age.

  8. Nintendo Wii related Achilles tendon rupture: first reported case and literature review of motion sensing video game injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit

    2014-05-14

    Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Photogrammetry System and Method for Determining Relative Motion Between Two Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Samuel A. (Inventor); Severance, Kurt (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A photogrammetry system and method provide for determining the relative position between two objects. The system utilizes one or more imaging devices, such as high speed cameras, that are mounted on a first body, and three or more photogrammetry targets of a known location on a second body. The system and method can be utilized with cameras having fish-eye, hyperbolic, omnidirectional, or other lenses. The system and method do not require overlapping fields-of-view if two or more cameras are utilized. The system and method derive relative orientation by equally weighting information from an arbitrary number of heterogeneous cameras, all with non-overlapping fields-of-view. Furthermore, the system can make the measurements with arbitrary wide-angle lenses on the cameras.

  10. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  11. Motion of a spinning test particle in Vaidya's radiating metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmeli, M.; Charach, C.; Kaye, M.

    1977-01-01

    The motion of a spinning test particle in Vaidya's gravitational field is considered in the framework of Papapetrou's equations of motion. Use is made of the supplementary condition S/sup μ//sup u/ = 0, where u is the retarded Schwarzschild time coordinate. We derive the equations for the dynamical variables, and consider the conservation laws, that follow from the equations of motion. Particular cases of motion are also discussed and additional first integrals corresponding to these cases are found. Some of the new extra integrals are related to the Casimir operators of the Poincare group. It is found that under special conditions on the spin tensor components the particle follows a geodesic. Motion of the spinning test particle in the Schwarzschild field is considered as one of the particular cases

  12. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  13. Characterization of Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    the HCW equation (Eq. (2) expressed in terms of relative orbit elements (ROEs) [17], x(t) = −ae 2 cos(β) + xd y(t) = ae sin(β) + yd z(t) = zm cos(ψ...30) where ae, xd , zm are constant and yd(t) = yd0− 32nxdt, β(t) = β0 +nt and ψ(t) = ψ0 +nt are time dependent. It is clear that (ae, zm, xd , yd0, β0...quantities correspond to the ambiguous orbit. It is noted that if the non- drifting condition xd = 0 is satisfied, Eqs. (37-40) will vanish. In the

  14. NFE2-Related Transcription Factor 2 Coordinates Antioxidant Defense with Thyroglobulin Production and Iodination in the Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziros, Panos G; Habeos, Ioannis G; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Ntalampyra, Eleni; Somm, Emmanuel; Renaud, Cédric O; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W; Santisteban, Pilar; Carrasco, Nancy; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Amendola, Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Rossich, Luciano; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J; Refetoff, Samuel; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P

    2018-06-01

    The thyroid gland has a special relationship with oxidative stress. While generation of oxidative substances is part of normal iodide metabolism during thyroid hormone synthesis, the gland must also defend itself against excessive oxidation in order to maintain normal function. Antioxidant and detoxification enzymes aid thyroid cells to maintain homeostasis by ameliorating oxidative insults, including during exposure to excess iodide, but the factors that coordinate their expression with the cellular redox status are not known. The antioxidant response system comprising the ubiquitously expressed NFE2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) and its redox-sensitive cytoplasmic inhibitor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) defends tissues against oxidative stress, thereby protecting against pathologies that relate to DNA, protein, and/or lipid oxidative damage. Thus, it was hypothesized that Nrf2 should also have important roles in maintaining thyroid homeostasis. Ubiquitous and thyroid-specific male C57BL6J Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice were studied. Plasma and thyroids were harvested for evaluation of thyroid function tests by radioimmunoassays and of gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. Nrf2-KO and Keap1-KO clones of the PCCL3 rat thyroid follicular cell line were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and were used for gene and protein expression studies. Software-predicted Nrf2 binding sites on the thyroglobulin enhancer were validated by site-directed in vitro mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The study shows that Nrf2 mediates antioxidant transcriptional responses in thyroid cells and protects the thyroid from oxidation induced by iodide overload. Surprisingly, it was also found that Nrf2 has a dramatic impact on both the basal abundance and the thyrotropin-inducible intrathyroidal abundance of thyroglobulin (Tg), the precursor protein of thyroid hormones. This effect is mediated

  15. Energy Through Motion: An Activity Intervention for Cancer-Related Fatigue in an Ambulatory Infusion Center
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Linda; Hooke, Mary Catherine

    2017-10-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) occurs in most people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Physical activity (PA) is safe and effective in reducing CRF in people with cancer. 
. This project involved the implementation and evaluation of a three-month PA program to maintain or improve CRF and quality of life.
. Activity trackers and resistance bands were provided to participants. Verbal instruction, printed material, activity videos, and text messages were used in this program. Participants completed a fatigue assessment; self-reported PA measure; and measure of attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about sustaining regular PA pre- and postimplementation.
. 51 patients enrolled in the study, and 39 completed the program. Participants' fatigue did not worsen significantly during the three months, and self-reported activity levels increased, but not significantly. The activity tracker, text messages, and personal connection with nursing staff were reported to be helpful.

  16. Measurement of the relative motion of two mirrors in presence of an optical spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgilio, A D

    2008-01-01

    The Low Frequency Facility (LFF) experimental set-up consists of one 1 cm long cavity hanging from a mechanical insulation system, that damps seismic noise transmission to the optical components of the VIRGO interferometer. Radiation pressure generates an opto-mechanical coupling between the two mirrors of the cavity, that we call an optical spring. The measured relative displacement power spectrum is compatible with a system at thermal equilibrium within its environment; the optical spring has a stiffness k opt of the order of 10 4 N/m. An upper limits of 10 -15 m/√Hz at 10 Hz for seismic and thermal noise contamination of the Virgo test masses suspended by a SuperAttenuator is derived from measured data

  17. Coordinated Speed Oscillations in Schooling Killifish Enrich Social Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel T.; Couzin, Iain D.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2015-10-01

    We examine the spatial dynamics of individuals in small schools of banded killifish ( Fundulus diaphanus) that exhibit rhythmic, oscillating speed, typically with sustained, coordinated, out-of-phase speed oscillations as they move around a shallow water tank. We show that the relative motion among the fish yields a periodically time-varying network of social interactions that enriches visually driven social communication. The oscillations lead to the regular making and breaking of occlusions, which we term "switching." We show that the rate of convergence to consensus (biologically, the capacity for individuals in groups to achieve effective coordinated motion) governed by the switching outperforms static alternatives, and performs as well as the less practical case of every fish sensing every other fish. We show further that the oscillations in speed yield oscillations in relative bearing between fish over a range that includes the angles previously predicted to be optimal for a fish to detect changes in heading and speed of its neighbors. To investigate systematically, we derive and analyze a dynamic model of interacting agents that move with oscillatory speed. We show that coordinated circular motion of the school leads to systematic cycling of spatial ordering of agents and possibilities for enriched spatial density of measurements of the external environment. Our results highlight the potential benefits of dynamic communication topologies in collective animal behavior, and suggest new, useful control laws for the distributed coordination of mobile robotic networks.

  18. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  19. Relation of mitral valve morphology and motion to mitral regurgitation severity in patients with mitral valve prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénéchal Mario

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitral valve thickness is used as a criterion to distinguish the classical from the non-classical form of mitral valve prolapse (MVP. Classical form of MVP has been associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation (MR and concomitant complications. We sought to determine the relation of mitral valve morphology and motion to mitral regurgitation severity in patients with MVP. Methods We prospectively analyzed transthoracic echocardiograms of 38 consecutive patients with MVP and various degrees of MR. In the parasternal long-axis view, leaflets length, diastolic leaflet thickness, prolapsing depth, billowing area and non-coaptation distance between both leaflets were measured. Results Twenty patients (53% and 18 patients (47% were identified as having moderate to severe and mild MR respectively (ERO = 45 ± 27 mm2 vs. 5 ± 7 mm2, p Conclusions In patients with MVP, thick mitral leaflet is not associated with significant MR. Leaflet thickness is probably not as important in risk stratification as previously reported in patients with MVP. Other anatomical and geometrical features of the mitral valve apparatus area appear to be much more closely related to MR severity.

  20. Dose/volume–response relations for rectal morbidity using planned and simulated motion-inclusive dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thor, Maria; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O.; Karlsdóttir, Àsa; Moiseenko, Vitali; Liu, Mitchell; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Many dose-limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy (RT) display considerable internal motion between fractions over a course of treatment, potentially reducing the appropriateness of using planned dose distributions to predict morbidity. Accounting explicitly for rectal motion could improve the predictive power of modelling rectal morbidity. To test this, we simulated the effect of motion in two cohorts. Materials and methods: The included patients (232 and 159 cases) received RT for prostate cancer to 70 and 74 Gy. Motion-inclusive dose distributions were introduced as simulations of random or systematic motion to the planned dose distributions. Six rectal morbidity endpoints were analysed. A probit model using the QUANTEC recommended parameters was also applied to the cohorts. Results: The differences in associations using the planned over the motion-inclusive dose distributions were modest. Statistically significant associations were obtained with four of the endpoints, mainly at high doses (55–70 Gy), using both the planned and the motion-inclusive dose distributions, primarily when simulating random motion. The strongest associations were observed for GI toxicity and rectal bleeding (Rs = 0.12–0.21; Rs = 0.11–0.20). Applying the probit model, significant associations were found for tenesmus and rectal bleeding (Rs = 0.13, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Equally strong associations with rectal morbidity were observed at high doses (>55 Gy), for the planned and the simulated dose distributions including in particular random rectal motion. Future studies should explore patient-specific descriptions of rectal motion to achieve improved predictive power

  1. Preservation of perceptual integration improves temporal stability of bimanual coordination in the elderly: an evidence of age-related brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Mélody; Martin, Elodie; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Tallet, Jessica

    2014-12-15

    Despite the apparent age-related decline in perceptual-motor performance, recent studies suggest that the elderly people can improve their reaction time when relevant sensory information are available. However, little is known about which sensory information may improve motor behaviour itself. Using a synchronization task, the present study investigates how visual and/or auditory stimulations could increase accuracy and stability of three bimanual coordination modes produced by elderly and young adults. Neurophysiological activations are recorded with ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) to explore neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects. Results reveal that the elderly stabilize all coordination modes when auditory or audio-visual stimulations are available, compared to visual stimulation alone. This suggests that auditory stimulations are sufficient to improve temporal stability of rhythmic coordination, even more in the elderly. This behavioural effect is primarily associated with increased attentional and sensorimotor-related neural activations in the elderly but similar perceptual-related activations in elderly and young adults. This suggests that, despite a degradation of attentional and sensorimotor neural processes, perceptual integration of auditory stimulations is preserved in the elderly. These results suggest that perceptual-related brain plasticity is, at least partially, conserved in normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analysed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Environmental protection and control is a matter of high priority in all developing countries' governmental policies in view of its implications for the welfare of the present and future populations. Therefore it is expected that regional and national organisations responsible for legislation and environmental policy, municipal organisations, which could use the data collected for establishing emission levels, organisations responsible for pollutant emission control and public health-related institutions will benefit from this proposed Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The CRP is expected to exploit possibilities of developing and validating tools for using appropriate biomonitors to map the distribution of air pollution over wide areas in developing countries. If successful, this would be a powerful way for developing countries to monitor air pollution.

  3. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analysed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Environmental protection and control is a matter of high priority in all developing countries' governmental policies in view of its implications for the welfare of the present and future populations. Therefore it is expected that regional and national organisations responsible for legislation and environmental policy, municipal organisations, which could use the data collected for establishing emission levels, organisations responsible for pollutant emission control and public health-related institutions will benefit from this proposed Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The CRP is expected to exploit possibilities of developing and validating tools for using appropriate biomonitors to map the distribution of air pollution over wide areas in developing countries. If successful, this would be a powerful way for developing countries to monitor air pollution

  4. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  5. Variational principles for collective motion: Relation between invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation and the trace variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Tanabe, K.

    1984-01-01

    The invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation provides a basis for theories of collective motion with the help of the time-dependent variational principle. It is formulated here with maximum generality, requiring only the motion of intrinsic state in the collective space. Special cases arise when the trial vector is a generalized coherent state and when it is a uniform superposition of collective eigenstates. The latter example yields variational principles uncovered previously only within the framework of the equations of motion method. (orig.)

  6. Managing interteam coordination within and between organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Thomas Arend

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish complex tasks and effectively respond to environmental contingencies, teams must coordinate task-related issues with other teams (i.e., interteam coordination). Regrettably, interteam coordination is often complicated by misunderstandings that can arise from differences in teams’

  7. Family well-being in a participant-directed autism waiver program: the role of relational coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, M E; Chiri, G; Leutz, W N; Timberlake, M

    2014-12-01

    Massachusetts is one of a very limited number of states exclusively employing participant-direction to deliver autism waiver services to children. A crucial element of this waiver program is the work conducted by the state's Department of Developmental Services (DDS) staff and state-approved providers with waiver families to facilitate the implementation of the participant-direction model. Our study investigates the effect of the collaboration between state providers and family caregivers on family well-being. We conducted a survey of 74 families who have been utilising waiver services for at least 6 months. Participants were asked to rate the coordination with providers as well as to report on parenting stress and impact of waiver services on family functioning. Data from in-home child and family assessments conducted by the state were also abstracted from program records. After controlling for a host of variables hypothesised to affect the outcomes of interest, we found that the family's view of how well they coordinated with formal providers is significantly associated all of the outcomes. Families who reported greater coordination with state providers experienced lower parenting stress and reported a more positive impact on family functioning. Child externalising behavioural problems and caregiver's health rating also contributed to parenting stress and family functioning. Our findings highlight the importance of establishing a collaborative partnership with waiver families in promoting family well-being. These results suggest that training and/or resources that foster team building and communication can positively impact family functioning among families with young children with autism. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Collective coordinates on symplectic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razumov, A.V.; Taranov, A.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    For an arbitrary Lie group of canonical transformations on a symplectic manifold collective coordinates are introduced. They describe a motion of the dynamical system as a whole under the group transformations. Some properties of Lie group of canonical transformations are considered [ru

  9. Altered Coupling between Motion-Related Activation and Resting-State Brain Activity in the Ipsilesional Sensorimotor Cortex after Cerebral Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity maps using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI can closely resemble task fMRI activation patterns, suggesting that resting-state brain activity may predict task-evoked activation or behavioral performance. However, this conclusion was mostly drawn upon a healthy population. It remains unclear whether the predictive ability of resting-state brain activity for task-evoked activation would change under different pathological conditions. This study investigated dynamic changes of coupling between patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and motion-related activation in different stages of cerebral stroke. Twenty stroke patients with hand motor function impairment were involved. rs-fMRI and hand motion-related fMRI data were acquired in the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of cerebral stroke on a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR scanner. Sixteen healthy participants were enrolled as controls. For each subject, an activation map of the affected hand was first created using general linear model analysis on task fMRI data, and then an RSFC map was determined by seeding at the peak region of hand motion activation during the intact hand task. We then measured the extent of coupling between the RSFC maps and motion-related activation maps. Dynamic changes of the coupling between the two fMRI maps were estimated using one-way repeated measures analysis of variance across the three stages. Moreover, imaging parameters were correlated with motor performances. Data analysis showed that there were different coupling patterns between motion-related activation and RSFC maps associating with the affected motor regions during the acute, subacute, and early chronic stages of stroke. Coupling strengths increased as the recovery from stroke progressed. Coupling strengths were correlated with hand motion performance in the acute stage, while coupling recovery was negatively correlated with the recovery

  10. Iterative solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation in symmetric magnetic coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The inverse Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria is reformulated in symmetric magnetic coordinates (in which magnetic field lines look 'straight', and the geometric toroidal angle is one of the coordinates). The poloidally averaged part of the equilibrium condition and Ampere law takes the form of two first-order ordinary differential equations, with the two arbitrary flux functions, pressure and force-free part of the current density, as sources. The condition for the coordinates to be flux coordinates, and the poloidally varying part of the equilibrium equation are similarly transformed into a set of first-order ordinary differential equations, with coefficients depending on the metric, and explicitly solved for the radial derivatives of the coefficients of the Fourier representation of the Cartesian coordinates in the poloidal angle. The derivation exploits the existence of Boozer-White coordinates, but does not require to find these coordinates explicitly; on the other hand, it offers a simple recipe to perform the transformation to Boozer-White coordinates, if required. Use of symmetric flux coordinates is advantageous for the formulation of many problems of equilibrium, stability, and wave propagation in tokamak plasmas, since these coordinates have the simplest metric of their class. It is also shown that in symmetric flux coordinates the Lagrangian equations of the drift motion of charged particles are automatically solved for the time derivatives, with right-hand sides closely related to the coefficients of the inverse Grad-Shafranov equation

  11. Development of methodologies for optimization of surveillance testing and maintenance of safety related equipment at NPPs. Report of a research coordination meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first meeting of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Development of Methodologies for Optimization of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs, held at the Agency Headquarters in Vienna, from 16 to 20 December 1996. The purpose of this Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was that all Chief Scientific Investigators of the groups participating in the CRP presented an outline of their proposed research projects. Additionally, the participants discussed the objective, scope, work plan and information channels of the CRP in detail. Based on these presentations and discussions, the entire project plan was updated, completed and included in this report. This report represents a common agreed project work plan for the CRP. Refs, figs, tabs.

  12. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises twenty-three participants from twenty-one countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the second research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the third research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Quantification of the relative contribution of the different right ventricular wall motion components to right ventricular ejection fraction: the ReVISION method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Bálint; Tősér, Zoltán; Tokodi, Márton; Doronina, Alexandra; Kosztin, Annamária; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Kovács, Attila; Merkely, Béla

    2017-03-27

    Three major mechanisms contribute to right ventricular (RV) pump function: (i) shortening of the longitudinal axis with traction of the tricuspid annulus towards the apex; (ii) inward movement of the RV free wall; (iii) bulging of the interventricular septum into the RV and stretching the free wall over the septum. The relative contribution of the aforementioned mechanisms to RV pump function may change in different pathological conditions.Our aim was to develop a custom method to separately assess the extent of longitudinal, radial and anteroposterior displacement of the RV walls and to quantify their relative contribution to global RV ejection fraction using 3D data sets obtained by echocardiography.Accordingly, we decomposed the movement of the exported RV beutel wall in a vertex based manner. The volumes of the beutels accounting for the RV wall motion in only one direction (either longitudinal, radial, or anteroposterior) were calculated at each time frame using the signed tetrahedron method. Then, the relative contribution of the RV wall motion along the three different directions to global RV ejection fraction was calculated either as the ratio of the given direction's ejection fraction to global ejection fraction and as the frame-by-frame RV volume change (∆V/∆t) along the three motion directions.The ReVISION (Right VentrIcular Separate wall motIon quantificatiON) method may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of RV mechanical adaptations to different loading conditions and diseases.

