Sample records for relative lipid content

  1. RF Microalgal lipid content characterization

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali


    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps.

  2. Live-cell quantification and comparison of mammalian oocyte cytosolic lipid content between species, during development, and in relation to body composition using nonlinear vibrational microscopy.

    Jasensky, Joshua; Boughton, Andrew P; Khmaladze, Alexander; Ding, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Swain, Jason E; Smith, George W; Chen, Zhan; Smith, Gary D


    Cytosolic lipids participate in the growth, development, and overall health of mammalian oocytes including many roles in cellular homeostasis. Significant emphasis has been placed on the study of lipids as a dynamic organelle, which in turn requires the development of tools and techniques to quantitate and compare how lipid content relates to cellular structure, function, and normalcy. Objectives of this study were to determine if nonlinear vibrational microscopy (e.g., coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering or CARS microscopy) could be used for live-cell imaging to quantify and compare lipid content in mammalian oocytes during development and in relation to body composition; and compare its efficacy to methods involving cellular fixation and staining protocols. Results of this study demonstrate that CARS is able to identify lipids in live mammalian oocytes, and there exists quantifiable and consistent differences in percent lipid composition across ooctyes of different species, developmental stages, and in relation to body composition. Such a method of live-cell lipid quantification has (i) experimental power in basic cell biology, (ii) practical utility for identifying developmental predictive biomarkers while advancing biology-based oocyte/embryo selection, and (iii) ability to yield rationally supporting technology for decision-making in rodents, domestic species, and human assisted reproduction and/or fertility preservation.

  3. Reproductive Cycle and Seasonal Variations in Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Gonad of the Cockle Fulvia mutica in Relation to Temperature and Food

    LIU Wenguang; LI Qi; KONG Lingfeng


    From March 2004 to February 2005,seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions (e.g.,temperature and food availability).Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad.Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn,whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6℃).The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter.In both neutral and polar lipids,the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids,and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant,with series n-3 as the predominant component.Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle.The ∑(n-3)and ∑(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May,and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months.The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F.mutica.

  4. Reproductive cycle and seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition in gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica in relation to temperature and food

    Liu, Wenguang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng


    From March 2004 to February 2005, seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions ( e.g., temperature and food availability). Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad. Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn, whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6°C). The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter. In both neutral and polar lipids, the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant, with series n-3 as the predominant component. Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle. The Σ(n-3) and Σ(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May, and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months. The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F. mutica.

  5. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Lipid Metabolic Process in Liver Related to the Difference of Carcass Fat Content in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Hu, Guo; Gu, Wei; Sun, Peng; Bai, Qingli


    Excessive accumulation of carcass fat in farm animals, including fish, has a significant impact on meat quality and on the cost of feeding. Similar to farmed animals and humans, the liver can be considered one of the most important organs involved in lipid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). RNA-seq based whole transcriptome sequencing was performed to liver tissue of rainbow trout with high and low carcass fat content in this study. In total 1,694 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, including many genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as L-FABP, adiponectin, PPAR-α, PPAR-β, and IGFBP1a. Evidence presented in this study indicated that lipid metabolic process in liver may be related to the difference of carcass fat content. The relevance of PPAR-α and PPAR-β as molecular markers for fat storage in liver should be worthy of further investigation. PMID:27652256

  6. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Lipid Metabolic Process in Liver Related to the Difference of Carcass Fat Content in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Guo Hu


    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of carcass fat in farm animals, including fish, has a significant impact on meat quality and on the cost of feeding. Similar to farmed animals and humans, the liver can be considered one of the most important organs involved in lipid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. RNA-seq based whole transcriptome sequencing was performed to liver tissue of rainbow trout with high and low carcass fat content in this study. In total 1,694 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, including many genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as L-FABP, adiponectin, PPAR-α, PPAR-β, and IGFBP1a. Evidence presented in this study indicated that lipid metabolic process in liver may be related to the difference of carcass fat content. The relevance of PPAR-α and PPAR-β as molecular markers for fat storage in liver should be worthy of further investigation.

  7. Variation of content of lipid classes, sterols and fatty acids in gonads and digestive glands of Scrobicularia plana in relation to environment pollution levels.

    Perrat, E; Couzinet-Mossion, A; Fossi Tankoua, O; Amiard-Triquet, C; Wielgosz-Collin, G


    Lipids are central for energy metabolism and their fate in bivalves is closely linked to environmental conditions and gametogenic cycle. In order to assess the pollution impact on lipid metabolism of bivalves, storage and structure lipids from samples of Scrobicularia plana were studied. These samples were collected during sexual maturity both from estuaries considered contaminated (Goyen and Blavet) and from a reference site (Bay of St Brieuc) for comparison. Lipids were extracted from the gonads and the digestive glands and further separated by column chromatography. Fatty acids and sterols were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlations were shown between dioxin-like compounds (Eq-TCDD) and triacyglycerol levels (TAG). In the same way, glycolipids and contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and pollutants with estrogenic activity seem to be closely related. In a second time, lipid indices (ratio between storage and structure lipids) were evaluated. Whereas these indices are often used in fish to assess habitat quality with regards to differential anthropogenic pressure, the ratio TAG/sterols was not here significantly influenced by the site of origin of S. plana. Intersite fluctuations of the ratio TAG/phospholipids also remained very limited. This could be explained by the limited contamination level in studied sites but also by a contrasted response from organisms in different taxa (bivalves vs. fish). Environmental pollution is not the only factor able to induce changes in lipid classes. The trophic wealth seemed to be different between the reference site and contaminated estuaries, the total organic carbon content being higher in muddy estuarine sediments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of ovariectomy and resistance training on lipid content in skeletal muscle, liver, and heart; fat depots; and lipid profile

    Baldissera, Vilmar; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Prestes, Jonato; Domingos, Mateus Moraes; Shiguemoto, Gilberto Eiji; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Bernardes, Celene Fernandes; Duarte, Josiane Oliveira; Leite, Richard Diego


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on skeletal muscle lipid content, liver lipid content, heart lipid content, fat depots, and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats...

  9. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth


    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio.

  10. Protein and lipid oxidative damage and complex I content are lower in the brain of budgerigar and canaries than in mice. Relation to aging rate.

    Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Sanz, Alberto; Ayala, Victoria; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Barja, Gustavo


    What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to mammals of similar body size and metabolic rate. Thus, they are ideal models to identify longevity-related characteristics not linked to body size or low metabolic rates. Since oxidative stress seems to be related to the basic aging process, we measured specific markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins, like glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes (GSA and AASA, specific protein carbonyls), Nɛ-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and Nɛ-(malondialdehyde)lysine (MDAL), as well as mitochondrial Complex I content and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition, in the brain of short-lived mice (maximum life span [MLSP] 3.5 years) compared with those of long-lived budgerigar 'parakeets' (MLSP, 21 years) and canaries (MLSP, 24 years). The brains of both bird species had significantly lower levels of compounds formed as a result of oxidative (GSA and AASA), glycoxidative (CEL and CML), and lipoxidative (CML and MDAL) protein modifications, as well as a lower levels of mitochondrial complex I protein. Although it is known that fatty acid unsaturation is lower in many tissues of long-lived compared to short-lived mammals, this is not true in the particular case of brain. In agreement with this, we also found that the brain tissue of bugerigars and canaries contains no fewer double bonds than that of mice. Amino acid composition analyses revealed that bird proteins have a significantly lower content of His, Leu and Phe, as well as, interestingly, of methionine, whereas Asp, Glu, Ala, Val, and Lys contents were higher than in the mammals. These results, together with those previously described in other tissues of pigeons (MLSP, 35 years) compared to rats (MLSP, 4 years), indicate that oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA are lower in birds (very

  11. Quantifying lipid contents in enveloped virus particles with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Feizpour, Amin; Yu, Xinwei; Akiyama, Hisashi; Miller, Caitlin M; Edmans, Ethan; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Reinhard, Björn M


    Phosphatidylserine (PS) and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1 ) are examples of two host-derived lipids in the membrane of enveloped virus particles that are known to contribute to virus attachment, uptake, and ultimately dissemination. A quantitative characterization of their contribution to the functionality of the virus requires information about their relative concentrations in the viral membrane. Here, a gold nanoparticle (NP) binding assay for probing relative PS and GM1 lipid concentrations in the outer leaflet of different HIV-1 and Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) using sample sizes of less than 3 × 10(6) particles is introduced. The assay evaluates both scattering intensity and resonance wavelength, and determines relative NP densities through plasmon coupling as a measure for the target lipid concentrations in the NP-labeled VLP membrane. A correlation of the optical observables with absolute lipid contents is achieved by calibration of the plasmon coupling-based methodology with unilamellar liposomes of known PS or GM1 concentration. The performed studies reveal significant differences in the membrane of VLPs that assemble at different intracellular sites and pave the way to an optical quantification of lipid concentration in virus particles at physiological titers.

  12. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies

    Normalizing 13C values of animal tissue for lipid content is necessary to accurately interpret food web relationships from stable isotope analysis. This is because lipids are 13C-depleted relative to proteins and carbohydrates, and because lipid content varies among speci...

  13. Impact of lipid content and composition on lipid oxidation and protein carbonylation in experimental fermented sausages.

    Fuentes, Verónica; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia


    This study aims to investigate the effect of lipid content (∼4%, ∼10% and ∼15%) and composition (different lipid sources; animal fat and sunflower oil) on the oxidative stability of proteins and lipids in experimental fermented sausages. Increasing the lipid content of sausages enhanced the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation whereas the effect on the formation of specific carbonyls from protein oxidation was not so evident. Sausages manufactured with different lipid sources affected the susceptibility of lipids and proteins to oxidation as a likely result of the modifications in the fatty acid profile, as well as to the presence of antioxidant compounds. While the fatty acid profile had a major effect on the occurrence and extent of lipid oxidation, the presence of compounds with potential antioxidant activity may be more influential on the extent of protein carbonylation.

  14. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  15. Seasonal variations of lipid content and composition in Perna viridis.

    Li, Duo; Zhang, Yonghua; Sinclair, Andrew J


    The total lipid content, composition of main lipid classes, composition of sterols and composition of fatty acids in the main glycerolipids of Perna viridis were analyzed through four seasons using TLC-FID and GLC. Mussel samples were collected during different seasons between 2003 and 2004 from Shengsi Island, Zhejiang Province, China and stored frozen prior to freeze-drying and lipid extraction. Ten grams of dried mussel powder of each season were analyzed. Total lipid content ranged from 14.5 g/100 g in spring month to 7.8 g/100 g dried mussel powder in autumn month. The predominant lipid in spring month was triacylglycerol (TAG), however, in the other three seasons the phospholipids (PL) was the main lipid class. The most abundant fatty acid in TAG, PL and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was 16:0, with the summer samples having the highest proportion (24-30% of total fatty acid) and winter the lowest (14-22%). In phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the spring samples had the highest proportions of 16:0. The predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 in TAG, PL, PE and PC (25-40%). The proportions of 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 were higher in spring than in other seasons in PL and PE. There were nine sterols identified, with cholesterol being the predominant sterol, and other main ones were desmostersol/brassicasterol and 24-methylenecholesterol. Proportions of other fatty acids in different lipid fractions and the sterol compositions as well also varied seasonally. There were subject to the seasonal variations. Differences in lipid content and composition, fatty acid composition in different lipid fractions may be caused by multiple factors such as lifecycle, sex, variation of plankton in different seasons and temperature, which could influence physiological activities and metabolism.

  16. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth


    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  17. [Age-dependent changes in phospholipid content and neutral lipid contents in aging].

    Ovsepian, L M; Kazarian, G S; Akopdzhanian, A A; L'vov, M V


    Oxidative processes and lipid metabolism in young (3-4 months) and old (25-28 months) were studied. The increase of the rate of reactions of free radical oxidation of lipids (hydroperoxides, and malondialdehyde) and the accumulation of products of oxidative modification of proteins was recorded in mitochondrial fraction of rat brain. The accumulation of nitric oxide in the mitochondria and the oxidation products leads to the development of oxidative stress. Investigation of the lipid spectrum in old rat brains showed that aging was accompanied by a change in the qualitative and quantitative content of phospholipids. A change in the metabolism of neutral glycolipids leads to a decrease in the content of cerebrosides and sulfoserobrosides. At the same time an increase in sphingosine (a product of hidrolytic decomposition of neutral glycolipids) was observed. The key role of lipid metabolism in age pathologies was noticed.

  18. Brain lipids in rats fed a diet supplemented with hen eggs of modified lipid content

    Hodžić Aida


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to research the impact of a diet supplemented with egg yolks of modified content, having in mind the type of fat added to the laying hens diet, on the brain lipids and their fatty acid composition in rats. During four weeks of the experiment, 64 Wistar rats, divided into four groups of 16 animals each (eight animals of both sexes, were fed the commercial rat feed (group C, or the feed that contained 70% of the commercial rat feed and 30% of freshly boiled yolks from the eggs originating from laying hens fed with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Concentration and content of total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as the fatty-acid composition of the total brain lipids were determined in the lipid extracts of the rats brains. Under unfavourable conditions, which in our case could be high dietary intake of the total fat due to egg yolk addition, the amount of total fat in the brain tissue or the mass of the organ itself can be changed. Applied dietary treatments could also influence the level of de novo synthesis of total cholesterol in the rat brain. High dietary fat intake, as well as the fat quality regarding its fatty acid composition, appear to be able to significantly influence the fatty acid profile of the total brain lipids in adult rats, whereas the level and quality of the changes also depend on sex.


    feeding experiments conducted in the laboratory showed that total lipid ~I ... related to feeding level, and was not affected by temperature although food intake at ..... Blaxter & Holliday (1963) have shown that the reason for this relationship is that ... the neutral triglyceride fat was metabolized but a residual amount of fat was ...

  20. [Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].

    Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M


    The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids.

  1. Mesothelioma tumor cells modulate dendritic cell lipid content, phenotype and function.

    Joanne K Gardner

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in the generation of anti-cancer immune responses, however there is evidence that DCs in cancer patients are dysfunctional. Lipid accumulation driven by tumor-derived factors has recently been shown to contribute to DC dysfunction in several human cancers, but has not yet been examined in mesothelioma. This study investigated if mesothelioma tumor cells and/or their secreted factors promote increases in DC lipid content and modulate DC function. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs were exposed to human mesothelioma tumor cells and tumor-derived factors in the presence or absence of lipoproteins. The data showed that immature MoDCs exposed to mesothelioma cells or factors contained increased lipid levels relative to control DCs. Lipid accumulation was associated with reduced antigen processing ability (measured using a DQ OVA assay, upregulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, and production of the tolerogenic cytokine, IL-10. Increases in DC lipid content were further enhanced by co-exposure to mesothelioma-derived factors and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, but not low-density lipoproteins. In vivo studies using a murine mesothelioma model showed that the lipid content of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ CD8α- DCs, CD4- CD8α- DCs DCs and plasmacytoid DCs increased with tumor progression. Moreover, increasing tumor burden was associated with reduced proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. This study shows that mesothelioma promotes DC lipid acquisition, which is associated with altered activation status and reduced capacity to process and present antigens, which may impair the ability of DCs to generate effective anti mesothelioma T cell responses.

  2. Lipid and fatty acid content in wild white seabream (Diplodus sargus) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle.

    Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, C; Cejas, J R; Martín, M V; Jerez, S; Lorenzo, A


    The lipid and fatty acid content of the gonads, liver and muscle of wild white seabream males and females was studied at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Samples were taken from mature white seabream at pre-spawning (November), mid-spawning (March) and post-spawning (June) stages. The results showed that lipid accumulates in gonads and muscle from November to March. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was also increased during this period. Male gonads showed a greater increase in polar lipid (PL) than neutral (NL), while female gonads displayed the reverse. The increase in both neutral and polar lipid was higher in the muscle of males than in females. In the same period, male livers showed no changes either in lipid content or the hepatosomatic index (HSI), while female livers registered an increase in both lipid content and HSI. Between March and June, in both males and females, total, neutral and polar lipid decreased sharply in the gonads and muscle. Muscular lipid content reduction was more pronounced in males than females. On the other hand, the lipid content of the liver in males and females remained relatively constant. In general terms, the amounts of major fatty acids (16:0, 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) in gonadal and muscular polar and neutral lipid in both males and females increased from November to March and declined thereafter. Variations of the liver fatty acid content were less extreme. In the period from mid-spawning to post-spawning, the presence of 20:4n-6 in polar and neutral lipid increased to a notable extent in all organs studied.

  3. Fluorescopic evaluation of protein-lipid relations in cellular signalling.

    Pap, E.H.W.


    IntroductionCellular communication is partly mediated through the modulation of protein activity, structure and dynamics by lipids. In contrast to the biochemical aspects of lipid signalling, relatively little is known about the physical properties of the "signal" lipids (lipids involved in cellular

  4. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh


    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...... (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). FA content in single species deviated considerably, although the main FA were C18:3n-3 and C18:2n-6, with chervil being the exception with C18:1n-9 as main FA. The majority of FA were found in the phospholipid and sterol fraction, with C18:3n-3...

  5. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa


    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  6. The effect of the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle on the (13)C contents of bacterial lipids

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Meer, M.T.J. van der; Schouten, S.


    Free and esterified lipids of a green sulfur bacterium, Chlorobium limicola, and a purple sulfur bacterium, Thiocapsa roseopersicina, were investigated to examine the effect of the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle on the 13C contents of their lipids. The lipids of C. limicola are 2 to 16 enriched

  7. Proteomic analysis of oil bodies in mature Jatropha curcas seeds with different lipid content.

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Fan; Shen, Shihua


    To reveal the difference among three mature Jatropha curcas seeds (JcVH, variant with high lipid content; JcW, wild type and JcVL, variant with low lipid content) with different lipid content, comparative proteomics was employed to profile the changes of oil body (OB) associated protein species by using gels-based proteomic technique. Eighty-three protein species were successfully identified through LTQ-ES-MS/MS from mature JcW seeds purified OBs. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of J. curcas OB associated protein species revealed they had essential interactions with other organelles and demonstrated that oleosin and caleosin were the most abundant OB structural protein species. Twenty-eight OB associated protein species showed significant difference among JcVH, JcW and JcVL according to statistical analysis. Complementary transient expression analysis revealed that calcium ion binding protein (CalBP) and glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP) were well targeted in OBs apart from the oleosins. This study demonstrated that ratio of lipid content to caleosins abundance was involved in the regulation of OB size, and the mutant induced by ethylmethylsulfone treatment might be related to the caleosin like protein species. These findings are important for biotechnological improvement with the aim to alter the lipid content in J. curcas seeds. The economic value of Jatropha curcas largely depends on the lipid content in seeds which are mainly stored in the special organelle called oil bodies (OBs). In consideration of the biological importance and applications of J. curcas OB in seeds, it is necessary to further explore the components and functions of J. curcas OBs. Although a previous study concerning the J. curcas OB proteome revealed oleosins were the major OB protein component and additional protein species were similar to those in other oil seed plants, these identified OB associated protein species were corresponding to the protein bands instead of protein

  8. Ocean Warming and CO₂-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod.

    Valles-Regino, Roselyn; Tate, Rick; Kelaher, Brendan; Savins, Dale; Dowell, Ashley; Benkendorff, Kirsten


    Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO₂-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52%) with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO₂ on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO₂ acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted.

  9. Ocean Warming and CO2-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod

    Roselyn Valles-Regino


    Full Text Available Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO2-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52% with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO2 on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO2 acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted.

  10. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent


    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan


    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  12. An environmentally-friendly fluorescent method for quantification of lipid contents in yeast.

    Poli, Jandora Severo; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Valente, Patricia; Angelidaki, Irini


    This study aimed at developing an efficient, fast and environmentally-friendly method to quantify neutral lipid contents in yeast. After optimising the fluorescence instrument parameters and influence of organic solvent concentrations, a new method to quantify neutral lipids in yeast based on fluorescence was demonstrated. Isopropanol and Nile red in concentrations of 5% (final volume%) and 500 μg/L, respectively, were added to washed cells suspended in potassium chloride phosphate buffered saline (PBSKCl). Fluorescence was measured after 10 min in the dark. Glyceryltrioleate was used as model lipid and the calibration curve showed linearity (R(2)=0.994) between 0.50 and 25 mg/L. Compared with traditional gravimetric analysis, the developed method is much faster and uses less organic solvents. Lipid contents determined by fluorescence and gravimetry were the same for some strains, but for other strains the lipid contents determined by fluorescence were less. This new method will therefore be suitable for fast screening purposes.

  13. Continuous-flow sorting of microalgae cells based on lipid content by high frequency dielectrophoresis

    Doug Redelman


    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous-flow cell screening device to isolate and separate microalgae cells (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on lipid content using high frequency (50 MHz dielectrophoresis. This device enables screening of microalgae due to the balance between lateral DEP forces relative to hydrodynamic forces. Positive DEP force along with amplitude-modulated electric field exerted on the cells flowing over the planar interdigitated electrodes, manipulated low-lipid cell trajectories in a zigzag pattern. Theoretical modelling confirmed cell trajectories during sorting. Separation quantification and sensitivity analysis were conducted with time-course experiments and collected samples were analysed by flow cytometry. Experimental testing with nitrogen starveddw15-1 (high-lipid, HL and pgd1 mutant (low-lipid, LL strains were carried out at different time periods, and clear separation of the two populations was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that three populations were produced during nitrogen starvation: HL, LL and low-chlorophyll (LC populations. Presence of the LC population can affect the binary separation performance. The continuous-flow micro-separator can separate 74% of the HL and 75% of the LL out of the starting sample using a 50 MHz, 30 voltages peak-to-peak AC electric field at Day 6 of the nitrogen starvation. The separation occurred between LL (low-lipid: 86.1% at Outlet # 1 and LC (88.8% at Outlet # 2 at Day 9 of the nitrogen starvation. This device can be used for onsite monitoring; therefore, it has the potential to reduce biofuel production costs

  14. Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in ...



    Jan 8, 2007 ... Genetic diversity of seed lipid content and fatty acid composition in some .... Seed oil was estimated by conventional Soxhlet method using petroleum ether as .... Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC Association of Official ...

  15. Effects of Different Dietary Lipid Contents on Growth and Lipase Activity of Eriocheir sinensis Larvae

    ZHENG Debin; PAN Luqing; FANG Bo


    The effects of different dietary lipid content on the growth and lipase activity ofEriocheir sinensis larvae were studied in the paper.The results showed that the survival,metamorphic rate and weight gain ofE.sinensis larvae at different stages of growth all varied significantly with lipid content(P<0.05).Further,the survival and metamorphosis rates were the highest during the larval phases Z3 to Z4,and the weight gain was the highest during the larval phases Z5 to M.During the first 20h after metamorphosis of every larval stage,the lipase activity increased over time at Z1,Z2,Z3 and M and declined at Z4 and Z5,and was influenced significantly by lipid content(P<0.05).In addition,lipase activity at each larval stage began to respond to dietary lipid contents 4h after the larvae were fed,and tended to be stable after 12 h.The diets with higher lipase activity and lower lipid content were selected to give the suitable recipe of lipid requirements at each larval stage.It was concluded that the suitable lipid requirements at Z1,Z2,Z3,Z4,Z5 and M were 6%,4%,6%,8%,8% and 10%,respectively.

  16. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh


    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...

  17. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.


    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  18. The effect of lipid content on the elemental composition and energy capacity of yeast biomass.

    Minkevich, Igor G; Dedyukhina, Emiliya G; Chistyakova, Tat'yana I


    Oleaginous yeasts (18 strains) were grown in ethanol media under various cultivation conditions (33 biomass samples). It was found that lipid and lipid-free fractions of dry biomass have elemental composition and biomass reductivity very close to values which can be considered as biological constants. The energy content of dry biomass strongly depended on the total lipid content. When the lipid content was 64%, the energy value of dry biomass reached 73% of diesel oil; therefore, oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising source of biodiesel fuel. The approach used in this work makes it possible to determine the energy value of biomass by its elemental composition without application of laborious and expensive calorimetric measurements of combustion heats.

  19. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids: Influence of operational variables and polar lipid content.

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro A; Jiménez Callejón, María J; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Castillo López, Beatriz; Molina Grima, Emilio


    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) were produced from Nannochloropsis gaditana wet biomass (12% saponifiable lipids, SLs) by extraction of SLs and lipase catalyzed transesterification. Lipids were extracted by ethanol (96%)-hexane, and 31% pure SLs were obtained with 85% yield. When the lipids were degummed, SL purity increased to 95%. Novozym 435 was selected from four lipases tested. Both the lipidic composition and the use of t-butanol instead of hexane increased the reaction velocity and the conversion, since both decreased due to the adsorption of polar lipids on the lipase immobilization support. The best FAME yield (94.7%) was attained at a reaction time of 48h and using 10mL of t-butanol/g SL, 0.225gN435/g SL, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio and adding the methanol in three steps. In these conditions the FAME conversion decreased by 9.8% after three reaction cycles catalyzed by the same lipase batch.

  20. Effects of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Feeding, Size, and Lipid Content on Egg Maturation.

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C


    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) is synovigenic and must feed as an adult to produce eggs. Egg maturation rates depend on the host plant species provided to the adult female for feeding and are variable for females provided with the same host plant species. Here, the contribution of female size and lipid content to variation in egg maturation rates among females held on the same host plant species was assessed. To assess effects of female size and lipid content on egg maturation, feeding assays followed by measurements of egg load, female size, and lipid content were conducted. To accomplish this, females were field collected and held on cowpea until producing approximately 0, 12, 25, or 50 ml of excreta. After reaching prescribed excreta thresholds, females were dissected to determine egg load, hind tibia length, and head capsule width. Mature eggs were removed from the abdomen and dry weight of eggs and bodies (head, thorax, and abdomen) were obtained. Lipid content of eggs and bodies were determined using a quantitative colorimetric assay. Rates of body weight gain and body lipid gain were rapid with low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta) but decelerated with additional feeding (>12 ml of excreta). In contrast, low levels of feeding (12 ml of excreta) resulted in little egg production, with rates of egg production accelerating with additional feeding (>12 ml of excreta). Accordingly, egg production was preceded by an increase in body dry weight and body lipid content. In agreement, probability that a female carried eggs increased with body lipid content in the 0-, 12-, and 25-ml feeding treatments. Across treatments, larger females carried more eggs than smaller females. Collectively, results suggest that variation in glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation rates partially may be explained by availability of lipid reserves at the start of a feeding bout and female size.

  1. Alternation in Lipid Composition of Wheat Leaves Induced by Phosphate Deficiency Is Related to Both Lipid Biosynthesis and Phosphatidylglycerol Degradation

    YANGWen; FENGFu-Ying; HOUHai-Tong; JIANGGui-Zhen; XUYi-Nong; KUANGTing-Yun


    In this study, the causes of the changes in lipid composition induced by different phosphatenutrient levels were investigated. Wheat plants were grown in phosphate-deficient and phosphate-suffcient conditions, respectively, and lipid compositions in the leaves of 9-day-old and 16-day-old plants wereanalyzed. We found that phosphate deficiency induced a dramatic change at the lipid levels in photosyntheticmembranes of wheat leaves and the extent of changes in lipid composition depended on the leaf ages.Phosphate deficiency induced a gradual decrease in PG and MGDG and a concomitant increase in DGDGand SQDG from the first leaf to the second and the third leaf on 16-day-old plants. In addition, as comparedto leaves grown under phosphate sufficient solution, PG content in the first leaf of 16-day-old plants wassignificantly lower than that of 9-day-old leaf with 2.5 mol% versus 5.5 mol% when these plants were grownunder phosphate deficient condition. From these results, it is suggested that the alternation in lipidcomposition in wheat leaves induced by phosphate deficiency is related to both lipid biosynthesis and PGdegradation. PG decrease in younger leaves is mainly due to insufficient phosphate supply for PG biosynthesis,while PG degradation mainly resulted in the PG decrease in older leaves.

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Sajjad Ahmad; Simerjeet Kaur; Neil Dylan Lamb-Palmer; Mark Lefsrud; Jaswinder Singh


    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM) taking population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K) into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Sajjad Ahmad


    Full Text Available Field pea (Pisum sativum L. is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model (MLM taking population structure (Q and relative kinship (K into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of Pisum sativum accessions for marker-trait association of lipid content

    Sajjad; Ahmad; Simerjeet; Kaur; Neil; Dylan; Lamb-Palmer; Mark; Lefsrud; Jaswinder; Singh


    Field pea(Pisum sativum L.) is an important protein-rich pulse crop produced globally. Increasing the lipid content of Pisum seeds through conventional and contemporary molecular breeding tools may bring added value to the crop. However, knowledge about genetic diversity and lipid content in field pea is limited. An understanding of genetic diversity and population structure in diverse germplasm is important and a prerequisite for genetic dissection of complex characteristics and marker-trait associations. Fifty polymorphic microsatellite markers detecting a total of 207 alleles were used to obtain information on genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations. Cluster analysis was performed using UPGMA to construct a dendrogram from a pairwise similarity matrix. Pea genotypes were divided into five major clusters. A model-based population structure analysis divided the pea accessions into four groups. Percentage lipid content in 35 diverse pea accessions was used to find potential associations with the SSR markers. Markers AD73, D21, and AA5 were significantly associated with lipid content using a mixed linear model(MLM) taking population structure(Q) and relative kinship(K) into account. The results of this preliminary study suggested that the population could be used for marker-trait association mapping studies.

  5. Lipids, lipid genes, and incident age-related macular degeneration: The three continent age-related macular degeneration consortium

    R. Klein (Ronald); C.E. Myers (Chelsea); G.H.S. Buitendijk (Gabrielle); E. Rochtchina (Elena); X. Gao (Xiaoyi); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); T.A. Sivakumaran (Theru); G. Burlutsky (George); R. McKean-Cowdin (Roberta); A. Hofman (Albert); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); K.E. Lee (Kristine); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); P. Mitchell (Paul); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin)


    textabstractPurpose To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Meta-analysis. Methods setting: Three population-based cohorts. population: A total of 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES),

  6. Lipids, lipid genes, and incident age-related macular degeneration : the three continent age-related macular degeneration consortium

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K; Lee, Kristine E; Stricker, Bruno H; Vingerling, Johannes R; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E K; Klaver, Caroline C W; Wang, Jie Jin

    PURPOSE: To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: setting: Three population-based cohorts. population: A total of 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue

  7. Relation between plasma and brain lipids

    Wellington, Cheryl L; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth


    : Plasma levels of traditional lipids and lipoproteins are not consistently associated with risk of dementia even though low plasma levels of apolipoprotein E, through unknown mechanisms, robustly predict future dementia. Experimental evidence suggests neuroprotective roles of several brain...... and cerebrospinal fluid apolipoproteins. Whether plasma levels of apolipoprotein E, or any other apolipoprotein with possible central nervous system and/or blood-brain barrier functions (apolipoproteins J, A-I, A-II, A-IV, D, C-I, and C-III) may become accessible biomarker components that improve risk prediction...