  15. Quasi-adiabatic motion of energetic particles in a dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, V.D.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Yushkov, B.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    A moving coordinate system for a dipole magnetic field, in which reversible variations of magnetic moment for the range of obvious violations of adiabatic conditions are absent, and the description of magnetic moment violations is relatively simple, is considered. Constructing of a coordinate system, features of the central trajectory, determining its motion, the application range, the main application field and consequences are discussed. 11 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  17. The Relative Effects of Logistics, Coordination and Human Resource on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Mission Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Idris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army due to its extensive experience in HADR operations, the paper opted for a quantita- tive approach to allow for a more objective analysis of the issues. The results show that there are other potential determinants of mission success which deserve due attention in future studies. They also suggest that human resource is not easily measured as a construct, and that this limitation in methodology must be overcome to derive more accurate conclusions regarding its effect on HADR mission performance.

  18. Influence of the faces relative arrangement on the optimal reloading station location and analytical determination of its coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Slobodyanyuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology of the optimal rock mass run-of-mine (RoM stock point determination and research of the influence of faces spatial arrangement on this point. The research represents an overview of current researches, where algorithms of the Fermat-Torricelli-Steiner point are used in order to minimize the logistic processes. The methods of mathematical optimization and analytical geometry were applied. Formulae for the optimal point coordinates determination for a 4 faces were established using the latter methods. Mining technology with use of reloading stations is rather common at the deep iron ore pits. In most cases, when deciding on location of RoM stock, its high-altitude position in space of the pit is primarily taken into account. However, the location of the reloading station in a layout also has a significant influence on technical and economic parameters of open-pit mining operations. The traditional approach, which considers a point of the center of gravity as an optimal point for RoM stock location, does not guarantee the minimum haulage. In mathematics, the Fermat-Torricelli point that provides a minimum distance to the vertices of the triangle is known. It is shown that the minimum haulage is provided when the point of RoM stock location and Fermat-Torricelli point coincide. In terms of open pit mining operations, the development of a method that will determine an optimal point of RoM stock location for a working area with respect to the known coordinates of distinguished points on the basis of new weight factors is of particular practical importance. A two-stage solution to the problem of determining the rational point of RoM stock location (with a minimal transport work for any number of faces is proposed. Such optimal point for RoM stock location reduces the transport work by 10–20 %.

  19. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    -, č. 274 (2005), s. 1-26 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp274.pdf

  20. Coordination cycles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2008), s. 308-327 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : global games * coordination * crises * cycles and fluctuations Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2008

  1. The linear parameters and the decoupling matrix for linearly coupled motion in 6 dimensional phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1997-01-01

    It will be shown that starting from a coordinate system where the 6 phase space coordinates are linearly coupled, one can go to a new coordinate system, where the motion is uncoupled, by means of a linear transformation. The original coupled coordinates and the new uncoupled coordinates are related by a 6 x 6 matrix, R. It will be shown that of the 36 elements of the 6 x 6 decoupling matrix R, only 12 elements are independent. A set of equations is given from which the 12 elements of R can be computed form the one period transfer matrix. This set of equations also allows the linear parameters, the β i , α i , i = 1, 3, for the uncoupled coordinates, to be computed from the one period transfer matrix

  2. Automated correction of spin-history related motion artefacts in fMRI : Simulated and phantom data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muresan, L; Renken, R.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Duifhuis, H.

    This paper concerns the problem of correcting spin-history artefacts in fMRI data. We focus on the influence of through-plane motion on the history of magnetization. A change in object position will disrupt the tissue’s steady-state magnetization. The disruption will propagate to the next few

  3. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  5. Deriving motion from megavoltage localization cone beam computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredo C Siochi, R

    2009-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection data consist of views of a moving point (e.g. diaphragm apex). The point is selected in identification views of extreme motion (two inhale, two exhale). The room coordinates of the extreme points are determined by source-to-view ray tracing intersections. Projected to other views, these points become opposite corners of a motion-bounding box. The view coordinates of the point, relative to the box, are used to interpolate between extreme room coordinates. Along with the views' time stamps, this provides the point's room coordinates as a function of time. CBCT-derived trajectories of a tungsten pin, moving 3 cm cranio-caudally and 1 cm elsewhere, deviate from expected ones by at most 1.06 mm. When deviations from the ideal imaging geometry are considered, mean errors are less than 0.2 mm. While CBCT-derived cranio-caudal positions are insensitive to the choice of identification views, the bounding box determination requires view separations between 15 and 163 deg. Inhale views with the two largest amplitudes should be used, though corrections can account for different amplitudes. The information could be used to calibrate motion surrogates, adaptively define phase triggers immediately before gated radiotherapy and provide phase and amplitude sorting for 4D CBCT.

  6. Transcriptional interference networks coordinate the expression of functionally-related genes clustered in the same genomic loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt eBoldogkoi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression is essential for normal functioning of biological systems in every form of life. Gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription, especially at the phase of initiation. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major players at every level of genetic regulation, including the control of chromatin organisation, transcription, various post-transcriptional processes and translation. In this study, the Transcriptional Interference Network (TIN hypothesis was put forward in an attempt to explain the global expression of antisense RNAs and the overall occurrence of tandem gene clusters in the genomes of various biological systems ranging from viruses to mammalian cells. The TIN hypothesis suggests the existence of a novel layer of genetic regulation, based on the interactions between the transcriptional machineries of neighbouring genes at their overlapping regions, which are assumed to play a fundamental role in coordinating gene expression within a cluster of functionally-linked genes. It is claimed that the transcriptional overlaps between adjacent genes are much more widespread in genomes than is thought today. The Waterfall model of the TIN hypothesis postulates a unidirectional effect of upstream genes on the transcription of downstream genes within a cluster of tandemly-arrayed genes, while the Seesaw model proposes a mutual interdependence of gene expression between the oppositely-oriented genes. The TIN represents an auto-regulatory system with an exquisitely timed and highly synchronised cascade of gene expression in functionally-linked genes located in close physical proximity to each other. In this study, we focused on herpesviruses. The reason for this lies in the compressed nature of viral genes, which allows a tight regulation and an easier investigation of the transcriptional interactions between genes. However, I believe that the same or similar principles can be applied to cellular

  7. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  8. Movement coordination patterns between the foot joints during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Arnold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 3D gait analysis, kinematics of the foot joints are usually reported via isolated time histories of joint rotations and no information is provided on the relationship between rotations at different joints. The aim of this study was to identify movement coordination patterns in the foot during walking by expanding an existing vector coding technique according to an established multi-segment foot and ankle model. A graphical representation is also described to summarise the coordination patterns of joint rotations across multiple patients. Methods Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics were recorded in 13 adults during walking. A modified vector coding technique was used to identify coordination patterns between foot joints involving calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux segments. According to the type and direction of joints rotations, these were classified as in-phase (same direction, anti-phase (opposite directions, proximal or distal joint dominant. Results In early stance, 51 to 75% of walking trials showed proximal-phase coordination between foot joints comprising the calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsus. In-phase coordination was more prominent in late stance, reflecting synergy in the simultaneous inversion occurring at multiple foot joints. Conversely, a distal-phase coordination pattern was identified for sagittal plane motion of the ankle relative to the midtarsal joint, highlighting the critical role of arch shortening to locomotor function in push-off. Conclusions This study has identified coordination patterns between movement of the calcaneus, midfoot, metatarsus and hallux by expanding an existing vector cording technique for assessing and classifying coordination patterns of foot joints rotations during walking. This approach provides a different perspective in the analysis of multi-segment foot kinematics, and may be used for the objective quantification of the alterations in foot joint

  9. Success and Failure of Parliamentary Motions: A Social Dilemma Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popping, Roel; Wittek, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Parliamentary motions are a vital and frequently used element of political control in democratic regimes. Despite their high incidence and potential impact on the political fate of a government and its policies, we know relatively little about the conditions under which parliamentary motions are likely to be accepted or rejected. Current collective decision-making models use a voting power framework in which power and influence of the involved parties are the main predictors. We propose an alternative, social dilemma approach, according to which a motion's likelihood to be accepted depends on the severity of the social dilemma underlying the decision issue. Actor- and dilemma-centered hypotheses are developed and tested with data from a stratified random sample of 822 motions that have been voted upon in the Dutch Parliament between September 2009 and February 2011. The social dilemma structure of each motion is extracted through content coding, applying a cognitive mapping technique developed by Anthony, Heckathorn and Maser. Logistic regression analyses are in line with both, actor-centered and social-dilemma centered approaches, though the latter show stronger effect sizes. Motions have a lower chance to be accepted if voting potential is low, the proposer is not from the voting party, and if the problem underlying the motion reflects a prisoner's dilemma or a pure competition game as compared to a coordination game. The number of proposing parties or a battle of the sexes structure does not significantly affect the outcome.

  10. Coordinating controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-07-15

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics.

  11. Coordinated unbundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms; however, the existing literature has...... not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework on how...

  12. Coordinating controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    While physics Laboratories are having to absorb cuts in resources, the machines they rely on are becoming more and more complex, requiring increasingly sophisticated systems. Rather than being a resourceful engineer or physicist able to timber together solutions in his 'backyard', the modern controls specialist has become a professional in his own right. Because of possible conflicts between increasing sophistication on one hand and scarcer resources on the other, there was felt a need for more contacts among controls specialists to exchange experiences, coordinate development and discuss 'family problems', away from meetings where the main interest is on experimental physics

  13. Coordinated research programme on safety of RBMK type NPPs in relation to external events. V. 1. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of progress reports which have been submitted within the scope of the CRP on safety of RBMK type NPPs in relation to external events including seismic related papers and man-induced events (explosions and airplane crash). It includes papers concerned with experience related to RBMK equipment testing and calculations of seismic resistance, soil-structure interactions analysis, safety assurance, aircraft impact qualification and other external events for RBMK type NPP, seismic stability of NPPs in Eastern Europe, probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact, dynamic analysis of NPPs, screening of external hazards for NPP

  14. Ridding fMRI data of motion-related influences: Removal of signals with distinct spatial and physical bases in multiecho data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan D; Plitt, Mark; Gotts, Stephen J; Kundu, Prantik; Voon, Valerie; Bandettini, Peter A; Martin, Alex

    2018-02-27

    "Functional connectivity" techniques are commonplace tools for studying brain organization. A critical element of these analyses is to distinguish variance due to neurobiological signals from variance due to nonneurobiological signals. Multiecho fMRI techniques are a promising means for making such distinctions based on signal decay properties. Here, we report that multiecho fMRI techniques enable excellent removal of certain kinds of artifactual variance, namely, spatially focal artifacts due to motion. By removing these artifacts, multiecho techniques reveal frequent, large-amplitude blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes present across all gray matter that are also linked to motion. These whole-brain BOLD signals could reflect widespread neural processes or other processes, such as alterations in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ) due to ventilation changes. By acquiring multiecho data while monitoring breathing, we demonstrate that whole-brain BOLD signals in the resting state are often caused by changes in breathing that co-occur with head motion. These widespread respiratory fMRI signals cannot be isolated from neurobiological signals by multiecho techniques because they occur via the same BOLD mechanism. Respiratory signals must therefore be removed by some other technique to isolate neurobiological covariance in fMRI time series. Several methods for removing global artifacts are demonstrated and compared, and were found to yield fMRI time series essentially free of motion-related influences. These results identify two kinds of motion-associated fMRI variance, with different physical mechanisms and spatial profiles, each of which strongly and differentially influences functional connectivity patterns. Distance-dependent patterns in covariance are nearly entirely attributable to non-BOLD artifacts.

  15. Health-related quality of life and peer relationships in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Deborah; Volkovinskaia, Anna

    2018-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and peer relationships were investigated in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adolescents with DCD (n=9), ADHD (n=9), DCD and ADHD (n=10), and typically developing adolescents (n=16) completed the following questionnaires: KIDSCREEN-52 Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire and Peer Relations Questionnaire for Children. Twenty-five participants took part in semi-structured interviews. Adolescents with DCD and ADHD had lower HRQoL on the mood and emotions, school environment, and financial resources scales of the KIDSCREEN-52 than adolescents in the DCD and typically developing groups (all p<0.05). On the Peer Relations Questionnaire for Children, the DCD and ADHD group reported significantly higher victimization compared with those in the typically developing (p=0.030) and DCD (p=0.010) groups. Qualitative interviews among young people with DCD and ADHD revealed feelings of marginalization and victimization. Descriptors such as 'misfits', 'oddballs', 'weird', and 'the rejects' were used to describe themselves. HRQoL and peer relationships are negatively affected in adolescents with DCD and ADHD. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) do not display poorer overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL) versus typically developing controls. Having DCD and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with poorer HRQoL. Adolescents with DCD and ADHD experience significantly higher levels of peer victimization than typically developing adolescents. HRQoL and peer relationships are significantly associated in adolescent respondents. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  17. 29 CFR 42.8 - Coordination plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Coordination plan. 42.8 Section 42.8 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.8 Coordination plan. (a) Based upon, among other things, the... coordination plan concerning farm labor-related responsibilities of the Department, including migrant housing...

  18. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  19. Relating What Is To Be Learned To What Is Known: Subsumptive Sequencing, Co-ordination and Cognitive Skills Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Faith S.; And Others

    Recent advances have been made in facilitating implementation of Ausubel's advance organizer strategy. One reason Ausubel's approach has not been widely adopted is its lack of specificity about how to relate what is to be learned to what has already been assimilated within the cognitive structure. The use of subsumptive sequencing, coordinate…

  20. Consideration on the relation between dynamic seismic motion and static seismic coefficient for the earthquake proof design of slope around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hirata, Kazuta

    1986-01-01

    When the large cutting slopes are constructed closed to around nuclear power plants, it is important to evaluate the stability of the slopes during the strong earthquake. In the evaluation, it may be useful to clarify relationship between the static seismic coefficient and dynamic seismic force corresponded to the basic seismic motion which is specified for designing the nuclear power facilities. To investigate this relation some numerical analyses are conducted in this paper. As the results, it is found that dynamic forces considering the amplified responses of the slopes subjected to the basic seismic motion with a peak acceleration of 500 gals at the toe of the slopes, are approximately equal to static seismic force which generates in the slopes when the seismic coefficients of k = 0.3 is applied. (author)

  1. Multiple spacecraft configuration designs for coordinated flight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumenti, Federico; Theil, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    Coordinated flight allows the replacement of a single monolithic spacecraft with multiple smaller ones, based on the principle of distributed systems. According to the mission objectives and to ensure a safe relative motion, constraints on the relative distances need to be satisfied. Initially, differential perturbations are limited by proper orbit design. Then, the induced differential drifts can be properly handled through corrective maneuvers. In this work, several designs are surveyed, defining the initial configuration of a group of spacecraft while counteracting the differential perturbations. For each of the investigated designs, focus is placed upon the number of deployable spacecraft and on the possibility to ensure safe relative motion through station keeping of the initial configuration, with particular attention to the required Δ V budget and the constraints violations.

  2. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the Agency in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques being used in this programme include neutron activation analysis (NAA), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes. The main outcome of the meeting was agreement to include a ''core'' programme comprising studies of (1) aerosols collected from areas of low and high pollution, (2) coal fly ash composition, and (3) leaching of toxic elements from coal fly ash

  3. Inter-joint coordination between hips and trunk during downswings: Effects on the clubhead speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, In-Kwang; Choi, Mun-Taek; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the inter-joint coordination between rotational movement of each hip and trunk in golf would provide basic knowledge regarding how the neuromuscular system organises the related joints to perform a successful swing motion. In this study, we evaluated the inter-joint coordination characteristics between rotational movement of the hips and trunk during golf downswings. Twenty-one right-handed male professional golfers were recruited for this study. Infrared cameras were installed to capture the swing motion. The axial rotation angle, angular velocity and inter-joint coordination were calculated by the Euler angle, numerical difference method and continuous relative phase, respectively. A more typical inter-joint coordination demonstrated in the leading hip/trunk than trailing hip/trunk. Three coordination characteristics of the leading hip/trunk reported a significant relationship with clubhead speed at impact (r joint coordination strategies have the great potential to use a biomechanical guideline to improve the golf swing performance of unskilled golfers.

  4. Simulation of spatiotemporal CT data sets using a 4D MRI-based lung motion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Mirko; Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Handels, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Four-dimensional CT imaging is widely used to account for motion-related effects during radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients. However, 4D CT often contains motion artifacts, cannot be used to measure motion variability, and leads to higher dose exposure. In this article, we propose using 4D MRI to acquire motion information for the radiotherapy planning process. From the 4D MRI images, we derive a time-continuous model of the average patient-specific respiratory motion, which is then applied to simulate 4D CT data based on a static 3D CT. The idea of the motion model is to represent the average lung motion over a respiratory cycle by cyclic B-spline curves. The model generation consists of motion field estimation in the 4D MRI data by nonlinear registration, assigning respiratory phases to the motion fields, and applying a B-spline approximation on a voxel-by-voxel basis to describe the average voxel motion over a breathing cycle. To simulate a patient-specific 4D CT based on a static CT of the patient, a multi-modal registration strategy is introduced to transfer the motion model from MRI to the static CT coordinates. Differences between model-based estimated and measured motion vectors are on average 1.39 mm for amplitude-based binning of the 4D MRI data of three patients. In addition, the MRI-to-CT registration strategy is shown to be suitable for the model transformation. The application of our 4D MRI-based motion model for simulating 4D CT images provides advantages over standard 4D CT (less motion artifacts, radiation-free). This makes it interesting for radiotherapy planning.

  5. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  6. Federal interagency radiation policy coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses Federal interagency radiation policy coordination. The Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) is explained as being dedicated to the success and forward motion of enhanced radiation research and policy coordination. Both CIRRPC and the Science Panel are staffed with Federal employees. Their expertise includes many and various radiation disciplines including cytogenetics, dosimetry, epidemiology, genetics, health physics, nuclear medicine, radiology, radiation carcinogenesis, and risk assessment. Ten scientific and technical issues in their preliminary order are presented: radioepidemiological tables; de minimis radiation levels; radon progeny health effects; occupational exposure registry; measurement, recording, and control of radiation; food irradiation; use of radiation in science, industry, and medicine; nonionizing radiation; and remedial actions

  7. Joint Inversion of 1-Hz GPS Data and Strong Motion Records for the Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake: Objectively Determining Relative Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Kato, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal fault slip history of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, is obtained by the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS waveforms and near-field strong motion records. 1-Hz GPS data from GEONET is processed by GAMIT/GLOBK and then a low-pass filter of 0.05 Hz is applied. The ground surface strong motion records from stations of K-NET and Kik-Net are band-pass filtered for the range of 0.05 ~ 0.3 Hz and integrated once to obtain velocity. The joint inversion exploits a broader frequency band for near-field ground motions, which provides excellent constraints for both the detailed slip history and slip distribution. A fully Bayesian inversion method is performed to simultaneously and objectively determine the rupture model, the unknown relative weighting of multiple data sets and the unknown smoothing hyperparameters. The preferred rupture model is stable for different choices of velocity structure model and station distribution, with maximum slip of ~ 8.0 m and seismic moment of 2.9 × 1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). By comparison with the single inversion of strong motion records, the cumulative slip distribution of joint inversion shows sparser slip distribution with two slip asperities. One common slip asperity extends from the hypocenter southeastward to the ground surface of breakage; another slip asperity, which is unique for joint inversion contributed by 1-Hz GPS waveforms, appears in the deep part of fault where very few aftershocks are occurring. The differential moment rate function of joint and single inversions obviously indicates that rich high frequency waves are radiated in the first three seconds but few low frequency waves.

  8. Robot motion control in mobile environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iliya V Miroshnik; HUANG Xian-lin(黄显林); HE Jie(贺杰)

    2003-01-01

    With the problem of robot motion control in dynamic environment represented by mobile obstacles,working pieces and external mechanisms considered, a relevant control actions design procedure has been pro-posed to provide coordination of robot motions with respect to the moving external objects so that an extension ofrobot spatial motion techniques and active robotic strategies based on approaches of nonlinear control theory canbe achieved.

  9. Does Coordinated, Multidisciplinary Treatment Limit Medical Disability and Attrition Related to Spine Conditions in the US Navy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Gregg; Campello, Marco; Hiebert, Rudi; Weiner, Shira Schecter; Rennix, Chris; Nordin, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions account for the largest proportion of cases resulting in early separation from the US Navy. This study evaluates the impact of the Spine Team, a multidisciplinary care group that included physicians, physical therapists, and a clinical psychologist, for the treatment of active-duty service members with work-disabling, nonspecific low back pain at the Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, VA, USA. We compared the impact of the introduction of the Spine Team in limiting disability and attrition from work-disabling spine conditions with the experience of the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA, where there is no comparable spine team. Is a multidisciplinary spine team effective in limiting disability and attrition related to work-disabling spine conditions as compared with the current standard of care for US military active-duty service members? This is a retrospective, pre-/post-study with a separate, concurrent control group using administratively collected data from two large military medical centers during the period 2007 to 2009. In this study, disability is expressed as the proportion of active-duty service members seeking treatment for a work-disabling spine condition that results in the assignment of a first-career limited-duty status. Attrition is expressed as the proportion of individuals assigned a first-career limited-duty status for a work-disabling spine condition who were referred to a Physical Evaluation Board. We analyzed 667 individuals assigned a first-career limited-duty for a work-disabling spine condition between 2007 and 2009 who received care at the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth or Naval Medical Center San Diego. Rates of first-career limited-duty assignments for spine conditions decreased from 2007 to 2009 at both sites, but limited-duty rates decreased to a greater extent at the intervention site (Naval Medical Center Portsmouth; from 8.5 per 100 spine cases in 2007 to 5.1 per 100 cases in 2009, p Team was

  10. Shaking Takete and Flowing Maluma. Non-Sense Words Are Associated with Motion Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppensteiner, Markus; Stephan, Pia; Jäschke, Johannes Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    People assign the artificial words takete and kiki to spiky, angular figures and the artificial words maluma and bouba to rounded figures. We examined whether such a cross-modal correspondence could also be found for human body motion. We transferred the body movements of speakers onto two-dimensional coordinates and created animated stick-figures based on this data. Then we invited people to judge these stimuli using the words takete-maluma, bouba-kiki, and several verbal descriptors that served as measures of angularity/smoothness. In addition to this we extracted the quantity of motion, the velocity of motion and the average angle between motion vectors from the coordinate data. Judgments of takete (and kiki) were related to verbal descriptors of angularity, a high quantity of motion, high velocity and sharper angles. Judgments of maluma (or bouba) were related to smooth movements, a low velocity, a lower quantity of motion and blunter angles. A forced-choice experiment during which we presented subsets with low and high rankers on our motion measures revealed that people preferably assigned stimuli displaying fast movements with sharp angles in motion vectors to takete and stimuli displaying slow movements with blunter angles in motion vectors to maluma. Results indicated that body movements share features with information inherent in words such as takete and maluma and that people perceive the body movements of speakers on the level of changes in motion direction (e.g., body moves to the left and then back to the right). Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether impressions of angularity and smoothness have similar communicative values across different modalities and how this affects social judgments and person perception.

  11. Shaking Takete and Flowing Maluma. Non-Sense Words Are Associated with Motion Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Koppensteiner

    Full Text Available People assign the artificial words takete and kiki to spiky, angular figures and the artificial words maluma and bouba to rounded figures. We examined whether such a cross-modal correspondence could also be found for human body motion. We transferred the body movements of speakers onto two-dimensional coordinates and created animated stick-figures based on this data. Then we invited people to judge these stimuli using the words takete-maluma, bouba-kiki, and several verbal descriptors that served as measures of angularity/smoothness. In addition to this we extracted the quantity of motion, the velocity of motion and the average angle between motion vectors from the coordinate data. Judgments of takete (and kiki were related to verbal descriptors of angularity, a high quantity of motion, high velocity and sharper angles. Judgments of maluma (or bouba were related to smooth movements, a low velocity, a lower quantity of motion and blunter angles. A forced-choice experiment during which we presented subsets with low and high rankers on our motion measures revealed that people preferably assigned stimuli displaying fast movements with sharp angles in motion vectors to takete and stimuli displaying slow movements with blunter angles in motion vectors to maluma. Results indicated that body movements share features with information inherent in words such as takete and maluma and that people perceive the body movements of speakers on the level of changes in motion direction (e.g., body moves to the left and then back to the right. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether impressions of angularity and smoothness have similar communicative values across different modalities and how this affects social judgments and person perception.

  12. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  13. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  14. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS and related databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Costello

    Full Text Available The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies, 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive, of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved

  15. Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Poore, Gary C. B.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T. Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  16. Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, J. W.

    1987-06-01

    A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor gμν, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor Rμν. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r=0.

  17. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analyzed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for assessing the levels of air pollution. In several developed countries biomonitoring is used on a regular basis for such surveys. Application of biomonitors has several advantages compared to the use of direct measurements of contaminants, related primarily to the permanent and common occurrence in the field, the ease of sampling and trace element accumulation. Furthermore, biomonitors provide a measure of integrated exposure over an extended period of time, are present in remote areas and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Suitably chosen biomonitors accumulate contaminants over certain periods of time, concentrate them, thus allowing more reliable analytical measurements. Simple and cheap sampling procedures (in contrast to direct measurements) allow a very large number of sites to be included in the same survey, permitting detailed geographical patterns to be drawn. In combination with the specimen banking (long-term storage) of selected samples, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. By application of appropriate statistical tools, information can also be obtained on the type and location of pollution sources as well as on the short, medium and long range trans-boundary transport of environmental pollutants. In Europe, nuclear and related analytical techniques have been shown to be

  18. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analyzed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for assessing the levels of air pollution. In several developed countries biomonitoring is used on a regular basis for such surveys. Application of biomonitors has several advantages compared to the use of direct measurements of contaminants, related primarily to the permanent and common occurrence in the field, the ease of sampling and trace element accumulation. Furthermore, biomonitors provide a measure of integrated exposure over an extended period of time, are present in remote areas and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Suitably chosen biomonitors accumulate contaminants over certain periods of time, concentrate them, thus allowing more reliable analytical measurements. Simple and cheap sampling procedures (in contrast to direct measurements) allow a very large number of sites to be included in the same survey, permitting detailed geographical patterns to be drawn. In combination with the specimen banking (long-term storage) of selected samples, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. By application of appropriate statistical tools, information can also be obtained on the type and location of pollution sources as well as on the short, medium and long range trans-boundary transport of environmental pollutants. In Europe, nuclear and related analytical techniques have been shown to be

  19. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von [Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.von.dombrowski@dlr.de

    2002-11-15

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined.

  20. Analysis of Large Flexible Body Deformation in Multibody Systems Using Absolute Coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, Stefan von

    2002-01-01

    To consider large deformation problems in multibody system simulations a finite element approach, called absolute nodal coordinate.formulation,has been proposed. In this formulation absolute nodal coordinates and their material derivatives are applied to represent both deformation and rigid body motion. The choice of nodal variables allows a fully nonlinear representation of rigid body motion and can provide the exact rigid body inertia in the case of large rotations. The methodology is especially suited for but not limited to modeling of beams, cables and shells in multibody dynamics.This paper summarizes the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for a 3D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, in particular the definition of nodal variables, corresponding generalized elastic and inertia forces and equations of motion. The element stiffness matrix is a nonlinear function of the nodal variables even in the case of linearized strain/displacement relations. Nonlinear strain/displacement relations can be calculated from the global displacements using quadrature formulae.Computational examples are given which demonstrate the capabilities of the applied methodology. Consequences of the choice of shape.functions on the representation of internal forces are discussed. Linearized strain/displacement modeling is compared to the nonlinear approach and significant advantages of the latter, when using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, are outlined

  1. Isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The IAEA has operated the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) since 1961. There has been an increased need for GNIP data following the recognition of the role of precipitation stable isotopes in better simulating the hydrologic cycle in climate models. The isotopic composition of precipitation is closely related to rain formation conditions, i.e. with the temperature of formation, the origin of air masses, and the degree and mechanism of rainout. Over the last twenty years, use of GNIP data in climate model has indicated a need for a much more refined, process-based understanding of isotope variations in the hydrological cycle. This coordinated research project (CRP) was initiated with the aim of collecting new data on higher spatial density and temporal frequency to improve our knowledge of environmental isotope variations in atmospheric waters. The Mediterranean region was chosen for this study so that climatic and meteorological conditions, which govern the rain formation process, and their variations along east-west and north-south directions, could be investigated. In addition, the first steps of the hydrological cycle, that is evaporation from seawater and condensation of atmospheric vapour could also be studied. The IAEA invited scientists from institutes in Mediterranean countries who have already been involved in studies related to the isotopic composition of precipitation to take part in this CRP, which was initiated in 2000. This publication is a summary of the results achieved in the CRP. The overall achievements are presented as the executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final research coordination meeting, held in Vienna from 15 to 19 March 2004. The results of this CRP are relevant to the Member State scientists conducting hydrological research. In addition, the results would contribute to the IAEA programme on water resources, in particular to its activities

  2. A 3D motion planning framework for snake robots

    OpenAIRE

    Liljebäck, Pål; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2014-01-01

    - Author's postprint This paper presents a motion planning framework for three-dimensional body shape control of snake robots. Whereas conventional motion planning approaches define the body shape of snake robots in terms of their individual joint angles, the proposed framework allows the body shape to be specified in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the environment of the robot. This approach simplifies motion planning since Cartesian coordinates are more intuitively mapped to the overal...

  3. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  4. Calculation of the factor of the time's relativity in quantum area for different atoms based on the `Substantial motion' theory of Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) in his theory of ``Substantial motion'' emphasized that ``the universe moves in its entity'', and ``the time is the fourth dimension of the universe'' This definition of space-time is proposed by him at three hundred years before Einstein. He argued that the time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity. In the other words, the time for each atom (body) is sum of the momentums of its involved fundamental particles. The momentum for each atom is different from the other atoms. In this methodology, by proposing some formulas, we can calculate the time for involved particles' momentum (time) for each atom in a second of the Eastern Time Zone (ETZ). Due to differences between these momentums during a second in ETZ, the time for each atom, will be different from the other atoms. This is the relativity in quantum physics. On the other hand, the God communicates with elementary particles via sub-particles (see my next paper) and transfers the packages (bit) of information and laws to them for processing and selection of their next step. Differences between packages like complexity and velocity of processing during the time, is the second variable in relativity of time for each atom which may be effective on the factor.

  5. MHD accelerated motion on a body placed symmetrical to the flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Mamta; Bansal, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of the boundary layer in an accelerated flow of an electricity conducting fluid past a symmetrical placed body in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field fixed relative to the body has been studied. The boundary layer equation has been solved by using a method previously developed by Pozzi, based on expressing the unknown velocity in term of an error function and on using differential and integral relations obtained from the balance equation. As examples, the impulsive flow past a circular cylinder and uniformly accelerated flow over a flat plate are considered. It is found that the effect of the magnetic field is to decelerate the fluid motion which results in an earlier boundary layer separation in the impulsive flow past a circular cylinder. The results show a good agreement with the numerical data available in the literature. (author). 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  7. Gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and the incidence of sports injuries in Japanese university athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and history of lower limb sports injuries in Japanese university athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 224 Japanese university athletes (154 males and 70 females). The quadriceps angle (Q-angle), arch height index, and ranges of internal and external rotation of the hip joints were measured. History of lower limb sports injury was surveyed using a questionnaire. [Results] Females had a significantly higher Q-angle and hip joint internal rotation angle and a significantly lower arch height index than males. The survey revealed that a significantly higher proportion of females had a history of lower limb sports injuries, and that the proportion of those with a history of foot/ankle injuries was particularly high. [Conclusion] These results suggested that females experience more lower limb sports injuries than males, and that a large proportion of these injuries involve the foot/ankle. Reduced lower limb alignment and increased range of joint motion in females may be risk factors for injury because they lead to increased physical stress being exerted on the lower legs during sporting activities.

  8. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste CRESP activity report 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) was created in 1981 in the framework of the 1977 Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The main task of CRESP was to set up a site-specific scientific research programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that impact of past dumping could be monitored and future assessments could be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data. The CRESP mandate was extended in 1987 to respond to a request from the Paris Commission to include consideration of radioactive discharges in the maritime area covered by the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources. This report summarizes the CRESP activities carried out during the 1986-1990 five year phase. Concerning the review of deep sea results, the report relates progress achieved above the level of knowledge which was available when the present phase of the CRESP programme was decided and which has been taken into account in the 1985 Site Suitability Review. With respect to coastal discharges, it presents a summary of R and D work undertaken by member countries, including those carried out in other programmes such as MARINA. Finally, it makes proposals for future work within CRESP

  9. Coordinated Upregulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Autophagy in Breast Cancer Cells: The Role of Dynamin Related Protein-1 and Implication for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive mitochondrial fission was shown to promote cell transformation and tumor growth. It remains elusive how mitochondrial quality is regulated in such conditions. Here, we show that upregulation of mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin related protein-1 (Drp1, was accompanied with increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers (PGC1α, NRF1, and Tfam in breast cancer cells. However, mitochondrial number was reduced, which was associated with lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity in breast cancer cells. This contrast might be owing to enhanced mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, because an increased population of autophagic vacuoles engulfing mitochondria was observed in the cancer cells. Consistently, BNIP3 (a mitochondrial autophagy marker and autophagic flux were significantly upregulated, indicative of augmented mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy. The upregulation of Drp1 and BNIP3 was also observed in vivo (human breast carcinomas. Importantly, inhibition of Drp1 significantly suppressed mitochondrial autophagy, metabolic reprogramming, and cancer cell viability. Together, this study reveals coordinated increase of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in which Drp1 plays a central role regulating breast cancer cell metabolism and survival. Given the emerging evidence of PGC1α contributing to tumor growth, it will be of critical importance to target both mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy for effective cancer therapeutics.

  10. Coordinating Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup

  11. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    2000-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and 32 P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The 32 P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The 32 P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations for PR

  12. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-06-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and {sup 32}P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The {sup 32}P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The {sup 32}P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations

  13. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Steven David; Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37) participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s) at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001) and rotation (pperception was shifted in the direction consistent with the visual stimulus. Arrows had a small effect on self-motion

  14. Motion video analysis using planar parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Harpreet S.

    1994-04-01

    Motion and structure analysis in video sequences can lead to efficient descriptions of objects and their motions. Interesting events in videos can be detected using such an analysis--for instance independent object motion when the camera itself is moving, figure-ground segregation based on the saliency of a structure compared to its surroundings. In this paper we present a method for 3D motion and structure analysis that uses a planar surface in the environment as a reference coordinate system to describe a video sequence. The motion in the video sequence is described as the motion of the reference plane, and the parallax motion of all the non-planar components of the scene. It is shown how this method simplifies the otherwise hard general 3D motion analysis problem. In addition, a natural coordinate system in the environment is used to describe the scene which can simplify motion based segmentation. This work is a part of an ongoing effort in our group towards video annotation and analysis for indexing and retrieval. Results from a demonstration system being developed are presented.