  8. Effect of Fe3+ on the growth and lipid content of Isochrysis galbana

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Guangce


    Inducing lipid accumulation in microalgae cells without suppressing cell growth is vital to the economical production of biodiesel from microalgae. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the cell concentration and lipid content of marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana depend upon the iron concentration in the growth media. In Experiment I, adding chelated FeCl3 to the medium at the late exponential growth phase prolonged this phase and increased the lipid content in I. galbana cells. The final cell density and lipid content of I. galbana supplemented with chelated FeCl3 was approximately 2 and 1.65 times higher than that of non-supplemented cultures, respectively. In Experiment II, I. galbana cells in the late exponential phase were collected and re-inoculated into new media containing Fe3+ at various concentrations. The final cell concentration and lipid content were maximized at the highest iron concentration (38% biomass by dry weight at 1.2×10-5 mol/L Fe3+). In this study, intracellular neutral lipid storage was evaluated by fluorescent spectrophotometry using fluorochrome Nile red, and the measurement conditions were optimized.

  9. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures



    The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another...

  10. Seasonal trends in the condition of nesting females of a solitary bee: wing wear, lipid content, and oocyte size

    Kevin M. O’Neill


    Full Text Available During the nesting season, adult females of the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F. face considerable physical and energy demands that could include increasing wear and tear on their bodies and decreasing lipid reserves. Consequently, their reproductive performance may be affected not only by extrinsic factors (e.g., weather and floral resource availability, but intrinsic changes in their own bodies. Because of the potential fitness effects of seasonal changes in body condition, our objectives were to determine how wing wear, lipid reserves, and oocyte sizes vary during nesting seasons, beginning when females emerge as adults. As nesting progressed, females in two populations experienced a steady increase in wing wear, which is known to reduce foraging efficiency and increase risk of mortality in other bees. Soon after emergence, females exhibited sharp declines in lipid content which remained low for the remainder of the season. Newly-emerged females ingested pollen, an activity known to be correlated with the initiation of egg maturation in this species. Additionally, the early summer drop in lipid stores was correlated with an increase in the size of the oocytes carried. However, by ∼6 weeks after emergence, oocytes began to decrease in length and volume, perhaps due to nutrient deficiencies related to loss of stored lipids. Our results suggest management of M. rotundata should include rearing bees at temperatures that maximize stored lipid reserves in adults and timing bee release so that significant pollen resources are available for both adults and offspring.

  11. [Review: plant polyphenols modulate lipid metabolism and related molecular mechanism].

    Dai, Yan-li; Zou, Yu-xiao; Liu, Fan; Li, Hong-zhi


    Lipid metabolism disorder is an important risk factor to obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes as well as other chronic metabolic disease. It is also a key target in preventing metabolic syndrome, chronic disease prevention. Plant polyphenol plays an important role in maintaining or improving lipid profile in a variety of ways. including regulating cholesterol absorption, inhibiting synthesis and secretion of triglyceride, and lowering plasma low density lipoprotein oxidation, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the lipid regulation effects of plant polyphenols and its related mechanisms.

  12. Task Analysis - Its Relation to Content Analysis.

    Gagne, Robert M.

    Task analysis is a procedure having the purpose of identifying different kinds of performances which are outcomes of learning, in order to make possible the specification of optimal instructional conditions for each kind of outcome. Task analysis may be related to content analysis in two different ways: (1) it may be used to identify the probably…

  13. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo


    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  14. The effect of nutrition pattern alteration on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth, lipid biosynthesis-related gene transcription.

    Fan, Jianhua; Cui, Yanbin; Zhou, Yang; Wan, Minxi; Wang, Weiliang; Xie, Jingli; Li, Yuanguang


    Heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition leads to the accumulation of lipids in Chlorella, which has potential to produce both healthy food and biofuels. Therefore, it is of key interest to study the metabolism shift and gene expression changes that influenced by the transition. Both total and neutral lipids contents were increased rapidly within 48 h after the switch to light environment, from 24.5% and 18.0% to 35.3% and 27.4%, respectively, along with the sharp decline of starch from 42.3% to 10.4% during 24h photoinduction phase. By analyzing the correlation between lipid content and gene expression, results revealed several genes viz. me g3137, me g6562, pepc g6833, dgat g3280 and dgat g7566, which encode corresponding enzymes in the de novo lipid biosynthesis pathway, are highly related to lipid accumulation and might be exploited as target genes for genetic modification. These results represented the feasibility of lipid production through trophic converting cultivation.

  15. Transformation of lipid bodies related to hydrocarbon accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race B.

    Reiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available The colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii accumulates large quantities of hydrocarbons mainly in the extracellular space; most other oleaginous microalgae store lipids in the cytoplasm. Botryococcus braunii is classified into three principal races (A, B, and L based on the types of hydrocarbons. Race B has attracted the most attention as an alternative to petroleum by its higher hydrocarbon contents than the other races and its hydrocarbon components, botryococcenes and methylsqualenes, both can be readily converted into biofuels. We studied race B using fluorescence and electron microscopy, and clarify the stage when extracellular hydrocarbon accumulation occurs during the cell cycle, in a correlation with the behavior and structural changes of the lipid bodies and discussed development of the algal colony. New accumulation of lipids on the cell surface occurred after cell division in the basolateral region of daughter cells. While lipid bodies were observed throughout the cell cycle, their size and inclusions were dynamically changing. When cells began dividing, the lipid bodies increased in size and inclusions until the extracellular accumulation of lipids started. Most of the lipids disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the extracellular accumulation, and then reformed. We therefore hypothesize that lipid bodies produced during the growth of B. braunii are related to lipid secretion. New lipids secreted at the cell surface formed layers of oil droplets, to a maximum depth of six layers, and fused to form flattened, continuous sheets. The sheets that combined a pair of daughter cells remained during successive cellular divisions and the colony increased in size with increasing number of cells.

  16. Aspects of the usefulness of five marine pollution biomarkers, with emphasis on MN and lipid content

    Koukouzika, N. [Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Dimitriadis, V.K. [Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)], E-mail:


    By using cellular biomarkers, such as the formation of the micronucleus, the morphometric alterations of lipids and the morphometric changes in the lysosomal system, we investigated effects of experimental exposure to phenanthrene, Cu, Cd, and Hg for 15 days in mussels. Concerning micronuclei, the evaluation of the total nuclear abnormalities, instead of the micronucleus only, as a biomarker of marine pollution, indicated more statistically significant differences between the control and the pollutant treated groups. Contrary to the existing knowledge showing that there is an increase in lipid content after pollutant exposure, our results showed that there was a decrease in the amount of lipid, as well as an increase in the number of neutral lipids. Furthermore, although prior studies found that fewer lysosomes formed after pollutant exposure, this was not confirmed by our work, as pollutant treated animals exhibited a decrease in the volume and an increase in the numerical density of lysosomes, compared to control groups.

  17. Evaluation of Lipid Content in Microalgae Biomass Using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome)

    Kamyab, Hesam; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Khademi, Tayebeh; Kumar, Ashok; Rezania, Shahabaldin


    The scope of this study is to assess the main component of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to be used as organic carbon for microalgae. The applicable parameters such as optical density, chlorophyll content, mixed liquor suspended solid, mixed liquor volatile suspended solid, cell dry weight (CDW), carbon:total nitrogen ratio and growth rate were also investigated in this study. The characteristics and morphological features of the isolates showed similarity with Chlorella. Chlorella pyrenoidosa ( CP) was found to be a dominant species in POME and Chlorella vulgaris ( CV) could grow well in POME. Furthermore, the optimal lipid production was obtained at the ratio 95:05 CDW with highest lipid production by CP compared to CV. At day 20, CDW for CV species was obtained at 193 mg/L and with lipid content at 56 mg/L. Finally, the concentration ratio at 50:50 showed a higher absorbance of chlorophyll a for both strains.

  18. Influence of lipids in the generation of phenylacetaldehyde in wort-related model systems.

    Gallardo, Emerenciana; De Schutter, David P; Zamora, Rosario; Derdelinckx, Guy; Delvaux, Freddy R; Hidalgo, Francisco J


    The effect of lipids on the formation of the Strecker aldehyde phenylacetaldehyde during wort boiling was studied to determine the role that small changes in the lipid content of the wort have in the production of significant flavor compounds in beer. Wort was treated with 0-2.77 mmol per liter of glucose, linoleic acid, or 2,4-decadienal and heated at 60-98 degrees C for 1 h. After this time, the amount of the Strecker aldehyde phenylacetaldehyde increased in the samples treated with linoleic acid or decadienal but not in the samples treated with glucose. Thus, the amount of phenylacetaldehyde produced in the presence of linoleic acid was 1.1-2.5 times the amount of the Strecker aldehyde produced in the control wort, and this amount increased to 3.6-4.6 times when decadienal was employed. The higher reactivity of decadienal than linoleic acid for this reaction decreased with temperature and was related to the oxidation of linoleic acid that occurred to a higher extent at higher temperatures. The above results suggest that lipids can contribute to the formation of Strecker aldehydes during wort boiling and that changes in the lipid content of the wort will produce significant changes in the formation of Strecker aldehydes in addition to other well-known consequences in beer quality and yeast metabolism. On the other hand, because of the high glucose content in wort, small changes in its content are not expected to affect the amount of Strecker aldehydes produced.

  19. Effects of stocking density on lipid deposition and expression of lipid-related genes in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Wen, Haishen; Li, Yun; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Ni, Meng


    To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m(3), MSD 8.0 kg/m(3), and HSD 11.0 kg/m(3)) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly with increasing stocking density, while no significant change was observed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the cDNAs encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were isolated in Amur sturgeon, respectively. The full-length LPL cDNA was composed of 1757 bp with an open reading frame of 501 amino acids, while the complete nucleotide sequences of HL covered 1747 bp encoding 499 amino acids. In the liver, the activities and mRNA levels of LPL were markedly lower in HSD group, which were consistent with the variation tendency of HL. Fish reared in HSD group also presented lower levels of activities and mRNA expression of LPL in the muscle and gonad. Moreover, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in both the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly upregulated in HSD group. Overall, the results indicated that high stocking density negatively affects growth performance and lipid deposition of Amur sturgeon to a certain extent. The downregulation of LPL and HL and the upregulation of PPARα may be responsible for the lower lipid distribution of Amur sturgeon in higher stocking density.

  20. Relative contribution of lipid sources to eggs of lesser scaup

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Parker, Michael


    Studies of how birds mobilize nutrients to eggs have traditionally considered a continuum of possible allocation strategies ranging from income breeding (rely on food sources found on the breeding grounds) to capital breeding (rely on body reserves stored prior to the breeding season). For capital breeding, stored body reserves can be acquired either on or away from the breeding grounds, but it has been difficult to quantify the relative contribution of each, precluding identification of key habitats for acquiring nutrients for clutch formation. During 2006–2009, we explored the importance of spring-staging habitats versus breeding-area habitats for egg-lipid formation in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis using stable carbon (δ13C) isotope analyses. Although δ13C values for abdominal lipid reserves brought to the breeding grounds overlapped those of local amphipods, we were able to quantify the importance of local plant carbohydrates (seeds of emergent wetland plants) to the production of eggs. We compared the importance of local wetland seeds (overall δ13C: −29.1 ± 0.9‰ SD) to combined lipid stores and lipids from local amphipods (overall δ13C: −23.8 ± 2.2‰). Local seeds and stored body lipids contributed equally to egg lipid formation across years but we found evidence of annual variation in their relative importance. Wetland seeds contributed 39% (SE = 10%) to egg lipid production, and the importance of this source varied by year (90% CI = 47–75% in 2006, 13–42% in 2007, 29–65% in 2008, and 7–30% in 2009). In contrast to earlier studies that suggest lesser scaup predominantly employ a capital breeding strategy, our results suggest that in some years females may attain half of their energy for clutch formation from foods on the breeding grounds.

  1. Subinhibitory concentration of octenidine and pirtenidine: influence on the lipid and sterol contents of Candida albicans.

    Ghannoum, M A; Moussa, N M; Whittaker, P; Swairjo, I; Abu-Elteen, K H


    The effect of subinhibitory concentrations of octenidine and pirtenidine on the lipid and sterol composition of Candida albicans was investigated. The total lipid and sterol contents of C. albicans grown in the presence of either octenidine or pirtenidine were reduced compared with control-grown cells. The major differences in the lipid composition of drug-grown and control cells were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, which increased in the presence of octenidine and pirtenidine. Lower proportions of phosphatidic acid were found in yeasts grown in the presence of the drugs when compared with control C. albicans. Fatty acid analysis of control-grown cells showed that the major fatty acids were C16 and C18. Drug-grown cells had higher proportions of palmitic and linolenic acids but lower proportion of oleic acid. The C16/C18 ratios were higher for octenidine- and pirtenidine-grown cells than control cells. Differences in the fatty acid composition of major phospholipids and neutral lipids between drug-grown and control yeasts were also observed. Sterol analysis of control-grown cells showed that the major sterol present was ergosterol (65.9%). A significant increase in squalene and 4,14-dimethylzymosterol was observed in pirtenidine-treated cells, while octenidine-treated cells showed an increase in zymosterol and obtusifoliol contents. Our results suggest that octenidine and pirtenidine affect the lipids and sterol of C. albicans in different ways. The implications of these findings on the mode of action of these two drugs is discussed.

  2. Lipid and glycogen contents in liver of high-yield dairy cows in peripartal period

    Đoković Radojica


    Full Text Available Liver tissue samples were taken by biopsy from Holstein cows in advanced stages of gravidity and in early lactation for pathological-histological examinations. Lipid content in hepatocytes was determined using the stereometric method by calculating volume density, and of glycogen using semi-quantitative microscopic examination of sections stained according to the method of Best. Pathological-histological examinations of liver tissue samples in healthy animals, gravid or peripartal cows did not reveal lipid infiltration or cell degeneration, and hepatocytes were completely or partly filled with glycogen. In ketotic cows, pathological-histological examinations of liver tissue samples showed lipid infiltration and hepatocyte degeneration of different intensity. In only one ketotic cow, we determined a slight degree of lipid infiltration, there was a medium degree of lipid infiltration and degeneration in six cows, and three cows were found to have a grave form of fatty liver. The quantity of glycogen in hepatocytes is in negative correlation with the degree of lipid infiltration and degeneration. In severe cases of fatty liver, glycogen is completely absent from hepatocyte cytoplasm.

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I lysine modification: effects on helical content, lipid binding and cholesterol acceptor activity.

    Brubaker, Gregory; Peng, Dao-Quan; Somerlot, Benjamin; Abdollahian, Davood J; Smith, Jonathan D


    We examined the role of the positively charged lysine residues in apoAI by chemical modification. Lysine modification by reductive methylation did not alter apoAI's net charge, secondary or tertiary structure as observed by circular dichroism and trytophan fluorescence, respectively, or have much impact on lipid binding or ABCA1-dependent cholesterol acceptor activity. Acetylation of lysine residues lowered the isoelectric point of apoAI, altered its secondary and tertiary structure, and led to a 40% decrease in cholesterol acceptor activity, while maintaining 93% of its lipid binding activity. Exhaustive lysine acetoacetylation lowered apoAI's isoelectric point, profoundly disrupted its secondary and tertiary structure, and led to 90% and 82% reductions in cholesterol acceptor and lipid binding activities, respectively. The dose-dependent acetoacetylation of an increasing proportion of apoAI lysine residues demonstrated that cholesterol acceptor activity was more sensitive to this modification than lipid binding activity, suggesting that apoAI lysine positive charges play an important role in ABCA1 mediated lipid efflux beyond the role needed to maintain alpha-helical content and lipid binding activity.

  4. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures.

    Bohnenberger, Juliana E; Crossetti, Luciane O


    The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate). The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control) and 37°C for eight days (n=3). Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform) method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  5. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures



    Full Text Available The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate. The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control and 37°C for eight days (n=3. Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  6. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby


    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  7. Biophotonic perception on Desmodesmus sp. VIT growth, lipid and carbohydrate content.

    Sriram, Srinivasan; Seenivasan, Ramasubbu


    Constant and fluctuating light intensity significantly affects the growth and biochemical composition of microalgae and it is essential to identify suitable illumination conditions for commercial microalgae biofuel production. In the present study, effects of light intensities, light:dark cycles, incremental light intensity strategies and fluctuating light intensities simulating different sky conditions in indoor photobioreactor on Desmodesmus sp. VIT growth, lipid and carbohydrate content were analyzed in batch culture. The results revealed that Desmodesmus sp. VIT obtained maximum lipid content (22.5%) and biomass production (1.033 g/L) under incremental light intensity strategy. The highest carbohydrate content of 25.4% was observed under constant light intensity of 16,000 lx and 16:08 h light:dark cycle. The maximum biomass productivity of Desmodesmus sp. VIT (53.38 mg/L/d) was occurred under fluctuating light intensity simulating intermediate overcast sky condition.

  8. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats.

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A M; Groen, Albert K; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J


    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid partitioning in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats by use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). After baseline measurements, rats were randomized to exercise or no-exercise groups. A subset of animals was subjected to MRS directly after 1 h of treadmill running for measurement of total intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content (n=7 lean and diabetic rats). The other animals were administered 13C-labeled lipids orally after treadmill visit (with or without exercise) followed by MRS measurements after 4 and 24 h to determine the 13C enrichment of IHCL and IMCL (n=8 per group). Total IHCL and IMCL content were fivefold higher in diabetic vs. lean rats (Plean and diabetic rats (Plean rats (Plean and diabetic rats, lipid uptake was 44% reduced after acute exercise (Plean and diabetic rats, and exercise differentially affects dietary lipid uptake in muscle and liver.

  9. Ectopic Fat Deposition on Insulin Sensitivity: Correlation of Hepatocellular Lipid Content and M Value

    Beverly S. Hong


    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to explore the relationship among insulin sensitivity and ectopic fat depots in participants with different glucose status. Methods. Fifty-nine men and women were enrolled in this study: 29 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 17 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and 13 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. All participants underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess the insulin sensitivity index (M value and magnetic resonance imaging to measure the hepatocellular lipid content (HCL, skeletal muscle fat content including intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL of tibialis anterior (ta, and soleus muscle (sol. Results. The M value of NGT group was higher than those of IGT and T2DM groups (P=0.001. Participants with T2DM had the highest HCL and IMCL (ta compared with those in NGT and IGT groups (P=0.001. The M value had an inverse relationship with HCL (r=-0.789, P=0.001, IMCL (sol (r=-0.427, P=0.002, and IMCL (ta (r=-0.419, P=0.002. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that HCL (standardized β=-0.416; P=0.001 had an independent relationship with M value. Conclusions. Hepatocellular lipid content deposition happens earlier than skeletal muscle fat deposition. HCL is an independent risk factor for insulin resistance and may be used to evaluate the risk of developing T2DM as a noninvasive marker of insulin sensitivity index.

  10. Effect of gamma 60Co irradiation on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae

    Ermavitalini, Dini; Sari, Ika Puspita; Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Saputro, Triono Bagus


    Nannochloropsissp. has been identified as a promising feed stock for biodiesel production in recent years. Nannochloropsis sp. have high lipid content between 31-68 % of dry biomass weight. Mutagenesis induced by Gamma 60Co irradiation can be utilized to alter Nannochloropsis sp. characteristic to get microalgae mutant strain that can produce a higher lipid content than the wild strain. The aim of this research was to know the effect of gamma 60Co irradiation to the biomass, lipid content and fatty acid compotition of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae. In this research, irradiation was done in different doses there were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gray (Gy). Measuring microalgae biomass and lipid content were done in late exponential phase at the end of each treatment. Research design used is random complete with 95 % confident level for quantitative analysis based on biomass and lipid content. Fatty acid compotition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that gamma irradiated gave an effect on lipid content and fatty acid profile of Nannochloropsis sp. Tukey test showed total lipid content of control micoalgae (0 Gy) was significat different with 10 Gy irradiated microalgae, but no significant different with 2,4 and 6 Gy irradiated microalgae. The highest lipid content were found in 10 Gy irradiated microalgae equal to 62.65 %. Fatty acid profile of 10 Gy irradiated Nannochloropsis sp. had 9 fatty acids while control Nannochloropsis sp. had 6 fatty acids.

  11. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

    Ali Moradi


    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  12. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    E. di Angelantonio (Emanuele); P. Gao (Pei); L. Pennells (Lisa); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); M. Caslake (Muriel); A. Thompson (Alexander); A.S. Butterworth (Adam); S. Sarwar (Sheryar); D. Wormser (David); D. Saleheen; C. Ballantyne (Christie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Sundstrom (Johan); P.M. Ridker (Paul); D. Nagel (Dorothea); R.F. Gillum (Richard); I. Ford (Ian); P. Ducimetiere (Pierre); S. Kiechl (Stefan); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); G. Assmann (Gerd); R.B. D'Agostino (Ralph); G.R. Dagenais (Gilles R); J.A. Cooper (Jackie); D. Kromhout (Daan); A. Onat (Altan); A. Tipping (Alex); A. Gómez-de-la-Cámara (Agustín); A. Rosengren (Annika); S.E. Sutherland (Susan); J. Gallacher (John); F.G.R. Fowkes (F. Gerald R.); E. Casiglia (Edoardo); A. Hofman (Albert); V. Salomaa (Veikko); E. Barrett-Connor (Elizabeth); R. Clarke (Robert); E. Brunner (Eric); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); L.A. Simons (Leon); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); N.J. Wareham (Nick); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); J. Kauhanen (Jussi); J.T. Salonen; W.J. Howard (William); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); A.M. Wood (Angela); S.G. Thompson (Simon); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); N. Sattar (Naveed); C. Packard (Chris); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J. Danesh (John)


    textabstractContext: The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated. Objective: To determine whether adding information on apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), or lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 to to

  13. Thickness of Lipid Deposition on Oral Surfaces Depending on Oil Content and Its Influence on Mouthfeel Perception

    Urška Pivk Kupirovič


    Full Text Available Lipid content in food strongly influences food perception on the level of textural properties. Lipids in contact with the tongue and palate are substantially responsible for the sensory impact of a product. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of oil content on the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface as well as on the mouthfeel perception. The fluorescent probe method was used to study the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surface. We observed an increase in the thickness of lipid deposition depending on the increase of oil content in oil/water dispersions. Clear correlation was shown between the thickness of lipid deposition on oral surfaces and the perception of mouthfeel. A direct measure of undisrupted deposition of food components on oral surface contributes to the understanding of the behaviour of food components in the mouth and their influence on mouthfeel perception.

  14. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A;


    OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing......-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 173 (84 male and 89 female) healthy subjects, BMI Body composition parameters including data on total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lean body soft tissue mass (LTM), total and regional fat mass (FM) were estimated in all...

  15. Milling of wheat, maize and rice:Effects on fibre and lipid content and health

    FI Tovey; Hon. Research Fellow; M Hobsley


    @@ During the last thirty years the main interest in the medical consequences of milling of staple carbohydrate foods,particularly wheat and maize, has been in its effect on the fibre content as a result of the milling. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the West saw great changes in milling processes, from stone milling using water or wind power, to increasingly sophisticated roller milling, with an increasing loss of fibre in the process. In the 1970s and onwards there was an enhanced interest in possible diseases which could be related to the loss of fibre in the diet. At one time the list included diverticulitis, appendicitis, varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis, carcinoma of the colon, Crohn‘s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, peptic ulcer, gall stones,hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux, disorders of lipid metabolism and coronary heart disease! Over the course of time medical evidence has narrowed this list down to a much smaller number, of which the most important are diverticular disease and carcinoma of the colon.

  16. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  17. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    McLaughlin, John E; Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; Widiez, Thomas; Finn, Daniel; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E


    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin), a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1) contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  18. Simultaneous increases in specific growth rate and specific lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris through UV-induced reactive species.

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K


    A challenge in algae-based bio-oil production is to simultaneously enhance specific growth rates and specific lipid content. We have demonstrated simultaneous increases in both the above in Chlorella vulgaris through reactive species (RS) induced under ultraviolet (UV) A and UVB light treatments. We postulated that the changes in photosystem (PS) stoichiometry and antenna size were responsible for the increases in specific growth rate. UVB treatment excited PSII, which resulted in a twofold to sevenfold increase in PSII/PSI ratio compared to control. An excited PSII caused a 2.7-fold increase in the specific levels of superoxide and a twofold increase in the specific levels of hydroxyl radicals. We have established that the increased specific intracellular RS (si-RS) levels increased the PSII antenna size by a significant 10-fold as compared to control. In addition, the 8.2-fold increase in specific lipid content was directly related to the si-RS levels. We have also demonstrated that the RS induced under UVA treatment led to a 3.2-fold increase in the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio. Based on the findings, we have proposed and demonstrated a UV-based strategy, which achieved an 8.8-fold increase in volumetric lipid productivity.

  19. Blood Lipids and other Related Risk Factors of stroke

    Liu YAND; Hiu Lu


    Abstract To assess the ralationship between incidence of stroke and blood lipids, apolipoprolcin (apo) , 219 patients with stroke(cerebral hemorrhage 87, cerebral infarction 132) , diagnosed with the aid of CT, were examined. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerioes, apo-A, apo-B were calculatea. 160 cases with no disorder in metabolism of blood lipids or other disease of meurologic system were taken as centrol group. The results zhowed that the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low clensity lipoprotein cholesterol was iower than.that of control group(p<0. 05) . In the patients group, cases with diabetes, hypentension coronary heart disease or onesity, the levels of blood liprds. triglyceride and cholesterol were higher than those vithout above mentioned disease The condusion is, that there is certain reletionship between the contents of bliid lipids. lipoprotein and it sulqraction HDL2, HDL3 and cerebrovasculor cisease. The radis of high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprolein is the important factor in predicting of stroke

  20. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello


    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.


    S. I. Voychuk


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the portion of polar and neutral lipids in the cells of Clostridium during their cultivation in the presence of butanol. Four natural isolates of Clostridium genus were studied with flow cytometry approaches. Under the optimal culture conditions, the polar lipids prevailed over neutral ones in bacterial cells; the content of neutral lipids doubled in spores of these microorganisms, while the content of polar ones was reduced. Strains No 1 and No 2 were able to grow at 1% butanol in the medium, and the strain No 4 was at 1.5%. When cultivated in the presence of different concentrations of butanol, the bacterial strains did not differ in such cytomorphological features as granularity and cell size. The quantitative content of polar and neutral lipids in the presence of butanol varied depending on the content of butanol in the medium, however this effect had a strain-specific character and did not show a correlation with the resistance of these bacteria to butanol. So, the content of polar and neutral lipids varied depending on butanol content in the medium. However this effect was strain-specific independently of resistance of these bacteria to butanol. The use of bacterial biomass as a source of lipids for the production of biofuels requires further optimization of the process to increase the content of the neutral lipid fraction in bacterial cells.

  2. Nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design for enhancing lipid content and lipid production of a newly isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31: implications for biofuels.

    Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Microalgae are recognized for serving as a sustainable source for biodiesel production. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen starvation strategies and photobioreactor design on the performance of lipid production and of CO(2) fixation of an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31. Comparison of single-stage and two-stage nitrogen starvation strategies shows that single-stage cultivation on basal medium with low initial nitrogen source concentration (i.e., 0.313 g/L KNO(3)) was the most effective approach to enhance microalgal lipid production, attaining a lipid productivity of 78 mg/L/d and a lipid content of 55.9%. The lipid productivity of C. vulgaris ESP-31 was further upgraded to 132.4 mg/L/d when it was grown in a vertical tubular photobioreactor with a high surface to volume ratio of 109.3 m(2)/m(3) . The high lipid productivity was also accompanied by fixation of 6.36 g CO(2) during the 10-day photoautotrophic growth with a CO(2) fixation rate of 430 mg/L/d. Analysis of fatty acid composition of the microalgal lipid indicates that over 65% of fatty acids in the microalgal lipid are saturated [i.e., palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0)] and monounsaturated [i.e., oleic acid (C18:1)]. This lipid quality is suitable for biodiesel production.

  3. Effect of storage and processing of Brazilian flaxseed on lipid and lignan contents

    Renée Leão Simbalista


    Full Text Available Flaxseed has been widely studied around the world; its incorporation into products habitually consumed by human populations has been stimulated due to its unique nutritional value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Brazilian flaxseed, to analyze the stability of lipids present in whole flaxseed flour (WFF or partially defatted flaxseed flour (DFF stored under several temperatures, and to investigate the effect of bread making on a product containing flaxseed. Whole flaxseed flour presented (g.100 g-1 25.7 of insoluble fiber, 10.7 of soluble fiber, 38.9 of lipids, and 2.65 of lignan. Defatted flaxseed flour presented 65% less lipids, 36% more fiber and 56% more lignan than whole flaxseed flour. The fatty acid profile was maintained in the defatted flaxseed flour, and it presented a stable composition during storage under ambient temperature, refrigeration, and freezing. The fatty acid profile was similar in the bread containing defatted flaxseed flour after dough development, baking, and storage at room temperature or refrigerated. After baking, 89% of the lignan content was kept in bread. Results show that Brazilian flaxseed has an interesting chemical composition, and that defatted flaxseed, by-product of lipid extraction, presents a good stability to grind and storage under several temperatures. Thus, defatted flaxseed flour can be incorporated in bread, increasing its nutritional and functional value.

  4. Lipid digestibility and energy content of distillers' corn oil in swine and poultry.

    Kerr, B J; Dozier, W A; Shurson, G C


    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME and apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract of 3 distillers' corn oil (DCO; 4.9, 12.8, or 13.9% free fatty acids [FFA]) samplescompared with a sample of refined corn oil (CO; 0.04% FFA) and an industrially hydrolyzed high-FFA DCO (93.8% FFA) in young pigs and growing broilers. In Exp. 1, 54 barrows (initial age = 28 d) were fed a common diet for 7 d and then fed their allotted dietary treatment (either 100% basal diet or 1 of 5 test diets consisting of 90% basal diet plus 10% test lipid) for the next 7 d in group pens (9 pigs/pen). For the next 10 d, pigs were moved to individual metabolism crates for continued diet and crate adaptation and to a twice-daily feeding regimen. Pigs remained on their respective diets for a 4-d total fecal and urine collection period. For Exp. 2, 567 male broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery (1 d of age) and reared in grower battery cages that contained 9 chicks per cage. Broilers were fed a common corn-soybean meal starter diet from placement until the beginning of the trial (19 d of age). Birds were then randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (94% basal diet plus 6% dextrose or 94% basal diet plus 6% test lipid substituted for dextrose) on d 19 and were allowed an 8-d dietary acclimation period followed by a 48-h energy balance assay. In Exp. 1, the DCO sample with 12.8% FFA contained the lowest ( 0.35) content among the lipids evaluated. In Exp. 2, lipids containing 0.04, 4.9, 12.8, and 13.9% FFA had similar nitrogen corrected apparent ME (AME) values (8,072, 7,936, 8,036, and 7,694 respectively), except for the industrially hydrolyzed DCO sample containing 93.8% FFA, which contained 6,276 kcal/kg ( < 0.01). Using published prediction equations, the predicted DE of these lipids for swine was 3.5% greater than the values determined in Exp. 1 for all lipid sources, except for the DCO sample containing 93.8% FFA, which the predicted DE was

  5. Lipid and energy contents in the bodies of queens of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: pre-and post-nuptial flight

    Ricardo Toshio Fujihara


    Full Text Available The nuptial flight allows males and females to meet and copulate and both need energy to perform this activity. Before leaving the nest, males and females are well nourished and ready to mate. However, little is known about the lipid and energy contents in females before the nuptial flight (virgins and after it (mated females. In this work we measured lipid concentrations in relation to body weight in these individuals. Our results showed that 16.82% of the bodies of young virgin females one month before mating flight are composed of lipids, contrasting with the 32.62% lipid content in mated females who had not excavated their nest yet, and 32.88% in those who had. The energy content measured for virgin females was 2942.63 J, contrasting with 6110.01 J for queens before excavating the nest and 5677.51 J after excavation. Based on our results, we conclude that the body mass, and therefore the lipid and energy contents in the bodies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa queens double during the last month before the nuptial flight. This energy resource is fundamental to the activities required during the nuptial flight, digging the nest and the founding of the colony.

  6. Lipid and moisture content modeling of amphidromous Dolly Varden using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Stolarski, J.T.; Margraf, F.J.; Carlson, J.G.; Sutton, T.M.


    The physiological well-being or condition of fish is most commonly estimated from aspects of individual morphology. However, these metrics may be only weakly correlated with nutritional reserves stored as lipid, the primary form of accumulated energy in fish. We constructed and evaluated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models as an alternative method of assessing condition in amphidromous Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma collected from nearshore estuarine and lotic habitats of the Alaskan Arctic. Data on electrical resistance and reactance were collected from the lateral and ventral surfaces of 192 fish, and whole-body percent lipid and moisture content were determined using standard laboratory methods. Significant inverse relationships between temperature and resistance and reactance prompted the standardization of these data to a constant temperature using corrective equations developed herein. No significant differences in resistance or reactance were detected among spawning and nonspawning females after accounting for covariates, suggesting that electrical pathways do not intersect the gonads. Best-fit BIA models incorporating electrical variables calculated from the lateral and ventral surfaces produced the strongest associations between observed and model-predicted estimates of proximate content. These models explained between 6% and 20% more of the variability in laboratory-derived estimates of proximate content than models developed from single-surface BIA data and 32% more than models containing only length and weight data. While additional research is required to address the potential effects of methodological variation, bioelectrical impedance analysis shows promise as a way to provide high-quality, minimally invasive estimates of Dolly Varden lipid or moisture content in the field with only small increases in handling time.

  7. Prediction of non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease and liver fat content by serum molecular lipids

    Orešic, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Kotronen, Anna


    We examined whether analysis of lipids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to MS allows the development of a laboratory test for non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), and how a lipid-profile biomarker compares with the prediction of NAFLD and liver-fat content based...

  8. Alterations in cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Ke; Tan, Liang; Chen, Yu-Hua; Cao, Yun-Peng


    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the protein, cholesterol, and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and identify potential blood biomarkers of the disease. A total of 31 Chinese patients with AD and 31 aged-matched control subjects were selected. Lipid rafts were isolated from platelets using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. The protein content of lipid rafts was evaluated using Micro BCA assay, the cholesterol content using molecular probes, ganglioside GM1 content using colorimetry and dot-blotting analysis. The results showed that the cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts from platelets was significantly higher in patients with AD than aged-matched control subjects, whereas the protein content of lipid rafts did not show any differences between the 2 groups. These results indicate that the increases in the cholesterol and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts from the platelets of patients with AD might serve as a biochemical adjunct to the clinical diagnosis of AD.

  9. Body Mass Parameters, Lipid Profiles and Protein Contents of Zebrafish Embryos and Effects of 2,4-Dinitrophenol Exposure.

    Nancy Hachicho

    Full Text Available Morphology and physiology of fish embryos undergo dramatic changes during their development until the onset of feeding, supplied only by endogenous yolk reserves. For obtaining an insight how these restructuring processes are reflected by body mass related parameters, dry weights (dw, contents of the elements carbon and nitrogen and lipid and protein levels were quantified in different stages within the first four days of embryo development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio. The data show age dependent changes in tissue composition. Dry weights decreased significantly from 79μgdw/egg at 0hours post fertilization (hpf to 61 μgdw/egg after 96 hpf. The amounts of total carbon fluctuated between 460 mg g-1 and 540 mg g-1 dw, nitrogen was at about 100 mg g-1 dw and total fatty acids were between 48-73 mg g-1 dw. In contrast to these parameters that remained relatively constant, the protein content, which was 240 mg g-1 at 0 hpf, showed an overall increase of about 40%. Comparisons of intact eggs and dechorionated embryos at stages prior to hatching (24, 30, 48 hpf showed that the differences seen for dry weight and for carbon and nitrogen contents became smaller at more advanced stages, consistent with transition of material from the chorion to embryo tissue. Further, we determined the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol at a subacutely toxic concentration (14 μM, LC10 as a model chemical challenge on the examined body mass related parameters. The compound caused significant decreases in phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acid contents along with a decrease in the phospholipid fatty acid unsaturation index. No major changes were observed for the other examined parameters. Lipidomic studies as performed here may thus be useful for determining subacute effects of lipophilic organic compounds on lipid metabolism and on cellular membranes of zebrafish embryos.

  10. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.


    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  11. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the leptocephalus larva of tropical eels.

    Deibel, D; Parrish, C C; Grønkjær, P; Munk, P; Nielsen, T Gissel


    The leptocephalus larva of eels distinguishes the elopomorph fishes from all other bony fishes. The leptocephalus is long lived and increases in size primarily through the synthesis and deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Energy stored during the larval stage, in the form of glycosaminoglycan and lipids, is required to fuel migration, metamorphosis and metabolism of the subsequent glass eel stage. Despite the importance of energy storage by leptocephali for survival and recruitment, their diet, condition and lipid content and composition is essentially unknown. To gain further insight into energy storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight(-1), at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had proportions of bacterial markers >4.4 %, consistent with the possibility that they consume appendicularian houses or other marine snow that is bacteria rich.

  12. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao


    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  13. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi


    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO2e·MJ(-1)MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body mass and lipid content of shorebirds overwintering on the south Texas coast

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.


    Three species of shorebirds were collected at bimonthly intervals in 1979-1980, from the time of their arrival in early autumn to mid-February, on the south Texas coast. Female Long-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) were heavier (P 0.05) between sexes in any of the three species. During the wintering period, fat stores in Long-billed Dowitchers and Western Sandpipers declined 70% and 44%, respectively, but not in American Avocets. Lipid content was highly correlated (P body mass in all three species, providing further evidence that fat accumulation is responsible for the major variation in total mass of some shorebird species.

  15. Acute toxicity of dispersed crude oil on the cold-water copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Elusive implications of lipid content.

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida B; Olsen, Anders J; Salaberria, Iurgi; Nordtug, Trond


    In this investigation, acute toxicity data were used from two previously reported studies where cold-water copepods were exposed to mechanically dispersed (MD) and chemically (CD) dispersed oil. In one of these studies, concentration-dependent mortality was observed, whereas no apparent relationship between exposure concentration and mortality was found in the other. The only marked difference between the studies is that copepods in the first experiment displayed a lower lipid sac volume (on average) than in the second one. In this study additional biometric data on lipid content were utilized and observed effects and toxicokinetics modeling applied in order to investigate whether differences in sensitivity between copepod cohorts might be explained by differences in lipid content. Results suggest that although a considerable lipid sac might retard toxicokinetics, the observed differences in lipid volume are not sufficient to explain differences in toxicity. Further, there are no apparent indications that acute toxic stress leads to lipid depletion, or that acute increased mortality rate selectively affects lipid-poor individuals. It is conceivable that other potential explanations exist, but the causal relationship between lipid content and increased mortality frequency remains elusive.

  16. Study of nickel and chrome influnce on lipid content and lipase activity in the germinating maize grains

    I. O. Filonik


    Full Text Available The influence of heavy metals – nickel and chromium – on the indices of lipid metabolism in seeds of the maize hybrid Blith 160 MV at the germination was studied. The reduction of the total lipid content and phospholipids, but increase of lipases activity, sterols and free fatty acids in the germinating grains under the toxicant action were revealed. Changes in the lipids content and lipases activity in the germinating maize seeds may be used as markers of the heavy metals influence on plants.

  17. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A


    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred.

  18. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen


    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  19. Efect of Gamma 60Co Irradiation on The Growth, Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Botryococcus sp. Microalgae

    Dini Ermavitalini


    Full Text Available Botryococcus sp. is one of microalgae species that has a high lipid content as much as 75% of their dry weight. But, lipid production by microalgae is regulated by their environmental condition (pH, light, temperature, nutrition, etc. Mutagenesis induced by Gamma 60Co irradiation can be utilized to alter the Botryococcus sp. genetic to get microalgae mutant strain that can produce a higher lipid content than the wild strain. Botryococcus sp. was irradiated with different doses of gamma ray of 60Co  (0, 2, 4, 6, and 10 Gy,  and the effect  on the growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of microalgae were observed. Research design used is random complete (RAL with 95 %  confident level for quantitive analysis based on the biomass and lipid contents. More over fatty acid composition was analyzed by Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Results showed that Gamma irradiated gave an effect on growth and lipid content of Botryococcus sp. But between the control treatment (0 Gy with microalgae irradiated dose of 2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy were not significantly different. Whereas between the control with 10 Gy irradiated was significantly different. The highest biomassa and lipid content are found in 10 Gy irradiated microalgae with 0.833 gram biomass and 41% lipid content. Fatty acid profile of Botryococcus sp. control has 6 fatty acids while 10 Gy irradiated microalgae has 12 fatty acids, with the long-chain fatty acids increased, whereas short-chain fatty acids decreased.

  20. Lipid content and composition of oocytes from five coral species: potential implications for future cryopreservation efforts.

    Chiahsin Lin

    Full Text Available Given the previously documented importance of lipid concentration and composition in the successful cryopreservation of gorgonian corals, these parameters were assessed in oocytes of five species of scleractinian coral; Platygyra daedalea, Echinopora gemmacea, Echinophyllia aspera, Oxypora lacera and Astreopora expansa. Wax esters, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and fatty acids were all measured at detectable levels, and the latter were produced at significantly elevated quantities in E. gemmacea, E. aspera, and O. lacera. On the other hand, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and wax ester were found at significantly higher concentrations in A. expansa oocytes. Triacylglycerol was not present in any species. Interestingly, the total lipid content of oocytes from all five scleractinians was significantly lower than that of oocytes of two gorgonian species, Junceella juncea and Junceella fragilis. As higher total lipid concentrations may be correlated with greater degrees of cellular membrane fluidity at lower temperatures, it stands to reason that gorgonian coral oocytes may be more likely to survive the cryopreservation process than oocytes of scleractinian corals.

  1. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7{alpha}- and 7{beta}- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions.

  2. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J


    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  3. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O


    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Lipids in grain tissues of oat (Avena sativa): differences in content, time of deposition, and fatty acid composition.

    Banas, Antoni; Debski, Henryk; Banas, Walentyna; Heneen, Waheeb K; Dahlqvist, Anders; Bafor, Maureen; Gummeson, Per-Olov; Marttila, Salla; Ekman, Asa; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten


    Oat (Avena sativa) is unusual in comparison with other cereals since there are varieties with up to 18% oil content. The lipid content and fatty acid composition in different parts of the grain during seed development were characterized in cultivars Freja (6% oil) and Matilda (10% oil), using thin-layer and gas chromatography, and light and electron microscopy. The majority of lipids (86-90%) were found in the endosperm. Ninety-five per cent of the higher oil content of cv. Matilda compared with cv. Freja was due to increased oil content of the endosperm. Up to 84% of the lipids were deposited during the first half of seed development, when seeds where still green with a milky endosperm. Microscopy studies revealed that whereas oil bodies of the embryo and scutellum still contained a discrete shape upon grain maturation, oil bodies of the endosperms fused upon maturation and formed smears of oil.

  5. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la


    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  6. Cardiac lipid content is unresponsive to a physical activity training intervention in type 2 diabetic patients, despite improved ejection fraction

    Leiner Tim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cardiac lipid content has been associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. We recently showed that cardiac lipid content is reduced after 12 weeks of physical activity training in healthy overweight subjects. The beneficial effect of exercise training on cardiovascular risk is well established and the decrease in cardiac lipid content with exercise training in healthy overweight subjects was accompanied by improved ejection fraction. It is yet unclear whether diabetic patients respond similarly to physical activity training and whether a lowered lipid content in the heart is necessary for improvements in cardiac function. Here, we investigated whether exercise training is able to lower cardiac lipid content and improve cardiac function in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Eleven overweight-to-obese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age: 58.4 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 29.9 ± 0.01 kg/m2 followed a 12-week training program (combination endurance/strength training, three sessions/week. Before and after training, maximal whole body oxygen uptake (VO2max and insulin sensitivity (by hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp was determined. Systolic function was determined under resting conditions by CINE-MRI and cardiac lipid content in the septum of the heart by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Results VO2max increased (from 27.1 ± 1.5 to 30.1 ± 1.6 ml/min/kg, p = 0.001 and insulin sensitivity improved upon training (insulin stimulated glucose disposal (delta Rd of glucose improved from 5.8 ± 1.9 to 10.3 ± 2.0 μmol/kg/min, p = 0.02. Left-ventricular ejection fraction improved after training (from 50.5 ± 2.0 to 55.6 ± 1.5%, p = 0.01 as well as cardiac index and cardiac output. Unexpectedly, cardiac lipid content in the septum remained unchanged (from 0.80 ± 0.22% to 0.95 ± 0.21%, p = 0.15. Conclusions Twelve weeks of progressive endurance/strength training was effective in improving VO2max, insulin sensitivity

  7. Profiling the Triacylglyceride Contents in Bat Integumentary Lipids by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Risch, Thomas S.; Savary, Brett J.


    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals. PMID:24056580

  8. Profiling the triacylglyceride contents in bat integumentary lipids by preparative thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Risch, Thomas S; Savary, Brett J


    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific determination of sebum composition. Analytical techniques for lipids typically require chemical derivatizations that are labor-intensive and increase sample preparation costs. This paper describes how to extract lipids from mammalian integument, separate broad lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography, and profile the triacylglyceride contents using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This robust method enables a direct determination of the triacylglyceride profiles among species and individuals, and it can be readily applied to any taxonomic group of mammals.

  9. Lipid content and essential fatty acid (EFA) composition of mature Congolese breast milk are influenced by mothers' nutritional status: impact on infants' EFA supply.

    Rocquelin, G; Tapsoba, S; Dop, M C; Mbemba, F; Traissac, P; Martin-Prével, Y


    Optimum infant growth and development, especially neurodevelopment and visual acuity, require sufficient n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acid supplies from the placenta or breast milk. The lipid content and fatty acid composition of mature breast milk were measured in samples from 102 randomly selected Congolese mothers of 5-month-old infants, residing in a suburban district of Brazzaville. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3; 14% of mothers were energy-deficient and 22% were overweight. Breast milk samples from these mothers were low in lipids (mean, 28.70 g/l), and 75% had a lipid content below reference values. Adequate lipid content was associated with a maternal diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats. Breast milk was rich in 8:0-14:0 fatty acids (25.97% of total fatty acids) and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3. These findings appear related to Congolese mothers' frequent consumption of high-carbohydrate foods such as processed cassava roots, wheat bread, and doughnuts known to enhance 8:0-14:0 fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as locally produced foods such as fish, vegetable oil, leafy green vegetables, and high-fat fruit that provide n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Milk lipid content was inversely associated with the maternal BMI, but was unrelated to maternal age or socioeconomic status. Since the essential fatty acid content of traditional complementary foods is lower than that present in breast milk, Congolese mothers should be encouraged to postpone the introduction of such foods until their infant is 4-6 months old.

  10. Differential channelling of liver lipids in relation to susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the goose.

    Hermier, D; Salichon, M R; Guy, G; Peresson, R


    In response to overfeeding for the production of "foie gras," the Poland goose differs from the Landes goose by a lesser susceptibility to hepatic steatosis, resulting in a lower accumulation of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG), together with a greater exportation of hepatic phospholipid (PL) in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) (Fournier et al., 1997). A study was designed 1) to compare the liver composition in overfed and nonoverfed geese of the two breeds of geese and 2) to determine whether the differential channelling of lipids in response to overfeeding is reflected in the PL and fatty acid profiles of the different hepatic lipids, whether stored or secreted. In nonoverfed geese, there were no breed-related differences in liver weight (approximately 90 to 100 g), hepatic lipid content (3 to 4%), and lipid and PL composition. However, plasma VLDL and HDL of the Landes breed contained a higher phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio than those of the Poland breed (20.7 and 33.8 vs 12.6 and 25.6 in VLDL and HDL, respectively). After 14 d of overfeeding, hepatic PL profiles were identical in the two breeds and similar to that in control livers; choline-containing PL accounted for 95% of total PL. In contrast, plasma HDL concentrations of the Landes geese were lower than those of the Poland geese (9.4 vs 12.9 g/L) and their PC:PE (13.6%) and PL-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content (25%) were decreased compared with the Poland geese (21.2 and 30%). It is likely that the higher susceptibility to fatty liver of the Landes breed involves a differential channelling of PL, resulting in a greater hepatic retention of PC and PUFA that are necessary for plasma membrane growth and cell hypertrophy.

  11. Content and Epistemic Relations: A Developmental Study of Recall

    Sara Verbrugge


    Full Text Available The study investigates the types of coherence relations adults and children can recall after having read a text. We discerned content and epistemic relations (Dancygier, 1998; Sweetser, 1990. Content relations express relations between events in reality. Epistemic relations typically express relations between states of thinking (premise-conclusion relations. The relations between the two parts of a content or epistemic relation is often made explicit by means of connectives. The differences between these types of sentences have been shown in different areas (e.g., reasoning, clause integration, acquisition. However, no clear results could be reached as for recall of these relations and the interaction with connectives. We aim to clarify this debate by means of an experiment involving 539 participants. The experiment revealed that the difficulty associated with epistemic relations decreases as participants get older. Interestingly, connectives play a larger role in participants' ability to recall epistemic compared to content relations.

  12. Determination of ether extract digestibility and energy content of specialty lipids with variable FA and FFA content, and the effect of lecithin, for nursery pigs

    Various specialty lipids are commercially available and used in nursery pig diets, but may have FA profiles and FFA content that affect their caloric value. In each of 2 experiments, 54 barrows (28-d of age) were fed a common diet for 7-d, allotted to dietary treatments and fed their respective expe...

  13. Effects of insulin sensitizers on plaque vulnerability associated with elevated lipid content in atheroma in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Cefalu, W T; Wang, Z Q; Schneider, D J; Absher, P M; Baldor, L C; Taatjes, D J; Sobel, B E


    Acute coronary syndromes are generally precipitated by rupture of lipid-laden, relatively acellular, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with thin fibrous caps. We investigated whether a high-fat diet alters insulin sensitivity and whether insulin sensitizers (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) alter the composition of otherwise lipidladen atherosclerotic plaques in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE-knockout mice were fed a high-fat (n=30) or standard chow (n=10) diet for two weeks. Thereafter, those fed the high-fat diet were treated with troglitazone (n=10), rosiglitazone (n=10) or no drug (n=10) for 16 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age. Carbohydrate metabolism was assessed with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests. Plaque composition was characterised with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The high-fat diet induced insulin resistance in the absence of weight gain. Compared with control animals on the high-fat diet, animals given troglitazone (400 mg/kg/day) or rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/day) had significantly less area under the curve (AUC) for insulin ( p<0.05) and glucose disposal ( p<0.05). Despite significant increases in insulin sensitivity with drug treatment, no change in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, nor reduction in atheroma size or lipid content was noted. Thus, improvement in insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet in this animal model of vasculopathy did not alter plaque composition.

  14. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

    Ali Moradi


    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  15. Paclitaxel-loaded lipid nanoparticles for topical application: the influence of oil content on lipid dynamic behavior, stability, and drug skin penetration

    Tosta, Fabiana Vaz; Andrade, Lígia Marquez; Mendes, Lívia Palmerston; Anjos, Jorge Luiz V.; Alonso, Antonio; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; Lima, Eliana Martins; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury


    Paclitaxel (PAC) has shown potential for regulating hyperkeratosis in skin diseases and its encapsulation in lipid nanoparticles could improve topical treatments. So, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers with 12.5 % (NLC1) and 25 % (NLC2) oil content were obtained and characterized. Lipid dynamic behavior was investigated through electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and comparative evaluations of EPR, and stability and skin permeation studies were performed. High entrapment efficiency was obtained for all formulations (over 90 %). The absence (SLN) or addition of 12.5 % oil (NLC1) did not significantly alter nanoparticle mean diameter, but 25 % oil (NLC2) produced smaller particles (270.6 ± 13.5 nm). EPR studies showed that 12.5 % oil increased NLC1 fluidity at the surface. Surprisingly, more oil increased NLC2 superficial rigidity, due to the decrease in nanoparticle mean diameter and additional PAC accumulation in the superficial environment. The oil in lipid matrices improved the physicochemical stability of NLC formulations, and drug-oil chemical affinity prevented PAC expulsion during storage time. NLC2 improved PAC skin penetration and was the only formulation capable of enhancing PAC penetration to deeper skin layers (about 6.48 ± 1.39 µg/cm2). PAC-NLC2 seemed to be very promising nanocarriers for the topical delivery of PAC.

  16. Paclitaxel-loaded lipid nanoparticles for topical application: the influence of oil content on lipid dynamic behavior, stability, and drug skin penetration

    Tosta, Fabiana Vaz; Andrade, Lígia Marquez; Mendes, Lívia Palmerston [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy (Brazil); Anjos, Jorge Luiz V. [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Physics Department (Brazil); Alonso, Antonio [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Biophysics Laboratory, Physics Institute (Brazil); Marreto, Ricardo Neves; Lima, Eliana Martins; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy (Brazil)


    Paclitaxel (PAC) has shown potential for regulating hyperkeratosis in skin diseases and its encapsulation in lipid nanoparticles could improve topical treatments. So, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers with 12.5 % (NLC1) and 25 % (NLC2) oil content were obtained and characterized. Lipid dynamic behavior was investigated through electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and comparative evaluations of EPR, and stability and skin permeation studies were performed. High entrapment efficiency was obtained for all formulations (over 90 %). The absence (SLN) or addition of 12.5 % oil (NLC1) did not significantly alter nanoparticle mean diameter, but 25 % oil (NLC2) produced smaller particles (270.6 ± 13.5 nm). EPR studies showed that 12.5 % oil increased NLC1 fluidity at the surface. Surprisingly, more oil increased NLC2 superficial rigidity, due to the decrease in nanoparticle mean diameter and additional PAC accumulation in the superficial environment. The oil in lipid matrices improved the physicochemical stability of NLC formulations, and drug-oil chemical affinity prevented PAC expulsion during storage time. NLC2 improved PAC skin penetration and was the only formulation capable of enhancing PAC penetration to deeper skin layers (about 6.48 ± 1.39 µg/cm{sup 2}). PAC-NLC2 seemed to be very promising nanocarriers for the topical delivery of PAC.

  17. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle


    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  18. Salmon Protamine Decreases Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Inhibiting Lipid Absorption in an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Model and in Rats.

    Hosomi, Ryota; Miyauchi, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Daiki; Arai, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji


    Protamine has been used as an antiheparin drug and a natural preservative in various food products. However, limited studies have evaluated the physicochemical and functional properties of protamine. Hence, we assessed the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of lipid absorption following salmon protamine intake in in vitro and in vivo studies. In initial experiments, a salmon protamine hydrolyzate (PH) was prepared using in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion suppressed pancreatic lipase activity and micellar cholesterol solubility. This PH had higher bile acid-binding capacity and emulsion breakdown activity than casein hydrolyzate and l-arginine. However, the hypolipidemic functions of protamine were dramatically reduced by pancreatin digestion. In further experiments, groups of male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 5% (wt/wt) salmon protamine or a protamine amino acid mixture. After 4 wk of feeding with experimental diets, reductions in serum and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol contents were observed in the presence of protamine, reflecting inhibition of TAG, cholesterol, and bile acid absorption. These data suggest that the formation of insoluble PH-bile acid complexes is critical before the bile acid-binding capacity is reduced. Therefore, dietary salmon protamine may ameliorate lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  19. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Limitation on the Growth and Lipid Content of Three Selected Microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp. and Scenedesmus sp. for Biodiesel Production

    Nita Rukminasari


    Full Text Available Microalgae is one of potential source for biodiesel due to high efficiency of solar energy conversion to chemical energy. Several microalgae also have high lipid content per dry weight of biomass. The aims of the present work to study the effects of temperature and nutrient depletion on the growth and lipid content of three selected microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp. and Scenedesmus sp. in view of their possible utilization as raw materials for biodiesel production. In addition, various lipid analysis methods were applied, such as gravimetric, Nile Red staining and FTIR spectroscopy. Algal growth and lipid content was strongly influenced by the variation of tested parameters; indeed, an increase or decrease temperature from ambient temparature and nutrient depletion practically increase in lipid content. Nile Red staining and FTIR spectroscopy are effective tool to analyse rapidly of lipid content from selected microalgae.

  20. Dynamical and structural properties of lipid membranes in relation to liposomal drug delivery systems

    Jørgensen, Kent; Høyrup, Lise Pernille Kristine; Pedersen, Tina B.


    The structural and dynamical properties of DPPC liposomes containing lipopolymers (PEG-lipids) and charged DPPS lipids have been,studied in relation to the lipid membrane interaction of enzymes and peptides. The results suggest that both the lipid membrane structure and dynamics and in particular...... the appearance of small-scale lipid structures might be of importance for the activity of membrane associated and liposome degrading enzymes as well as for the membrane interaction of acylated peptides. The combined experimental and simulation results are of relevance for a rational development of peptide loaded...

  1. Studying of Salinity Stress Effect on Germination, Proline, Sugar, Protein, Lipid and Chlorophyll Content in Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Leaves

    Parvaneh Rahdari


    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of country regions are under influence of salt and one of the main important methods for increasing of hectare performance in salt soils, using of resistant plant against with salt such as medicinal annual plant of Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L..Studying of the salt stress effect on germination and some physiological parameters in Purslane was carried out in completely random framework and with three replications and under controlled conditions. In this study, salinity was imposed by sodium chloride (NaCl and in five levels of framework included of Control (distilled water, 50, 100, 150 and 200 Mmol from NaCl. Studied physiological parameters included of proline, sugar, protein, lipid and chlorophyll in Purslane leaves.In relation with observed germination that increasing of salt level, germination rate was reduced that the least germination rate in 200 Mmol and the highest germination was observed in control which in statistical level 0.01 showed meaningful difference. Also, results showed an increasing of leaf proline and sugar that was synchronize with increasing of sodium chloride, this increasing in statistical level of P<0.01 was meaningful, while blank had the least rate and salt level 200 Mmol was observed. Synchronize with increasing of salinity level, lipid and protein concentration decreasing that was meaningful (P<0.01 which highest of leaf lipid and protein content in control level and least concentration was observed in 200 Mmol of salinity level. Also, salinity stress due to increasing of chlorophyll a and b levels in Purslane leaves which this increasing in leaf chlorophyll b concentrations in 0.01 statistical level was meaningful and the least level chlorophyll a and b in blank and the highest level of chlorophyll a and b by order in 150 and 200 Mmol of NaCl was observed. The results showed that plant for resistance against salinity increasing of proline, sugar and chlorophyll content in leaves are useful for

  2. Effect of carotenoid source and dietary lipid content on blood astaxanthin concentration in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Barbosa, M.J.; Morais, R.; Choubert, G.


    Astaxanthin concentration in the blood of rainbow trout was studied in a feeding trial with two different astaxanthin sources: green algae Haematococcus pluvialis and commercial beadlets of 8% astaxanthin content (CAROPHYLL® Pink), and two different dietary lipid levels. The green algae contained 1.4% of carotenoids on a dry matter basis: free astaxanthin (

  3. Low-cost production of green microalga Botryococcus braunii biomass with high lipid content through mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation.

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas


    Botryococcus braunii is a microalga that is regarded as a potential source of renewable fuel because of its ability to produce large amounts of lipid that can be converted into biodiesel. Agro-industrial by-products and wastes are of great interest as cultivation medium for microorganisms because of their low cost, renewable nature, and abundance. In this study, two strategies for low-cost production of B. braunii biomass with high lipid content were performed: (i) the mixotrophic cultivation using molasses, a cheap by-product from the sugar cane plant as a carbon source, and (ii) the photoautotrophic cultivation using nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with CO2 as a carbon source. The mixotrophic cultivation added with 15 g L(-1) molasses produced a high amount of biomass of 3.05 g L(-1) with a high lipid content of 36.9 %. The photoautotrophic cultivation in nitrate-rich wastewater supplemented with 2.0 % CO2 produced a biomass of 2.26 g L(-1) and a lipid content of 30.3 %. The benefits of this photoautotrophic cultivation are that this cultivation would help to reduce accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and more than 90 % of the nitrate could be removed from the wastewater. When this cultivation was scaled up in a stirred tank photobioreactor and run with semi-continuous cultivation regime, the highest microalgal biomass of 5.16 g L(-1) with a comparable lipid content of 32.2 % was achieved. These two strategies could be promising ways for producing cheap lipid-rich microalgal biomass that can be used as biofuel feedstocks and animal feeds.