  15. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  16. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  17. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  18. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions I: rotation-to-translation relations and synthetic examples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 491-509 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA ČR GA15-02363S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : seismic rotation * near-source region * rotation-to-translation relations * numerical simulations * S-wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  19. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions - Effect of Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Inertial measurement of motion with Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) is emerging as an alternative to 3D motion capture systems in biomechanics. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of commercially available AHRS under various types of motion; and 2) to evaluate the effect of motion velocity on the accuracy of these measurements. Methods The criterion validity of accuracy was established under controlled conditions using an instrumented Gimbal table. AHRS modules were carefully attached to the center plate of the Gimbal table and put through experimental static and dynamic conditions. Static and absolute accuracy was assessed by comparing the AHRS orientation measurement to those obtained using an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was assessed by measuring the variation in relative orientation between modules during trials. Findings Evaluated AHRS systems demonstrated good absolute static accuracy (mean error < 0.5o) and clinically acceptable absolute accuracy under condition of slow motions (mean error between 0.5o and 3.1o). In slow motions, relative accuracy varied from 2o to 7o depending on the type of AHRS and the type of rotation. Absolute and relative accuracy were significantly affected (p<0.05) by velocity during sustained motions. The extent of that effect varied across AHRS. Interpretation Absolute and relative accuracy of AHRS are affected by environmental magnetic perturbations and conditions of motions. Relative accuracy of AHRS is mostly affected by the ability of all modules to locate the same global reference coordinate system at all time. Conclusions Existing AHRS systems can be considered for use in clinical biomechanics under constrained conditions of use. While their individual capacity to track absolute motion is relatively consistent, the use of multiple AHRS modules to compute relative motion between rigid bodies needs to be optimized according to

  20. Hall effect in noncommutative coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, Oemer F.; Jellal, Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    We consider electrons in uniform external magnetic and electric fields which move on a plane whose coordinates are noncommuting. Spectrum and eigenfunctions of the related Hamiltonian are obtained. We derive the electric current whose expectation value gives the Hall effect in terms of an effective magnetic field. We present a receipt to find the action which can be utilized in path integrals for noncommuting coordinates. In terms of this action we calculate the related Aharonov-Bohm phase and show that it also yields the same effective magnetic field. When magnetic field is strong enough this phase becomes independent of magnetic field. Measurement of it may give some hints on spatial noncommutativity. The noncommutativity parameter θ can be tuned such that electrons moving in noncommutative coordinates are interpreted as either leading to the fractional quantum Hall effect or composite fermions in the usual coordinates

  1. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  2. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  3. 23 March 2010 - Thai Minister of Foreign Affairs K. Piromya visiting CERN installations with Coordinator for External Relations F. Pauss and Adviser for South-East Asia, Oceania, Cyprus, Malta, Iceland, Directorate Office E. Tsesmelis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    During his visit he toured the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Felicitas Pauss, CERN co-ordinator for external relations, right, and Frédérick Bordry, head of CERN's technology department. The minister also visited the ATLAS visitor centre.

  4. Control of body's center of mass motion relative to center of pressure during uphill walking in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wun; Leu, Tsai-Hsueh; Wang, Ting-Ming; Li, Jia-Da; Ho, Wei-Pin; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Uphill walking places more challenges on the locomotor system than level walking does when the two limbs work together to ensure the stability and continuous progression of the body over the base of support. With age-related degeneration older people may have more difficulty in maintaining balance during uphill walking, and may thus experience an increased risk of falling. The current study aimed to investigate using gait analysis techniques to determine the effects of age and slope angles on the control of the COM relative to the COP in terms of their inclination angles (IA) and the rate of change of IA (RCIA) during uphill walking. The elderly were found to show IAs similar to those of the young, but with reduced self-selected walking speed and RCIAs (PIA in the sagittal plane (PIA and RCIA during walking provide a sensitive measure to differentiate individuals with different balance control abilities. The current results and findings may serve as baseline data for future clinical and ergonomic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Late Tertiary Motion of the Hawaiian Hot Spot Relative to the Spin Axis and Implications for True Polar Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaastra, K.; Gordon, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work on Pacific plate paleomagnetic poles, when combined with analyses of equatorial sediment facies [Suárez and Molnar, 1980; Gordon and Cape, 1981; Parés and Moore, 2005], demonstrates that the Hawaiian hotspot lay 3° to 4° north of its present latitude during formation of most of the Hawaiian chain [Woodworth et al., this meeting]. Available Pacific plate paleomagnetic and equatorial sediment facies data constrain the hotspot to this latitude from 44 Ma until 12 Ma, with the hotspot shifting to its present latitude since 12 Ma. Comparison with the apparent polar wander of the Indo-Atlantic hotspots inferred from continental paleomagnetic poles combined with plate reconstructions indicates that global hotspots have moved in unison relative to the spin axis since 12 Ma, indicating the occurrence of an episode of true polar wander, but the timing is not well constrained from available data. The direction of the indicated true polar wander is similar to that observed over the past few decades from space geodetic data [Argus and Gross, 2004], which suggests that the same episode of true polar wander may be occurring today.For these reasons we present a skewness analysis of marine magnetic anomaly 3r ( 5.5 Ma) with the goal of limiting the timing and rate of the shift of the Hawaiian hotspot (and other hotspots) relative to the spin axis. We will determine whether the shift occurred partly or entirely in the past 5.5 Ma, which has implications for the hotspot and paleomagnetic reference frames.

  6. 4D ANIMATION RECONSTRUCTION FROM MULTI-CAMERA COORDINATES TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir dredging issues are important to extend the life of reservoir. The most effective and cost reduction way is to construct a tunnel to desilt the bottom sediment. Conventional technique is to construct a cofferdam to separate the water, construct the intake of tunnel inside and remove the cofferdam afterwards. In Taiwan, the ZengWen reservoir dredging project will install an Elephant-trunk Steel Pipe (ETSP in the water to connect the desilting tunnel without building the cofferdam. Since the installation is critical to the whole project, a 1:20 model was built to simulate the installation steps in a towing tank, i.e. launching, dragging, water injection, and sinking. To increase the construction safety, photogrammetry technic is adopted to record images during the simulation, compute its transformation parameters for dynamic analysis and reconstruct the 4D animations. In this study, several Australis© coded targets are fixed on the surface of ETSP for auto-recognition and measurement. The cameras orientations are computed by space resection where the 3D coordinates of coded targets are measured. Two approaches for motion parameters computation are proposed, i.e. performing 3D conformal transformation from the coordinates of cameras and relative orientation computation by the orientation of single camera. Experimental results show the 3D conformal transformation can achieve sub-mm simulation results, and relative orientation computation shows the flexibility for dynamic motion analysis which is easier and more efficiency.

  7. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  8. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  9. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory of mot...

  10. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  11. Nuclear methods applied for studies of contact phenomena in metal-fluid media and between metallic components in relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, P.M.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, Dana; Muntele, C. I.

    1997-01-01

    The two main goals of this research project were: establishing of an activation methodology for metallic structures using accelerated beams obtained at our cyclotron and adapting the spectrometric analysis methods of the gamma radiations for corrosion level determinations. The developed methods, including the calibration (relations between the radioactivity level and the thickness of removed layer due to corrosion), were based on the remnant radioactivity measuring method. The experiments were focused on a proper selection of the nuclear reaction to be utilised for measurements, depending on the type of metallic alloys investigated. This study also consisted of optimizing the irradiation (particle, energy and dose) and cooling time so as to obtain a measuring sensitivity of 0.1-1μm for Fe, Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Mo based alloys. A portable two-channel γ-spectrometric installation was adapted to a customer's corrosion testing stand. Corrosion levels of a Romanian-made injection pump working with different types of Diesel oils and Diesel oil + special additives + water mixtures were determined. The nuclear reactions used were 56 Fe (p,n) 56 Co and 56 Fe (d,n) 57 Co. A selected area of the pump's piston was activated up to 30 μm. The testing programme was made for 300 h working times on the test stand; corrosion levels of approx. 0.3 μm were observed. In cooperation with a group from Tribology Laboratory from the Bucharest Technical University, Ti-coated pallets of a water pump were tested in their near real working environment - salty and sandy water. The 48 Ti (p,n) 48 V nuclear reaction was used for labelling a Ti thickness up to 50 μm. In this experiment, the main interest was to determine the minimum detectable corroded thickness by this radiotracer - based method. Our measurements showed that sensitivities of 0.05 - 1 μm can be achieved. In 1996, in cooperation with the National Institute for Thermal Engines, the wear of the piston ring - cylinder jacket friction

  12. Co-ordinated research project on use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studying human health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The overall objective of the Co-ordinated research project is to provide a scientific basis for better assessment of selected pollutants in the food chain with a view to elucidating their impacts on human health and nutrition. Results of this study will enhance the existing body of knowledge and can be used to develop preventive strategies. Specific objectve: To determine the extent to which toxic element levels in food are affected by surrounding industrial activities and to assess potential human exposure from the consumption of such foodstuffs. EXPECTED RESEARCH OUTPUTS (RESULTS): Harmonized protocols and procedures for sampling and analyses; ? Compiled results for toxic element levels and their average daily dietary intake (ADDI) / dietary intake; Evaluated toxic element exposure levels based on biological indicators (where applicable); Publications of the study results in an IAEA TECDOC, and in peer-reviewed journals by participants. ACTION PLAN (ACTIVITIES) a. Core research activities: 1 Identification of the study areas and population groups. 2 Collection of information on food consumption patterns of the population groups under study (e.g. through questionnaires). 3 Development of harmonized protocols and validation of analytical methodologies in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. 4 Collection and analysis of food samples, and estimation of the dietary intake. 5 Collection and analysis of biological indicators where applicable. 6 Evaluation of possible relationships between human exposures and biological indicators for the pollutants studied. 4b. Supplementary activities: ? Speciation studies of pollutants. ? Comparison of present and previous data on relevant parameters. ? Possible production and distribution of laboratory intercomparison samples. 7. Recommendations for nuclear analytical techniques ? Nuclear analytical technique (NAT) such as INAA, PIXE, PIGE, XRF should be the primary technique of analysis; Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA

  13. Hamiltonian theory of guiding-center motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    A Hamiltonian treatment of the guiding center problem is given which employs noncanonical coordinates in phase space. Separation of the unperturbed system from the perturbation is achieved by using a coordinate transformation suggested by a theorem of Darboux. As a model to illustrate the method, motion in the magnetic field B=B(x,y)z is studied. Lie transforms are used to carry out the perturbation expansion

  14. Hamiltonian theory of guiding-center motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    A Hamiltonian treatment of the guiding center problem is given which employs noncanonical coordinates in phase space. Separation of the unperturbed system from the perturbation is achieved by using a coordinate transformation suggested by a theorem of Darboux. As a model to illustrate the method, motion in the magnetic field B=B(x,y)z is studied. Lie transforms are used to carry out the perturbation expansion.

  15. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Event-Related Potential and Task Performance Indices of Attention Networks in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Chun-Hao; Tseng, Yu-Ting

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated whether 10-week soccer training can benefit the inhibitory control and neuroelectric indices in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Fifty-one children were divided into groups of typically developing (TD, n = 21), DCD-training (n = 16), and DCD non-training (n=14) individuals using the for Children test,…

  16. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......-à-vis their principals, the Member States. The Commission is the leading agent in the phase leading up to the Conference; the Presidency then takes over. On the one hand, due to the Treaty obligations and their interpretations by the Court of Justice, both the Presidency and the Commission are kept within tight limits...... by the principals. On the other hand, both before and during the Conference, the Member States accept the so-called discursive coordination of the Commission, which seems to be of great (but often neglected) importance. Owing to the organisational set-up in which coordination takes place, the EU is able...

  17. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven David Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37 participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001 and rotation (p0.1 for both. Thus, although a true moving visual field can induce self-motion, results of this

  18. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  19. Radioimmunoassay and related techniques to improve artificial insemination programmes for cattle reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for improvement of cattle production in developed countries. Its use in developing countries is less widespread and the results obtained are far from satisfactory. Under tropical small-farm conditions, a number of socio-economic, organizational, biological and technical factors make the service more difficult to provide and also less efficient. If the major constraints can be identified and overcome, this technology would become more widely adopted and contribute to an increased production of milk and meat, leading to better food security and poverty alleviation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture therefore convened a consultants meeting in May 1994 to advise on the applicability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy cattle to identify the major causes of conception failure and reproductive wastage when AI is used under the conditions prevailing in developing countries. The consultants recommended the initiation of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, and developed a comprehensive technical document including the sampling protocol and the range of information that needs to be recorded in order to obtain conclusive results. A five year CRP on the ''Use of RIA and Related Techniques to Identify Ways of Improving Artificial Insemination Programmes for Cattle Reared Under Tropical and Sub-Tropical Conditions'' was initiated in early 1995. The CRP resulted in the development and standardization of methodologies and protocols, including the computer software program termed AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application), to determine current status and identify constraints. These methodologies and protocols are now being applied on a wider scale in Member States through regional TC projects in Asia and Africa and country TC projects in Latin America. Contributing to the wider application of progesterone RIA for field level problem solving

  20. Radioimmunoassay and related techniques to improve artificial insemination programmes for cattle reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for improvement of cattle production in developed countries. Its use in developing countries is less widespread and the results obtained are far from satisfactory. Under tropical small-farm conditions, a number of socio-economic, organizational, biological and technical factors make the service more difficult to provide and also less efficient. If the major constraints can be identified and overcome, this technology would become more widely adopted and contribute to an increased production of milk and meat, leading to better food security and poverty alleviation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture therefore convened a consultants meeting in May 1994 to advise on the applicability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy cattle to identify the major causes of conception failure and reproductive wastage when AI is used under the conditions prevailing in developing countries. The consultants recommended the initiation of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, and developed a comprehensive technical document including the sampling protocol and the range of information that needs to be recorded in order to obtain conclusive results. A five year CRP on the ''Use of RIA and Related Techniques to Identify Ways of Improving Artificial Insemination Programmes for Cattle Reared Under Tropical and Sub-Tropical Conditions'' was initiated in early 1995. The CRP resulted in the development and standardization of methodologies and protocols, including the computer software program termed AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application), to determine current status and identify constraints. These methodologies and protocols are now being applied on a wider scale in Member States through regional TC projects in Asia and Africa and country TC projects in Latin America. Contributing to the wider application of progesterone RIA for field level problem solving

  1. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.; Tapia, Lydia; Thomas, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer's disease

  2. H∞ control for path tracking of autonomous underwater vehicle motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to simplify the design of path tracking controller and solve the problem relating to nonlinear dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning, feedback linearization method is first adopted to transform the nonlinear dynamic model into an equivalent pseudo-linear dynamic model in horizontal coordinates. Then considering wave disturbance effect, mixed-sensitivity method of H∞ robust control is applied to design state-feedback controller for this equivalent dynamic model. Finally, control law of pseudo-linear dynamic model is transformed into state (surge velocity and yaw angular rate tracking control law of nonlinear dynamic model through inverse coordinate transformation. Simulation indicates that autonomous underwater vehicle path tracking is successfully implemented with this proposed method, and the influence of parameter variation in autonomous underwater vehicle dynamic model on its tracking performance is reduced by H∞ controller. All the results show that the method proposed in this article is effective and feasible.

  3. The coordination of research and innovation activities relative to an emergent technology: the case of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles; La coordination des activites de recherche et d'innovation dans les phases d'emergence: le cas des batteries pour vehicules electriques et hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrue, Ph.

    2000-05-23

    In this thesis, we try to provide elements of a non-deterministic view of the coordination of research activities in the phase of emergence. Firstly, we try to identify the variables that determinate the strength and the characteristics of the imperative of coordination in this very preliminary period of an innovation process. Secondly, we try to evaluate the institutional arrangements that can effectively sustain the coordination of the activities of the various interdependent actors more or less involved in the innovation process. The basic idea of the thesis is that technological innovations do not originate as isolated according to a hypothetical underlying 'nature of the technology', especially when they are controversial and subject to great uncertainties as is the case with regard to batteries for Electric and hybrid Vehicles (EVs). Innovations appear to be generated by means of the interactions of a number of organizations belonging to different 'spheres' (different industries, scientific disciplines, public institutions, etc.). In order to validate a new area of opportunity which is still very uncertain at this preliminary stage, the competences and interests of these different organizations must be coordinated. Because of the complex mix of economic and technological barriers faced by the actors taking part in this innovation process, the area of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is the 'perfect laboratory' to investigate the institutional arrangements that can sustain the coordination of research and innovation activities relating to an emerging technology. The empirical and theoretical investigations are mainly focused on pre-competitive research consortia such as the United-States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This case study is conducted through in-depth interviews with key-actors of the area of batteries and electric vehicles. We also use the results of an on-line experts opinions survey we performed

  4. The coordination of research and innovation activities relative to an emergent technology: the case of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles; La coordination des activites de recherche et d'innovation dans les phases d'emergence: le cas des batteries pour vehicules electriques et hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrue, Ph

    2000-05-23

    In this thesis, we try to provide elements of a non-deterministic view of the coordination of research activities in the phase of emergence. Firstly, we try to identify the variables that determinate the strength and the characteristics of the imperative of coordination in this very preliminary period of an innovation process. Secondly, we try to evaluate the institutional arrangements that can effectively sustain the coordination of the activities of the various interdependent actors more or less involved in the innovation process. The basic idea of the thesis is that technological innovations do not originate as isolated according to a hypothetical underlying 'nature of the technology', especially when they are controversial and subject to great uncertainties as is the case with regard to batteries for Electric and hybrid Vehicles (EVs). Innovations appear to be generated by means of the interactions of a number of organizations belonging to different 'spheres' (different industries, scientific disciplines, public institutions, etc.). In order to validate a new area of opportunity which is still very uncertain at this preliminary stage, the competences and interests of these different organizations must be coordinated. Because of the complex mix of economic and technological barriers faced by the actors taking part in this innovation process, the area of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is the 'perfect laboratory' to investigate the institutional arrangements that can sustain the coordination of research and innovation activities relating to an emerging technology. The empirical and theoretical investigations are mainly focused on pre-competitive research consortia such as the United-States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This case study is conducted through in-depth interviews with key-actors of the area of batteries and electric vehicles. We also use the results of an on-line experts opinions survey we performed. (author)

  5. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  6. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  7. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  8. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020

  9. The 50s cliff: a decline in perceptuo-motor learning, not a deficit in visual motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Huang, Shaochen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Qin; Wilson, Andrew D; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we measured perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan and found a sudden drop in learning rates between ages 50 and 60, called the "50s cliff." The task was a unimanual visual rhythmic coordination task in which participants used a joystick to oscillate one dot in a display in coordination with another dot oscillated by a computer. Participants learned to produce a coordination with a 90° relative phase relation between the dots. Learning rates for participants over 60 were half those of younger participants. Given existing evidence for visual motion perception deficits in people over 60 and the role of visual motion perception in the coordination task, it remained unclear whether the 50s cliff reflected onset of this deficit or a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning. The current work addressed this question. Two groups of 12 participants in each of four age ranges (20s, 50s, 60s, 70s) learned to perform a bimanual coordination of 90° relative phase. One group trained with only haptic information and the other group with both haptic and visual information about relative phase. Both groups were tested in both information conditions at baseline and post-test. If the 50s cliff was caused by an age dependent deficit in visual motion perception, then older participants in the visual group should have exhibited less learning than those in the haptic group, which should not exhibit the 50s cliff, and older participants in both groups should have performed less well when tested with visual information. Neither of these expectations was confirmed by the results, so we concluded that the 50s cliff reflects a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning with aging, not the onset of a deficit in visual motion perception.