    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  5. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    Osamah Hussein; Masha Grosovski; Etti Lasri; Sergio Svalb; Uzi Ravid; Nimer Assy


    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n =6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters.RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD+ olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, P < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95±0.07, P < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09±0.1,P < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group(0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group,ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group(1.58±0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil(3.3±0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0±0.4), and MCDD +butter group (2.9±0.36) were increased by 108%, 91%and 87%, respectively (P < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all treatment groups

  6. Development of a Smartphone Application to Capture Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Contents of Daily Food

    Diouri, Omar; Place, Jerome; Traverso, Magali; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Renard, Eric


    Background: Meal lipids (LIP) and proteins (PRO) may influence the effect of insulin doses based on carbohydrate (CHO) counting in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We developed a smartphone application for CHO, LIP, and PRO counting in daily food and assessed its usability in real-life conditions and potential usefulness. Methods: Ten T1D patients used the android application for 1 week to collect their food intakes. Data included meal composition, premeal and 2-hour postmeal blood glucose, corrections for hypo- or hyperglycemia after meals, and time for entering meals in the application. Meal insulin doses were based on patients’ CHO counting (application in blinded mode). Linear mixed models were used to assess the statistical differences. Results: In all, 187 meals were analyzed. Average computed CHO amount was 74.37 ± 31.78 grams; LIP amount: 20.26 ± 14.28 grams and PRO amount: 25.68 ± 16.68 grams. Average CHO, LIP, and PRO contents were significantly different between breakfast and lunch/dinner. The average time for meal entry in the application moved from 3-4 minutes to 2.5 minutes during the week. No significant impact of LIP and PRO was found on available blood glucose values. Conclusion: Our study shows CHO, LIP, and PRO intakes can be easily captured by an application on smartphone for meal entry used by T1D patients. Although LIP and PRO meal contents did not influence glucose levels when insulin doses were based on CHO in this pilot study, this application could be used for further investigation of this topic, including in closed-loop conditions. PMID:26424241

  7. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing


    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  8. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.


    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  9. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng


    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  10. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng; Hou, Yuyong


    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  11. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Zhenhua Yang


    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  12. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    Romero, María Del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María Del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier


    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.

  13. Lipid characterization of human saliva.

    Defagó, Maria Daniela; Valentich, Mirta Ana; Actis, Adriana Beatriz


    Salivary lipids have been scarcely studied, and the reported results present disparities. This literature review is presented based on the importance of saliva as a diagnostic and/or prognostic medium for various diseases, its lipid content, and on its potential use for the analysis of nutritional markers that contribute to the study of diseases related to lipid consumption and metabolism.

  14. Content validity and reliability of the Copenhagen social relations questionnaire

    Lund, Rikke; Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Henriksen, Pia Wichmann


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present article is to describe the face and content validity as well as reliability of the Copenhagen Social Relations Questionnaire (CSRQ). METHOD: The face and content validity test was based on focus group discussions and individual interviews with 31 informants....... Another 94 men and women participated in an 8-day test-retest analysis. RESULTS: Informants generally expressed that the questions and response categories were relevant and easy to understand. Themes on structure of social relations, social support, and negative aspects of social relations emerged clearly...... from the interviews. Two additional themes not covered by CSRQ on dynamics and reciprocity of social relations were identified. DISCUSSION: CSRQ holds satisfactory face and content validity as well as reliability, and is suitable for measuring structure and function of social relations including...

  15. Biocapture of CO2 from biogas by oleaginous microalgae for improving methane content and simultaneously producing lipid.

    Tongprawhan, Wassa; Srinuanpan, Sirasit; Cheirsilp, Benjamas


    This study aimed to use oleaginous microalgae to capture CO2 from biogas for improving methane content and simultaneously producing lipid. Several microalgae were screened for their ability to grow and produce lipid using CO2 in biogas. A marine Chlorella sp. was the most suitable strain for capturing CO2 and producing lipid using biogas (50% v/v CO2 in methane) as well as using 50% v/v CO2 in air. The medium and operating conditions were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal concentrations of KNO3 and K2HPO4 were 0.80gL(-1) and 0.06gL(-1), respectively. The optimal operating conditions were: initial pH of 7.8, initial cell concentration of 10(7.5)cellsmL(-1), light intensity of 4500lux and gas flow rate of 0.03Lmin(-1). After optimization, 89.3% of CO2 was removed from biogas and the methane content was increased up to 94.7%. The lipid productivity was 94.7mgL(-1)day(-1).


    L. D. Hidirova


    Full Text Available Aim. To study the balance between activity of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system and ferrum content in blood, lymph and myocardium of rats with experimental myocardial infarction (EMI.Material and methods. Experimental study included 116 Wistar male rats (200-220 g of body mass. The EMI was caused by subcutaneous adrenaline injection (0.2 mg/100 g of body mass. The EMI was confirmed by electrocardiography and histopathologic data. The plasma/lymph ferrum index was calculated as blood/lymph ferrum content ratio. The neutrophil chemiluminescence analysis was also performed. Intensity of lipid peroxidation was evaluated by levels of malonic dialdealdehyde, the diene conjugates and diketones. The catalase activity and recovered glutathione was assessed in the erythrocyte hemolysate. Activity of superoxide dismutase was determined in serum; total blood antioxidant activity was assessed by chemoluminescent method.Results. The neutrophil activity and lipid peroxidation intensity was increased. The total blood antioxidant activity was reduced (in 2.5-5 times as well as catalase activity and recovered glutathione level.Conclusion. The balance disorders between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity can result in myocardial injury. The ferrum redistribution from serum to lymph is observed in clinical course of myocardial infarction.

  17. Relation between copper, lipid profile, and cognition in elderly Jordanians.

    Al-khateeb, Eman; Al-zayadneh, Ebaa; Al-dalahmah, Osama; Alawadi, Zeinab; khatib, Faisal; Naffa, Randa; Shafagoj, Yanal


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of serum copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups: 52 dementia patients and 50 control subjects. All individuals were screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test. Serum copper and lipid profile were also assessed. Results were statistically evaluated at p cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicated that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p = 0.026) and 6.29 fold (p = 0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. Coffee intake demonstrated a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

  18. Application of high-content image analysis for quantitatively estimating lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts with potential for use in biodiesel production.

    Capus, Aurélie; Monnerat, Marianne; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; de Souza, Wanderley; Martins, Juliana Lopes; Sant'Anna, Celso


    Biodiesel from oleaginous microorganisms is a viable substitute for a fossil fuel. Current methods for microorganism lipid productivity evaluation do not analyze lipid dynamics in single cells. Here, we described a high-content image analysis (HCA) as a promising strategy for screening oleaginous microorganisms for biodiesel production, while generating single-cell lipid dynamics data in large cell density. Rhodotorula slooffiae yeast were grown in standard (CTL) or lipid trigger medium (LTM), and lipid droplet (LD) accumulation was analyzed in deconvolved confocal microscopy images of cells stained with the lipophilic fluorescent Nile red (NR) dye using automated cell and LD segmentation. The 'vesicle segmentation' method yielded valid morphometric results for limited lipid accumulation in smaller LDs (CTL samples) and for high lipid accumulation in larger LDs (LTM samples), and detected LD localization changes. Thus, HCA can be used to analyze the lipid accumulation patterns likely to be encountered in screens for biodiesel production.

  19. Effect of Growth Promoting Bacteria on the Growth Rate and Lipid Content of Microalgae Chorella sp in Sludge Liquor of Anaerobic Digester of Dairy Manure

    Wahyunanto A. Nugroho


    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have potential as biofuel feedstock since it has relatively high content of lipid. To be economically feasible, microalgae has to be cultivated in lower operational cost. Liquor of anaerobic sludge is one of the choices since it contents high concentration in nutrient. To boost its productivity, growth promoting bacteria (GPB was added in the medium. The objective of this research is to observe the influence of GPB on the growth rate and oil content of the algae. The experiment used three treatment in respect to the dose of GPB added to the medium, and was done in triplicate. The three treatments are A3 (spiked with 3 ml of GPB inoculum, A6 (spiked with 6 ml of GPB inoculum and A9 (spiked with 9 ml of GPB inoculum, and one more treatment as a control (A0. Result showed that the higher the dose of GPB added, the higher the lipid content of microalgae. For the growth rate of microalga, the highest growth rate was observed on A6 treatment, while the lowest one was observed on the control.

  20. Lipid-Encapsulated Echium Oil (Echium plantagineum) Increases the Content of Stearidonic Acid in Plasma Lipid Fractions and Milk Fat of Dairy Cows.

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Lock, Adam L; Kraft, Jana


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO) on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with 14 day periods. Treatments were a control diet (no supplemental fat), 1.5% dry matter (DM) as EEO and 3.0% DM as EEO. Treatments had no negative effect on animal performance (dry matter intake, milk yield, and fat yield). The milk fat content of total n-3 fatty acids and stearidonic acid (SDA) increased with EEO supplementation (P fat was 3.4 and 3.2% for the 1.5 and 3% EEO treatments, respectively. In conclusion, EEO increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk fat; however, the apparent transfer efficiency was low.

  1. Work-Related Daydreams: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.


    This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…

  2. Intensity of blue LED light: a potential stimulus for biomass and lipid content in fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Atta, Madiha; Idris, Ani; Bukhari, Ataullah; Wahidin, Suzana


    Light quality and the intensity are key factors which render microalgae as a potential source of biodiesel. In this study the effects of various intensities of blue light and its photoperiods on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by using LED (Light Emitting Diode) in batch culture. C. vulgaris was grown for 13 days at three different light intensities (100, 200 and 300 μmol m(-2)s(-1)). Effect of three different light and dark regimes (12:12, 16:08 and 24:00 h Light:Dark) were investigated for each light intensity at 25°C culture temperature. Maximum lipid content (23.5%) was obtained due to high efficiency and deep penetration of 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of blue light (12:12 L:D) with improved specific growth (1.26 d(-1)) within reduced cultivation time of 8 days. White light could produce 20.9% lipid content in 10 days at 16:08 h L:D.

  3. Human sperm quality and lipid content after migration into normal ovulatory human cervical mucus containing low numbers of leukocytes

    Nozha Chakroun-Feki; Patrice Therond; Martine Couturier; Florence Eustache; Gerard Limea; Alain Legrand; Pierre Jouannet; Jacques Auger


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the presence of low number of leukocytes in normal ovulatory cervical mucus and sperm quality and lipid content after migration. The percentages of live, motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa, movement parameters assessed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), and ionophore-induced acrosome reaction measured by flow cytometry were determined before and after migration. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to measure the sperm lipid content, including the various diacyl subspecies. The number of leukocytes found in solubilized mucus samples was counted using a haemocytometric method. Overall, the presence of leukocytes in the cervical mucus samples did not significantly influence sperm motility and morphology, sperm kinematic parameters, or the sperm content in sphingomyelin or cholesterol. In contrast, after migration, the decrease in various sperm diacyls and the level of induced acrosome reaction was significantly less pronounced in mucus samples containing ≥ 104 leukocytes than in mucus samples with no or rare leukocytes whereas the level of induced acrosome reaction was higher. The present data suggest that the low level of leukocytes found in normal ovulatory cervical mucus could influence the process of sperm lipid remodelling/capacitation.

  4. Elution power of a solvent as a criterion of relative lipid polarity

    Pchelkin, V. P.


    New parameters are proposed that allow reliable calculation of fixed hydrophilicity values for different classes of lipids over the widest possible range, based on the elution power of solvents and using two compounds at the boundaries of the range as standards. The values of relative hydrophilicity are calculated from the values of relative chromatographic mobility of these types of compounds. It is established that the levels of hydrophilicity of different classes of lipids relative to the selected hexadecane-glycerol pair do not depend on the composition of the different mobile phases used in either planar or column types of liquid chromatography for the separation of complex lipid mixtures.

  5. Content-Related Repairing of Inconsistencies in Distributed Data

    Yue-Feng Du; De-Rong Shen; Tie-Zheng Nie; Yue Kou; Ge Yu


    Conditional functional dependencies (CFDs) are a critical technique for detecting inconsistencies while they may ignore some potential inconsistencies without considering the content relationship of data. Content-related conditional functional dependencies (CCFDs) are a type of special CFDs, which combine content-related CFDs and detect potential inconsistencies by putting content-related data together. In the process of cleaning inconsistencies, detection and repairing are interactive: 1) detection catches inconsistencies, 2) repairing corrects caught inconsistencies while may bring new incon-sistencies. Besides, data are often fragmented and distributed into multiple sites. It consequently costs expensive shipment for inconsistencies cleaning. In this paper, our aim is to repair inconsistencies in distributed content-related data. We propose a framework consisting of an inconsistencies detection method and an inconsistencies repairing method, which work iteratively. The detection method marks the violated CCFDs for computing the inconsistencies which should be repaired preferentially. Based on the repairing-cost model presented in this paper, we prove that the minimum-cost repairing using CCFDs is NP-complete. Therefore, the repairing method heuristically repairs the inconsistencies with minimum cost. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of repairing, we propose distinct values and rules sequences. Distinct values make less data shipments than real data for communication. Rules sequences determine appropriate repairing sequences to avoid some incorrect repairs. Our solution is proved to be more effective than CFDs by empirical evaluation on two real-life datasets.

  6. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Zhu Zhu


    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  7. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao


    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca


    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  9. NMR techniques for determination of lipid content in microalgal biomass and their use in monitoring the cultivation with biodiesel potential.

    Sarpal, Amarjit S; Teixeira, Cláudia M L L; Silva, Paulo Roque Martins; da Costa Monteiro, Thays Vieira; da Silva, Júlia Itacolomy; da Cunha, Valnei Smarcaro; Daroda, Romeu José


    In the present investigation, the application of NMR spectroscopic techniques was extensively used with an objective to explore the biodiesel potential of biomass cultivated on a lab scale using strains of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus ecornis. The effect of variation in the composition of culturing medium on the neutral and polar lipids productivity, and fatty acid profile of solvent extracts of microalgae biomass was studied. Determination of unsaturated fatty acid composition (C18:N = 1-3, ω3 C20:5, ω3 C22:6), polyunsaturated fatty esters (PUFEs), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and iodine value were achieved from a single (1)H NMR spectral analysis. The results were validated by (13)C NMR and GC-MS analyses. It was demonstrated that newly developed methods based on (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques are direct, rapid, and convenient for monitoring the microalgae cultivation process for enhancement of lipid productivity and their quality aspects in the solvent extracts of microalgal biomasses without any sample treatment and prior separation compared to other methods. The fatty acid composition of algae extracts was found to be similar to vegetable and fish oils, mostly rich in C16:0, C18:N (N = 0 to 3), and n-3 omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The lipid content, particularly neutral lipids, as well as most of the quality parameters were found to be medium specific by both the strains. The newly developed methods based on NMR and ultrasonic procedure developed for efficient extraction of neutral lipids are cost economic and can be an effective aid for rapid screening of algae strains for modulation of lipid productivity with desired biodiesel quality and value-added products including fatty acid profile.

  10. Effect of MgCl2 stress on germination, plant growth, chlorophyll content, proline content and lipid peroxidation in sorghum cultivars

    Khare T.


    Full Text Available Present report deals with the effect of increasing levels (0-300 mM of MgCl2 salt on sorghum cultivars, Phule Vasudha and Phule Revati. Although MgCl2 stress did not show considerable adverse effects on germination, however, at higher (>200 mM concentrations, the seedlings turned brown and did not showed any further growth, with comparably higher magnitude of negative effects on Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. Overall, increasing MgCl2 stress reduced plant growth and biomass production significantly in both the cultivars, though with lesser extent in Phule Vsudha as compared to Phule Rvati. Contrasting behavior was evidenced in both the cultivars in terms of protein content under varying levels of MgCl2 concentration at vegetative growth level, where salinity induced reduction in protein content was higher in Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. The genotype Phule Vasudha showed higher proline content under non-saline condition. MgCl2 stress-induced proline accumulation was observed in both the sorghum cultivars, however, interestingly, Phule Revati (439% of control plants showed comparably higher proline content than Phule Vasudha (324% of control plants at the highest (300 mM level of stress. Even though, malondialdehyde (MDA: lipid peroxidation indicator content was on higher side under non-saline conditions in cultivar Phule Vasudha as compared to cultivar Phule Revati, however the rate of increase in MDA with increasing salt stress was much higher in the latter cultivar, indicating the comparably higher level of lipid peroxidation under the influence of MgCl2 stress. The salt tolerance nature of Phule Vasudha was positively correlated with its better performance in terms of physiological and biochemical parameters.

  11. Increasing the stearate content in seed oil of Brassica juncea by heterologous expression of MlFatB affects lipid content and germination frequency of transgenic seeds.

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Sinha, Saheli; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K


    Fatty acids from dietary lipids can impart both beneficial and harmful health effects. The compositional balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plays a decisive role in maintaining the physiological harmony, proper growth and development in the human system. In case of Brassica juncea seed oil, the level of saturated fatty acid, especially desirable stearate is very much lower than the recommended value, along with a high content of nutritionally undesirable erucic acid. Therefore, in order to shift the carbon flux towards the production of stearate at the expense of erucate, the MlFatB gene encoding a FatB thioesterase from Madhuca longifolia (latifolia) was expressed heterologously in seed tissues of B. juncea. The functional MlFatB competed with the highly active endogenous BjFatA thioesterase, and the transgenic B. juncea lines showed noteworthy changes in their seed fatty acid profiles. The proportion of stearate increased up to 16-fold, constituting almost 31% of the total fatty acids along with the production of arachidic acid in significant amount (up to ∼11%). Moreover, the content of erucate was reduced up to 71% in the seed oils of transgenic lines. Although a nutritionally desirable fatty acid profile was achieved, the transgenic seeds exhibit reduction or abolition of seed germination in addition to a decrease in seed lipid content. The findings of the present study revealing the stearoyl-ACP thioesterase-mediated enhancement of the stearate content that is associated with reduced germination frequency of transgenic B. juncea seeds, may explain why no natural or induced stearate-rich Brassica has been found or developed. Furthermore, this study also suggests that the newly characterized MlFatB is a potential candidate gene for refined metabolic engineering strategy in B. juncea or other plant species for increasing stearate content in seed oil.

  12. OSBP-Related Protein Family: Mediators of Lipid Transport and Signaling at Membrane Contact Sites.

    Kentala, Henriikka; Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Olkkonen, Vesa M


    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related protein homologs, ORPs, constitute a conserved family of lipid-binding/transfer proteins (LTPs) expressed ubiquitously in eukaryotes. The ligand-binding domain of ORPs accommodates cholesterol and oxysterols, but also glycerophospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). ORPs have been implicated as intracellular lipid sensors or transporters. Most ORPs carry targeting determinants for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and non-ER organelle membrane. ORPs are located and function at membrane contact sites (MCSs), at which ER is closely apposed with other organelle limiting membranes. Such sites have roles in lipid transport and metabolism, control of Ca(2+) fluxes, and signaling events. ORPs are postulated either to transport lipids over MCSs to maintain the distinct lipid compositions of organelle membranes, or to control the activity of enzymes/protein complexes with functions in signaling and lipid metabolism. ORPs may transfer PI4P and another lipid class bidirectionally. Transport of PI4P followed by its hydrolysis would in this model provide the energy for transfer of the other lipid against its concentration gradient. Control of organelle lipid compositions by OSBP/ORPs is important for the life cycles of several pathogenic viruses. Targeting ORPs with small-molecular antagonists is proposed as a new strategy to combat viral infections. Several ORPs are reported to modulate vesicle transport along the secretory or endocytic pathways. Moreover, antagonists of certain ORPs inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ORPs are LTPs, which mediate interorganelle lipid transport and coordinate lipid signals with a variety of cellular regimes.

  13. Lipid Profile

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...

  14. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Gilles, Gandemer


    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  15. Studies on variation in cold hardiness in relation to the in vivo water, lipid, and sugar content of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) larvae living on three different host plant species%不同寄主上桃蛀螟越冬幼虫体内生化物质变化与抗寒性研究

    徐丽荣; 何康来; 王振营


    Conogethes punctiferalis ( Guenée) is a polyphagous insect pest, which damages fruit, oil, vegetable, and grain crops, especially maize. Because the survival of overwintering larvae affects population density in the following year, investigation of the mechanism of cold tolerance in larvae may lead to new methods of controlling this pest. The relationship between the cold hardiness of overwintering larvae feeding on three different crops; maize, sorghum and sunflower, and larval water, lipid and sugar content was investigated. Larvae feeding on maize developed better, were heavier and had higher lipid content than those feeding on sorghum and sunflower. The reduction of larval water content occurred earlier in larvae feeding on maize than those feeding on sorghum and sunflower; larvae feeding on maize contained just 74. 0% water in early December whereas those feeding on sorghum and sunflower contained 82. 3% and 84. 6% water respectively. In addition, larvae feeding on maize had the highest cold tolerance capability and the lowest super cooling point ( - 17. 74℃ ) , followed by those feeding on sorghum ( - 14. 62 ℃ ) and sunflower (- 11. 68℃ ). However, there was no significant different in the super cooling capability of larvae from the 3 host plant species in early winter and early spring. These results suggest that larvae developed better on maize than on sorghum and sunflower. The major sugars contained in over-wintering larvae were trehalose, glycerol, myo-inositol, glucose, sorbitol, dulcitol, and mannitol. The glycerol content of larvae significantly increased from early to deep winter, however, glucose content significantly decreaseover the same period, suggesting that glycerol plays an important role in increasing the cold tolerance of larvae.%为预测不同寄主植物上桃蛀螟Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée)越冬种群的变化,研究了幼虫期取食玉米、高粱和向日葵的桃蛀螟越冬幼虫体内水分和脂肪及血淋巴小

  16. [Content of biological antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex in experimental circulatory insufficiency].

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Nadol'nik, L I; Naumov, A V; Beluga, V B; Vinogradov, V V


    Thirteen-week experimental insufficiency in rats causes exhaustion of adrenal cortex function. The number of diene conjugates in the adrenals increased, the alpha-tocopherol level decreased. It is suggested that reduced level of antioxidant protection and the associated activation of lipid peroxidation processes underlie the disorders of adrenal cortex function.

  17. Lipid biomarkers for anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulphate reduction in cold seep sediments of Nyegga pockmarks (Norwegian margin): discrepancies in contents and carbon isotope signatures

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Taphanel, Marie-Hélène; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    possible involvement of at least two distinct AOM-related microbial consortia at the inferred AOM depth zonation of G11 and G12 pockmark sediments. In both sediment cores, the δ13C profiles for most archaeal lipids suggest a direct assimilation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in addition to methane by ANMEs (chemoautotrophy); constant and highly depleted δ13C profiles for PMI:3, an archaeal lipid biomarker presumably related to ANME-2, suggest a direct assimilation of 13C-depleted methane-derived carbon via AOM (methanotrophy). Evidently, the common approach of investigating lipid biomarker contents and δ13C signatures in cold seep sediments does not suffice to precisely discriminate between the carbon assimilation mode for each ANME archaeal group and associated bacteria. Rather, this needs to be combined with further specific labelling studies including different carbon sources (methane carbon, methane-derived organic intermediates and DIC) in order to unravel the metabolic pathways of each microbial consortium involved in AOM (ANME-1 vs. ANME-2 vs. ANME-3 archaeal group and associated bacteria).

  18. A new look at lipid-membrane structure in relation to drug research

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent


    Lipid-bilayer membranes are key objects in drug research in relation to (i) interaction of drugs with membrane-bound receptors, (ii) drug targeting, penetration, and permeation of cell membranes, and (iii) use of liposomes in micro-encapsulation technologies for drug delivery. Rational design...... of new drugs and drug-delivery systems therefore requries insight into the physical properties of lipid-bilayer membranes. This mini-review provides a perspective on the current view of lipid-bilayer structure and dynamics based on information obtained from a variety of recent experimental...

  19. Changes in chloroplast lipid contents and chloroplast ultrastructure in Sulla carnosa and Sulla coronaria leaves under salt stress.

    Bejaoui, Fatma; Salas, Joaquín J; Nouairi, Issam; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Youssef, Nabil Ben


    The possible involvement of chloroplast lipids in the mechanisms of NaCl tolerance was studied in leaves of two varieties of Fabaceae: Sulla carnosa and Sulla coronaria, which were subjected to 200mM NaCl over 20days. Changes in membrane lipid peroxidation, chloroplast lipids content, fatty acids (FA) composition and the ultrastructure of chloroplasts under salt stress were investigated. Chloroplast lipids were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/ELSD). The results showed that salinity induced a significant decrease in digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and sulfoquinovosylglycerol (SQDG) content in both S. carnosa and S. coronaria leaves, whereas monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) content did not change significantly in S. carnosa leaves. The MGDG/DGDG ratio remained stable in S. coronaria leaves but increased in those of S. carnosa. In addition, the unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acids ratio (UFAs:SFAs) did not change under salt stress in S. coronaria leaves, while it decreased significantly in S. carnosa leaves. Moreover, salinity did not induce significant changes in MGDG and DGDG unsaturation level in S. carnosa leaves, in contrast to S. coronaria, in which salinity seems to enhance the unsaturation level in MGDG, DGDG and PG. Furthermore, the level of membrane lipid peroxidation, as expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased at 200mM in S. carnosa leaves, while it did not change significantly in those of S. coronaria. With respect to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts at 200mM NaCl, investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), salt-stress caused the swelling of thylakoids in S. carnosa mesophyll. These ultrastructural changes were observed especially in the spongy tissue in S. coronaria. Taken together, these findings suggest that the stability of MGDG/DGDG ratio, the unchanged unsaturation level, and increasing unsaturation

  20. Design and nutritional properties of potential functional frankfurters based on lipid formulation, added seaweed and low salt content.

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F


    The aim of this paper was to design and analyse the nutritional composition (fatty acid profile, cholesterol, mineral and amino acid content) of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (using algal oil to add 400mg of docosahexanoic acid - DHA/100g of product) as affected by the addition of seaweed (5.5% Himanthalia elongata) and the partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil (as a source of monounsaturated fatty acids - MUFA) or combinations of olive oil and seaweed. Reduction of NaCl level was also studied. The presence of algal oil produced frankfurters with high long-chain n-3 PUFA contents. The partial substitution of the pork fat by olive oil reduced (P<0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFA) and promoted (P<0.05) MUFA. A healthier lipid formulation (algal and olive oils and the reducing animal fat) produced a good balance of MUFA/SFA, PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Although adding seaweed had little effect on the lipid and amino acid profiles of frankfurters, it does constitute a means to produce low-sodium products with important dietary fibre content, with better Na/K ratios and rich in Ca.

  1. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    Delia I. Chiarello


    Full Text Available In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals.

  2. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

    Moushira Erfan Zaki


    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16–19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist to hip ratio (WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, body fat percentage (BF%, abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption.

  3. Optimization of Chlorella vulgaris and bioflocculant-producing bacteria co-culture: enhancing microalgae harvesting and lipid content.

    Wang, Y; Yang, Y; Ma, F; Xuan, L; Xu, Y; Huo, H; Zhou, D; Dong, S


    Microalgae are a sustainable bioresource, and the biofuel they produce is widely considered to be an alternative to limited natural fuel resources. However, microalgae harvesting is a bottleneck in the development of technology. Axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae exhibit poor harvesting, as expressed by a flocculation efficiency of 0·2%. This work optimized the co-culture conditions of C. vulgaris and bioflocculant-producing bacteria in synthetic wastewater using response surface methodology (RSM), thus aiming to enhance C. vulgaris harvesting and lipid content. Three significant process variables- inoculation ratio of bacteria and microalgae, initial glucose concentration, and co-culture time- were proposed in the RSM model. F-values (3·98/8·46) and R(2) values (0·7817/0·8711) both indicated a reasonable prediction by the RSM model. The results showed that C. vulgaris harvesting efficiency reached 45·0-50·0%, and the lipid content was over 21·0% when co-cultured with bioflocculant-producing bacteria under the optimized culture conditions of inoculation ratio of bacteria and microalgae of 0·20-0·25, initial glucose concentration of microalgae harvesting and cost-effective microalgal bioproducts, and confirmed the promising prospect of introducing bioflocculant-producing bacteria into microalgae bioenergy production. This work optimized the co-culture conditions of microalgae (C. vulgaris) and bioflocculant-producing bacteria (F2, Rhizobium radiobacter) in synthetic wastewater using response surface methodology, aiming to enhance C. vulgaris harvesting and lipid produced content. Bioflocculant-producing microbes are environmentally friendly functional materials. They avoid the negative effects of traditional chemical flocculants. This work provided new insights into microalgae harvesting and cost-effective production of microalgal bioproducts, and confirmed the promising prospect of introducing bioflocculant-producing bacteria into microalgae

  4. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    Hugh eKlein


    Full Text Available This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research; and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol.Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages.

  5. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio


    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content.

  6. Effects of Acupuncture on Hemorheology,Blood Lipid Content and Nail Fold Microcirculation in Multiple Infarct Dementia Patients



    Forty-six cases of multiple infarct dementia (MID) in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture with the principle of supplementing the inferiority to clear the superiority and regulating spirit to invigorate intelligence. Changes of the blood lipid content, hemorheological indexes and nail fold microcirculation in the treatment group were compared with those in the randomly assigned control group.The data collected showed that the changes in the treatment group were remarkable, and part of them were superior to their counterparts obtained in the control group by statistical analysis. It is indicated that acupuncture can effectivelv regulate the affected hemodvnamic state in MID.

  7. [Disturbances of blood lipid content after acute disorders of brain blood flow].

    Ivanova, N E; Lebedev, I A; Akinina, S A; Anishchenko, L I; Koltsov, V V; Beliavskiĭ, A R; Sokolova, A A; Iakovlev, S V


    The parameters of blood lipid spectrum have been analyzed in 421 patients who survived cerebral stroke and transitory ischemic attacks in 2004-2008. The study included people of Khanty-Mansiysk and Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug and watchmen. The statistical analysis did not reveal differences between mean concentrations of total cholesterol, high and low density lipoproteins and triglycerides in the settled population and in watchmen. Mean values of all parameters, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein, were higher compared to normative values. The highest frequency of deviations was found for low-density lipoproteins (63.5% of cases). The highest concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density proteins were seen in patients after transitory ischemic attacks regardless of their sex. The comparison of blood lipid spectrum parameters in different age groups revealed significant differences only for total cholesterol.

  8. A genome-wide survey of maize lipid-related genes: candidate genes mining,digital gene expression profiling and colocation with QTL for maize kernel oil


    Lipids play an important role in plants due to their abundance and their extensive participation in many metabolic processes.Genes involved in lipid metabolism have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and other plant species.In this study,a total of 1003 maize lipid-related genes were cloned and annotated,including 42 genes with experimental validation,732 genes with full-length cDNA and protein sequences in public databases and 229 newly cloned genes.Ninety-seven maize lipid-related genes with tissue-preferential expression were discovered by in silico gene expression profiling based on 1984483 maize Expressed Sequence Tags collected from 182 cDNA libraries.Meanwhile,70 QTL clusters for maize kernel oil were identified,covering 34.5% of the maize genome.Fifty-nine (84%) QTL clusters co-located with at least one lipid-related gene,and the total number of these genes amounted to 147.Interestingly,thirteen genes with kernel-preferential expression profiles fell within QTL clusters for maize kernel oil content.All the maize lipid-related genes identified here may provide good targets for maize kernel oil QTL cloning and thus help us to better understand the molecular mechanism of maize kernel oil accumulation.