  10. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  11. Response of Voronezh reactor type to horizontal ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecinka, L.

    1983-01-01

    For the purposes of vibration monitoring of PWR's the well known 'double pendulum model' has been developed and experimentally verified. It is shown, that this model is possible to use for response calculations of Voronezh reactor pressure vessel and its internals to horizontal ground motion. The equation of motion is given in usual matrix form, the damping matrix is calculated by Rayleigh formula. Driving force is given by vector of ground motion in horizontal direction. For the numerical integration of equation of motion is possible to use following methods - matrix exponential in state space; - modal analysis; - one-step direct integration. For our purposes the last one has been chosen and related computer code TRANS has been developed. The results of calculations are given in the graphically form using generalized angular coordinates and its second derivatives, which describes the displacement or acceleration of reactor pressure vessel to ground and the core barrel to reactor pressure vessel. The driving vector is given in the form of artificially generated accelerogram. (orig./HP)

  12. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  13. Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor g/sub μ//sub ν/, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor R/sub μ//sub ν/. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r = 0

  14. de Sitter relativity in static charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2018-02-15

    The relative geodesic motion in static (and spherically symmetric) local charts on the (1 + 3)-dimensional de Sitter spacetimes is studied in terms of conserved quantities. The Lorentzian isometries are derived, relating the coordinates of the local chart of a fixed observer with the coordinates of a mobile chart considered as the rest frame of a massive particle freely moving on a timelike geodesic. The time dilation and Lorentz contraction are discussed pointing out some notable features of the de Sitter relativity in static charts. (orig.)

  15. Co-ordinated research project on assessment of levels and health-effects of airborne particulate matter in mining, metal refining and metal working industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Overall objectives: To demonstrate the applicability of nuclear and related techniques in studies that may impact on human health, giving emphasis to the solution of problems that have been identified to be of high priority in national and international programmes for sustainable development. Specific objectives: To develop strategies and techniques for sampling of workplace airborne particulate matter (APM) and of human tissues and body fluids (hair, blood, etc.) of exposed and non-exposed persons; To development suitable analytical procedures for analysis of such types of samples, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; To carry out workplace and personal monitoring of APM and characterise the health effects of such exposure in terms of the observed elemental concentration; To carry out tissue analyses of the workers so exposed for biological monitoring and the health effects studies. Achievements: a) Specific industries not previously monitored in individual countries have been targeted in respect of pollution assessment. Some examples are: Stainless steel processing and construction; Galvanising industry; Zinc smelting operations; Mineral fertiliser industry. b) Validation of analytical techniques through quality control exercises: NAT-3 Interlaboratory comparison for the determination of trace and minor elements in urban dust artificially loaded on air filters; NAT-4 Proficiency test on selected trace elements in lyophilised urine and air filters. c) Capacity building through the establishment of new multidisciplinary teams, personnel training and laboratory expertise. d) The sampling procedures have been harmonised through: The application of the ''Gent'' sampler for APM collection, IAEA procedures and IUPAC guidelines for sampling and sample handling of hair, blood and urine. e) All participants performed surveys on targeted industries and selected pollutants. f) The scientific output of the CRP is materialised in various national and international

  16. Motor coordination uses external spatial coordinates independent of developmental vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    The constraints that guide bimanual movement coordination are informative about the processing principles underlying movement planning in humans. For example, symmetry relative to the body midline benefits finger and hand movements independent of hand posture. This symmetry constraint has been interpreted to indicate that movement coordination is guided by a perceptual code. Although it has been assumed implicitly that the perceptual system at the heart of this constraint is vision, this relationship has not been tested. Here, congenitally blind and sighted participants made symmetrical and non-symmetrical (that is, parallel) bimanual tapping and finger oscillation movements. For both groups, symmetrical movements were executed more correctly than parallel movements, independent of anatomical constraints like finger homology and hand posture. For the blind, the reliance on external spatial factors in movement coordination stands in stark contrast to their use of an anatomical reference frame in perceptual processing. Thus, the externally coded symmetry constraint evident in bimanual coordination can develop in the absence of the visual system, suggesting that the visual system is not critical for the establishment of an external-spatial reference frame in movement coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  18. Robotic Exoskeletons: A Perspective for the Rehabilitation of Arm Coordination in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Proietti, Tommaso; Crocher, Vincent; Robertson, Johanna; Sahbani, Anis; Morel, Guillaume; Roby-Brami, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb impairment after stroke is caused by weakness, loss of individual joint control, spasticity, and abnormal synergies. Upper-limb movement frequently involves abnormal, stereotyped, and fixed synergies, likely related to the increased use of sub-cortical networks following the stroke. The flexible coordination of the shoulder and elbow joints is also disrupted. New methods for motor learning, based on the stimulation of activity-dependent neural plasticity have been developed. These include robots that can adaptively assist active movements and generate many movement repetitions. However, most of these robots only control the movement of the hand in space. The aim of the present text is to analyze the potential of robotic exoskeletons to specifically rehabilitate joint motion and particularly inter-joint coordination. First, a review of studies on upper-limb coordination in stroke patients is presented and the potential for recovery of coordination is examined. Second, issues relating to the mechanical design of exoskeletons and the transmission of constraints between the robotic and human limbs are discussed. The third section considers the development of different methods to control exoskeletons: existing rehabilitation devices and approaches to the control and rehabilitation of joint coordinations are then reviewed, along with preliminary clinical results available. Finally, perspectives and future strategies for the design of control mechanisms for rehabilitation exoskeletons are discussed. PMID:25520638

  19. Network Coordinator Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himwich, Ed; Strand, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This report includes an assessment of the network performance in terms of lost observing time for the 2012 calendar year. Overall, the observing time loss was about 12.3%, which is in-line with previous years. A table of relative incidence of problems with various subsystems is presented. The most significant identified causes of loss were electronics rack problems (accounting for about 21.8% of losses), antenna reliability (18.1%), RFI (11.8%), and receiver problems (11.7%). About 14.2% of the losses occurred for unknown reasons. New antennas are under development in the USA, Germany, and Spain. There are plans for new telescopes in Norway and Sweden. Other activities of the Network Coordinator are summarized.

  20. Feeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    The article relates the study of mobility history to the fields of history of emotion and affect theory in the promotion of a cross-disciplinary research agenda. Taking as its point of departure a workshop in Copenhagen on feeling and space, the text draws lines and points of potential interface...... between historical mobility studies and the two related fields....

  1. The Effect of Yoga on Arm Volume, Strength, and Range of Motion in Women at Risk for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Melissa; Lee, Jeannette Q; Peled, Anne; Zerzan, Sarah; Irwin, Chetan; Chesney, Margaret A; Serrurier, Katherine; Sbitany, Hani; Dhruva, Anand; Sacks, Devorah; Smoot, Betty

    2018-02-01

    To assess the feasibility, safety, and initial estimates of efficacy of a yoga program in postoperative care for women at high risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Single-group pretest-post-test design. Patients were recruited from the University of California, San Francisco Carol Franc Buck Breast Care Center. Twenty-one women were enrolled in the study. Women were >18 years of age, had undergone surgical treatment for breast cancer, and were at high risk for BCRL. The women participated in an Ashtanga yoga intervention for 8 weeks. Sessions consisted of once/week instructor-led practice and once/week home practice. Particular attention was given to poses that emphasized upper body strength and flexibility, while avoiding significant time with the upper extremity (UE) in a dependent position. UE volume was assessed through circumferential forearm measurement, which was converted to volume using the formula for a truncated cone. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed for the shoulders, elbows, and wrists, using a standard goniometer. UE strength was assessed for shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist flexion, and grip using a dynamometer. Twenty women completed the yoga intervention, with 17 returning for final assessment. Mean age was 52 (±9.1) years and body mass index was 24.8 (±5.1) kg/m 2 . Postintervention, mean volume in the at-risk UE was slightly reduced (p = 0.397). ROM for shoulder flexion (p yoga is feasible and safe for women who are at risk for BCRL and may result in small improvements in shoulder ROM and UE strength.

  2. Motions on a rotating planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    In chapter 1 we want to describe the motion of a falling body on a rotating planet. The planet rotates with an arbitrary changable angular velocity and has a translational acceleration. We obtain 3 differential equations. For the general gravitational field an exact solution is possible, when the differential equation system is explicit solvable. Then we consider the case, if the angular velocity and the translational acceleration is constant. With a special transformation we get 3 partial differential equations of first order. Instead of a planet sphere we can choose a general body of rotation. Even general bodies are possible. Chapter 2 contains the motion in a local coordinate system on planet's surface. We have an inhomogeneous linear differential equation of first order. If the angular velocity is constant, we get a system with constant coefficients. There is an english and a german edition.

  3. Autonomous Coordination and Online Motion Modeling for Mobile Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sjoberg, Eric J

    2007-01-01

    Robots are rapidly becoming more involved in everyday military operations. As robots become more capable, their tasks will increase to include such roles as exploring enemy controlled buildings and caves...

  4. Coordinated joint motion control system with position error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, George L.

    2016-04-05

    Disclosed are an articulated hydraulic machine supporting, control system and control method for same. The articulated hydraulic machine has an end effector for performing useful work. The control system is capable of controlling the end effector for automated movement along a preselected trajectory. The control system has a position error correction system to correct discrepancies between an actual end effector trajectory and a desired end effector trajectory. The correction system can employ one or more absolute position signals provided by one or more acceleration sensors supported by one or more movable machine elements. Good trajectory positioning and repeatability can be obtained. A two joystick controller system is enabled, which can in some cases facilitate the operator's task and enhance their work quality and productivity.

  5. Neutron transport in Eulerian coordinates with bulk material motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Randal S., E-mail: rsb@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computational Physics Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dahl, Jon A., E-mail: dahl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computational Physics Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fichtl, Erin J., E-mail: efichtl@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Computational Physics Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A consistent, numerically stable algorithm for the solution of the neutron transport equation in the presence of a moving material background is presented for one-dimensional spherical geometry. Manufactured solutions are used to demonstrate the correctness and stability of our numerical algorithm. The importance of including moving material corrections is shown for the r-process in proto-neutron stars.

  6. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization

  7. Motion Coordination and Adaptation Using Deception and Human Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-18

    compared to those obtained by the closed form solution of the LQR if the maximizing control was not present (black dashed lines). Findeisen , D. Flockerzi, U...Brenner, R. Findeisen , D. Flockerzi, U. Reichl, and K. Sundmacher (Eds.), Birkhauser, pp. 199-224, 2015. J.P. de la Croix and M. Egerstedt. A Control

  8. Scaling laws and accurate small-amplitude stationary solution for the motion of a planar vortex filament in the Cartesian form of the local induction approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    We provide a formulation of the local induction approximation (LIA) for the motion of a vortex filament in the Cartesian reference frame (the extrinsic coordinate system) which allows for scaling of the reference coordinate. For general monotone scalings of the reference coordinate, we derive an equation for the planar solution to the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the LIA. We proceed to solve this equation perturbatively in small amplitude through an application of multiple-scales analysis, which allows for accurate computation of the period of the planar vortex filament. The perturbation result is shown to agree strongly with numerical simulations, and we also relate this solution back to the solution obtained in the arclength reference frame (the intrinsic coordinate system). Finally, we discuss nonmonotone coordinate scalings and their application for finding self-intersections of vortex filaments. These self-intersecting vortex filaments are likely unstable and collapse into other structures or dissipate completely.

  9. Collective circular motion in synchronized and balanced formations with second-order rotational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anoop; Ghose, Debasish

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers collective circular motion of multi-agent systems in which all the agents are required to traverse different circles or a common circle at a prescribed angular velocity. It is required to achieve these collective motions with the heading angles of the agents synchronized or balanced. In synchronization, the agents and their centroid have a common velocity direction, while in balancing, the movement of agents causes the location of the centroid to become stationary. The agents are initially considered to move at unit speed around individual circles at different angular velocities. It is assumed that the agents are subjected to limited communication constraints, and exchange relative information according to a time-invariant undirected graph. We present suitable feedback control laws for each of these motion coordination tasks by considering a second-order rotational dynamics of the agent. Simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings.

  10. Explicitly computing geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huaien

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new form of quartic equation based on Lagrange's extremum law and a Groebner basis under the constraint that the geodetic height is the shortest distance between a given point and the reference ellipsoid. A very explicit and concise formulae of the quartic equation by Ferrari's line is found, which avoids the need of a good starting guess for iterative methods. A new explicit algorithm is then proposed to compute geodetic coordinates from Cartesian coordinates. The convergence region of the algorithm is investigated and the corresponding correct solution is given. Lastly, the algorithm is validated with numerical experiments.

  11. Reprogramming of gene expression during compression wood formation in pine: Coordinated modulation of S-adenosylmethionine, lignin and lignan related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalobos David P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcript profiling of differentiating secondary xylem has allowed us to draw a general picture of the genes involved in wood formation. However, our knowledge is still limited about the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate and modulate the different pathways providing substrates during xylogenesis. The development of compression wood in conifers constitutes an exceptional model for these studies. Although differential expression of a few genes in differentiating compression wood compared to normal or opposite wood has been reported, the broad range of features that distinguish this reaction wood suggest that the expression of a larger set of genes would be modified. Results By combining the construction of different cDNA libraries with microarray analyses we have identified a total of 496 genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, Ait. that change in expression during differentiation of compression wood (331 up-regulated and 165 down-regulated compared to opposite wood. Samples from different provenances collected in different years and geographic locations were integrated into the analyses to mitigate the effects of multiple sources of variability. This strategy allowed us to define a group of genes that are consistently associated with compression wood formation. Correlating with the deposition of a thicker secondary cell wall that characterizes compression wood development, the expression of a number of genes involved in synthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and lignans was up-regulated. Further analysis of a set of these genes involved in S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, ammonium recycling, and lignin and lignans biosynthesis showed changes in expression levels in parallel to the levels of lignin accumulation in cells undergoing xylogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The comparative transcriptomic analysis reported here have revealed a broad spectrum of coordinated transcriptional modulation of genes

  12. Reprogramming of gene expression during compression wood formation in pine: Coordinated modulation of S-adenosylmethionine, lignin and lignan related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcript profiling of differentiating secondary xylem has allowed us to draw a general picture of the genes involved in wood formation. However, our knowledge is still limited about the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate and modulate the different pathways providing substrates during xylogenesis. The development of compression wood in conifers constitutes an exceptional model for these studies. Although differential expression of a few genes in differentiating compression wood compared to normal or opposite wood has been reported, the broad range of features that distinguish this reaction wood suggest that the expression of a larger set of genes would be modified. Results By combining the construction of different cDNA libraries with microarray analyses we have identified a total of 496 genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, Ait.) that change in expression during differentiation of compression wood (331 up-regulated and 165 down-regulated compared to opposite wood). Samples from different provenances collected in different years and geographic locations were integrated into the analyses to mitigate the effects of multiple sources of variability. This strategy allowed us to define a group of genes that are consistently associated with compression wood formation. Correlating with the deposition of a thicker secondary cell wall that characterizes compression wood development, the expression of a number of genes involved in synthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and lignans was up-regulated. Further analysis of a set of these genes involved in S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, ammonium recycling, and lignin and lignans biosynthesis showed changes in expression levels in parallel to the levels of lignin accumulation in cells undergoing xylogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The comparative transcriptomic analysis reported here have revealed a broad spectrum of coordinated transcriptional modulation of genes involved in biosynthesis of

  13. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  14. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; V?s?rhelyi, G?bor; Nagy, M?t?

    2015-01-01

    We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i) the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii) during ...

  15. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Dahan

    Full Text Available Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction.

  16. Two-phase strategy of neural control for planar reaching movements: I. XY coordination variability and its relation to end-point variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Yury P

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative model of optimal transport-aperture coordination (TAC) during reach-to-grasp movements has been developed in our previous studies. The utilization of that model for data analysis allowed, for the first time, to examine the phase dependence of the precision demand specified by the CNS for neurocomputational information processing during an ongoing movement. It was shown that the CNS utilizes a two-phase strategy for movement control. That strategy consists of reducing the precision demand for neural computations during the initial phase, which decreases the cost of information processing at the expense of lower extent of control optimality. To successfully grasp the target object, the CNS increases precision demand during the final phase, resulting in higher extent of control optimality. In the present study, we generalized the model of optimal TAC to a model of optimal coordination between X and Y components of point-to-point planar movements (XYC). We investigated whether the CNS uses the two-phase control strategy for controlling those movements, and how the strategy parameters depend on the prescribed movement speed, movement amplitude and the size of the target area. The results indeed revealed a substantial similarity between the CNS's regulation of TAC and XYC. First, the variability of XYC within individual trials was minimal, meaning that execution noise during the movement was insignificant. Second, the inter-trial variability of XYC was considerable during the majority of the movement time, meaning that the precision demand for information processing was lowered, which is characteristic for the initial phase. That variability significantly decreased, indicating higher extent of control optimality, during the shorter final movement phase. The final phase was the longest (shortest) under the most (least) challenging combination of speed and accuracy requirements, fully consistent with the concept of the two-phase control strategy. This paper

  17. Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, George R.

    Vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid vertical coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in very shallow water. By comparing simulations to climatology, the best model performance is realized using hybrid coordinates in conjunction with one of the three available differential vertical mixing models: the nonlocal K-Profile Parameterization, the NASA GISS level 2 turbulence closure, and the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure. Good performance is also achieved using the quasi-slab Price-Weller-Pinkel dynamical instability model. Differences among these simulations are too small relative to other errors and biases to identify the "best" vertical mixing model for low-resolution climate simulations. Model performance deteriorates slightly when the Kraus-Turner slab mixed layer model is used with hybrid coordinates. This deterioration is smallest when solar radiation penetrates beneath the mixed layer and when shear instability mixing is included. A simulation performed using isopycnic coordinates to emulate the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), which uses Kraus-Turner mixing without penetrating shortwave radiation and shear instability mixing, demonstrates that the advantages of switching from isopycnic to hybrid coordinates and including more sophisticated turbulence closures outweigh the negative numerical effects of maintaining hybrid vertical coordinates.

  18. NMR with generalized dynamics of spin and spatial coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Jae.

    1987-11-01

    This work is concerned with theoretical and experimental aspects of the generalized dynamics of nuclear spin and spatial coordinates under magnetic-field pulses and mechanical motions. The main text begins with an introduction to the concept of ''fictitious'' interactions. A systematic method for constructing fictitious spin-1/2 operators is given. The interaction of spins with a quantized-field is described. The concept of the fictitious interactions under the irradiation of multiple pulses is utilized to design sequences for selectively averaging linear and bilinear operators. Relations between the low-field sequences and high-field iterative schemes are clarified. These relations and the transformation properties of the spin operators are exploited to develop schemes for heteronuclear decoupling of multi-level systems. The resulting schemes are evaluated for heteronuclear decoupling of a dilute spin-1/2 from a spin-1 in liquid crystal samples and from a homonuclear spin-1/2 pair in liquids. A relation between the spin and the spatial variables is discussed. The transformation properties of the spin operators are applied to spatial coordinates and utilized to develop methods for removing the orientational dependence responsible for line broadening in a powder sample. Elimination of the second order quadrupole effects, as well as the first order anisotropies is discussed. It is shown that various sources of line broadening can effectively be eliminated by spinning and/or hopping the sample about judiciously chosen axes along with appropriate radio-frequency pulse sequences

  19. A Direct Method for Mapping the Center of Pressure Measured by an Insole Pressure Sensor System to the Shoe's Local Coordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Brian T; Braman, Jerrod E; Haut, Roger C

    2016-06-01

    A direct method to express the center of pressure (CoP) measured by an insole pressure sensor system (IPSS) into a known coordinate system measured by motion tracking equipment is presented. A custom probe was constructed with reflective markers to allow its tip to be precisely tracked with motion tracking equipment. This probe was utilized to activate individual sensors on an IPSS that was placed in a shoe fitted with reflective markers used to establish a local shoe coordinate system. When pressed onto the IPSS the location of the probe's tip was coincident with the CoP measured by the IPSS (IPSS-CoP). Two separate pushes (i.e., data points) were used to develop vectors in each respective coordinate system. Simple vector mathematics determined the rotational and translational components of the transformation matrix needed to express the IPSS-CoP into the local shoe coordinate system. Validation was performed by comparing IPSS-CoP with an embedded force plate measured CoP (FP-CoP) from data gathered during kinematic trials. Six male subjects stood on an embedded FP and performed anterior/posterior (AP) sway, internal rotation, and external rotation of the body relative to a firmly planted foot. The IPSS-CoP was highly correlated with the FP-CoP for all motions, root mean square errors (RMSRRs) were comparable to other research, and there were no statistical differences between the displacement of the IPSS-CoP and FP-CoP for both the AP and medial/lateral (ML) axes, respectively. The results demonstrated that this methodology could be utilized to determine the transformation variables need to express IPSS-CoP into a known coordinate system measured by motion tracking equipment and that these variables can be determined outside the laboratory anywhere motion tracking equipment is available.

  20. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  1. A viscoelastic model of the correlation between respiratory lung tumour motion and an external abdominal signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavan, A.E.; Wilson, P.L.; Meyer, J.; Berbeco, R.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Accuracy of radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer is limited by respiratory induced tumour motion. Compensation for this motion is required to increase treatment efficacy. The lung tumour motion is related to motion of an external abdominal marker, but a reliable model of this correlation is essential. Three viscoelastic systems were developed, in order to determine the best model and analyse its effectiveness on clinical data. Three 1D viscoelastic systems (a spring and dash pot in parallel, series and a combination) were developed and compared using a simulated breathing pattern. The most effective model was applied to 60 clinical data sets (consisting of co-ordinates of tumour and abdominal motion) from multiple treatment fractions of ten patients. The model was optimised for each data set, and efficacy determined by calculating the root mean square (RMS) error between the mo elled position and the actual tumour motion. Upon application to clinical data the parallel configuration achieved an average RMS error of 0.95 mm (superior-inferior direction). The model had patient specific parameters, and displayed good consistency over extended treatment periods. The model ha dled amplitude, frequency and baseline variations of the input signal, and phase shifts between tumour and abdominal motions. This study has shown that a viscoelastic model can be used to cor relate internal lung tumour motion with an external abdominal signal. The ability to handle breathing pattern in'egularities is comparable or better than previous models. Extending the model to a full 3D, pr dictive system could allow clinical implementation for radiotherapy.

  2. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yomosa

    Full Text Available We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.

  3. High-accuracy optical extensometer based on coordinate transform in two-dimensional digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zeqian; Xu, Xiaohai; Yan, Tianhao; Cai, Yulong; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2018-01-01

    In the measurement of plate specimens, traditional two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) is challenged by two aspects: (1) the slant optical axis (misalignment of the optical camera axis and the object surface) and (2) out-of-plane motions (including translations and rotations) of the specimens. There are measurement errors in the results measured by 2D DIC, especially when the out-of-plane motions are big enough. To solve this problem, a novel compensation method has been proposed to correct the unsatisfactory results. The proposed compensation method consists of three main parts: 1) a pre-calibration step is used to determine the intrinsic parameters and lens distortions; 2) a compensation panel (a rigid panel with several markers located at known positions) is mounted to the specimen to track the specimen's motion so that the relative coordinate transformation between the compensation panel and the 2D DIC setup can be calculated using the coordinate transform algorithm; 3) three-dimensional world coordinates of measuring points on the specimen can be reconstructed via the coordinate transform algorithm and used to calculate deformations. Simulations have been carried out to validate the proposed compensation method. Results come out that when the extensometer length is 400 pixels, the strain accuracy reaches 10 με no matter out-of-plane translations (less than 1/200 of the object distance) nor out-of-plane rotations (rotation angle less than 5°) occur. The proposed compensation method leads to good results even when the out-of-plane translation reaches several percents of the object distance or the out-of-plane rotation angle reaches tens of degrees. The proposed compensation method has been applied in tensile experiments to obtain high-accuracy results as well.

  4. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  5. Static analysis of large-scale multibody system using joint coordinates and spatial algebra operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Initial transient oscillations inhibited in the dynamic simulations responses of multibody systems can lead to inaccurate results, unrealistic load prediction, or simulation failure. These transients could result from incompatible initial conditions, initial constraints violation, and inadequate kinematic assembly. Performing static equilibrium analysis before the dynamic simulation can eliminate these transients and lead to stable simulation. Most exiting multibody formulations determine the static equilibrium position by minimizing the system potential energy. This paper presents a new general purpose approach for solving the static equilibrium in large-scale articulated multibody. The proposed approach introduces an energy drainage mechanism based on Baumgarte constraint stabilization approach to determine the static equilibrium position. The spatial algebra operator is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations of the closed-loop multibody system. The proposed multibody system formulation utilizes the joint coordinates and modal elastic coordinates as the system generalized coordinates. The recursive nonlinear equations of motion are formulated using the Cartesian coordinates and the joint coordinates to form an augmented set of differential algebraic equations. Then system connectivity matrix is derived from the system topological relations and used to project the Cartesian quantities into the joint subspace leading to minimum set of differential equations.

  6. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  7. The curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a concept for a curvature coordinate system on regular curved surfaces from which faceted surfaces with plane quadrangular facets can be designed. The lines of curvature are used as parametric lines for the curvature coordinate system on the surface. A new conjugate set of lin...

  8. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  9. Near-Horizon Geodesics for Astrophysical and Idealised Black Holes: Coordinate Velocity and Coordinate Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petarpa Boonserm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Geodesics (by definition have an intrinsic 4-acceleration zero. However, when expressed in terms of coordinates, the coordinate acceleration d 2 x i / d t 2 can very easily be non-zero, and the coordinate velocity d x i / d t can behave unexpectedly. The situation becomes extremely delicate in the near-horizon limit—for both astrophysical and idealised black holes—where an inappropriate choice of coordinates can quite easily lead to significant confusion. We shall carefully explore the relative merits of horizon-penetrating versus horizon-non-penetrating coordinates, arguing that in the near-horizon limit the coordinate acceleration d 2 x i / d t 2 is best interpreted in terms of horizon-penetrating coordinates.

  10. Motion correction options in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian

    2015-05-01

    Subject motion is unavoidable in clinical and research imaging studies. Breathing is the most important source of motion in whole-body PET and MRI studies, affecting not only thoracic organs but also those in the upper and even lower abdomen. The motion related to the pumping action of the heart is obviously relevant in high-resolution cardiac studies. These two sources of motion are periodic and predictable, at least to a first approximation, which means certain techniques can be used to control the motion (eg, by acquiring the data when the organ of interest is relatively at rest). Additionally, nonperiodic and unpredictable motion can also occur during the scan. One obvious limitation of methods relying on external devices (eg, respiratory bellows or the electrocardiogram signal to monitor the respiratory or cardiac cycle, respectively) to trigger or gate the data acquisition is that the complex motion of internal organs cannot be fully characterized. However, detailed information can be obtained using either the PET or MRI data (or both) allowing the more complete characterization of the motion field so that a motion model can be built. Such a model and the information derived from simple external devices can be used to minimize the effects of motion on the collected data. In the ideal case, all the events recorded during the PET scan would be used to generate a motion-free or corrected PET image. The detailed motion field can be used for this purpose by applying it to the PET data before, during, or after the image reconstruction. Integrating all these methods for motion control, characterization, and correction into a workflow that can be used for routine clinical studies is challenging but could potentially be extremely valuable given the improvement in image quality and reduction of motion-related image artifacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles and relationships between health professionals involved in insulin initiation for people with type 2 diabetes in the general practice setting: a qualitative study drawing on relational coordination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski-Nankervis, Jo-Anne; Furler, John; Blackberry, Irene; Young, Doris; O'Neal, David; Patterson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-31

    The majority of care for people with type 2 diabetes occurs in general practice, however when insulin initiation is required it often does not occur in this setting or in a timely manner and this may have implications for the development of complications. Increased insulin initiation in general practice is an important goal given the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a relative shortage of specialists. Coordination between primary and secondary care, and between medical and nursing personnel, may be important in achieving this. Relational coordination theory identifies key concepts that underpin effective interprofessional work: communication which is problem solving, timely, accurate and frequent and relationships between professional roles which are characterized by shared goals, shared knowledge and mutual respect. This study explores roles and relationships between health professionals involved in insulin initiation in order to gain an understanding of factors which may impact on this task being carried out in the general practice setting. 21 general practitioners, practice nurses, diabetes nurse educators and physicians were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using framework analysis. There were four closely interlinked themes identified which impacted on how health professionals worked together to initiate people with type 2 diabetes on insulin: 1. Ambiguous roles; 2. Uncertain competency and capacity; 3. Varying relationships and communication; and 4. Developing trust and respect. This study has shown that insulin initiation is generally recognised as acceptable in general practice. The role of the DNE and practice nurse in this space and improved communication and relationships between health professionals across organisations and levels of care are factors which need to be addressed to support this clinical work. Relational coordination provides a useful framework for

  12. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  13. Motion Planning for a Direct Metal Deposition Rapid Prototyping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AMES,ARLO L.; HENSINGER,DAVID M.; KUHLMANN,JOEL L.

    1999-10-18

    A motion planning strategy was developed and implemented to generate motion control instructions from solid model data for controlling a robotically driven solid free-form fabrication process. The planning strategy was tested using a PUMA type robot arm integrated into a LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shape) system. Previous systems relied on a series of x, y, and z stages, to provide a minimal coordinated motion control capability. This limited the complexity of geometries that could be constructed. With the coordinated motion provided by a robotic arm, the system can produce three dimensional parts by ''writing'' material onto any face of existing material. The motion planning strategy relied on solid model geometry evaluation and exploited robotic positioning flexibility to allow the construction of geometrically complex parts. The integration of the robotic manipulator into the LENS{trademark} system was tested by producing metal parts directly from CAD models.

  14. Determination of proper motions in the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilbach, E.

    1991-04-01

    For 458 stars in the Pleiades field from the catalog of Eichhorn et al. (1970) proper motions were derived on Tautenburg and CERGA Schmidt telescope plates measured with the automated measuring machine MAMA in Paris. The catalog positions were considered as first epoch coordinates with an epoch difference of ca. 33 years to the observations. The results show good coincidence of proper motions derived with both Schmidt telescopes within the error bars. Comparison with proper motions determined by Vasilevskis et al. (1979) displays some significant differences but no systematic effects depending on plate coordinates or magnitudes could be found. An accuracy of 0.3 arcsec/100a for one proper motion component was estimated. According to the criterion of common proper motion 34 new cluster members were identified.

  15. Psychomotor skills assessment by motion analysis in minimally invasive surgery on an animal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Bø, Lars Eirik; Langø, Thomas; Kuhry, Esther; Mårvik, Ronald

    2017-08-01

    A high level of psychomotor skills is required to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) safely. To be able to measure these skills is important in the assessment of surgeons, as it enables constructive feedback during training. The aim of this study was to test the validity of an objective and automatic assessment method using motion analysis during a laparoscopic procedure on an animal organ. Experienced surgeons in laparoscopy (experts) and medical students (novices) performed a cholecystectomy on a porcine liver box model. The motions of the surgical tools were acquired and analyzed by 11 different motion-related metrics, i.e., a total of 19 metrics as eight of them were measured separately for each hand. We identified for which of the metrics the experts outperformed the novices. In total, two experts and 28 novices were included. The experts achieved significantly better results for 13 of the 19 instrument motion metrics. Expert performance is characterized by a low time to complete the cholecystectomy, high bimanual dexterity (instrument coordination), a limited amount of movement and low measurement of motion smoothness of the dissection instrument, and relatively high usage of the grasper to optimize tissue positioning for dissection.

  16. 16 March 2009 - HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Kingdom of Thailand, visiting CMS experimental area and LHC tunnel with Coordinator for external relations F. Pauss and Collaboration Spokesperson T. Virdee.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Photo 1: Relations with Non-Member State E. Tsesmelis, CMS Collaboration Spokesperson T. Virdee, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Coordinator for External relations F. Pauss, in CMS experimental area. Photo 2-12: Arrival of HRH at building 160: Posy presented to HRH by E. and F. Breedon; Welcome line: Director-General R. Heuer who introduces S. Bertolucci, F. Pauss, E. Tsesmelis, A. de Roeck, R. Breedon and Protocol Officer W. Korda. Photo 13-26:Presentation by Director-General R. Heuer and Head of Education R. Landua. Photo 27-30: Welcome at CMS by Spokesperson T. Virdee Photo 31-43: LHC tunnel visit Photo 44 - 60: CMS underground area visit Photo 61-63: HRH signs the guest book in the SCX5 conference room Photo 64-69: Signature of an expression of interest between SLRI and CMS Photo 75-88: Final discussion with Coordinator for External relation F. Pauss and Director-General R. Heuer.

  17. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  18. An examination of the degrees of freedom of human jaw motion in speech and mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, D J; Vatikiotis-Bateson, E; Gribble, P L

    1997-12-01

    The kinematics of human jaw movements were assessed in terms of the three orientation angles and three positions that characterize the motion of the jaw as a rigid body. The analysis focused on the identification of the jaw's independent movement dimensions, and was based on an examination of jaw motion paths that were plotted in various combinations of linear and angular coordinate frames. Overall, both behaviors were characterized by independent motion in four degrees of freedom. In general, when jaw movements were plotted to show orientation in the sagittal plane as a function of horizontal position, relatively straight paths were observed. In speech, the slopes and intercepts of these paths varied depending on the phonetic material. The vertical position of the jaw was observed to shift up or down so as to displace the overall form of the sagittal plane motion path of the jaw. Yaw movements were small but independent of pitch, and vertical and horizontal position. In mastication, the slope and intercept of the relationship between pitch and horizontal position were affected by the type of food and its size. However, the range of variation was less than that observed in speech. When vertical jaw position was plotted as a function of horizontal position, the basic form of the path of the jaw was maintained but could be shifted vertically. In general, larger bolus diameters were associated with lower jaw positions throughout the movement. The timing of pitch and yaw motion differed. The most common pattern involved changes in pitch angle during jaw opening followed by a phase predominated by lateral motion (yaw). Thus, in both behaviors there was evidence of independent motion in pitch, yaw, horizontal position, and vertical position. This is consistent with the idea that motions in these degrees of freedom are independently controlled.

  19. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  20. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  1. Estimation of object motion parameters from noisy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, T J; Chellappa, R

    1986-01-01

    An approach is presented for the estimation of object motion parameters based on a sequence of noisy images. The problem considered is that of a rigid body undergoing unknown rotational and translational motion. The measurement data consists of a sequence of noisy image coordinates of two or more object correspondence points. By modeling the object dynamics as a function of time, estimates of the model parameters (including motion parameters) can be extracted from the data using recursive and/or batch techniques. This permits a desired degree of smoothing to be achieved through the use of an arbitrarily large number of images. Some assumptions regarding object structure are presently made. Results are presented for a recursive estimation procedure: the case considered here is that of a sequence of one dimensional images of a two dimensional object. Thus, the object moves in one transverse dimension, and in depth, preserving the fundamental ambiguity of the central projection image model (loss of depth information). An iterated extended Kalman filter is used for the recursive solution. Noise levels of 5-10 percent of the object image size are used. Approximate Cramer-Rao lower bounds are derived for the model parameter estimates as a function of object trajectory and noise level. This approach may be of use in situations where it is difficult to resolve large numbers of object match points, but relatively long sequences of images (10 to 20 or more) are available.

  2. Third post-Newtonian dynamics of compact binaries: equations of motion in the centre-of-mass frame

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, L

    2003-01-01

    The equations of motion of compact binary systems and their associated Lagrangian formulation have been derived in previous works at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation of general relativity in harmonic coordinates. In the present work, we investigate the binary's relative dynamics in the centre-of-mass frame (centre of mass located at the origin of the coordinates). We obtain the 3PN-accurate expressions of the centre-of-mass positions and equations of the relative binary motion. We show that the equations derive from a Lagrangian (neglecting the radiation reaction), from which we deduce the conserved centre-of-mass energy and angular momentum at the 3PN order. The harmonic-coordinates centre-of-mass Lagrangian is equivalent, via a contact transformation of the particles' variables, to the centre-of-mass Hamiltonian in ADM coordinates that is known from the post-Newtonian ADM-Hamiltonian formalism. As an application we investigate the dynamical stability of circular binary orbits at the 3PN order.

  3. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad N.; Arby, Muhammad Farooq

    2003-01-01

    Macroeconomic policies are meant to achieve non-inflationary, stable growth. There are two major groups of policy instruments to achieve the purpose; one is related to monetary conditions and the other to fiscal conditions. Monetary instruments are employed by the central bank and fiscal instruments are employed by ministry of finance. The objectives and implications of policy measures taken by the two institutions often conflict with each other and thus call for policy coordination for effec...

  4. Regional transit coordination guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Constant growth in rural areas and extensive suburban development have contributed to increasingly more people needing seamless and adequate public transportation into and from nearby cities. Coordinating existing services or determining the need for...

  5. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  6. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  7. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  8. Data Management Coordinators (DMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Regional Data Management Coordinators (DMCs) were identified to serve as the primary contact for each region for all Water Quality Framework activities. They will facilitate and communicate information to the necessary individuals at the region and tra

  9. The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail

  10. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte....... Using the CSCW frame­work of coordination mechanisms, we have elicited six general factors influencing the integration of the groupware application in two situations....

  11. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  12. Coordinate-invariant regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    A general phase-space framework for coordinate-invariant regularization is given. The development is geometric, with all regularization contained in regularized DeWitt Superstructures on field deformations. Parallel development of invariant coordinate-space regularization is obtained by regularized functional integration of the momenta. As representative examples of the general formulation, the regularized general non-linear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity are discussed. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  13. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  14. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  15. Coordination and resource-related difficulties encountered by Quebec's public health specialists and infectious diseases/medical microbiologists in the management of A (H1N1 - a mixed-method, exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Charles

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Quebec, the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic was managed using a top-down style that left many involved players with critical views and frustrations. We aimed to describe physicians' perceptions - infectious diseases specialists/medical microbiologists (IDMM and public health/preventive medicine specialists (PHPMS - in regards to issues encountered with the pandemics management at the physician level and highlight suggested improvements for future healthcare emergencies. Methods In April 2010, Quebec IDMM and PHPMS physicians were invited to anonymously complete a web-based learning needs assessment. The survey included both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Descriptive statistics were used to report on the frequency distribution of multiple choice responses whereas thematic content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data generated from the survey and help understand respondents' experience and perceptions with the pandemics. Results Of the 102 respondents, 85.3% reported difficulties or frustrations in their practice during the pandemic. The thematic analysis revealed two core themes describing the problems experienced in the pandemic management: coordination and resource-related difficulties. Coordination issues included communication, clinical practice guidelines, decision-making, roles and responsibilities, epidemiological investigation, and public health expert advisory committees. Resources issues included laboratory resources, patient management, and vaccination process. Conclusion Together, the quantitative and qualitative data suggest a need for improved coordination, a better definition of roles and responsibilities, increased use of information technologies, merged communications, and transparency in the decisional process. Increased flexibility and less contradiction in clinical practice guidelines from different sources and increased laboratory/clinical capacity were felt critical to the proper

  16. Interactive motion tracing for Rowing Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies motion tracking and team coordination for the training of rowers. The design research is drawn upon the division of contribution between the designers input and the user input in a design process. We built a training system that can record and show the action of a rower’s hand....... Designer proposed solutions for both a fundamental problem and a very advanced problem. Users guided the design direction, and spoke what they expected or what they disliked. As the result, our design provided a real-time recording tool for rowers and coaches to discuss and analyze the motion. The coach...... can correct the path immediately and save the corrected path for the rower to try to imitate and train. The members in a rowing team train with the same path from to coordinate and synchronize their actions for the best performance. The training system was developed through a user-centered design...

  17. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  18. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  19. Turbulence characterization by studying laser beam wandering in a differential tracking motion setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Darío G.; Zunino, Luciano; Gulich, Damián; Funes, Gustavo; Garavaglia, Mario

    2009-09-01

    The Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) is a standard and widely used instrument for astronomical seeing measurements. The seeing values are estimated from the variance of the differential image motion over two equal small pupils some distance apart. The twin pupils are usually cut in a mask on the entrance pupil of the telescope. As a differential method, it has the advantage of being immune to tracking errors, eliminating erratic motion of the telescope. The Differential Laser Tracking Motion (DLTM) is introduced here inspired by the same idea. Two identical laser beams are propagated through a path of air in turbulent motion, at the end of it their wander is registered by two position sensitive detectors-at a count of 800 samples per second. Time series generated from the difference of the pair of centroid laser beam coordinates is then analyzed using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Measurements were performed at the laboratory with synthetic turbulence: changing the relative separation of the beams for different turbulent regimes. The dependence, with respect to these parameters, and the robustness of our estimators is compared with the non-differential method. This method is an improvement with respect to previous approaches that study the beam wandering.

  20. Remarks on the motion of macroscopic and microscopic spinning particles in relativity; Remarques sur le mouvement des particules a spin macroscopiques et microscopiques en relativite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micoulaut, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    The Papapetrou equations of motion of a spinning particle do not allow the unequivocal determination of the world-line described by the particle. The motion should be completely determined in adding a supplementary condition. For macroscopic particles, characterized by the conditions of Corinaldesi-Papapetrou and Tulczyjew, moving in a Schwarzschild field we obtain additional term in the expression for the advance of perihelion. For microscopic particles we summarize the results obtained using the conditions of Weyssenhoff, Nakano, Hoenl-Papapetrou and Wessel. (author) [French] Les equations de Papapetrou decrivant le mouvement d'une particule a spin ne permettent pas de fixer de maniere univoque la ligne d'univers que parcourt la particule. Le mouvement sera completement determine en imposant une condition supplementaire arbitraire. Pour des particules macroscopiques, caracterisees par les conditions de Corinaldesi-Papapetrou et Tulczyjew, se deplacant dans un champ de Schwarzschild on obtient un terme supplementaire dans l'expression de l'avance du perihelie. Pour les particules microscopiques on rappellera rapidement les resultats obtenus en utilisant les conditions simples de Weyssenhoff, Nakano, Hoenl-Papapetrou et Wessel. (auteur)

  1. Influence of relative humidity in the preservation of irradiated avocados. Part of a coordinated programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, V.J.

    1985-02-01

    Avocados were irradiated with gamma rays (Cs-137) and subjected to thermal treatment. Relative humidity (RH) is an important factor in this preservation; the higher the RH the longer the shelf-life. PVC was used to maintain the humidity of the fruits

  2. Correlated motion of protein subdomains and large-scale conformational flexibility of RecA protein filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Garmay; A, Shvetsov; D, Karelov; D, Lebedev; A, Radulescu; M, Petukhov; V, Isaev-Ivanov

    2012-02-01

    Based on X-ray crystallographic data available at Protein Data Bank, we have built molecular dynamics (MD) models of homologous recombinases RecA from E. coli and D. radiodurans. Functional form of RecA enzyme, which is known to be a long helical filament, was approximated by a trimer, simulated in periodic water box. The MD trajectories were analyzed in terms of large-scale conformational motions that could be detectable by neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The analysis revealed that large-scale RecA monomer dynamics can be described in terms of relative motions of 7 subdomains. Motion of C-terminal domain was the major contributor to the overall dynamics of protein. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the MD trajectories in the atom coordinate space showed that rotation of C-domain is correlated with the conformational changes in the central domain and N-terminal domain, that forms the monomer-monomer interface. Thus, even though C-terminal domain is relatively far from the interface, its orientation is correlated with large-scale filament conformation. PCA of the trajectories in the main chain dihedral angle coordinate space implicates a co-existence of a several different large-scale conformations of the modeled trimer. In order to clarify the relationship of independent domain orientation with large-scale filament conformation, we have performed analysis of independent domain motion and its implications on the filament geometry.

  3. Modes of uncontrolled rotational motion of the Progress M-29M spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Matveeva, T. V.; Monakhov, M. I.; Rulev, D. N.; Sazonov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    We have reconstructed the uncontrolled rotational motion of the Progress M-29M transport cargo spacecraft in the single-axis solar orientation mode (the so-called sunward spin) and in the mode of the gravitational orientation of a rotating satellite. The modes were implemented on April 3-7, 2016 as a part of preparation for experiments with the DAKON convection sensor onboard the Progress spacecraft. The reconstruction was performed by integral statistical techniques using the measurements of the spacecraft's angular velocity and electric current from its solar arrays. The measurement data obtained in a certain time interval have been jointly processed using the least-squares method by integrating the equations of the spacecraft's motion relative to the center of mass. As a result of processing, the initial conditions of motion and parameters of the mathematical model have been estimated. The motion in the sunward spin mode is the rotation of the spacecraft with an angular velocity of 2.2 deg/s about the normal to the plane of solar arrays; the normal is oriented toward the Sun or forms a small angle with this direction. The duration of the mode is several orbit passes. The reconstruction has been performed over time intervals of up to 1 h. As a result, the actual rotational motion of the spacecraft relative to the Earth-Sun direction was obtained. In the gravitational orientation mode, the spacecraft was rotated about its longitudinal axis with an angular velocity of 0.1-0.2 deg/s; the longitudinal axis executed small oscillated relative to the local vertical. The reconstruction of motion relative to the orbital coordinate system was performed in time intervals of up to 7 h using only the angularvelocity measurements. The measurements of the electric current from solar arrays were used for verification.

  4. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and

  5. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  6. Motion state analysis of space target based on optical cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qichen; Li, Zhi; Xu, Can; Liu, Chenghao

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem that the movement state analysis method of the space target based on OCS is not related to the real motion state. This paper proposes a method based on OCS for analyzing the state of space target motion. This paper first establish a three-dimensional model of real STSS satellite, then change the satellite's surface into element, and assign material to each panel according to the actual conditions of the satellite. This paper set up a motion scene according to the orbit parameters of STSS satellite in STK, and the motion states are set to three axis steady state and slowly rotating unstable state respectively. In these two states, the occlusion condition of the surface element is firstly determined, and the effective face element is selected. Then, the coordinates of the observation station and the solar coordinates in the satellite body coordinate system are input into the OCS calculation program, and the OCS variation curves of the three axis steady state and the slow rotating unstable state STSS satellite are obtained. Combining the satellite surface structure and the load situation, the OCS change curve of the three axis stabilized satellite is analyzed, and the conclude that the OCS curve fluctuates up and down when the sunlight is irradiated to the load area; By using Spectral analysis method, autocorrelation analysis and the cross residual method, the rotation speed of OCS satellite in slow rotating unstable state is analyzed, and the rotation speed of satellite is successfully reversed. By comparing the three methods, it is found that the cross residual method is more accurate.

  7. Modification of Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the relative time for an atom (body) which is varying continuously becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity might be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time might be wavy-like and the nature of space might be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: H⌢ Ψ +tp ∇t' = ih/2 π ∂/∂t Ψ +tp∂/∂t t' , where tp is Planck's time and t' is relative time: t' = f (m , v , t) = t +/- Δt , in which t is time, m is mass and vis speed of particle . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  8. The volume of fluid method in spherical coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Janse, A.M.C.; Dijk, P.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) method is a numerical technique to track the developing free surfaces of liquids in motion. This method can, for example, be applied to compute the liquid flow patterns in a rotating cone reactor. For this application a spherical coordinate system is most suited. The novel

  9. Interpersonal movement coordination in jointly moving a rocking board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Cuijpers, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how two persons (dyads) coordinate their movements when performing cyclical motion patterns on a rocking board. In keeping with the Leading Joint Hypothesis (Dounskaia, 2005), the movement dynamics of the collaborating participants were expected to display features of a

  10. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  11. Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-08-01

    This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

  12. Coordinating everyday life in the Netherlands. A holistic quantitative approach to the analysis of ICT-related and other work-life balance strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hubers, C.; Schwanen, T.; Dijst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to women’s increased participation in the labour force, more and more family-households are now juggling paid labour and care-giving in space and time and do so in many different ways. Much research and policy about how households try to establish a satisfactory work-life balance single out particular coping strategies, such as telecommuting or the mobilizing of informal help by relatives or friends. While insightful, foregrounding single strategies may oversimplify the complex reality of...

  13. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  14. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  15. Learning alternative movement coordination patterns using reinforcement feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Denomme, Amber; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-05-01

    One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules. Participants performed a virtual reaching task, where they moved a cursor to different targets positioned on the screen. Our goal was to make participants use a coordination pattern with greater trunk motion, and to this end, we provided reinforcement by making the cursor disappear if the trunk motion during the reach did not cross a specified threshold value. In Experiment 1, we compared two reinforcement schedules in two groups of participants-an abrupt group, where the threshold was introduced immediately at the beginning of practice; and a gradual group, where the threshold was introduced gradually with practice. Results showed that both abrupt and gradual groups were effective in shifting their coordination patterns to involve greater trunk motion, but the abrupt group showed greater retention when the reinforcement was removed. In Experiment 2, we examined the basis of this advantage in the abrupt group using two additional control groups. Results showed that the advantage of the abrupt group was because of a greater number of practice trials with the desired coordination pattern. Overall, these results show that reinforcement can be successfully used to shift coordination patterns, which has potential in the rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  16. 22 CFR 94.8 - Interagency coordinating group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interagency coordinating group. 94.8 Section 94... § 94.8 Interagency coordinating group. The U.S. Central Authority shall nominate federal employees and may, from time to time, nominate private citizens to serve on an interagency coordinating group to...

  17. Development of interpersonal coordination between peers during a drumming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Ramenzoni, V.C.; Cox, R.F.A.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bekkering, H.; Hunnius, S.

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their

  18. Development of Interpersonal Coordination Between Peers During a Drumming Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their

  19. Attentional loads associated with interlimb interactions underlying rhythmic bimanual coordination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderikhoff, A.; Peper, C.E.; Beek, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of rhythmic bimanual coordination under dual-task conditions revealed (1) a dependence of secondary task performance on the stability of coordinative tasks, in that secondary task performance was better during in-phase than antiphase coordination, and (2) a shift in the mean relative phasing

  20. Edge dependent motion blur reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a circuit arrangement to reduce motion blur of images shown in non-stroboscopic display devices, in particular Liquid Crystal Display Panels (LCDs). Thin Film Transistor Displays (TFTs), Color Sequential Displays. Plasma Display Panels (PDPs), Digital Micro

  1. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  2. Classical collisions of protons with hydrogen atoms. [Equations of motion, cross sections, C code, FORTRAN, moments of inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, D; Hughes, P E; Percival, I C [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK); Barnes, K S [National Health Service Operational Research Group, Royal Institute of Public Administration, Reading, Berkshire, UK; Richards, D [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK); Valentine, N A [Digital Equipment Corporation, Bilton House, Uxbridge Road, Ealing, London, UK; Wilson, Mc B [Glasgow Univ. (UK). Dept. of Natural Philosophy

    1977-01-01

    The program solves the equations of motion for the interaction of 3 charged particles, obtaining final states in terms of initial states, and energy transfers, angles of ejection, and final cartesian co-ordinates of relative motion. Using a Monte Carlo method on many orbits total ionization and charge transfer cross sections, integral energy transfer cross sections and moments of energy transfers are estimated. Facilities are provided for obtaining angular distributions, momentum transfer cross sections and for comparison with various approximate classical theories. The equations of motion are solved using stepwise fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration with automatic steplength change. Selection of initial conditions is determined by the user, usually as a statistical distribution determined by a pseudorandom number subroutine. Classical representation theory and transformation methods are extensively used.

  3. Political Public Relations Campaign for Election of Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Solok Period 2016-2020, Creative Design Coordinator Division

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya, Lovegi David; M.Si, Agus Naryoso; M.Si, Much Yulianto; Gono, Joyo M S; Ayun, Primada Qurrota

    2016-01-01

    Public relations, as one of the strategies are quite effective for building the image, as well as long-term relationship with the community or public. This strategy is often combined with a political strategy to win a pair of political party candidates, which is the background of the writing of this scientific work ; the intention to won Irzal Ilyas and Alfauzi Bote as pair of political candidates to become mayor and deputy mayor of Solok period 2016-2021. There need to be applied various eff...

  4. Turning Symbolic: The representation of motion direction in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal eSeidel Malkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available What happens to the representation of a moving stimulus when it is no longer present and its motion direction has to be maintained in working memory (WM? Is the initial, sensorial representation maintained during the delay period or is there another representation, at a higher level of abstraction? It is also feasible that multiple representations may co-exist in WM, manifesting different facets of sensory and more abstract features.To that end, we investigated the mnemonic representation of motion direction in a series of three psychophysical experiments, using a delayed motion-discrimination task (relative clockwisecounter-clockwise judgment. First, we show that a change in the dots' contrast polarity does not hamper performance. Next, we demonstrate that performance is unaffected by relocation of the Test stimulus in either retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinate frames. Finally, we show that an arrow-shaped cue presented during the delay interval between the Sample and Test stimulus, biases performance towards the direction of the arrow, although the cue itself is non-informative (it has no predictive value of the correct answer. These results indicate that the representation of motion direction in WM is independent of the physical features of the stimulus (polarity or position and has non-sensorial abstract qualities. It is plausible that an abstract mnemonic trace might be activated alongside a more basic, analogue representation of the stimulus. We speculate that the specific sensitivity of the mnemonic representation to the arrow-shaped symbol may stem from the long term learned association between direction and the hour in the clock.