  9. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert


    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  10. Characterization of Lipids and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Contents in Leaves and Roots of Crocus vallicola

    YAYLI, Nurettin; KIRAN, Zerrin; SEYMEN, Hasan; GENÇ, Hasan


    The chemical composition of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) and other lipids in leaves and roots of Crocusvallicola were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). In this work, twenty-eight compounds, including 22 FAMEs, 1 aldehyde, 3 hydrocarbons (substitute alkane and alkene), 2 alcohols in the leaves and twenty-one compounds (17 FAMEs, 1 anhydride, 1 substitute alcohol, 1 ketone, 1 substitute amide) in the roots were identified by GC-MS from C. vallicola. Th...

  11. Contributions Of Adipocyte Lipid Metabolism To Body Fat Content And Implications For The Treatment Of Obesity

    Marcelin, Genevieve; Chua, Streamson


    Obesity is a chronic disease that increases susceptibility to various diseases, particularly cardiovascular dysfunction, type 2 diabetes and some types of cancer. In this review, we highlighted recent evidence in mouse models that support a potential benefit of increasing adipose lipid utilization through stimulating lipolysis in adipose tissue and fatty acid oxidation. Brown adipocyte development within white adipose tissue of humans suggests that mouse models may be applicable to human obes...

  12. Lipid class and fatty acid content of the Leptocephalus larva of tropical eels

    Deibel, D.; Parrish, C.C.; Grønkjær, P.


    storage and condition of leptocephali, we determined the lipid class and fatty acid concentration of larvae collected on a cross-shelf transect off Broome, northwestern Australia. The total lipid concentration of two families and four sub-families of leptocephali ranged from 2.7 to 7.0 mg g wet weight-1......, at the low end of the few published values. Phospholipid and triacylglycerol made up ca. 63 % of the total lipid pool. The triacylglycerol:sterol ratio, an index of nutritional condition, ranged from 0.9 to 3.7, indicating that the leptocephali were in good condition. The predominant fatty acids were 16......:0 (23 mol%), 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, 16 mol%), 18:0 (8.2 mol%), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, 6.7 mol%), 18:1n-9 (6.4 mol%) and 16:1n-7 (6.3 mol%). The DHA:EPA ratio ranged from 2.4 to 2.9, sufficient for normal growth and development of fish larvae generally. The leptocephali had...

  13. Contents of Physics Related E-Print Archives

    Prakasan, E. R.; Kumar, Anil; Sagar, Anil; Mohan, Lalit; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Kalyane, V. L.; Kumar, Vijai


    The frontiers of physics related e-print archives (1994-2002) at web service are explored from 7770 submissions. No. of e-prints in the six research disciplines besides physics (5390) were: Condensed matter(754), Quantum physics(279), Astrophysics(222), Chemical physics(129), High energy physics Phenomenology(118), and High energy physics-Theory(100)). By keyword contents following major sub-fields have high frequency: Atomic physics(1258), General physic...

  14. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)


    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  15. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L


    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  16. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.


    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  17. Effects of insulin therapy on myocardial lipid content and cardiac geometry in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Drazenka Jankovic

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent evidence suggests a link between myocardial steatosis and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Insulin, as a lipogenic and growth-promoting hormone, might stimulate intramyocardial lipid (MYCL deposition and hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of insulin therapy (IT on myocardial lipid content and morphology in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Eighteen patients with T2DM were recruited (age 56 ± 2 years; HbA1c: 10.5 ± 0.4%. In 10 patients with insufficient glucose control under oral medication IT was initiated due to secondary failure of oral glucose lowering therapy (IT-group, while 8 individuals did not require additional insulin substitution (OT-group. In order to assess MYCL and intrahepatic lipid (IHLC content as well as cardiac geometry and function magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and imaging (MRI examinations were performed at baseline (IT and OT and 10 days after initiation of IT. Follow up measurements took place 181 ± 49 days after IT. RESULTS: Interestingly, basal MYCLs were 50% lower in IT- compared to OT-group (0.41 ± 0.12 vs. 0.80 ± 0.11% of water signal; p = 0.034. After 10 days of IT, an acute 80%-rise in MYCL (p = 0.008 was observed, while IHLC did not change. Likewise, myocardial mass (+13%; p = 0.004, wall thickness in end-diastole (+13%; p = 0.030 and concentricity, an index of cardiac remodeling, increased (+28%; p = 0.026. In the long-term MYCL returned to baseline, while IHCL significantly decreased (-31%; p = 0.000. No acute changes in systolic left ventricular function were observed. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The initiation of IT in patients with T2DM was followed by an acute rise in MYCL concentration and myocardial mass.

  18. Biochemical determination of lipid content in hepatic steatosis by the Soxtec method

    Elizabeth; Hijona; Lander; Hijona; Mikel; Larzabal; Cristina; Sarasqueta; Pablo; Aldazabal; Juan; Arenas; Luis; Bujanda


    AIM:To establish a quantitative method to measure the amount of lipids.METHODS:The livers of 53 male Wistar rats(225 g) with different degrees of hepatic steatosis were studied.This model of hepatic steatosis was based on a high carbohydrate,fat-free modified diet.Biopsies were classified into four grades depending on fat accumulation,using the Kleiner and Brunt classification.Total fat was studied by the Soxtec method(SoxtecTM 2050 Auto Fat Extraction System),and agreement between both assays was assessed ...

  19. Content

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  20. Follicle-stimulating hormone increases the intramuscular fat content and expression of lipid biosynthesis genes in chicken breast muscle

    Xiao-yan CUI; Ying-ying LI; Ran-ran LIU; Gui-ping ZHAO; Mai-qing ZHENG; Qing-he LI; Jie WEN


    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a crucial factor in the quality of chicken meat. The genetic basis underlying it is complex. Folicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), wel-known as an effector in reproductive tissues, was recently discov-ered to stimulate abdominal fat accumulation in chicken. The effect of FSH on IMF accumulation and the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms controling both IMF and abdominal fat deposition in vivo are largely unknown. In this study, two groups of chickens were treated with chicken FSH or a placebo. The lipid content of breast muscle, abdominal fat volume, and serum concentrations of FSH were examined. Related genes implicated in breast muscle and abdominal fat accumulation were also investigated. Compared to the control group, the triglyceride (TG) content of breast muscle and the percentage of abdominal fat in FSH-treated chickens were significantly increased by 64.9% and 56.5% (P<0.01), respectively. The FSH content in the serum of FSH-treated chickens was 2.1 times than that of control chickens (P<0.01). Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays showed that relative expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ) were significantly upregulated in breast muscle folowing FSH treatment (P<0.01). Treatment with FSH also signifi-cantly increased relative expression levels ofFAS, LPL, DGAT2, A-FABP, andPPARγ in abdominal fat tissue (P<0.05). The results of principal component analysis (PCA) for gene expression (breast muscle and abdominal fat) showed that the control and FSH treatment groups were well separated, which indicated the reliability of the data. This study demonstrates that FSH plays an important role in IMF accumulation in female chickens, which likely involves the regulation of biosynthesis genes related to lipid

  1. Membrane lipid rafts and neurobiology: age-related changes in membrane lipids and loss of neuronal function.

    Egawa, Junji; Pearn, Matthew L; Lemkuil, Brian P; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P


    A better understanding of the cellular physiological role that plasma membrane lipids, fatty acids and sterols play in various cellular systems may yield more insight into how cellular and whole organ function is altered during the ageing process. Membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) within the plasma membrane of most cells serve as key organizers of intracellular signalling and tethering points of cytoskeletal components. MLRs are plasmalemmal microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and scaffolding proteins; they serve as a platform for signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Within MLRs are the scaffolding and cholesterol binding proteins named caveolin (Cav). Cavs not only organize a multitude of receptors including neurotransmitter receptors (NMDA and AMPA receptors), signalling proteins that regulate the production of cAMP (G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, phosphodiesterases (PDEs)), and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in growth (Trk), but also interact with components that modulate actin and tubulin cytoskeletal dynamics (e.g. RhoGTPases and actin binding proteins). MLRs are essential for the regulation of the physiology of organs such as the brain, and age-related loss of cholesterol from the plasma membrane leads to loss of MLRs, decreased presynaptic vesicle fusion, and changes in neurotransmitter release, all of which contribute to different forms of neurodegeneration. Thus, MLRs provide an active membrane domain that tethers and reorganizes the cytoskeletal machinery necessary for membrane and cellular repair, and genetic interventions that restore MLRs to normal cellular levels may be exploited as potential therapeutic means to reverse the ageing and neurodegenerative processes.

  2. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs.

    Song, R; Chen, C; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Shurson, G C


    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may impair metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of feeding corn-soybean meal diets (CON) or diets containing 30% highly oxidized DDGS with 1 of 3 levels of supplemental vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate), none, the 1998 NRC level (11 IU/kg), and 10x the 1998 NRC level (110 IU/kg), on oxidative status of nursery pigs. The DDGS source used in this study contained the greatest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng/mg oil, 84.1 mEq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) relative to 30 other DDGS sources sampled (mean values = 1.8 ng/mg oil, 11.5 mEq/kg oil, and 0.50%, respectively). Barrows (n = 54) were housed in pens and fed the experimental diets for 8 wk after weaning and transferred to individual metabolism cages for collection of feces, urine, blood, and liver samples. Total S content was greater in DDGS diets than in CON (0.39 vs. 0.19%). Dietary inclusion of 30% DDGS improved apparent total tract digestibility of S (86.8 vs. 84.6%; P against oxidative stress when feeding highly oxidized DDGS. Therefore, the increased S content in DDGS may be beneficial, and increasing concentrations of vitamin E in diets may not be necessary to protect pigs against metabolic oxidative stress when feeding high S and highly peroxidized DDGS.

  3. Impact of citric acid and calcium ions on acid solubilization of mechanically separated turkey meat: effect on lipid and pigment content.

    Hrynets, Y; Omana, D A; Xu, Y; Betti, M


    Increased demand for poultry products has resulted in an increased availability of by-products, such as the neck, back, and frame, that can be processed into mechanically separated poultry meat. The major problems with mechanically separated poultry meat are its high lipid content, color instability, and high susceptibility to lipid oxidation. The present work was undertaken to determine the effect of different concentrations of citric acid and calcium ions on protein yield, color characteristics, and lipid removal from protein isolates prepared using an acid-aided extraction process. Six levels of citric acid (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol/L) and 2 levels of calcium chloride (0 and 8 mmol/L) were examined. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times, resulting in 36 extractions (3 × 6 × 2). The highest (P citric acid. In general, all the combinations removed an average of 90.8% of the total lipids from mechanically separated turkey meat, ranging from 86.2 to 94.7%. The lowest amount (1.14%) of total lipids obtained was for samples treated with 4 mmol/L of citric acid. Maximum removal of neutral lipids (96.5%) and polar lipids (96.4%) was attained with the addition of 6 and 2 mmol/L of citric acid, respectively. Polar lipid content was found to be significantly (P = 0.0045) affected by the presence of calcium chloride. The isolated proteins were less (P citric acid. Addition of calcium chloride had a negative effect on total pigment content. The study revealed that acid extractions with the addition of citric acid resulted in substantial removal of lipids and pigments from mechanically separated turkey meat, improved stability of the recovered proteins against lipid oxidation, and appreciable protein recovery yields.

  4. Relation between obesity, lipid profile, leptin and atopic disorders in ...


    relation of birth weight and breast feeding to both obesity and atopy. Methods: Forty ... atopy: Serum leptin was higher in obese children when compared to control group more in non ..... body mass index and allergy in teen age girls in. Taiwan.

  5. Impact of high pressure treatment and intramuscular fat content on colour changes and protein and lipid oxidation in sliced and vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Fuentes, Verónica; Utrera, Mariana; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia


    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (600MPa) and intramuscular fat content (IMF) on colour parameters and oxidative stability of lipids and proteins in sliced vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham during refrigerated storage (120 days at 2°C) was investigated. Several studies have investigated the influence of HHP on lipid oxidation of meat products. However, its effects on protein carbonylation, as also the influence of IMF content on this carbonylation are poorly understood. HHP treatment had a significant effect on lean lightness after 0 and 120 days of storage while IMF content increased lightness and yellowness over time. Regarding oxidative stability, the effect of HHP treatment depended on IMF content samples with a high IMF having greater lipid instability while samples with a low IMF underwent more protein carbonylation.

  6. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna


    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  7. Long term salinity stress in relation to lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase activity and proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant wheat cultivars Estrés salino a largo plazo en relación con peroxidación lipídica, actividad superóxido dismutasa y contenido de prolina de cultivares de trigo sensibles y tolerantes a la salinidad

    Azam Borzouei


    Full Text Available Salinity is a widespread root medium problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Therefore, the ability of salt-sensitive ('Tajan' and salt-tolerant cultivar ('Bam' of Triticum aestivum L. to adapt to a saline environment were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under salt stress during three growth stages (tillering, 50% anthesis, and 10 d after anthesis. Plants were irrigated by different saline waters with electrical conductivities of 1.3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 dS m-1, which were obtained by adding NaCl:CaCl2 in 10:1 molar ratio to fresh water. Differences in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and proline accumulation were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance or sensitivity of cultivars. Results indicated that both parameters differ according to the cultivar's ability in coping oxidative stress caused by salinity. We observed a greater decline in the growth parameters and grain yield under salt stress in 'Tajan' than in 'Bam'. Malondialdehyde content was also higher in 'Tajan'. The improved performance of the 'Bam' under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in SOD (EC activity and proline content at all growth stages. Growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation results are also in good correlation with supporting this cultivar is being relatively tolerant.La salinidad es un problema del medio radical ampliamente distribuido que limita la productividad de los cultivos de cereal en todo el mundo. La capacidad de las plantas para tolerar la sal está determinada por multiples vías bioquímicas que facilitan la retención y/o adquisición de agua, protegen las funciones del cloroplasto, y mantienen la homeostasis iónica. Por lo tanto, se

  8. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk].

    Vázquez-Román, S; Alonso-Díaz, C; García-Lara, N R; Escuder-Vieco, D; Pallás-Alonso, C R


    To determine, by the creamatocrit measurement, the effect on the fat content of raw and pasteurized donor milk of freezing during 3 months at -20 °C. The evolution of the creamatocrit measurement (following Lucas technique) on frozen (-20 °C), raw and pasteurized human milk, was analyzed during 3 months. The fat content of raw milk (n=44) was 3.19 g/dl at the beginning and 2.86 g/dl after 3 months frozen (p=0.02). In pasteurized milk (n=36) fat content at the first determination was 2.59 g/dl and 2.20 g/dl after 1 month frozen (p=0.01). Afterwards there were no significant changes up to 3 months frozen. Variability was observed in the intermediate values. A reduction on the fat content measurement of raw and pasteurized donor human milk after freezing was observed. Freezing does not inactivate the milk lipase but does destroy the fat globule. Creamatocrit measurement may not be the best method to determine the fat content of processed human milk. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Providing multilingual access to health-related content.

    Plumbaum, Till; Narr, Sascha; Eryilmaz, Elif; Hopfgartner, Frank; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Reese, Anna; Albayrak, Sahin


    Finding health-related content is not an easy task. People have to know what to search for, which medical terms to use, and where to find accurate information. This task becomes even harder when people such as immigrants wish to find information in their country of residence and do not speak the national language very well. In this paper, we present a new health information system that allows users to search for health information using natural language queries composed of multiple languages. We present the technical details of the system and outline the results of a preliminary user study to demonstrate the usability of the system.

  10. Laurdan monitors different lipids content in eukaryotic membrane during embryonic neural development.

    Bonaventura, Gabriele; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Golfetto, Ottavia; Nourse, Jamison L; Flanagan, Lisa A; Gratton, Enrico


    We describe a method based on fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to assess the fluidity of various membranes in neuronal cells at different stages of development [day 12 (E12) and day 16 (E16) of gestation]. For the FLIM measurements, we use the Laurdan probe which is commonly used to assess membrane water penetration in model and in biological membranes using spectral information. Using the FLIM approach, we build a fluidity scale based on calibration with model systems of different lipid compositions. In neuronal cells, we found a marked difference in fluidity between the internal membranes and the plasma membrane, being the plasma membrane the less fluid. However, we found no significant differences between the two cell groups, E12 and E16. Comparison with NIH3T3 cells shows that the plasma membranes of E12 and E16 cells are significantly more fluid than the plasma membrane of the cancer cells.

  11. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Yafeng Wang


    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  12. Insulin regulates lipid and glucose metabolism similarly in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content.

    Jin, Junyan; Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Aguirre, Peyo; Véron, Vincent; Médale, Françoise


    Two experimental rainbow trout lines were developed through divergent selection for low (Lean 'L' line) or high (Fat 'F' line) muscle fat content. Previous nutritional studies suggested that these lines differed in their regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Since insulin acts as an anabolic hormone by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, we put forward the hypothesis that F line might have a stronger sensitivity to insulin than L line. In order to test this hypothesis, bovine insulin was injected into rainbow trout of the two lines fasted for 48 h. As expected, insulin induced hypoglycemia and activated Akt-TOR signaling both in the liver and muscle of the two lines. We demonstrate that this was coupled with increased expression of insulin dependent glucose transporter (GLUT4) and transcription factors of fatty acid anabolism (LXR and SREBP1c) in the muscle and liver, respectively, and lower mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation enzymes (CPT1a, CPT1b and HOAD) in the white muscle of both lines. Regarding the genotype effect, TOR signaling response to insulin was stronger in F line as reflected by the higher phosphorylation of S6 protein and elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic enzyme (FAS) in the liver of F line. This observation was concordant with the higher plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and triglycerides in F line. Moreover, mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes (G6Pase2, FBPase and PEPCK) and muscle fatty acid oxidation enzymes (CPT1a, CPT1b, HOAD and ACO) were higher in the F line. However, very few insulin-genotype interactions were detected, indicating that insulin induced similar changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in both lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of relative humidity on lipid oxidation in freezedried emulsions

    Chinachoti, P.


    Full Text Available Oxidative stability was studied in a freeze-dried emulsion consisting of linoleic acid (LA, Tween-20, sucrose and maltodextrin in the presence of a catalyst (FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Changes in residual LA and conjugated dienes as a function of time were monitored at 0, 32, 43 and 75% relative humidities (RH. Based on GC analyses, LA oxidation was more significant in the surface fraction than the entrapped. The loss of surface oil upon storage may also be due to partial entrapment. However faster oxidation of the surface oil was confirmed by measurement of diene conjugation. Oxidation was more rapid at the lower relative humidities (0 and 32% RH and decreased with increasing RH. At high moisture, physical modifications in the sample were observed, including reduced porosity, structural collapse, reduction of the surface oil and coalescence of oil droplets triggered by sucrose crystallization. These may be responsible for the decreased oxidation. Sucrose crystallization at the higher humidities inhibited oxidation. In addition, while samples with similar glass transition temperature (Tg range behaved differently, samples with different glass transition range showed similar oxidative behaviour. Microstructural changes leading to oil entrapment and oil droplet coalescence were found to be significant, in this case.Se ha estudiado la estabilidad oxidativa en una emulsión liofilizada compuesta de ácido linoleico (LA, Tween-20, sacarosa y maltodextrina en presencia de un catalizador (FeSO4/ácido ascórbico. Los cambios en ácido linoleico remanente (LA y dienos conjugados en función del tiempo fueron monitorizados a humedades relativas (RH del 0, 32, 43 y 75%. Basado en análisis por cromatografía gaseosa, la oxidación de LA fue más significativa en la fracción superficial que en la encapsulada. La pérdida de aceite superficial con el almacenamiento puede deberse también al encapsulado parcial. Sin embargo, la más rápida oxidación del aceite

  14. Proportion of adults fasting for lipid testing relative to guideline changes in Alberta.

    Ma, Irene; Viczko, Jeannine; Naugler, Christopher


    Guidelines have historically recommended measuring lipid profile tests in a fasting state. However, in April 2011 and 2014, the Canadian city of Calgary and its province of Alberta, respectively, have changed their lipid guidelines to allow testing for individuals in any fasting state; several years prior to the release of the 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Hypertension Canada guidelines. The purpose of this study was to document the proportion of individuals in Calgary who fasted for a lipid encounter in relation to the change in various guidelines and policies. Counts were collected each month per gender from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016 for community-based adults ≥18years old who fasted (≥8h) or did not fast (fasting state. The proportion of adults who fasted declined from 98.59%±0.379% (mean±SD) in 2010 to 41.65%±1.295% (mean±SD) in 2016. However, a marked decline in the proportion of adults fasting for a lipid encounter was not observed until February 2015, which coincided with the release of Alberta's Toward Optimized Practice Clinical Practice Guidelines. This documentation of individuals fasting for a lipid encounter may assist other jurisdictions in Canada with the new nonfasting lipid guideline changes. We recommend releasing provincial clinical practice guidelines, in addition to laboratory bulletins and continuing medical education presentations, regarding the new nonfasting lipid recommendations in other jurisdictions to ensure community patients are aware of this change. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    I Wayan Sumardika


    Full Text Available Food stuffs with high flavonoids content  are believed to prevent various diseases caused by oxidative stress because of its antioxidants effect.  Purple sweet potato leaves have been proved containing high flavonoids, and can be developed very easily. To prove antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties of the water extract of purple sweet potato leaves, one research was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. The study design was randomized control group pre- and post-test.  Twenty adult male wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 rats. Both groups of rats were given high-cholesterol diet for three months to induce dyslipidemia. Control group of 10 rats were given only high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the treatment group also treated with purple sweet potato leaf water extract with a dose of 6 cc per day divided into two doses. Before treatment and after treatment, lipid profile and blood SOD levels were measured. The results showed a decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol significantly in the treated group (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group there was also an increase in HDL cholesterol and blood SOD which was significantly differ than the control group (P = 0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of water extract of purple sweet potato leaves can improve the lipid profile and increase blood SOD of rat given high-cholesterol diet.

  16. Co-digestion of municipal sewage sludge and solid waste: modelling of carbohydrate, lipid and protein content influence.

    Nielfa, A; Cano, R; Pérez, A; Fdez-Polanco, M


    Solid wastes from industrial, commercial and community activities are of growing concern as the total volume of waste produced continues to increase. The knowledge of the specific composition and characteristics of the waste is an important tool in the correct development of the anaerobic digestion process. The problems derived from the anaerobic digestion of sole substrates with high lipid, carbohydrate or protein content lead to the co-digestion of these substrates with another disposed waste, such as sewage sludge. The kinetic of the anaerobic digestion is especially difficult to explain adequately, although some mathematical models are able to represent the main aspects of a biological system, thus improving understanding of the parameters involved in the process. The aim of this work is to evaluate the experimental biochemical methane potential on the co-digestion of sewage sludge with different solid wastes (grease; spent grain and cow manure) through the implementation of four kinetic models. The co-digestion of grease waste and mixed sludge obtained the best improvements from the sole substrates, with additional positive synergistic effects. The Gompertz model fits the experimental biochemical methane potential to an accuracy of 99%, showing a correlation between the percentage of lipid in the substrates and co-digestions and the period of lag phase.

  17. Relaxation Kinetics of Lipid Membranes and Its Relation to the Heat Capacity

    Grabitz, Peter; Ivanova, Vesselka P; Heimburg, Thomas


    ... the relaxation times which are maximum at the melting point. The lipid membrane forms the matrix in which proteins of various function and activity are imbedded. Certain enzymes possess functions that respond to melting processes, including phospholipase A 2 ( Burack et al., 1993 ). Protein activity is often related to changes in cross section or vol...

  18. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.


    with elevated levels of fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides (P=.0002 and P=.002), IDL cholesterol (P=.0009 and P=.006), and VLDL/chylomicron remnant cholesterol (P=.0003 and P=.0004) and triglycerides (P=.0003 and P=.003), the area under the plasma triglyceride curve 0 to 4 hours after a fatty meal (P......=.001): and body mass index (P=.0001). On ANCOVA, body mass index, fasting IDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma triglycerides were independent predictors of echo-lucency. Echo-lucency was associated with increased relative plaque lipid content (P=.02). Conclusions-Increased plasma levels of triglyceride......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  19. Cationic Lipid Content in Liposome-Encapsulated Nisin Improves Sustainable Bactericidal Activity against Streptococcus mutans

    Yamakami, Kazuo; Tsumori, Hideaki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Yutaka; Nagatoshi, Kohei; Sonomoto, Kenji


    An oral infectious disease, dental caries, is caused by the cariogenic streptococci Streptococcus mutans. The expected preventive efficiency for prophylactics against dental caries is not yet completely observed. Nisin, a bacteriocin, has been demonstrated to be microbicidal against S. mutans, and liposome-encapsulated nisin improves preventive features that may be exploited for human oral health. Here we examined the bactericidal effect of charged lipids on nisin-loaded liposomes against S. mutans and inhibitory efficiency for insoluble glucan synthesis by the streptococci for prevention of dental caries. Cationic liposome, nisin-loaded dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/phytosphingosine, exhibited higher bactericidal activities than those of electroneutral liposome and anionic liposome. Bactericidal efficiency of the cationic liposome revealed that the vesicles exhibited sustained inhibition of glucan synthesis and the lowest rate of release of nisin from the vesicles. The optimizing ability of cationic liposome-encapsulated nisin that exploit the sustained preventive features of an anti-streptococcal strategy may improve prevention of dental caries. PMID:27583045

  20. Lipid-content-normalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the xylem of conifers can indicate historical changes in regional airborne PAHs.

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Li, Jiong; Hou, En-qing


    The temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations as well as the lipid content in the xylem of Masson pine trees sampled from the same site were determined and compared with the days of haze occurrence and with the historical PAHs reported in sedimentary cores. The patterns of the lipid content as well as the PAH concentrations based on the xylem dry weight (PAHs-DW) decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. The trajectories of PAHs normalized by xylem lipid content (PAHs-LC) coincided well with the number of haze-occurred days and were partly similar with the historical changes in airborne PAHs recorded in the sedimentary cores. The results indicated that PAHs-LC in the xylem of conifers might reliably reflect the historical changes in airborne PAHs at a regional scale. The species-specificity should be addressed in the utility and application of dendrochemical monitoring on historical and comparative studies of airborne PAHs.

  1. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys


    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  2. Sex-related differences in lipid peroxidation and photoprotection in Pistacia lentiscus.

    Juvany, Marta; Müller, Maren; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi


    Sex-related differences in the response of dioecious plants to abiotic stress have been poorly studied to date. This work explored to what extent sex may affect plant stress responses in Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae), a tree well adapted to Mediterranean climatic conditions. It was hypothesized that a greater reproductive effort in females may increase oxidative stress in leaves, particularly when plants are exposed to abiotic stress. Measurements of oxidative stress markers throughout the year revealed increased lipid peroxidation in females, but only during the winter. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was associated with reduced photoprotection, as indicated by reduced tocopherol levels and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was also observed at predawn, which was associated with increased lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels. An analysis of the differences between reproductive (R) and nonreproductive (NR) shoots showed an enhanced photoprotective capacity in R shoots compared to NR shoots in females. This capacity was characterized by an increased NPQ and a better antioxidant protection (increased carotenoid and tocopherol levels per unit of chlorophyll) in R compared to NR shoots. It is concluded that (i) females exhibit higher lipid peroxidation in leaves than males, but only during the winter (when sex-related differences in reproductive effort are the highest), (ii) this is associated with a lower photoprotective capacity at midday, as well as enhanced lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels at predawn, and (iii) photoprotection capacity is higher in R relative to NR shoots in females.

  3. Soybean GmDREBL Increases Lipid Content in Seeds of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Lu, Xiang; Zhao, Fei-Yi; Li, Qing-Tian; Niu, Su-Ling; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song


    A DREB-type transcription factor gene GmDREBL has been characterized for its functions in oil accumulation in seeds. The gene is specifically expressed in soybean seeds. The GmDREBL is localized in nucleus and has transcriptional activation ability. Overexpression of GmDREBL increased the fatty acid content in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. GmDREBL can bind to the promoter region of WRI1 to activate its expression. Several other genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway were also enhanced in the GmDREBL-transgenic plants. The GmDREBL can be up-regulated by GmABI3 and GmABI5. Additionally, overexpression of GmDREBL significantly promoted seed size in transgenic plants compared to that of WT plants. Expression of the DREBL is at higher level on the average in cultivated soybeans than that in wild soybeans. The promoter of the DREBL may have been subjected to selection during soybean domestication. Our results demonstrate that GmDREBL participates in the regulation of fatty acid accumulation by controlling the expression of WRI1 and its downstream genes, and manipulation of the gene may increase the oil contents in soybean plants. Our study provides novel insights into the function of DREB-type transcription factors in oil accumulation in addition to their roles in stress response. PMID:27694917

  4. Effect of tomato juice consumption on the plasmatic lipid profile, hepatic HMGCR activity, and fecal short chain fatty acid content of rats.

    Periago, María Jesús; Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Santaella, Marina; Gómez, Victoria; Vázquez, Nuria; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; García-Alonso, Javier


    The aims of the present study were to ascertain, indirectly, the prebiotic role of tomato juice, by analyzing its effect on the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces of rats, and to determine the plausible mechanisms related to the hypocholesterolemic effects of tomato juice and lycopene, evaluating the activity of hepatic HMGCR and the formation of propionic acid. Two commercially available tomato juices with differing contents of lycopene (low and high lycopene contents: Llyc and Hlyc tomato juices) were used. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 8): control group, normal diet and water; group 1, normal diet and Llyc tomato juice; and group 2, normal diet and Hlyc tomato juice, which were fed ad libitum for three weeks. Feces were collected at the beginning and the end of the study to determine SCFA, and blood and liver were obtained (after sacrificing the animals) to analyze the lipid plasmatic parameters and the HMGCR activity and total cholesterol, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the plasmatic parameters, except that HDL-cholesterol increased significantly after consumption of both tomato juices. Lycopene was accumulated in the liver in proportion to the amount ingested, and was observed to have an inhibitory effect on the HMGCR enzyme, according to the amount of lycopene in the liver. In relation to the SCFA in feces, no differences were observed in acetate and propionate after the consumption of tomato juice, but a significant increase in butyrate was observed in group 2 after the intake of Hlyc tomato juice. The content of this carboxylic acid together with excreted lycopene in feces could have a beneficial effect on colonic cells.

  5. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V


    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  6. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko


    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  7. Modeling human Coenzyme A synthase mutation in yeast reveals altered mitochondrial function, lipid content and iron metabolism

    Camilla Ceccatelli Berti


    Full Text Available Mutations in nuclear genes associated with defective coenzyme A biosynthesis have been identified as responsible for some forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, namely PKAN and CoPAN. PKAN are defined by mutations in PANK2, encoding the pantothenate kinase 2 enzyme, that account for about 50% of cases of NBIA, whereas mutations in CoA synthase COASY have been recently reported as the second inborn error of CoA synthesis leading to CoPAN. As reported previously, yeast cells expressing the pathogenic mutation exhibited a temperature-sensitive growth defect in the absence of pantothenate and a reduced CoA content. Additional characterization revealed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, higher iron content, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and reduced amount of lipid droplets, thus partially recapitulating the phenotypes found in patients and establishing yeast as a potential model to clarify the pathogenesis underlying PKAN and CoPAN diseases.

  8. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A


    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period.

  9. Supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trehalose results in milk with low lipid peroxide and high antioxidant content.

    Aoki, N; Furukawa, S; Sato, K; Kurokawa, Y; Kanda, S; Takahashi, Y; Mitsuzumi, H; Itabashi, H


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the disaccharides trehalose and cellobiose on antioxidant activity in rumen fluid, blood, and milk of dairy cows. Nine Holstein dairy cows housed in a free-stall barn were divided into 3 groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (a control diet, a 1% trehalose-supplemented diet, or a 1% cellobiose-supplemented diet) following a 3x3 Latin square design. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows receiving the trehalose-supplemented diet compared with those receiving the control and cellobiose-supplemented diets. The total protozoa numbers in the rumen fluid of cows fed trehalose- or cellobiose-supplemented diets were greater than those of the control group. The C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid content was increased in the milk of cows fed the trehalose-supplemented diet compared with that of the control group, and the C18:3n-3 fatty acid content in the milk of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet was less than that of the control group. Plasma biochemical parameters were unchanged among the different treatments. In rumen fluid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity were increased 2h after feeding in cows receiving the cellobiose-supplemented diet compared with the control group, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the rumen fluid of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet was decreased. In contrast, the values of these parameters measured in the milk of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet were no different from those of control cows. Dietary supplementation with trehalose did, however, bring about an improvement of the oxidative status of milk and blood in these animals compared with controls. These results provide the first evidence supporting the use of dietary disaccharides to decrease lipid peroxide levels and increase the antioxidant content of dairy

  10. 小麦脂肪及相关酶应用研究进展%Research progress of wheat lipid and related enzyme application

    宋永令; 穆垚; 王若兰; 魏光; 贾素贤


    The lipid content of wheat was only about 3%~5%,the lipid content and the composition changed with the effect of enzymes and other factors. It impacted wheat milling,baking,storage quality. The application of wheat lipid and related enzymewas summarized in this paper,which provided more details for the further research to wheat lipid and related enzyme.%小麦中脂肪含量约3%~5%,在各种酶以及其它因素的作用下小麦的脂肪含量与组成会发生变化,从而对小麦的制粉、烘焙、储藏品质产生一定影响。该文对小麦脂肪及相关代谢酶等的性质、提取方法、应用做一综述,为进一步研究小麦脂肪提供参考依据。

  11. Relation of Plasma Uric Acid Levels and the Lipid Parameters in Han and Uygur Ethnicity

    Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan


    Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P< 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P < 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P <0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.

  12. Effect of Cu2+ and pH on intracellular calcium content and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots

    M. E. Riazanova


    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of copper ions and pH of external solution on intracellular calcium homeostasis and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots. Experiment was carried out with winter wheat. Sterile seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on the filter paper soaked with acetic buffer (pH 4.7 and 6.2 at 20 °Cin the dark for 48 hours. Copper was added as CuSO4. It’s concentrations varied from 0 to 50 µM. The Ca2+-fluorescent dye Fluo-3/AM ester was loaded on 60 hour. Root fluorescence with Fluo-3 loading was detected using X-Cite Series 120 Q unit attached to microscope Olympus BX53 with camera Olympus DP72. Imaging of root cells was achieved after exciting with 488 nm laser and collection of emission signals above 512 nm. Preliminary analysis of the images was performed using software LabSens; brightness (fluorescence intensity analysis was carried out by means of ImageJ. Peroxidation of lipids was determined according to Kumar and Knowles method. It was found that pH of solution had effect on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Low pH provokes an increase of [Ca2+]cyt which may be reaction of roots to acidic medium. Copper induces increase in non-selective permeability of plasma membrane and leads to its faster depolarization. This probably initiates Ca-dependent depolarization channels which are responsible for the influx of calcium from apoplast into the cell. Changing of the membrane permeability may occur due to interaction between Cu2+ ions and Ca-binding sites on plasma membrane or may be due to binding of copper with sulfhydryl groups and increasing of POL. Copper may also damage lipid bilayer and change the activity of some non-selective channels and transporters. Reactive oxygen species which are formed under some types of stress factors, especially the effect of heavy metals, can be activators of Ca-channels. Cu2+ ions rise MDA content and promote the oxidative stress. Low medium pH also induces its

  13. Overexpression of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle promotes oxidative gene expression and intramyocellular lipid content without compromising insulin sensitivity

    Bosma, M.; Sparks, L.M.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Jorgensen, J.A.; Houten, S.M.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, A.H.; Hesselink, M.K.C.


    Aims/hypothesis: While lipid deposition in the skeletal muscle is considered to be involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance, neutral intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation per se does not necessarily induce insulin resistance. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of the lipid

  14. Isolation of thermo-tolerant and high lipid content green microalgae: oil accumulation is predominantly controlled by photosystem efficiency during stress treatments in Desmodesmus.

    Pan, Yi-Ying; Wang, Suz-Ting; Chuang, Lu-Te; Chang, Yen-Wei; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan


    Discoveries of new microalgae with thermo-tolerance, high growth rate, and high lipid content are crucial to algal biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical zones. Four new green microalgae were isolated in southern Taiwan. All four species are members of the genus Desmodesmus under the family Scenedesmaceae based on molecular and morphological analyses. Two of the four species survived at 45 °C for 24 h, with 5-13% of mortality rates caused by the heat. Total lipid contents of the two species reached over 50% in dry biomass under nitrogen starvation, and their triacylglycerols constituted around 75% of the total lipids. Thus the two species are good potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oil accumulation in the four species positively correlates with their photosystem II efficiencies during stress treatments (R2=0.90). This finding further supports that photosynthesis is essential for oil body formation under nitrogen starvation in green microalgae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ontogeny of Sex-Related Differences in Foetal Developmental Features, Lipid Availability and Fatty Acid Composition

    Consolacion Garcia-Contreras


    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in lipid availability and fatty acid composition during swine foetal development were investigated. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the mother were strongly related to the adequacy or inadequacy of foetal development and concomitant activation of protective growth in some organs (brain, heart, liver and spleen. Cholesterol and triglyceride availability was similar in male and female offspring, but female foetuses showed evidence of higher placental transfer of essential fatty acids and synthesis of non-essential fatty acids in muscle and liver. These sex-related differences affected primarily the neutral lipid fraction (triglycerides, which may lead to sex-related postnatal differences in energy partitioning. These results illustrate the strong influence of the maternal lipid profile on foetal development and homeorhesis, and they confirm and extend previous reports that female offspring show better adaptive responses to maternal malnutrition than male offspring. These findings may help guide dietary interventions to ensure adequate fatty acid availability for postnatal development.

  16. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo


    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  17. Content-Related Knowledge of Biology Teachers from Secondary Schools: Structure and Learning Opportunities

    Großschedl, Jörg; Mahler, Daniela; Kleickmann, Thilo; Harms, Ute


    Teachers' content-related knowledge is a key factor influencing the learning progress of students. Different models of content-related knowledge have been proposed by educational researchers; most of them take into account three categories: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge. As there is no consensus about…

  18. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.


    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  19. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Davood Attaran


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  20. A Review of the Methods for Determining Total Lipid Content in Microalgae%微藻总脂含量测定方法概述

    梁英; 石伟杰; 田传远


    The different methods for determining total lipid content in microalgae are reviewed in this paper, and the advantages and methodological limitations of those methods are compared: 1) Organic solvents extraction method is widely used because of easy operation and low cost. But it is inefficient and labor-consuming, requiring more samples, obtaining lower amount of extracted oil and using toxic solvents which could cause environment pollution. 2) Soxhlet extraction method is more accurate for determining total lipid in microalgae. However, this method requires more reagents and samples, and long extraction time. 3) Fluorescent dye method, FTIR spectroscopy method, Sulfo-Phospho-Vanillin (SPV) method, copper reagent method, Sudan black method and TD-NMR method all require only small volumes of sample, could be measured rapidly, but the total lipid content of all these methods are relative values. Among them, fluorescent dye method is sensitive and does not require lipid extraction, but vulnerable to be influ-enced by a variety of factors. FTIR spectroscopy method and TD-NMR method (which has good repeatability) are non-destructive, reqviiring little or no sample pretreatment SPV method is stable. Copper reagent method is low cost, but there are very few reports about it until now. Sudan black method is simple, not requiring cell disruption and extraction, but not suitable for determination of uneven sample. 4) Supercritical CO2 and ionic liquid methods are efficient in total lipid extraction, but the determination cost is high.%概述微藻总脂含量测定方法的研究现状并比较各方法的优缺点:(1)有机溶剂提取法使用较普遍、易操作、成本低,缺点是所需样品量大、所得总脂含量较低、溶剂有毒易污染环境、操作耗时费力;(2)索氏提取法测定微藻总脂含量较准确,缺点是所需试剂和样品量大,提取时间长;(3)荧光染料测定法、傅里叶变换红外光谱法、磷酸香草醛法、铜试

  1. High lipid order of Arabidopsis cell-plate membranes mediated by sterol and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A function.

    Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Stanislas, Thomas; Backues, Steven K; Reichardt, Ilka; Men, Shuzhen; Boutté, Yohann; Jürgens, Gerd; Moritz, Thomas; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Grebe, Markus


    Membranes of eukaryotic cells contain high lipid-order sterol-rich domains that are thought to mediate temporal and spatial organization of cellular processes. Sterols are crucial for execution of cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division, in diverse eukaryotes. The cell plate of higher-plant cells is the membrane structure that separates daughter cells during somatic cytokinesis. Cell-plate formation in Arabidopsis relies on sterol- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A (DRP1A)-dependent endocytosis. However, functional relationships between lipid membrane order or lipid packing and endocytic machinery components during eukaryotic cytokinesis have not been elucidated. Using ratiometric live imaging of lipid order-sensitive fluorescent probes, we show that the cell plate of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a dynamic, high lipid-order membrane domain. The cell-plate lipid order was found to be sensitive to pharmacological and genetic alterations of sterol composition. Sterols co-localize with DRP1A at the cell plate, and DRP1A accumulates in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Modifications of sterol concentration or composition reduce cell-plate membrane order and affect DRP1A localization. Strikingly, DRP1A function itself is essential for high lipid order at the cell plate. Our findings provide evidence that the cell plate represents a high lipid-order domain, and pave the way to explore potential feedback between lipid order and function of dynamin-related proteins during cytokinesis.

  2. Non-invasive determination of myocardial lipid content in Fabry disease by {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Petritsch, B.; Koestler, H.; Machann, W.; Horn, M.; Weng, A.M.; Goltz, J.P.; Hahn, D.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik im ZOM; Niemann, M.; Weidemann, F.; Wanner, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Medizinische Klinik I


    Purpose: In Fabry disease (FD), a progressive deposition of sphingolipids is reported in different organs. The present study applied {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate the myocardial lipid content in FD. Materials and Methods: In patients (PTS, n = 15) with genetically proven FD, {sup 1}H MRS of the heart was acquired in the same examination as routine cardiac cine and late enhancement MR imaging. Healthy volunteers (n = 11) without history of cardiac disease served as control (CTL). Myocardial triglycerides in vivo were quantified in {sup 1}H MRS. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and late enhancement were assessed for the determination of LV systolic function, and onset or absence of myocardial fibrosis. Results: All {sup 1}H MRS revealed resonances for intramyocardial triglycerides. Clinical parameters, e.g. EF (PTS 64 {+-} 2 % vs. CTL 61 {+-} 1 %) were similar in PTS and CTL or showed a non-significant trend (LV mass). Apart from a single patient with elevated myocardial triglycerides, no significant impact of Fabry disease on the triglyceride/water resonance ratio (PTS 0.47 {+-} 0.11 vs. CTL 0.52 {+-} 0.11 %) was observed in our patient cohort. Conclusion: A comprehensive cardiac evaluation of morphology, function as well as metabolism in Fabry PTS with suspected cardiac involvement is feasible in a single examination. No significant effect of myocardial triglyceride deposition could be observed in patients. The remarkably high myocardial triglyceride content in one patient with advanced FD warrants further studies in PTS with an extended history of the disease. (orig.)

  3. Design of algal film photobioreactors: material surface energy effects on algal film productivity, colonization and lipid content.

    Genin, Scott N; Stewart Aitchison, J; Grant Allen, D


    A parallel plate air lift reactor was used to examine the growth kinetics of mixed culture algal biofilms grown on various materials (acrylic, glass, polycarbonate, polystyrene and cellulose acetate). The growth kinetics of the algal biofilms were non-linear overall and their overall productivities ranged from 1.10-2.08g/m(2)day, with those grown on cellulose acetate having the highest productivity. Overall algal biofilm productivity was largely explained by differences in the colonization time which in turn was strongly correlated to the polar surface energy of the material, but weakly correlated to water-material contact angle. When colonization time was taken into account, the productivity for all materials except acrylic was not significantly different at approximately 2g/m(2)/day. Lipid content of the algal biofilms ranged from 6% to 8% (w/w) and was not correlated to water-material contact angle or polar surface energy. The results have potential application for selecting appropriate materials for algal film photobioreactors.

  4. Action of tributyltin (TBT) on the lipid content and potassium retention in the organotins degradating fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Bernat, Przemysław; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy


    The purpose of the presented paper was to study the effect of high concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on the potassium retention and fatty acid (FA) composition of the fungus Cunninghamella elegans recognized as a very efficient TBT degrader. An increase in TBT had a strong influence on the potassium concentration in the fungus. In growth medium without TBT, the potassium content of the fungal cells was 5.8 mg K(+) g dry weight(-1). The maximum concentration of K(+) was 15.06 mg g(-1) dry weight at 30 mg l(-1) of TBT. The major FAs that characterized the tested strain were C16:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C18:0. TBT in the concentration range 5-30 mg l(-1) strongly influenced the FA composition. In the presence of the organotin, the degree of saturation increased. It suggests that the observed changes promote an increase in the lipid ordering of the membrane by reducing its permeability and inhibiting potassium ion efflux.

  5. Effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene isolated from Croton cajucara essential oil on growth, lipid content and ultrastructural aspects of Rhizopus oryzae.

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Almeida, Catia A; Chaves, Francisco C M; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Rozental, Sonia; Bizzo, Humberto R; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S


    The leaves and bark of Croton cajucara, a shrub from the Amazon region, have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, malaria, and gastrointestinal and liver disorders. The essential oil from the leaves, rich in linalool, presented antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities. A chemotype of this species was found with an essential oil rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene. During our studies of the C. cajucara essential oil, we isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene at > 98 % purity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 7-hydroxycalamenene against Absidia cylindrospora, Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides, Mucor mucedo, Mucor plumbeus, Mucor ramosissimus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum ranged from 19.53 to 2500 µg/mL. The reference drug used, amphotericin B, presented a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.085 µg/mL to 43.87 µg/mL. 7-Hydroxycalamenene also altered spore differentiation and total lipid content. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed significant alterations in the cellular structure of R. oryzae.

  6. Anomalous partitioning of water in coexisting liquid phases of lipid multilayers near 100% relative humidity

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; Jiang, Zhang; Schleputz, Christian M.; Karapetrova, Evguenia; Lurio, L. B.; Sinha, Sunil K.


    X-ray diffraction is used to determine the hydration dependence of a ternary mixture lipid multilayer structure which has phase separated into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. An anomaly is observed in the swelling behavior of the Ld phase at a relative humidity (RH) close to 100%, which is different from the anomalous swelling happens close to the main lipid gel-fluid transition. The lamellar repeat distance of the Ld phase swells by an extra 4 Å, well beyond the equilibrium spacing predicted by the inter-bilayer forces. This anomalous swelling is caused by the hydrophobic mismatch energy at the domain boundaries, which produces surprisingly long range effect.

  7. Modelling of phase equilibria and related properties of mixtures involving lipids

    Cunico, Larissa

    Many challenges involving physical and thermodynamic properties in the production of edible oils and biodiesel are observed, such as availability of experimental data and realiable prediction. In the case of lipids, a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures in open...... literature was observed, what makes it necessary to development reliable predictive models from limited data. One of the first steps of this project was the creation of a database containing properties of mixtures involved in tasks related to process design, simulation, and optimization as well as design...... of chemicals based products. This database was combined with the existing lipids database of pure component properties. To contribute to the missing data, measurements of isobaric vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of two binary mixtures at two different pressures were performed using Differential Scanning...

  8. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D


    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  9. Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano


    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets.

  10. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Gilles, Gandemer


    Full Text Available Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subjected to oxidation which forms many volatile compounds. These volatiles affect in the aroma of dry-cured hams and are associated with aroma notes such as rancid, aged meat or dry-cured. According to the genotype and the rearing conditions of pigs and the parameters of processing, dry-cured hams have specific sensory profiles. This paper reviews the present knowledge on lipids and dry-cured ham quality.Los lípidos desempeñan un papel fundamental en las características sensoriales de los jamones curados. Tanto la cantidad como la composición de los lípidos de las materias primas afectan a la calidad de los jamones. Las características de los lípidos dependen en gran medida de los sistemas de crianza desarrollados en las diferentes zonas de Europa. Durante el proceso, los lípidos sufren reacciones como la lipolisis y la oxidación. La lipolisis genera ácidos grasos libres a lo largo de todo el proceso, siendo los más abundantes los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados. Los lípidos también están sujetos a la oxidación, la cual genera muchos compuestos volátiles. Estos volátiles afectan al aroma de los jamones curados asociándose a notas tales como la rancidez, carne vieja o curado. De acuerdo con el genotipo y las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y los parámetros del proceso, los jamones curados tienen un perfil sensorial específico. En este artículo se examinan los conocimientos actuales sobre los lípidos y la calidad del jamón curado.

  11. Quil A-lipid powder formulations releasing ISCOMs and related colloidal structures upon hydration.

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Hook, Sarah; Rades, Thomas


    The aim of the present study was to prepare solid Quil A-cholesterol-phospholipid formulations (as powder mixtures or compressed to pellets) by physical mixing or by freeze-drying of aqueous dispersions of these components in ratios that allow spontaneous formation of ISCOMs and other colloidal structures upon hydration. The effect of addition of excess cholesterol to the lipid mixtures on the release of a model antigen (PE-FITC-OVA) from the pellets was also investigated. Physical properties were evaluated by X-ray powder diffractometry (XPRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Characterization of aqueous colloidal dispersions was performed by negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Physically mixed powders (with or without PE-FITC-OVA) and pellets prepared from the same powders did not spontaneously form ISCOM matrices and related colloidal structures such as worm-like micelles, ring-like micelles, lipidic/layered structures and lamellae (hexagonal array of ring-like micelles) upon hydration as expected from the pseudo-ternary diagram for aqueous mixtures of Quil A, cholesterol and phospholipid. In contrast, spontaneous formation of the expected colloids was demonstrated for the freeze-dried lipid mixtures. Pellets prepared by compression of freeze-dried powders released PE-FITC-OVA slower than those prepared from physically mixed powders. TEM investigations revealed that the antigen was released in the form of colloidal particles (ISCOMs) from pellets prepared by compression of freeze-dried powders. The addition of excess cholesterol slowed down the release of antigen. The findings obtained in this study are important for the formulation of solid Quil A-containing lipid articles as controlled particulate adjuvant containing antigen delivery systems.

  12. Global Adaptation to a Lipid Environment Triggers the Dormancy-Related Phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Rodríguez, Juan G.; Hernández, Adriana C.; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Aguilar Ayala, Diana; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M.; Bustos, Jose R.; Zambrano, María M.; González-y-Merchand, Jorge


    ABSTRACT Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium’s metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcriptome revealed a shift toward the glyoxylate cycle, the overexpression of main regulators whiB3, dosR, and Rv0081, and the increased expression of several genes related to reductive stress. Our evidence showed that lipid storage seems to be the selected mechanism used by M. tuberculosis to ameliorate the assumed damage of reductive stress and that concomitantly the bacilli acquired a slowed-growth and drug-tolerant phenotype, all characteristics previously associated with the dormant stage. Additionally, intergenic regions were also detected, including the unexpected upregulation of tRNAs that suggest a new role for these molecules in the acquisition of a drug-tolerant phenotype by dormant bacilli. Finally, a set of lipid signature genes for the adaptation process was also identified. This in vitro model represents a suitable condition to illustrate the participation of reductive stress in drugs’ activity against dormant bacilli, an aspect scarcely investigated to date. This approach provides a new perspective to the understanding of latent infection and suggests the participation of previously undetected molecules. PMID:24846381

  13. The relative effect of sterols and hopanoids on lipid bilayers: when comparable is not identical.

    Poger, David; Mark, Alan E


    Sterols are the hallmarks of eukaryotic membranes where they are often found in specialized functional microdomains of the plasma membrane called lipid rafts. Despite some notable exceptions, prokaryotes lack sterols. However, growing evidence has suggested the existence of raft-like domains in the plasma membrane of bacteria. A structurally related family of triterpenoids found in some bacteria called hopanoids has long been assumed to be bacterial surrogates for sterols in membranes. Although the effect of sterols, in particular cholesterol, on lipid bilayers has been extensively characterized through experimental and simulation studies, those of hopanoids have hardly been investigated. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the effect of two hopanoids, diploptene (hop-22(29)-ene) and bacteriohopanetetrol ((32R,33S,34S)-bacteriohopane-32,33,34,35-tetrol), on a model bilayer. The results are compared with those obtained for cholesterol and a pure phosphatidylcholine bilayer. It is shown that diploptene and bacteriohopanetetrol behave very differently under the conditions simulated. Whereas bacteriohopanetetrol adopted a cholesterol-like upright orientation in the bilayer, diploptene partitioned between the two leaflets inside the bilayer. Analysis of various structural properties (area per lipid, electron density profile, tilt angle of the lipids, and conformation and order parameters of the phosphatidylcholine tails) in bacteriohopanetetrol- and cholesterol-containing bilayers indicates that the condensing and ordering effect of bacteriohopanetetrol is weaker than that of cholesterol. The simulations suggest that the chemical diversity of hopanoids may lead to a broader range of functional roles in bacterial membranes than sterols in eukaryotic membranes.

  14. 褪黑素抑制雌二醇诱致的垂体PRL瘤生长与血浆PRL和过氧化脂质含量的关系%Inhibitory effects of melatonin on the development of 17-β-estradiol induced prolactinoma in relation to plasma prolactin and peroxidative lipid contents

    高列; 许建萍; 单惠敏; 张荣; 许荣煙


    雄性大鼠皮下埋置17-β雌二醇(17-β-estradiol, E2)药泵诱发垂体催乳素PRL)瘤,并每日皮下注射褪黑素(melatonin, MLT)观察MLT对E2诱发PRL瘤生长的影响.另外,采用放免法和紫外分光光度法测定大鼠血浆PRL和过氧化脂质(peroxidative lipid, PL)浓度,观察PRL瘤重量与大鼠血浆浓度间的相关关系.实验结果显示,在对照组、0.05、0.25、0.50、1.00和2.00 mg MLT组,PRL瘤重量分别为115.0±71.0、85.2±41.0、58.9±24.1、72.7±23.6、79.3±56.1、74.5±46.8 mg;血浆PRL浓度分别为493.46±33.3、373.78±26.5、125.13±13.3、201.79±11.2、418.88±41.3、281.94±36.4 ng/ml;血浆PL水平分别为1.21±0.23、0.89±0.32、0.92±0.27、0.64±0.24、0.41±0.14、0.43±0.21 △D233/ml.相关性分析表明,PRL瘤重量与血浆PRL浓度间的相关系数为0.8738(P<0.05),与血浆PL水平间的相关系数为0.5550(P>0.05),血浆PRL浓度与血浆PL水平间的相关系数为0.2141(P>0.05).该结果提示,(1)0.25(P<0.01)、0.50(P<0.05)mg MLT能有效抑制E2诱致的PRL瘤生长和PRL分泌,所有剂量的MLT均能抑制血浆PL的形成;(2)PRL瘤重量与血浆PRL浓度间呈正相关关系,PRL瘤重量与血浆PL水平间、以及血浆PRL浓度与血浆PL水平间均无相关关系.因此,我们认为,MLT抑制E2诱致的PRL瘤生长可能与MLT抑制PRL表达性分泌有关,但与MLT抗氧化作用无关.

  15. Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production as influenced by total lipid content during growth and development of cottonseed

    Aspergillus flavus infects several food and feed crops such as corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nut crops and contaminates the seed with carcinogenic aflatoxins. These susceptible crops contain rich reserves of lipids and fatty acids. The nature of relationship between lipids and the ability of the f...

  16. High content analysis platform for optimization of lipid mediated CRISPR-Cas9 delivery strategies in human cells.

    Steyer, Benjamin; Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Angenent-Mari, Nicolas; Khalil, Andrew; Harkness, Ty; Saha, Krishanu


    Non-viral gene-editing of human cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system requires optimized delivery of multiple components. Both the Cas9 endonuclease and a single guide RNA, that defines the genomic target, need to be present and co-localized within the nucleus for efficient gene-editing to occur. This work describes a new high-throughput screening platform for the optimization of CRISPR-Cas9 delivery strategies. By exploiting high content image analysis and microcontact printed plates, multi-parametric gene-editing outcome data from hundreds to thousands of isolated cell populations can be screened simultaneously. Employing this platform, we systematically screened four commercially available cationic lipid transfection materials with a range of RNAs encoding the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Analysis of Cas9 expression and editing of a fluorescent mCherry reporter transgene within human embryonic kidney cells was monitored over several days after transfection. Design of experiments analysis enabled rigorous evaluation of delivery materials and RNA concentration conditions. The results of this analysis indicated that the concentration and identity of transfection material have significantly greater effect on gene-editing than ratio or total amount of RNA. Cell subpopulation analysis on microcontact printed plates, further revealed that low cell number and high Cas9 expression, 24h after CRISPR-Cas9 delivery, were strong predictors of gene-editing outcomes. These results suggest design principles for the development of materials and transfection strategies with lipid-based materials. This platform could be applied to rapidly optimize materials for gene-editing in a variety of cell/tissue types in order to advance genomic medicine, regenerative biology and drug discovery. CRISPR-Cas9 is a new gene-editing technology for "genome surgery" that is anticipated to treat genetic diseases. This technology uses multiple components of the Cas9 system to cut out disease-causing mutations

  17. Effect of high dietary fat content on heat production and lipid and protein deposition in growing immunocastrated male pigs.

    Batorek-Lukač, N; Dubois, S; Noblet, J; Čandek-Potokar, M; Labussière, E


    In immunocastrated (IC) pigs, revaccination (V2) increases lipid deposition (LD) because of increased voluntary feed intake; but little is known on associated effect of diet composition on partitioning of nutrients in IC pigs. Digestibility measurements, N and energy balances in respiration chambers were performed in two subsequent stages in four replicates of two male littermates to determine the changes between 85 (stage 1) and 135 (stage 2) kg live weight due to combined effect of IC, growth and increased feed intake (IC/growth). During stage 1, pigs received a standard low-fat diet (LF diet; 2.5% dry matter (DM) of fat fed at 2.27 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg BW0.60 per day), whereas during stage 2, feed intake was increased to 2.47 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day and one littermate was fed LF diet whereas the second received a fat-enriched diet (HF diet; 8.9% DM of fat) to determine the effect of increased dietary fat content on energy utilization in IC pigs. Results from N balance and measurements of gas exchanges were used to calculate respiratory quotient (RQ), heat production (HP), nutrient contribution to fat retention, components of HP, protein deposition (PD) and LD. Nutrients and energy apparent digestibility coefficients, methane losses and N retention (Pdietary fat (Ppigs is a result of increased daily LD caused by higher energy intake and lower basal metabolic rate. In addition, LD is further enhanced by dietary energy enrichment with fat after V2.

  18. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    Burns, R


    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  19. Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Lipid Deposition from Transcriptome Profiles of Pig Muscle Tissue.

    Zhixiu Wang

    Full Text Available Transcriptome profiles established using high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used for screening genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs. RNA sequences (from RNA-seq and microRNA sequences (from miRNA-seq from the tissues of longissimus dorsi muscle of two indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Diannan Small-ear pig [DSP] and Tibetan pig [TP] and two introduced pig breeds (Landrace [LL] and Yorkshire [YY] were examined using HiSeq 2000 to identify and compare the differential expression of functional genes related to muscle growth and lipid deposition. We obtained 27.18 G clean data through the RNA-seq and detected that 18,208 genes were positively expressed and 14,633 of them were co-expressed in the muscle tissues of the four samples. In all, 315 DEGs were found between the Chinese pig group and the introduced pig group, 240 of which were enriched with functional annotations from the David database and significantly enriched in 27 Gene Ontology (GO terms that were mainly associated with muscle fiber contraction, cadmium ion binding, response to organic substance and contractile fiber part. Based on functional annotation, we identified 85 DEGs related to growth traits that were mainly involved in muscle tissue development, muscle system process, regulation of cell development, and growth factor binding, and 27 DEGs related to lipid deposition that were mainly involved in lipid metabolic process and fatty acid biosynthetic process. With miRNA-seq, we obtained 23.78 M reads and 320 positively expressed miRNAs from muscle tissues, including 271 known pig miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs. In those 271 known miRNAs, 20 were higher and 10 lower expressed in DSP-TP than in LL-YY. The target genes of the 30 miRNAs were mainly participated in MAPK, GnRH, insulin and Calcium signaling pathway and others involved cell development, growth and proliferation, etc. Combining the DEGs and the differentially expressed (DE miRNAs, we drafted a network of 46

  20. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Thierry Arnould


    Full Text Available Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion.

  1. Macroautophagy and Cell Responses Related to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Lipid Metabolism and Unconventional Secretion of Proteins

    Demine, Stéphane; Michel, Sébastien; Vannuvel, Kayleen; Wanet, Anaïs; Renard, Patricia; Arnould, Thierry


    Macroautophagy has important physiological roles and its cytoprotective or detrimental function is compromised in various diseases such as many cancers and metabolic diseases. However, the importance of autophagy for cell responses has also been demonstrated in many other physiological and pathological situations. In this review, we discuss some of the recently discovered mechanisms involved in specific and unspecific autophagy related to mitochondrial dysfunction and organelle degradation, lipid metabolism and lipophagy as well as recent findings and evidence that link autophagy to unconventional protein secretion. PMID:24710422

  2. Treatment with algae extracts promotes flocculation, and enhances growth and neutral lipid content in Nannochloropsis oculata--a candidate for biofuel production.