  5. Markov stochasticity coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method–termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates–is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.

  6. Markov stochasticity coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: iddo.eliazar@intel.com

    2017-01-15

    Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method–termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates–is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.

  7. Coordination of ministry actions related to the use of liquefied natural gas for marine fuel - A maritime challenge to face collectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffray, Jean-Francois; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Allais, Vincent

    2013-02-01

    As France remained apart from a movement of adoption of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in maritime applications, this report first discusses the different fuels used by ships (conventional fuels, LNG, fuel energy efficiency, LNG engines and tanks). Then, after having recalled international constraints related to atmospheric emissions by ships (MARPOL convention, European legal framework) and noticed the possible transfer to other transport mode in case of change of fuel, the authors discuss the possible solutions and show that LNG allows environmental objectives to be met whereas other conventional fuels present several drawbacks. They comment the results of some European studies on the use of LNG, propose an overview of LNG resources, availability and prices, and indicate current projects in the world. They study the implications of introduction of LNG for ships in France in terms of infrastructures, of regulation, and of compliance with different European policies. They discuss different aspects related to the creation of the associated market, the commitment of economic stakeholders, industrial stakes, pilot projects and the issue of investment financing

  8. Quantum field theory in stationary coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfautsch, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum field theory is examined in stationary coordinate systems in Minkowski space. Preliminary to quantization of the scalar field, all of the possible stationary coordinate systems in flat spacetime are classified and explicitly constructed. Six distinct classes of such systems are found. Of these six, three have (identical) event horizons associated with them and five have Killing horizons. Two classes have distinct Killing and event horizons, with an intervening region analogous to the ergosphere in rotating black holes. Particular representatives of each class are selected for subsequent use in the quantum field theory. The scalar field is canonically quantized and a vacuum defined in each of the particular coordinate systems chosen. The vacuum states can be regarded as adapted to the six classes of stationary motions. There are only two vacuum states found, the Minkowski vacuum in those coordinate systems without event horizons and the Fulling vacuum in those with event horizons. The responses of monopole detectors traveling along stationary world lines are calculated in both the Minkowski and Fulling vacuums. The responses for each class of motions are distinct from those for every other class. A vacuum defined by the response of a detector must therefore not be equivalent in general to a vacuum defined by canonical quantization. Quantization of the scalar field within a rotating wedge is examined. It has not been possible to construct mode functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the wedge. The asymptotic form of the renormalized stress tensor near the surfaces had been calculated and is found to include momentum terms which represent a circulation of energy within the wedge

  9. [The coordination betwen health and social services in the care of people with severe mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alvarez, Marcelino; Laviana Cuetos, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Coordination between health and social services is a key point in caring for an increasing number of people affected by different types of health problems. The change in demographic and epidemiological patterns in our societies evidences the need of this coordination, usually not covered by our care systems. A sector in which the coordination is particularly important is the care of people with disabilities related to the suffering from severe mental disorders. This is a field that has been too long on the sidelines of the general health and social care systems as a result of the social stigma and traditional psychiatric institutions, setting in motion a vicious circle that must be broken in order to identify and to respond to the needs of such persons. In fact, the processes of change towards community care, with targets for recovery and not mere palliative or marginalizing care, necessarily incorporate this coordination as a cornerstone strategy for social inclusion and citizenship. Although there are still significant gaps in this regard, especially in Spain. However, there are experiences of change, such as that of Andalusia, which set the tone for the development of a strategy for integrated care, whose foundations and main elements we try to summarize in the present article. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification of Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-05-01

    ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other one is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. These two separated natures of space-time are matched on wave-particle duality. Therefore, the nature of time can be wavy-like and the nature of space can be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources of particle(s)' flow while they are match exactly with each other. These two sources are potential of flow and potential of time (relative time) which vary with respect to both space and time. Here, we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation with respect to relative time: HΨ + ∇t' = EΨ + ∂t' / ∂t , where t is time and t' is relative time: t' = t +/- Δt [Gholibeigian et al., APS March Meeting 2016], which for each atom becomes: tatom = ∑mnucleons + ∑melectrons where m is momentum [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Using time's relativity in Schrodinger equation will give us more precious results. AmirKabir University of Technology,Tehran, Iran.

  11. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  12. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  13. Optimal coordination and control of posture and movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of stability and coordination of posture and locomotion, together with algorithms for continuous-time quadratic optimization of motion control. Explicit solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for optimal control of rigid-body motion are obtained by solving an algebraic matrix equation. The stability is investigated with Lyapunov function theory and it is shown that global asymptotic stability holds. It is also shown how optimal control and adaptive control may act in concert in the case of unknown or uncertain system parameters. The solution describes motion strategies of minimum effort and variance. The proposed optimal control is formulated to be suitable as a posture and movement model for experimental validation and verification. The combination of adaptive and optimal control makes this algorithm a candidate for coordination and control of functional neuromuscular stimulation as well as of prostheses. Validation examples with experimental data are provided.

  14. Social forces for team coordination in ball possession game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko; Shima, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    Team coordination is a basic human behavioral trait observed in many real-life communities. To promote teamwork, it is important to cultivate social skills that elicit team coordination. In the present work, we consider which social skills are indispensable for individuals performing a ball possession game in soccer. We develop a simple social force model that describes the synchronized motion of offensive players. Comparing the simulation results with experimental observations, we uncovered that the cooperative social force, a measure of perception skill, has the most important role in reproducing the harmonized collective motion of experienced players in the task. We further developed an experimental tool that facilitates real players' perceptions of interpersonal distance, revealing that the tool improves novice players' motions as if the cooperative social force were imposed.

  15. Control of the motion of the body's center of mass in relation to the center of pressure during high-heeled gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hui-Lien; Lu, Tung-Wu; Liu, Ming-Wei

    2013-07-01

    High-heeled shoes are associated with instability and falling, leading to injuries such as fracture and ankle sprain. Knowledge of the motion of the body's center of mass (COM) with respect to the center of pressure (COP) during high-heeled gait may offer insights into the balance control strategies and provide a basis for approaches that minimize the risk of falling and associated adverse effects. The study aimed to investigate the influence of the base and height of the heels on the COM motion in terms of COM-COP inclination angles (IA) and the rate of change of IA (RCIA). Fifteen females who regularly wear high heels walked barefoot and with narrow-heeled shoes with three heel heights (3.9cm, 6.3cm and 7.3cm) while kinematic and ground reaction force data were measured and used to calculate the COM and COP, as well as the temporal-distance parameters. The reduced base of the heels was found to be the primary factor for the reduced normalized walking speed and the reduced frontal IA throughout the gait cycle. This was achieved mainly through the control of the RCIA during double-leg stance (DLS). The heel heights affected mainly the peak RCIA during DLS, which were not big enough to affect the IA. These results suggest young adults adopt a conservative strategy for balance control during narrow-heeled gait. The results will serve as baseline data for future evaluation of patients and/or older adults during narrow-heeled gait with the aim of reducing the risk of falling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Project Physics Tests 1, Concepts of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 1 are presented in this booklet, consisting of 70 multiple-choice and 20 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of motion are examined with respect to velocities, acceleration, forces, vectors, Newton's laws, and circular motion. Suggestions are made for time consumption in answering some items. Besides…

  17. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  18. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  19. A neo-Meadian approach to human agency: relating the social and the psychological in the ontogenesis of perspective-coordinating persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack; Gillespie, Alex

    2010-09-01

    How can human agency be reconciled with bio-physical determinism? Starting with a discussion of the long standing debate between determinism and agency, we argue that the seeds of a reconciliation can be found in George Herbert Mead's ideas concerning social acts, perspectives, differentiation, self-other interactivity, and conscious understanding. Drawing on more recent reformulations of Mead's ideas, we present an integrated account of the ontogenesis of human agency. Human agency, we argue, should be conceptualized in terms of distanciation from immediate experience, and we show how social interactions, institutions and symbolic resources foster the development of agency in increasingly complex ways. We conclude by situating our work in relation to other developmental accounts and the larger project of theorizing and empirically supporting a compatibilist rendering of human agency as the "determined" self-determination of persons.

  20. From the Kinematics of Precession Motion to Generalized Rabi Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danail S. Brezov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We use both vector-parameter and quaternion techniques to provide a thorough description of several classes of rotations, starting with coaxial angular velocity Ω of varying magnitude. Then, we fix the magnitude and let Ω precess at constant rate about the z-axis, which yields a particular solution to the free Euler dynamical equations in the case of axially symmetric inertial ellipsoid. The latter appears also in the description of spin precessions in NMR and quantum computing. As we show below, this problem has analytic solutions for a much larger class of motions determined by a simple condition relating the polar angle and z-projection of Ω (expressed in cylindrical coordinates, which are both time-dependent in the generic case. Relevant physical examples are also provided.

  1. 28 CFR 68.11 - Motions and requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.11 Motions and requests... be given reasonable opportunity to respond or to object to the motion or request. (b) Responses to...

  2. Spatial coordinate systems for tactile spatial attention depend on developmental vision: evidence from event-related potentials in sighted and congenitally blind adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Föcker, Julia; Hötting, Kirsten; Spence, Charles

    2008-08-01

    Changes in limb posture (such as crossing the hands) can impair people's performance in tasks such as those involving temporal order judgements, when one tactile stimulus is presented to either hand. This crossed hands deficit has been attributed to a conflict between externally and anatomically anchored reference systems when people localize tactile stimuli. Interestingly, however, the performance of congenitally blind adults does not seem to be affected by crossing the hands, suggesting a default use of an anatomically rather than an externally anchored reference system for tactile localization. In the present study, 12 congenitally blind and 12 sighted adults were instructed to attend to either the left or the right hand on a trial-by-trial basis in order to detect rare deviants (consisting of a double touch) at that hand, while ignoring both deviants at the other hand and frequent standard stimuli (consisting of a single touch) presented to either hand. Only the sighted participants performed less accurately when they crossed their hands. Concurrent electroencephalogram recordings revealed an early contralateral attention positivity, followed by an attention negativity in the sighted group when they adopted the uncrossed hands posture. For the crossed hand posture, only the attention negativity was observed with reduced amplitude in the sighted group. By contrast, the congenitally blind group displayed an event-related potential attention negativity that did not vary when the posture of their hands was changed. These results demonstrate that the default use of an external frame of reference for tactile localization seems to depend on developmental vision.

  3. Method of normal coordinates in the formulation of a system with dissipation: The harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshelia, E.D.

    1994-07-01

    The method of normal coordinates of the theory of vibrations is used in decoupling the motion of n oscillators (1 ≤ n ≤4) representing intrinsic degrees of freedom coupled to collective motion in a quantum mechanical model that allows the determination of the probability for energy transfer from collective to intrinsic excitations in a dissipative system. (author). 21 refs

  4. Dimensions of Organizational Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Aldewereld, Huib; Dignum, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    be supported to include organizational objectives and constraints into their reasoning processes by considering two alternatives: agent reasoning and middleware regulation. We show how agents can use an organizational specification to achieve organizational objectives by delegating and coordinating...... their activities with other agents in the society, using the GOAL agent programming language and the OperA organizational model....

  5. Reusability of coordination programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); C.L. Blom (Kees); F.J. Burger (Freek); C.T.H. Everaars (Kees)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIsolating computation and communication concerns into separate pure computation and pure coordination modules enhances modularity, understandability, and reusability of parallel and/or distributed software. This can be achieved by moving communication primitives (such as SendMessage and

  6. [Civilian-military coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  7. Block coordination copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  8. Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process, wireless sensor node, reasoning node, and feedback and/or actuation node for such wireless motion sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Marin Perianu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Wireless motion sensor network for monitoring motion in a process comprising at least one wireless sensor node for measuring at least one physical quantity related to motion or orientation, feature extraction means for deriving a feature for the measured quantities, a wireless transmitter connected

  9. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose

    2012-01-01

    on the efficient equilibrium, we consider sunspots as a potential reason for coordination failure. We conduct an experiment with a three player 2x2x2 game in which coordination on the efficient equilibrium is easy and should normally occur. In the control session, we find almost perfect coordination on the payoff......-dominant equilibrium, but in the sunspot treatment, dis-coordination is frequent. Sunspots lead to significant inefficiency, and we conclude that sunspots can indeed cause coordination failure....

  10. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  11. Cervical motion testing: methodology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prushansky, Tamara; Dvir, Zeevi

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of cervical motion (CM) is probably the most commonly applied functional outcome measure in assessing the status of patients with cervical pathology. In general terms, CM refers to motion of the head relative to the trunk as well as conjunct motions within the cervical spine. Multiple techniques and instruments have been used for assessing CM. These were associated with a wide variety of parameters relating to accuracy, reproducibility, and validity. Modern measurement systems enable recording, processing, and documentation of CM with a high degree of precision. Cervical motion measures provide substantial information regarding the severity of motion limitation and level of effort in cervically involved patients. They may also be used for following up performance during and after conservative or invasive interventions.

  12. Motion detection and correction for dynamic 15O-water myocardial perfusion PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, Alexandru; Laaksonen, Marko S.; Oikonen, Vesa; Teraes, Mika; Jaervisalo, Mikko J.; Knuuti, Juhani; Tuunanen, Helena; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Patient motion during dynamic PET studies is a well-documented source of errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of frame-to-frame motion in dynamic 15 O-water myocardial perfusion PET studies, to test the efficacy of motion correction methods and to study whether implementation of motion correction would have an impact on the perfusion results. We developed a motion detection procedure using external radioactive skin markers and frame-to-frame alignment. To evaluate motion, marker coordinates inside the field of view were determined in each frame for each study. The highest number of frames with identical spatial coordinates during the study were defined as ''non-moved''. Movement was considered present if even one marker changed position, by one pixel/frame compared with reference, in one axis, and such frames were defined as ''moved''. We tested manual, in-house-developed motion correction software and an automatic motion correction using a rigid body point model implemented in MIPAV (Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualisation) software. After motion correction, remaining motion was re-analysed. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were calculated for both non-corrected and motion-corrected datasets. At rest, patient motion was found in 18% of the frames, but during pharmacological stress the fraction increased to 45% and during physical exercise it rose to 80%. Both motion correction algorithms significantly decreased (p<0.006) the number of moved frames and the amplitude of motion (p<0.04). Motion correction significantly increased MBF results during bicycle exercise (p<0.02). At rest or during adenosine infusion, the motion correction had no significant effects on MBF values. Significant motion is a common phenomenon in dynamic cardiac studies during adenosine infusion but especially during exercise. Applying motion correction for the data acquired during exercise clearly changed the MBF results, indicating that motion

  13. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  14. Kinematics and Dynamics of Motion Control Based on Acceleration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Ohba, Yuzuru; Katsura, Seiichiro

    The first IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control was held in 1990 pointed out the importance of physical interpretation of motion control. The software servoing technology is now common in machine tools, robotics, and mechatronics. It has been intensively developed for the numerical control (NC) machines. Recently, motion control in unknown environment will be more and more important. Conventional motion control is not always suitable due to the lack of adaptive capability to the environment. A more sophisticated ability in motion control is necessary for compliant contact with environment. Acceleration control is the key technology of motion control in unknown environment. The acceleration control can make a motion system to be a zero control stiffness system without losing the robustness. Furthermore, a realization of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is necessary for future human assistance. A human assistant motion will require various control stiffness corresponding to the task. The review paper focuses on the modal coordinate system to integrate the various control stiffness in the virtual axes. A bilateral teleoperation is a good candidate to consider the future human assistant motion and integration of decentralized systems. Thus the paper reviews and discusses the bilateral teleoperation from the control stiffness and the modal control design points of view.

  15. On the relative role of meridional convergence and downwelling motion during the heat buildup leading to El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Joan; Bordoni, Simona; Petrova, Desislava; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Despite steady progress in the understanding of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the past decades, questions remain on the exact mechanisms leading to the onset of El Niño (EN) events. Several authors have highlighted how the subsurface heat buildup in the western tropical Pacific and the recharged phase in equatorial heat content are intrinsic elements of ENSO variability, leading to those changes in zonal wind stress, sea surface temperature and thermocline tilt that characterize the growing and mature phases of EN. Here we use an ensemble of ocean and atmosphere assimilation products to identify the mechanisms contributing to the heat buildup that precedes EN events by about 18-24 months on average. Anomalous equatorward subsurface mass convergence due to meridional Sverdrup transport is found to be an important mechanism of thermocline deepening near and to the east of the dateline. In the warm pool, instead, surface horizontal convergence and downwelling motion have a leading role in subsurface warming, since equatorward mass convergence is weaker and counterbalanced by subsurface zonal divergence. The picture emerging from our results highlights the complexity of the three dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the tropical Pacific during the heat buildup leading to EN events.

  16. Mental imagery of gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  18. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 1. Data related to sites and plants: Paks NPP, Kozloduy NPP. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains reports on data related to sites and NPPs Paks and Kozloduy

  19. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 1. Data related to sites and plants: Paks NPP, Kozloduy NPP. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains reports on data related to sites and NPPs Paks and Kozloduy.

  20. The Schwarzschild metric: It's the coordinates, stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromholz, Pierre; Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-04-01

    Every general relativity textbook emphasizes that coordinates have no physical meaning. Nevertheless, a coordinate choice must be made in order to carry out real calculations, and that choice can make the difference between a calculation that is simple and one that is a mess. We give a concrete illustration of the maxim that "coordinates matter" using the exact Schwarzschild solution for a vacuum, static spherical spacetime. We review the standard textbook derivation, Schwarzschild's original 1916 derivation, and a derivation using the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the Einstein field equations. The last derivation is much more complicated, has one aspect for which we have been unable to find a solution, and gives an explicit illustration of the fact that the Schwarzschild geometry can be described in infinitely many coordinate systems.