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Rand, Jonathan D; Caldwell, Gary S


    Marine microalgae represent a potentially valuable feedstock for biofuel production; however, large-scale production is not yet economically viable. Optimisation of productivity and lipid yields is required and the cost of biomass harvesting and dewatering must be significantly reduced. Microalgae produce a wide variety of biologically active metabolites, many of which are involved in inter- and intra-specific interactions (the so-called infochemicals). The majority of infochemicals remain unidentified or uncharacterised. Here, we apply known and candidate (undefined extracts) infochemicals as a potential means to manipulate the growth and lipid content of Nannochloropsis oculata-a prospective species for biofuel production. Five known infochemicals (β-cyclocitral, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, hydrogen peroxide, norharman and tryptamine) and crude extracts prepared from Skeletonema marinoi and Dunaliella salina cultures at different growth stages were assayed for impacts on N. oculata over 24 h. The neutral lipid content of N. oculata increased significantly with exposure to three infochemicals (β-cyclocitral, decadienal and norharman); however the effective concentrations affected a significant decrease in growth. Exposure to particular crude extracts significantly increased both growth and neutral lipid levels. In addition, water-soluble extracts of senescent S. marinoi cultures induced a degree of flocculation in the N. oculata. These preliminary results indicate that artificial manipulation of N. oculata cultures by application of algae infochemicals could provide a valuable tool towards achieving economically viable large-scale algae biofuel production.

  3. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena


    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.;


    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  5. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.;


    Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict......-rich lipoproteins predict echo-lucency of carotid plaques, which is associated with increased plaque Lipid content, Because echo-lucency has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts on CT scans, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may predict a plaque type particularly vulnerable to rupture....... carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were...

  6. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.


    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  7. The Gap between Professional and Research Agenda: A Content Analysis of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review."

    Broom, Glen M.; And Others

    A content analysis compared the professional and research agendas of "Public Relations Journal" and "Public Relations Review" for the years 1975-81. A sample of 121 articles from the former and 111 articles from the latter were analyzed, and the content of each was assigned to one of 10 categories related to the context,…

  8. China-U.S. Relations: Definition and Crucial Content

    Liu; Jiafei


    Ⅰ.China-U.S.Relations at a Last Crossroads Regarding the status quo of Sino-U.S.relations,both the positive and the negative aspects are obvious;and the motive force is powerful.Where will the bilateral relations go,whether to conflict and antagonism,or a new type of great power relations based on cooperation and double-win?Either future phenomenon may come true.That’s to say,

  9. Drug binding and mobility relating to the thermal fluctuation in fluid lipid membranes

    Okamura, Emiko; Yoshii, Noriyuki


    Drug binding and mobility in fluid lipid bilayer membranes are quantified in situ by using the multinuclear solution NMR combined with the pulsed-field-gradient technique. One-dimensional and pulsed-field-gradient F19 and H1 NMR signals of an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) are analyzed at 283-313 K in the presence of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) as model cell membranes. The simultaneous observation of the membrane-bound and free 5FU signals enables to quantify in what amount of 5FU is bound to the membrane and how fast 5FU is moving within the membrane in relation to the thermal fluctuation of the soft, fluid environment. It is shown that the mobility of membrane-bound 5FU is slowed down by almost two orders of magnitude and similar to the lipid movement in the membrane, the movement closely related to the intramembrane fluidity. The mobility of 5FU and EPC is, however, not similar at 313 K; the 5FU movement is enhanced in the membrane as a result of the loose binding of 5FU in the lipid matrices. The membrane-bound fraction of 5FU is ˜0.1 and almost unaltered over the temperature range examined. It is also independent of the 5FU concentration from 2 to 30 mM with respect to the 40-50 mM LUV. The free energy of the 5FU binding is estimated at -4 to -2 kJ/mol, the magnitude always close to the thermal fluctuation, 2.4-2.6 kJ/mol.

  10. BRD4 regulates fructose-inducible lipid accumulation-related genes in the mouse liver.

    Yamada, Aki; Honma, Kazue; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao


    Fructose intake induces hepatic steatosis by activating fat synthesis. In this study, we searched for genes that showed acute induction in the livers of mice force-fed with fructose, and examined how this induction is regulated. We identified genes induced at 6h after the fructose force-feeding using a microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Histone acetylation and an acetylated histone binding protein bromodomain containing (BRD)4 binding around the fructose-inducible genes were examined using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We examined whether (+)-JQ1, an inhibitor of the binding between the BRD4 and acetylated histones, inhibited the expressions of fructose-inducible genes, histone acetylation and BRD4 binding around the genes. We identified upregulated genes related to lipid accumulation, such as Cyp8b1, Dak and Plin5, in mice force-fed with fructose compared with those force-fed with glucose. Acetylation of histones H3 and H4, and BRD4 binding around the transcribed region of those fructose-inducible genes, were enhanced by fructose force-feeding. Meanwhile, (+)-JQ1 treatment reduced expressions of fructose-inducible genes, histone acetylation and BRD4 binding around these genes. Acute induction of genes related to lipid accumulation in the livers of mice force-fed with fructose is associated with the induction of histone acetylation and BRD4 binding around these genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Profiling the Triacylglyceride Contents in Bat Integumentary Lipids by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry


    The mammalian integument includes sebaceous glands that secrete an oily material onto the skin surface. Sebum production is part of the innate immune system that is protective against pathogenic microbes. Abnormal sebum production and chemical composition are also a clinical symptom of specific skin diseases. Sebum contains a complex mixture of lipids, including triacylglycerides, which is species-specific. The broad chemical properties exhibited by diverse lipid classes hinder the specific d...

  12. Relating the Content and Confidence of Recognition Judgments

    Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G.


    The Remember/Know procedure, developed by Tulving (1985) to capture the distinction between the conscious correlates of episodic and semantic retrieval, has spurned considerable research and debate. However, only a handful of reports have examined the recognition content beyond this dichotomous simplification. To address this, we collected participants’ written justifications in support of ordinary old/new recognition decisions accompanied by confidence ratings using a 3-point scale (high/medium/low). Unlike prior research, we did not provide the participants with any descriptions of Remembering or Knowing and thus, if the justifications mapped well onto theory, they would do so spontaneously. Word frequency analysis (unigrams, bigrams, and trigrams), independent ratings, and machine learning techniques (Support Vector Machine - SVM) converged in demonstrating that the linguistic content of high and medium confidence recognition differs in a manner consistent with dual process theories of recognition. For example, the use of ‘I remember’, particularly when combined with temporal or perceptual information (e.g., ‘when’, ‘saw’, ‘distinctly’), was heavily associated with high confidence recognition. Conversely, participants also used the absence of remembering for personally distinctive materials as support for high confidence new reports (‘would have remembered’). Thus, participants afford a special status to the presence or absence of remembering and use this actively as a basis for high confidence during recognition judgments. Additionally, the pattern of classification successes and failures of a SVM was well anticipated by the Dual Process Signal Detection model of recognition and inconsistent with a single process, strictly unidimensional approach. “One might think that memory should have something to do with remembering, and remembering is a conscious experience.”(Tulving, 1985, p. 1) PMID:23957366

  13. Fatty fish intake decreases lipids related to inflammation and insulin signaling--a lipidomics approach.

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence of the multiple beneficial health effects of fish consumption is strong, but physiological mechanisms behind these effects are not completely known. Little information is available on the effects of consumption of different type of fish. The aim of this study was to investigate how fatty fish or lean fish in a diet affect serum lipidomic profiles in subjects with coronary heart disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A pilot study was designed which included altogether 33 subjects with myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack in an 8-week parallel controlled intervention. The subjects were randomized to either fatty fish (n = 11, lean fish (n = 12 or control (n = 10 groups. Subjects in the fish groups had 4 fish meals per week and subjects in the control group consumed lean beef, pork and chicken. A fish meal was allowed once a week maximum. Lipidomics analyses were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Multiple bioactive lipid species, including ceramides, lysophosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerols, decreased significantly in the fatty fish group, whereas in the lean fish group cholesterol esters and specific long-chain triacylglycerols increased significantly (False Discovery Rate q-value <0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 8-week consumption of fatty fish decreased lipids which are potential mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be related to the protective effects of fatty fish on the progression of atherosclerotic vascular diseases or insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00720655.

  14. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova


    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  15. Gaucher disease: plasmalogen levels in relation to primary lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress.

    Moraitou, Marina; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Dekker, Nick; Monopolis, Ioannis; Aerts, Johannes; Michelakakis, Helen


    Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities, malonyldialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status was further investigated. Significant reduction of C16:0 and C18:0 plasmalogens in red blood cells of Gaucher disease patients was confirmed. In parallel, a significant increase in the glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio in red blood cell membranes, as well as an average 200-fold increase in plasma glucosylsphingosine levels was observed. Red blood cell malonyldialdehyde levels were significantly increased in patients, whereas their total antioxidant status was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between plasmalogen species and glucosylceramide, ceramide, glucosylceramide/ceramide ratio, glucosylsphingosine and malonyldialdehyde, significant for the C16:0 species and all the above parameters with the exception of malonyldialdehyde levels, was found along with a positive non-significant correlation with the total antioxidant status. Our results indicate that increased lipid peroxidation and reduced total antioxidant status exist in Gaucher disease patients. They demonstrate a clear link between plasmalogen levels and the primary glycolipid abnormalities characterizing the disorder and an association with the increased oxidative stress observed in Gaucher disease patients.

  16. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P. (Estee Lauder Research and Development, Melville, NY (USA))


    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation.

  17. StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 5 binds primary bile acids[S

    Létourneau, Danny; Lorin, Aurélien; Lefebvre, Andrée; Frappier, Vincent; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael; Lavigne, Pierre; LeHoux, Jean-Guy


    Steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins are involved in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of lipids and sterols. The STARD1 (STARD1 and STARD3) and STARD4 subfamilies (STARD4–6) have an internal cavity large enough to accommodate sterols. To provide a deeper understanding on the structural biology of this domain, the binding of sterols to STARD5, a member of the STARD4 subfamily, was monitored. The SAR by NMR [1H-15N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC)] approach, complemented by circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), was used. Titration of STARD5 with cholic (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), leads to drastic perturbation of the 1H-15N HSQC spectra and the identification of the residues in contact with those ligands. The most perturbed residues in presence of ligands are lining the internal cavity of the protein. Ka values of 1.8·10−4 M−1 and 6.3·104 M−1 were measured for CA and CDCA, respectively. This is the first report of a START domain protein in complex with a sterol ligand. Our original findings indicate that STARD5 may be involved in the transport of bile acids rather than cholesterol. PMID:23018617

  18. Lipid partitioning in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm highlights relationships among starch lipids, amylose, and vitreousness.

    Gayral, Mathieu; Bakan, Bénédicte; Dalgalarrondo, Michele; Elmorjani, Khalil; Delluc, Caroline; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Marion, Didier


    Content and composition of maize endosperm lipids and their partition in the floury and vitreous regions were determined for a set of inbred lines. Neutral lipids, i.e., triglycerides and free fatty acids, accounted for more than 80% of endosperm lipids and are almost 2 times higher in the floury than in the vitreous regions. The composition of endosperm lipids, including their fatty acid unsaturation levels, as well as their distribution may be related to metabolic specificities of the floury and vitreous regions in carbon and nitrogen storage and to the management of stress responses during endosperm cell development. Remarkably, the highest contents of starch lipids were observed systematically within the vitreous endosperm. These high amounts of starch lipids were mainly due to lysophosphatidylcholine and were tightly linked to the highest amylose content. Consequently, the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes has to be considered as an outstanding mechanism affecting endosperm vitreousness.

  19. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang


    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Content and Citation Analyses of "Public Relations Review."

    Morton, Linda P.; Lin, Li-Yun


    Analyzes 161 cited and 177 uncited articles published in "Public Relations Review" (1975-93) to determine if 3 independent variables--research methods, type of statistics, and topics--influenced whether or not articles were cited in other research articles. Finds significant differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods but not…

  1. A content analysis of depression-related Tweets.

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina; Connolly, Sarah; Rosas, Carlos; Bharadwaj, Meghana; Bierut, Laura J


    This study examines depression-related chatter on Twitter to glean insight into social networking about mental health. We assessed themes of a random sample (n=2,000) of depression-related tweets (sent 4-11 to 5-4-14). Tweets were coded for expression of DSM-5 symptoms for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Supportive or helpful tweets about depression was the most common theme (n=787, 40%), closely followed by disclosing feelings of depression (n=625; 32%). Two-thirds of tweets revealed one or more symptoms for the diagnosis of MDD and/or communicated thoughts or ideas that were consistent with struggles with depression after accounting for tweets that mentioned depression trivially. Health professionals can use our findings to tailor and target prevention and awareness messages to those Twitter users in need.

  2. Lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-related molecules affected by tributyltin exposure in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Ma, Dongdong; Liu, Min; Huang, Shuntao


    Tributyltin (TBT) is reported to induce adipogenesis in fish, which might affect nutritional qualities and health status. Muscle tissues account for the majority of body mass, and have been described as a major site of fat deposition and an immunologically active organ. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate whether chronic exposures of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng/L, affects lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune status in muscle tissues of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). After 60 d of exposure, TBT increased contents of total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids in muscle tissues. Interestingly, TBT exposure disrupted fatty acid composition and increased contents of unsaturated fatty acids (such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in muscle tissues, which might be a response to preserve membrane functions from TBT exposure. Meanwhile, the concentrations of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 2 (Δ6-desaturase) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Δ9-desaturase) were increased after TBT exposure, which might contribute the increase of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, TBT increased muscle lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), and the expression of immune-related molecules (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta and nuclear factor kappa B) in muscle tissues. The disruption of TBT on the lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and immune-toxic effects in muscle tissues of fish might reduce nutritional qualities, and affect growth and health status, which might pose a constant and serious threat to fish and result in economic loss in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Exogenous Lipid Pneumonia Related to Smoking Weed Oil Following Cadaveric Renal Transplantation

    Dilini Vethanayagam


    Full Text Available A 30-year-old female presented shortly after cadaveric renal transplantation with respiratory distress typical of a bacterial infection. Following initial improvement, she developed progressive respiratory failure, initially felt to be secondary to cytomegalovirus infection. Two bronchoalveolar lavages were nondiagnostic, and an open lung biopsy was performed, which revealed a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP reaction and exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP. The ELP was considered to be secondary to the use of marijuana, in the form of weed oil, that was smoked daily for over 10 years and stopped just before renal transplantation. This is the first description of both PAP and ELP following renal transplantation, and the first description of ELP related to smoking weed oil. Physicians should be aware of the different forms of marijuana available and of their potential medical complications.

  4. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.


    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  5. Study on the Heat Insulation Property of Down Jackets in Relation to Down Content

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; ZHANG Wei-yuan


    Based on the heat transferring theory in the humanclothing-environment system, the heat insulation property and changing pattern of down jackets in relation to its down content is mainly dealt with.By the heatedmanikin testing and the mathematical analysis to the testing data the existence of the optimum down content is found.Furthermore the reason and mechanism of the relation between down content and clothing's heat insulation property are explained.



    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".




    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effects of four rations on growth, chemical composition and digestibility of the Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792. Four test diets were formulated to have the same levels of protein (40% and energy (gross energy: around 4800 cal/g, however, these test diets were composed of basic diet with different carbohydrate (0, 3, 12 and 18% to lipid (0, 6, 15 and 18% ratios (Diet 1: 0/18; Diet 2: 3/15; Diet 3: 12/6 and Diet 4: 18/0. Fifty fish weighing 99.0 ± 0.65g were placed in each of the four experimental tanks and were fed with one of the experimental diets for 13 weeks consisting of two trial periods (Periods I and II. Growth parameters and chemical composition of fish flesh were monitored. Effects of the diets on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were also determined. At the end of the study, the fish growth was affected significantly (P0.05 changes in specific growth rate, although higher values were observed in fish fed with Diets 1 and 3. The experimental group fed with Diet 4 showed a lower (P0.05 changes in experimental groups fed with the diets. The percentage of water, protein and ash of fish flesh did not show any (P>0.05 change. However, the muscle lipid content of fish significantly (P<0.05 decreased as carbohydrate level increased. The ADC values were also affected (P<0.05 with carbohydrate and lipid levels in the diets. The ADC of lipid was lowest in the experimental group fed with Diet 1. The ADC values for dry matter, proteins and energy were lowest for fish fed on Diet 4, while for ash it was lowest for Diet 2. These results indicate that the best balance between the dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels was obtained on Diet 3, without lower growth.

  8. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.


    Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) are essentia...... of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of similar to 5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is...

  9. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros


    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  10. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Đinđić Nataša


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  11. A hydrated phospholipid polymer-grafted layer prevents lipid-related oxidative degradation of cross-linked polyethylene.

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko


    The surface and substrate of a cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner are designed to achieve resistance against oxidative degradation in the construction of hip joint replacements. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative degradation caused by lipid absorption of a highly hydrophilic nanometer-scaled thickness layer prepared by grafting a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) layer and a high-dose gamma-ray irradiated CLPE with vitamin E blending (HD-CLPE[VE]). The HD-CLPE(VE) and PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) exhibited extremely high oxidation resistance regardless of lipid absorption, even though residual-free radical levels were detectable. The water wettability of the PMPC-grafted CLPE and PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) surfaces was considerably greater than that of untreated surfaces. The hydrated PMPC-grafted layer also exhibited extremely low solubility for squalene. Lipids such as squalene and cholesterol esters diminished the oxidation resistance of CLPE despite the vitamin E improvement. Notably, the PMPC-grafted surface was resistant to lipid absorption and diffusion as well as subsequent lipid-related oxidative degradation, likely because of the presence of the hydrated PMPC-grafted layer. Together, these results provide preliminary evidence that the resistance against lipid absorption and diffusion of a hydrated PMPC-grafted layer might positively affect the extent of resistance to the in vivo oxidation of orthopedic implants.

  12. 高油脂产量微藻的选育方法及研究进展%Selection and Breeding of High-lipid Content Microalgae Strains

    陈梅; 唐运来


    能源短缺和环境问题已经成为人类面临的全球性重大危机,生物质能作为一种环境友好的可再生能源受到国内外学者的关注.微藻作为生物质能原料有很多优势,但制约微藻生物质能源工业化生产的主要限制因素之一是微藻的油脂含量.选育高油脂含量的微藻株系是目前微藻领域的研究热点之一.在此综述了微藻作为生物质能原料的优势和基于生物质能原料生产的微藻选育的研究进展.%It is believed that energy shortage and environmental problems are the most pressing global problems. Biomass energy, which is a renewable environment-friendly energy, is seen as increasingly attractive to solve global problems. Although microalgae as a biomass energy raw material has many advantages, lipid content is one of the main factors restricting the industrial production of microalgae biomass energy. Consequently, high-lipid content microalgae strains breeding is one of hot research topics in the field of microalgae biomass. This review focuses on the selection, breeding and engineering of microalgae for improved biomass and high-lipid content.

  13. Patatin-related phospholipase pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content with long-chain fatty acids in Arabidopsis.

    Li, Maoyin; Bahn, Sung Chul; Fan, Chuchuan; Li, Jia; Phan, Tien; Ortiz, Michael; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Jaworski, Jan; Wang, Xuemin


    The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various metabolic and physiological processes, but in many cases, the enzymes involved and their functions in plants remain unclear. Patatin-related phospholipase As (pPLAs) constitute a major family of acyl-hydrolyzing enzymes in plants. Here, we show that pPLAIIIδ promotes the production of triacylglycerols with 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Of the four pPLAIIIs (α, β, γ, δ), only pPLAIIIδ gene knockout results in a decrease in seed oil content, and pPLAIIIδ is most highly expressed in developing embryos. The overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases the content of triacylglycerol and 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in seeds with a corresponding decrease in 18-carbon fatty acids. Several genes in the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways are up-regulated in pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing siliques. pPLAIIIδ hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and also acyl-coenzyme A to release fatty acids. pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing plants have a lower level, whereas pPLAIIIδ knockout plants have a higher level, of acyl-coenzyme A than the wild type. Whereas seed yield decreases in transgenic plants that ubiquitously overexpress pPLAIIIδ, seed-specific overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content without any detrimental effect on overall seed yield. These results indicate that pPLAIIIδ-mediated phospholipid turnover plays a role in fatty acid remodeling and glycerolipid production.

  14. Contents

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  15. Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Núria Bargalló


    Full Text Available Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38, with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65, and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79. The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31 or presence (n = 27 of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques.

  16. Enhancement in lipid content of Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11 from the spent medium of thermophilic biohydrogen production process.

    Ghosh, Supratim; Roy, Shantonu; Das, Debabrata


    The present study investigates the effect of spent media of acetogenic dark fermentation for mixotrophic algal cultivation for biodiesel production. Mixotrophic growth conditions were optimized in culture flask (250mL) using Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11. Maximum lipid accumulation (58% w/w) was observed under light intensity, pH, nitrate and phosphate concentration of 100μmolm(-2)s(-1), 7, 2.7mM and 1.8mM, respectively. Air lift (1.4L) and flat panel (1.4L) reactors were considered for algal cultivation. Air lift showed significant improvement in biomass and lipid production as compared to flat panel reactor. The results could help in development of sustainable technology involving acetogenic hydrogen production integrated with sequential mitigation of spent media by algal cultivation for improved energy recovery.

  17. Abnormal lipid rafts related ganglioside expression and signaling in T lymphocytes in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Donglei; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Huiyuan; Fu, Rongfeng; Liu, Xiaofan; Xue, Feng; Yang, Renchi


    Aberrant T lymphocytes signaling is considered to play a crucial role in the abnormal immune state of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Lipid raft has been verified to engage in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T lymphocytes signal transduction. Whether lipid raft-associated T cells signal transduction has impact on the pathogenesis of ITP is still unconfirmed. In this study, we aimed to reveal the abnormality in structure and function of lipid rafts (LRs) in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes of patients with ITP. Our results showed that there was an increased lipid raft aggregation in ITP patients, while this kind of increase would not be influenced by platelet counts or therapeutic regimes. Stimulation by anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies promoted enhanced lipid raft clustering in T lymphocytes of ITP patients compared with negative controls. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) could block the abnormal lipid raft aggregation and disrupt the TCR-mediated T cells proliferation and cytokines secretion, including both proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The spontaneous activation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients might be due to the elevated co-localization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) CD45 and lipid rafts in patients' CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. These findings suggest that the autoactivation of T lymphocytes from ITP patients may lead to the abnormality in lipid raft structure and raft-anchored proteins, and the changes conversely promote the TCR-mediated T cells activation of ITP patients.

  18. The impact of beef steak thermal processing on lipid oxidation and postprandial inflammation related responses.

    Nuora, Anu; Chiang, Vic Shao-Chih; Milan, Amber M; Tarvainen, Marko; Pundir, Shikha; Quek, Siew-Young; Smith, Greg C; Markworth, James F; Ahotupa, Markku; Cameron-Smith, David; Linderborg, Kaisa M


    Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of detection methods of total lipid content in microalgae%微藻油脂含量不同测定方法的比较研究

    彭悦; 刘玉莹; 祁艳霞; 胡玉才; 付晚涛


    为了对微藻油脂含量不同测定方法进行比较,以球等鞭金藻8701 Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701和小新月菱形藻Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima两种微藻为研究对象,采用溶剂提取法和苏丹黑B染色法对其油脂含量进行测定,建立了两种微藻油脂含量与苏丹黑染色后吸光度A645 nm的线性回归方程,并应用于微藻油脂积累培养过程的快速测定,利用气相色谱法对两种微藻脂肪酸组成进行分析。结果表明:当提取溶剂为二氯甲烷和甲醇的混合溶剂(二者的体积比为1:2)时,油脂提取效果较好,得到球等鞭金藻8701和小新月菱形藻的油脂含量分别为22.99%和16.89%;采用苏丹黑B染色法测定的油脂含量基本和生物量大体一致,是一种可行的估测油脂含量的方法;气相色谱检测结果显示,两种微藻具有明显不同的脂肪酸组成特征,球等鞭金藻8701的饱和脂肪酸含量(55.02%)较小新月菱形藻(51.39%)高。研究表明,从两种微藻的油脂含量和脂肪酸组成来看,球等鞭金藻8701较小新月菱形藻更适用于作为生物柴油的原料。%The total lipid contents were analyzed by methods of organic solvents and Sudan black B staining in two species of microalgae, Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701 and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima. linear regression e-quations were established between lipid contents and absorbance at a wavelength of 645 nm. It was found that mi-croalgae cells were stained with Sudan black B, and applied to rapid determination of the microalgae oil accumula-tion rapidly. Fatty acid compositions were also analyzed by gas chromatography ( GC) . The extraction of solvent di-chloromethane/methanol ( volume ratio =1:2 ) revealed that there was total lipid content of 22 . 99% in Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, and 16. 89% in Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima. The total lipid was consistent with the bi-omass by Sudan black B staining method

  20. 黄鳝组织脂肪含量变动规律研究%A Study on the Dynamics of the Lipid Content in Tissues of Rice Field Eel, Monopterus albus

    周秋白; 谢熙清; 李有根


    Using the method of chloroform methanol ( V chloroform: V methanol =2∶1) to extract total lip id of muscle, liver and gonads of rice field eel (Monopterus albus), the results showed that the annual changes of lipid in rice field eel muscle, liver and ovary were in the range 1.12% -1.61% , 2.76% -4.16% and 1.94% -6.57% , respectively. Eel muscle lipid content was low in spring and summer and high in autumn and win ter; liver lipid content in summer and autumn was high, there was almost no consumption during the period from winter to spring; ovarian lipid content was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. In the same season, the larger the body size, the higher the lipid content in both muscle and ovarian tissue, it was more obvious for the former in autumn and winter, and for the latter in spring and summer, but this case did not happen in liver. Muscle was the main fat storage tissue of rice field eel. Lipid in muscle was consumed in winter significantly, while during the stages of gonad development the lipid in muscle was probably transferred to ovary, for its content in muscle was negatively correlated with that in ovarian. Liver was not the main fat storage tissue of rice field eel. The level of liver lipid content was closely related with the intensity of physical activity. Lipid content was higher in liver in summer and autumn than in spring and winter and was hardly consumed in winter. During the period from spring to summer, the intake nutrition of the female rice field eel was mainly for ovarian development, while during the period from summer to autumn, mainly for growth and storage in muscle tissue of rice field eel. The quantity of lipid in tissue of rice field eel was closely related to its growth, reproduction performance and living through the winter.%采用氧仿甲醇法(V氯仿:V甲醇 =2:1)提取黄鳝肌肉、肝脏和性腺总脂,研究结果显示黄鳝肌肉、肝脏和卵巢组织脂肪周年变动范围分别为1.12% ~1

  1. Mouse SIRT3 attenuates hypertrophy-related lipid accumulation in the heart through the deacetylation of LCAD.

    Tongshuai Chen

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to pressure, volume stress, and loss of contractile mass from prior infarction. Metabolic changes in cardiac hypertrophy include suppression of fatty acid oxidation and enhancement of glucose utilization, which could result in lipid accumulation in the heart. SIRT3, a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in controlling the acetylation status of many enzymes participating in energy metabolism. However, the role of SIRT3 in the pathogenesis of hypertrophy-related lipid accumulation remains unclear. In this study, hypertrophy-related lipid accumulation was investigated using a mouse cardiac hypertrophy model induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. We showed that mice developed heart failure six weeks after TAC. Furthermore, abnormal lipid accumulation and decreased palmitate oxidation rates were observed in the hypertrophic hearts, and these changes were particularly significant in SIRT3-KO mice. We also demonstrated that the short form of SIRT3 was downregulated in wild-type (WT hypertrophic hearts and that this change was accompanied by a higher acetylation level of long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD, which is a key enzyme participating in fatty acid oxidation. In addition, SIRT3 may play an essential role in attenuating lipid accumulation in the heart through the deacetylation of LCAD.

  2. Dietary olive oil and menhaden oil mitigate induction of lipogenesis in hyperinsulinemic corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats: microarray analysis of lipid-related gene expression.

    Deng, Xiong; Elam, Marshall B; Wilcox, Henry G; Cagen, Lauren M; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Patel, Divyen; Kumar, Poonam; Sheybani, Ali; Russell, James C


    In the corpulent James C. Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rat, hyperinsulinemia leads to induction of lipogenic enzymes via enhanced expression of sterol-regulatory-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. This results in increased hepatic lipid production and hypertriglyceridemia. Information regarding down-regulation of SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes by dietary fatty acids in this model is limited. We therefore assessed de novo hepatic lipogenesis and hepatic and plasma lipids in corpulent JCR rats fed diets enriched in olive oil or menhaden oil. Using microarray and Northern analysis, we determined the effect of these diets on expression of mRNA for lipogenic enzymes and other proteins related to lipid metabolism. In corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats, both the olive oil and menhaden oil diets reduced expression of SREBP-1c, with concomitant reductions in hepatic triglyceride content, lipogenesis, and expression of enzymes related to lipid synthesis. Unexpectedly, expression of many peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-dependent enzymes mediating fatty acid oxidation was increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats. The menhaden oil diet further increased expression of these enzymes. Induction of SREBP-1c by insulin is dependent on liver x receptor (LXR)alpha. Although hepatic expression of mRNA for LXR itself was not increased in corpulent rats, expression of Cyp7a1, an LXR-responsive gene, was increased, suggesting increased LXR activity. Expression of mRNA encoding fatty acid translocase and ATP-binding cassette subfamily DALD member 3 was also increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats, indicating a potential role for these fatty acid transporters in the pathogenesis of disordered lipid metabolism in obesity. This study clearly demonstrates that substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid for carbohydrate in the corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat reduces de novo lipogenesis, at least in part, by reducing hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and that strategies directed toward reducing

  3. Effects of plant species, stage of maturity, and level of formic acid addition on lipolysis, lipid content, and fatty acid composition during ensiling.

    Koivunen, E; Jaakkola, S; Heikkilä, T; Lampi, A-M; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Lee, M R F; Winters, A L; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A


    Forage type and management influences the nutritional quality and fatty acid composition of ruminant milk. Replacing grass silage with red clover (RC; L.) silage increases milk fat 18:3-3 concentration. Red clover has a higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity compared with grasses, which has been suggested to decrease lipolysis and . The present study characterized the abundance and fatty acid composition of esterified lipid and NEFA before and after ensiling of grass and RC to investigate the influence of forage species, growth stage, and extent of fermentation on lipolysis. A randomized block design with a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments comprised RC or a mixture of timothy ( L.) and meadow fescue ( Huds.) harvested at 3 growth stages and treated with 4 levels of formic acid (0, 2, 4, and 6 L/t). Lipid in silages treated with 0 or 6 L/t formic acid were extracted and separated into 4 fractions by TLC. Total PPO activity in fresh herbage and the content of soluble bound phenols in all silages were determined. Concentrations of 18:3-3 and total fatty acids (TFA) were higher ( ensilage of RC decreases lipolysis . For both plant species, total PPO activity was not associated with the extent of lipolysis . However, bound phenols formed via PPO activity appear to have a role in protecting lipid and protein against degradation in grass and lowering proteolysis of RC during ensiling.


    王震; 徐玮; 麦康森; 路凯; 刘迎隆; 艾庆辉


    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary valine on plasma biochemical indexes, lipid content and gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Fish [mean initial weight, (40.9±0.8) g] were fed with soybean meal based on diets with graded levels of valine (1.26%, 2.21%and 2.62%) for 10 weeks. Results showed that lipid content of the whole body and muscle of fish fed the diet with deficient valine (1.26%) was significantly lower than that fish fed the moderate (2.21%) and excess (3.23%) valine treatment groups (P0.05). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and the lipid content of liver increased with dietary valine increasing from 1.26%to 2.21%(P0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels of lipid synthesis related genes (SREBP-1, and FAS) were significantly up-regulated in fish fed the diet with moderate level of valine (2.21%) (P0.05)。军曹鱼血浆总蛋白和总胆固醇含量在缬氨酸缺乏饲料组显著低于其他各处理组(P0.05)。军曹鱼肝脏固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1(Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, SREBP-1)基因表达水平和肝脏脂肪酸合成酶(FAS)表达量,均随着饲料缬氨酸水平增加而显著升高(P0.05)。而随着缬氨酸含量升高,肉毒碱棕榈酰转移酶-1(CPT-1, Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1)表达量逐渐下降(P<0.05)。总之,饲料缺乏缬氨酸可减少军曹鱼鱼体脂肪积累。饲料中缬氨酸水平对军曹鱼鱼体脂肪沉积的影响,可能是通过调控脂肪合成和β-氧化相关基因表达而实现的。

  5. Variation in lipid and free fatty acid content during spawning in two temperate octocorals with different reproductive strategies: surface versus internal brooder

    Viladrich, Núria; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Tsounis, Georgios; Chocarro, Blanca; Martínez-Quitana, Angela; Ambroso, Stefano; Madurell, Teresa; Rossi, Sergio


    This study investigates the energetic investment during spawning of two Mediterranean gorgonians characterized by different reproductive strategies: Corallium rubrum (internal brooder) and Paramuricea clavata (surface brooder). Sexual products (number of oocytes and spermatic sacs) were quantified, and biochemical characteristics (lipid content and free fatty acid content and composition) were determined to investigate the parental energetic investment and demand in reproduction. Results suggested that the majority of the energetic cost was due to reproductive activity (i.e., gametogenesis and spawning). The two species exhibited different life history strategies, with P. clavata investing more energy in reproduction than C. rubrum. However, P. clavata is reproductively more sensitive to inter-annual changes in environmental conditions.


    Terasaki, Masaru; Hirose, Atsushi; Narayan, Bhaskar; Baba, Yuta; Kawagoe, Chikara; Yasui, Hajime; Saga, Naotsune; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo


    Fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) are characteristic lipid components of brown seaweeds that afford several health benefits to humans. This article describes the quantitative evaluation of lipids of 15 species of brown seaweeds with specific reference to Fx, Fs, and functional long-chain omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In addition, fatty-acid composition of selected species was also accomplished in the study. Major omega-3 PUFAs in the brown seaweeds analyzed were α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). Both Fx (mg · g(-1) dry weight [dwt]) and Fs (mg · g(-1) dwt) were determined to be relatively abundant in Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh (Fx, 3.7 ± 1.6; Fs, 13.4 ± 4.4) and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Yendo) Fensholt (Fx, 2.4 ± 0.9; Fs, 8.9 ± 2.0), as compared with other brown seaweed species. Studies related to seasonal variation in Fx, Fs, and total lipids of six brown algae [S. horneri, C. hakodatensis, Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setch., Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze, Analipus japonicus (Harv.) M. J. Wynne, and Melanosiphon intestinalis (D. A. Saunders) M. J. Wynne] indicated that these functional lipid components reached maximum during the period between January and March. The functional lipid components present in these seaweeds have the potential for application as nutraceuticals and novel functional ingredients after their recovery.


    David E. Laaksonen


    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and possibly lipid peroxidation play important roles in the development of macro- and microvascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Little is known, however, of the role of aerobic exercise in dyslipidemia and resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes. Despite the well-known effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on components of the metabolic syndrome, little is known of the association of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max with development of the metabolic syndrome itself. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of a 12-16 week aerobic exercise program on VO2max and the lipid profile was carried out in otherwise healthy young men with type 1 diabetes. The effect of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses and the relation to VO2max in men with type 1 diabetes was also evaluated. To test four recently proposed definitions by the World Health Organization (WHO and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP of the metabolic syndrome, the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions for prevalent and incident diabetes were assessed in a population-based cohort of middle-aged men. We also studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with prevalent and incident cases of the metabolic syndrome. A 12-16 week endurance exercise program produced antiatherogenic changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in 20 type 1 diabetic men who for the most part were already physically active at baseline. The most favorable training-induced changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and apolipoprotein A-I/apolipoprotein B ratios were in patients with low baseline HDL/LDL levels, likely the group with the most benefit to be gained by such changes. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was higher in nine

  8. HON label and DISCERN as content quality indicators of health-related websites.

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz


    Content quality indicators are warranted in order to help patients and consumers to judge the content quality of health-related on-line information. The aim of the present study is to evaluate web-based information on health topics and to assess particular content quality indicators like HON (Health on the Net) and DISCERN. The present study is based on the analysis of data issued from six previous studies which assessed with a standardized tool the general and content quality (evidence-based health information) of health-related websites. Keywords related to Social phobia, bipolar disorders, pathological gambling as well as cannabis, alcohol and cocaine addiction were entered into popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability and content quality (evidence-based information). "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of 874 websites identified, 388 were included. Despite an observed association with higher content quality scores, the HON label fails to predict good content quality websites when used in a multiple regression. Sensibility and specificity of a DISCERN score >40 in the detection of good content quality websites were, respectively, 0.45 and 0.96. The DISCERN is a potential quality indicator with a relatively high specificity. Further developments in this domain are warranted in order to facilitate the identification of high-quality information on the web by patients.

  9. School Board Improvement Plans in Relation to the AIP Model of Educational Accountability: A Content Analysis

    van Barneveld, Christina; Stienstra, Wendy; Stewart, Sandra


    For this study we analyzed the content of school board improvement plans in relation to the Achievement-Indicators-Policy (AIP) model of educational accountability (Nagy, Demeris, & van Barneveld, 2000). We identified areas of congruence and incongruence between the plans and the model. Results suggested that the content of the improvement…

  10. Opus in the Classroom: Striking CoRDS with Content-Related Digital Storytelling

    Roby, Teshia Young


    Writing personal narratives provides students with additional techniques for making deeper connections to subject matter. Content-related narrative development offers a departure from the traditional methods of teaching and learning and enables students to construe meaning individually and make deeper connections with subject matter content. By…

  11. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves


    Full Text Available The germ fraction with pericarp (bran is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, germ with 15% lipids and casein with 15% lipids, two 6%-protein diets (whole corn and casein, and a protein-free diet were prepared. The germ showed higher contents of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber (27.8 g.100 g-1, ash, minerals (Fe and Zn- approximately 5 mg.100 g-1, and lysine (57.2 mg.g-1 protein than those of corn. The germ presented good quality protein (Relative Protein Efficiency Ratio-RPER = 80%; Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score-PDCAAS = 86%, higher than that of corn (RPER = 49%; PDCAAS = 60%. The corn germ fraction with pericarp is rich in dietary fiber, and it is a source of good quality protein as well as of iron and zinc, and its use as nutritive raw material is indicated in food products for human consumption.

  12. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W


    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  13. Effect of solid content and composition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings on physico-chemical and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins.

    Contreras-Oliva, Adriana; Rojas-Argudo, Cristina; Pérez-Gago, Maria B


    Citrus fruit represent an important source of vitamin C, as well as other bioactive compounds. Edible coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of citrus by providing a semi-permeable barrier to water and gases, which depends on coating composition, solid content (SC), and cultivar. However, little is known about the effect of coatings on citrus nutritional quality. This work studies the effect of coating composition and SC of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW)-shellac coatings on the physico-chemical, sensory and nutritional quality of 'Oronules' mandarins. Coatings prepared at the same lipid content differed in the BW:shellac ratio (1:3 and 3:1) and SC of the formulations (40 and 80 g kg⁻¹). The coating with 1:3 BW:shellac ratio and 80 g kg⁻¹ SC was the most effective controlling weight loss, although it was less effective than the commercial wax tested. Increasing SC had a greater effect than the BW:shellac ratio in fruit internal atmosphere and sensory quality, with the presence of off-flavour when coatings were applied at 80 g kg⁻¹ SC. Nutritional quality was not affected by the application of the different treatments. HPMC-lipid coatings have the potential to extend shelf life of 'Oronules' mandarins. However, care should be taken controlling formulation SC to avoid the build-up of off-flavour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Influences of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Nitrogen sources on Growth, Total Lipid Content and Calorific Value of Freshwater Oleaginous Microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda Ralfs

    Jayanta Talukdar


    Full Text Available Biofuel potentiality of a native Indian strain of the freshwater oleaginous microalgae A.falcatus was studied owing to its inherently high lipid content. Influences of media constituents, pH and nitrogen sources on growth (µ, total lipid (TL content and calorific value (CV were compared in batch culture. Bold basal medium was superior (µ = 0.498 d-1, TL = 43.6% and CV = 23.6 kJ/g than BG11 (µ = 0.385 d-1, TL = 38.5% and CV = 19.3 kJ/g. Medium pH (≈ 7.0 and NaHCO3 (30 mg/L, were found suitable for optimum growth at light intensity 35 µmol/m2/s, temperature 25 ± 2 0C and 16 hrs light and 8 hrs dark diurnal cycles. NO3- instead of NH4+ was preferred in the range KNO3 > NaNO3 > NH4NO3 > Urea, for maximal biomass and lipid production. Maximum biomass, TL and CV (80 mg/L DCW and 42.4% and 20.6 kJ/g respectively were determined in medium containing KNO3 (17.6 mM. A close correlation between increase in TL and CV was observed (r2 = 0.994. With further augmentations of TL and improved biomass yield the native microalga strain could be a potent candidate for biofuel production.DOI:



    (1) Between the Revolutionist and the Legislator: Politics scientific Principle and Law of New England township Ren Junfeng (School of International relation and Public Affairs, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433) Abstract: The flames of American Independence War was started from such towns as Boston, Concord, Lexington, etc., the union of towns helped spread the flames all over the Thirteen Colonies. At Massachusetts Convention of 1780, the making of the State Constitution is the deliberation among townships over representation, executive and judicial powers, the relationship between towns and the State government, these issues became the theoretical and practical basis of the Philadelphia Convention seven years later. In the eyes of Daniel Shays and his Regulators, the government of Massachusetts commonwealth has been abused by those commercial interests in Boston, their rebellion is just a noble attempt to uphold the fundamentals of the Declaration of Inde- pendence; In the eyes of those slave owners in the South during the Civil War, the Federal government has been manipulated by those rapacious Yankees represented by Lincoln and his Republican politicians, the principles of American Founding Fathers are under threat. The Confederate States of America is commissioned to save those principles. A historical examination of New Eng- land township and its significance in the creation of the Republic is the starting point to advance our understanding of American politics and political culture. Key Words: township; New England; American Revolution; U.S. Politics

  16. Effect of Lipid Composition in Propofol Formulations: Decisive Component in Reducing the Free Propofol Content and Improving Pharmacodynamic Profiles.

    Darandale, Sharad S; Shevalkar, Ganesh B; Vavia, Pradeep R


    Current endeavor was aimed towards studying significance of lipid composition on free propofol concentration in aqueous phase and associated pain on injection. Three different nanoformulations, namely long-chain triglyceride (LCT)/medium-chain glyceride (MCG)-based nanoemulsion (ProNano), MCG-based self-nanoemulsifying formulation (PSNE), and lipid-free nanoformulation (PNS) were accessed for the same. In vitro and in vivo performances of developed formulations were compared with Diprivan®. ProNano showed minimum free propofol concentration (0.13%) and hence lower pain on injection (rat paw-lick test, 6 ± 2 s) compared to Diprivan®, PSNE, and PNS (0.21%, 0.23%, and 0.51% free propofol, respectively, and rat paw-lick test; 12 ± 3, 14 ± 2, and 22 ± 3 s, respectively). These results conjecture the role of MCG in effective encapsulation of propofol. Anesthetic action assessed by measuring duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR), which was found similar in case of ProNano and PSNE (14 ± 3 and 15 ± 3 min, respectively) compared to Diprivan® (13 ± 3 min). In case of lipid-free formulation, PNS, extended anesthetic action (21 ± 2 min) was observed which may be due to sustained release of propofol from nanosponges. Studies on effect of lipoproteins on propofol release highlighted significance of HDL (100% release with maximum concentration of about 1.2 μg/ml of HDL) from all three formulations.

  17. Effect of iron on lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and bacoside-A content in medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri L.

    Sinha, Sarita; Saxena, Rohit


    The effect of Fe was investigated in medicinally important plant, Bacopa monnieri L. and the response on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was found different in roots and leaves of the metal treated plants. Iron induced stress was observed as indicated by high level of lipid peroxidation, being more steep increase in leaves than roots. In roots, SOD activity was found to increase in metal treated plants except 80 and 160 microM at 72 h, whereas, it decreased in leaves except 10 and 40 microM after 48 h as compared to their respective controls. Among H2O2 eliminating enzymes, POD activity increased in roots, however, it decreased in leaves except at 10 and 40 microM Fe after 48 h as compared to control. At 24 and 48 h, APX activity and ascorbic acid content followed the similar trend and were found to increase in both parts of the metal treated plants as compared to their respective controls. The level of cysteine content in the roots increased at initial period of exposure; however, no marked change in its content was noticed in leaves. In both roots and leaves, non-protein thiol content was found to increase except at higher metal concentrations at 72 h. The data of proline content have shown significant (pbacoside-A (active constituent) content in metal treated plants increases, therefore, it is advisable to assess the biological activity of the plants before using for medicinal purposes, particularly in developing countries.

  18. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells

    Hiroe Go


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females.

  19. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  20. Food chromium content, dietary chromium intake and related biological variables in French free-living elderly

    Roussel, Anne-Marie; Andriollo-Sanchez, Maud; Ferry, Monique; Bryden, Noella A; Anderson, Richard A


    .... We measured the food Cr content and daily Cr intake of freely chosen diets for 3 d in twelve French free-living elderly people and their Cr excretion and plasma hormonal related variables, leptin, insulin and cortisol...

  1. What matters most in advertising campaigns? The relative effect of media expenditure and message content strategy

    van den Putte, B.


    Three main factors determine the effect of advertising campaigns: message content strategy, advertising expenditure and previous consumer behaviour. This study investigates the relative strength of each of these influences. Four possible campaign targets are taken into account: campaign recall, camp

  2. What matters most in advertising campaigns? The relative effect of media expenditure and message content strategy

    van den Putte, B.


    Three main factors determine the effect of advertising campaigns: message content strategy, advertising expenditure and previous consumer behaviour. This study investigates the relative strength of each of these influences. Four possible campaign targets are taken into account: campaign recall,


    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  4. Stratum corneum lipid removal by surfactants: relation to in vivo irritation.

    Froebe, C L; Simion, F A; Rhein, L D; Cagan, R H; Kligman, A


    The relationship between the in vivo irritation potential of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and the ability of these two surfactants to remove lipid from the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro were investigated. Either surfactant removes detectable levels of lipids only above its critical micelle concentration (CMC). At high concentrations the surfactants removed only very small amounts of cholesterol, free fatty acid, the esters of those materials, and possibly squalene. SLS and LAS have been shown, below the CMC, to bind to and irritate the SC. Thus, clinical irritation provoked by SLS or LAS is unlikely to be directly linked with extraction of SC lipid. The milder forms of irritation--dryness, tightness, roughness--may involve both surfactant binding to and denaturation of keratin as well as disruption of lipid. Our findings challenge earlier assumptions that surfactants' degreasing of the SC is involved in the induction of erythema.

  5. Concentrative phenomenon of relative content ratios of Cu, Pb and Zn in soils


    It is discovered that there is the concentrative phenomenon of relative content ratios of Cu, Pb and Zn in soil by studying their parageneous association in soil, meterites and rocks with the relative content ratios. This not only is helpful to understand the trends of Cu, Cd and Zn enriched and dispersed in the evolution course of earth matter, but also provide evidence for geochemical self-organization that there may be in the process of Cu, Pb and Zn translation and distribution.

  6. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media


    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to he...

  7. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos


    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.

  8. A metabolomic strategy defines the regulation of lipid content and global metabolism by Δ9 desaturases in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Castro Cecilia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caenorhabditis elegans provides a genetically tractable model organism to investigate the network of genes involved in fat metabolism and how regulation is perturbed to produce the complex phenotype of obesity. C. elegans possess the full range of desaturases, including the Δ9 desaturases expressed by fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7. They regulate the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, used for the synthesis of lipids including phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Results Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy were used to define the metabolome of all the possible knock-outs for the Δ9 desaturases, including for the first time intact lipids. Despite the genes having similar enzymatic roles, excellent discrimination was achievable for all single and viable double mutants highlighting the distinctive roles of fat-6 and fat-7, both expressing steroyl-CoA desaturases. The metabolomic changes extend to aqueous metabolites demonstrating the influence Δ9 desaturases have on regulating global metabolism and highlighting how comprehensive metabolomics is more discriminatory than classically used dyes for fat staining. Conclusions The propagation of metabolic changes across the network of metabolism demonstrates that modification of the Δ9 desaturases places C.elegans into a catabolic state compared with wildtype controls.

  9. Effects of Lagenaria sicessaria fruit juice on lipid profile and glycoprotein contents in cardiotoxicity induced by isoproterenol in rats.

    Upaganlawar, Aman; Balaraman, R


    This study investigated antihyperlipidemic effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice (LSFJ) in isoproterenol (ISO)induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats treated with ISO (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, in both serum and heart tissue. An increase in the levels of phospholipids, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and decrease in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum and phospholipid levels in the heart were observed. ISO intoxicated rats also showed a significant decrease in the activities of lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase, whereas lipoprotein lipase was found to be increased. Administration of LSFJ (400 mg/kg, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days and challenged with ISO on day 29th and 30th significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of serum and heart lipids along with lipid metabolizing enzymes. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the protective effect of LSFJ during ISO-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

  10. 山西地区高脂微藻的分离筛选%Isolation and Screening of Microalgae with High-lipid Contents in Shanxi Province

    班剑娇; 冯佳; 谢树莲


    This study attempted to choose potential oil-producing microalgae candidates across Shanxi province.Thirty-two strains of microalgae were tested.Among these microalgae,29 strains were isolated from water samples collected from four sites in the Fenghe River and the Salt Lakes Area in Yuncheng.Three strains of microalgae were boughtfrom the Freshwater Algae Culture Collection of the Institute of Hydrobiology.Microalgae from the Shanxi province were isolated and purified by Micro-picking method and Spreadplate method.The biomass of 32 strains of microalgae varied between 48.9-422.2 mg/L,which were determined by dry weight.Chloroform-methanol extraction is a traditional total lipid measuring method and Nile red fluorescence is a new technique used for determining neutral lipids.In this study,Chloroform-methanol extraction and Nile red fluorescent staining were combined to determine lipid contents of the 32 strains of microalgae.The results showed that total lipid content of all strains were in the range of 5.4% DW-30.1% DW,and fluorescence value in unit volume were in the range of 4.1-181.5.High lipid productivity is a key selection criterion of species for biodiesel production.According to the lipid productivity of the microalgae,we screened three strains of microalgae that may be potential oil-producing candidates in Shanxi province.These three strains included NY017 (Dunaliella salina),NY023(Nitzschia linearis) and NY025 (Nitzschia palea).Their lipid productivities were 3.25 mg· L-1· d-1,3.03 mg· L-1· d and 2.11 mg· L-1· d-1 respectively.%分别从山西省汾河流域、运城盐湖等水体采集水样,使用微挑法、平板涂布法对其中的微藻进行了分离纯化,并对分离得到的29株微藻和购买的3株微藻,进行了高脂藻株的筛选.结果表明:采用干重法对32株微藻的生长量进行测定,其干重介于48.9~422.2 mg/L之间;采用氯仿甲醇法对32株微藻的总脂含量进行测定,其总脂含量介于5.4

  11. Evaluation of the Reproductive Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhang, Weijie; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Jing; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang


    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats and then inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The results showed that no pathological, toxic feces and urine changes were observed in clinical signs of parental and fetal rats in chromium malate groups. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of chromium malate groups have no significant change compared with control group and chromium picolinate group. The serum and organ contents of Cr in chromium malate groups have no significant change when compared with control group. No measurable damage on liver, brain, kidney, and testis/uterus of chromium malate groups was found. No significant change in body mass, absolute and relative organ weights, and hematological and biochemical changes of rats were observed compared with the control and chromium picolinate groups. The results indicated that supplements with chromium malate does not cause obvious damage and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme, and lipid metabolism on female and male rats. The results of this study suggested that chromium malate is safe for human consumption and has the potential for application as a functional food ingredient and dietary supplement.

  12. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

    Weiwei Feng

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  13. Experimental study on the relation between the water content of surface soil and the acoustic wave


    In order to investigate the relation between the water content changing of surface soil and micro-quake recorded before earthquakes, we carried out a simulation experiment in laboratory. Its purpose is to explore whether the acoustic wave generated by micro-fracturing before earthquake are able to change water content of surface soil, so as to understand the relation between thermal anomaly in the remote sensing image got from the seismogenic area and the coming earthquake. The result of the experiment shows that when the acoustic wave enters into the surface soil the water content here increases on the background of decreasing due to natural evaporation. In the meantime, temperature here decreases.

  14. Inflammation-related alterations of lipids after spinal cord injury revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    Tamosaityte, Sandra; Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Koch, Maria; Later, Robert; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers several lipid alterations in nervous tissue. It is characterized by extensive demyelination and the inflammatory response leads to accumulation of activated microglia/macrophages, which often transform into foam cells by accumulation of lipid droplets after engulfment of the damaged myelin sheaths. Using an experimental rat model, Raman microspectroscopy was applied to retrieve the modifications of the lipid distribution following SCI. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and endogenous two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) microscopies were used for the detection of lipid-laden inflammatory cells. The Raman mapping of CH2 deformation mode intensity at 1440 cm-1 retrieved the lipid-depleted injury core. Preserved white matter and inflammatory regions with myelin fragmentation and foam cells were localized by specifically addressing the distribution of esterified lipids, i.e., by mapping the intensity of the carbonyl Raman band at 1743 cm-1, and were in agreement with CARS/TPEF microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the inflammatory regions are notably rich in saturated fatty acids. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy enabled to specifically detect inflammation after SCI and myelin degradation products.

  15. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen


    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).

  16. Persistent organic pollutants are related to the change in circulating lipid levels during a 5 year follow-up.

    Penell, Johanna; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica


    When reporting circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), usually lipid-normalized values are given. However, animal experiments and some human data indicate that exposure to POPs may change lipid values. The aim of the present study is to investigate if POP levels can predict future changes in levels of circulating lipids. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, lipids were measured at age 70 and at age 75 in 598 subjects without lipid-lowering medication. Twenty-three different POPs, including 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine pesticides, one dioxin (OCDD) and one flame retardant brominated compound (BDE47) were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) at age 70. Strong relationships were seen among the baseline levels of the non-dioxin-like PCBs 194, 206 and 209 and the degree of increase in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol during the 5 year follow-up. These relationships were generally stronger when lipid-normalized levels were used compared to wet-weight based levels. On the contrary, for two of the pesticides, hexachlorobenzene and trans-nonachlordane, levels were inversely related to the change in LDL-cholesterol, with strongest associations found using wet-weight based levels. PCBs 194, 206 and 209 were inversely related to the change in HDL-cholesterol, in particular for wet-weight based levels. However, these relationships were only significant for wet-weight PCB 194 following adjustment for multiple testing. None of the POPs was related to the change in serum triglycerides. When investigating the association between the change in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol across different categories of change in BMI, we noted robust results especially in the group with stable BMI, suggesting that the observed relationships were not due to fluctuations in BMI over time. In conclusion

  17. In vitro digestion kinetics of excipients for lipid-based drug delivery and introduction of a relative lipolysis half life.

    Arnold, Yvonne E; Imanidis, Georgios; Kuentz, Martin


    Lipid-based drug delivery systems are widely used for enhancing the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs in the gastro-intestinal tract. Following oral intake, lipid systems undergo digestion in the stomach as well as the intestine. Lipolysis is here a complex process at the oil/water interface, influenced by numerous factors. To study the digestibility of nine excipients often used in lipid-based drug delivery systems. In addition, we introduced a mathematical model to describe in vitro lipolysis kinetics. A relative lipolysis half life was defined using the reference excipient medium-chain triglycerides. Using pH-stat equipment, the NaOH consumption was determined in an in vitro lipolysis assay. We identified two classes of excipients. Some additives were partially hydrolysed, whereas other excipients displayed complete lipolysis. For the latter class, a simplified mathematical model provided a good first approximation of initial lipolysis kinetics. Digestion characterization of excipients is important for the development of lipid-based delivery systems. The applied kinetic model and the concept of a relative lipolysis half life seemed to be promising tools for comparing in vitro lipolysis results.

  18. 6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism

    Thing-Fong Tzeng


    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-3-decanone, a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 μmol/L treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB, which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  19. Critical fluid technology for the processing of lipid-related natural products

    King, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., Supercritical Fluid Facility, Chemistry Div. NM (United States)


    In recent years, the technology envelope that embraces critical fluids can involve a wide range of conditions, different types of pure and modified fluids, as well as processing options involving extractions, fractionations or reactions. Technological development drivers continue to be environmentally and consumer-benign processing and/or products, however in recent years expansion of the use of sub- and supercritical fluids has been catalyzed by applications in such opportune fields as nutraceuticals, conversion of biomass (bio-refining), and the ability to modify natural products by reactions. The use of critical fluid technology is an important facet of any sustainable development program, particularly when utilized over a broad, interconnected application platform. In this overview presentation, concepts and applications of critical fluids from the author's research as well as the literature will be cited to support the above trends. A totally 'green' processing platform appears to be viable using carbon dioxide in the appropriate form, ethanol and water as intermediate co-solvents/reactants, and water from above its boiling point to supercritical conditions. These fluids can be combined in overall coupled unit processes, such as combining trans-esterification with hydrogenation, or glycero-lysis of lipid moieties with supercritical fluid fractionation. Such fluids also can exploited sequentially for bio-refining processes or the segregation of value-added products, but may require using coupled fluid or unit operations to obtain the targeted product composition or purity. Changing the reduced temperatures and/or pressures of critical fluids offers a plethora of opportunity, an excellent example being the relative critical fluid state of water. For example, sub-critical water slightly above its boiling point provides a unique medium that mimics polar organic solvents, and has been used even for the extraction of thermally labile solutes or

  20. Facebook and Health Information: Content Analysis of Groups Related to Schizophrenia.

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Sakellari, Evanthia


    Facebook Groups is a space for connecting people with common interests. People with a psychiatric diagnosis use social networking sites. However Facebook Groups related to schizophrenia have not been investigated before. We aimed to examine Facebook Groups related to schizophrenia. Deductive content analysis was applied. Out of the included groups (N=32), the majority's principal objective was awareness creation (n=11, 34%) and support to those with schizophrenia and their caregivers (n=9, 28%). Monitoring the Facebook Groups' content related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders is essential, since it could be an important communication and support platform for people with the disorder and their caregivers.

  1. Incorporation of ovalbumin into ISCOMs and related colloidal particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method.

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Berger, Bianca; Rades, Thomas


    The aim of this study was to investigate the incorporation of a model antigen, fluorescently labelled ovalbumin (FITC-OVA), into various colloidal particles including immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), liposomes, ring and worm-like micelles, lamellae and lipidic/layered structures that are formed from various combinations of the triterpene saponin Quil A, cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) following hydration of PE/cholesterol lipid films with aqueous solutions of Quil A. Colloidal dispersions of these three components were also prepared by the dialysis method for comparison. FITC-OVA was conjugated with palmitic acid (P) and PE to produce P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA, respectively. Both P-FITC-OVA and PE-FITC-OVA could be incorporated in all colloidal structures whereas FITC-OVA was incorporated only into liposomes. The incorporation of PE-FITC-OVA into all colloidal structures was significantly higher than P-FITC-OVA (P < 0.05). The degree of incorporation of protein was in the order: ring and worm-like micelles < liposomes and lipidic/layered structures < ISCOMs and lamellae. The incorporation of protein into the various particles prepared by the lipid film hydration method was similar to those for colloidal particles prepared by the dialysis method (provided both methods lead to the formation of the same colloidal structures). In the case of different colloidal structures arising due to the preparation method, differences in encapsulation efficiency were found (P < 0.05) for formulations with the same polar lipid composition. This study demonstrates that the various colloidal particles formed as a result of hydrating PE/cholesterol lipid films with different amounts of Quil A are capable of incorporating antigen, provided it is amphipathic. Some of these colloidal particles may be used as effective vaccine delivery systems.

  2. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.


    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  3. Relation between dream content and eye movements tested by lucid dreams.

    Tholey, P


    This experiment illustrates that systematic observations in lucid dreams can be used to test hypotheses concerning the relation between dream content and eye movements. The observations were carried out by 5 students who had learned to induce lucid dreams by using the reflection technique developed by the author. Several hypotheses concerning the relation in question could be rejected.

  4. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio


    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  5. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio


    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  6. Structural elucidation of the interaction between neurodegenerative disease-related tau protein with model lipid membranes

    Jones, Emmalee M.

    A protein's sequence of amino acids determines how it folds. That folded structure is linked to protein function, and misfolding to dysfunction. Protein misfolding and aggregation into beta-sheet rich fibrillar aggregates is connected with over 20 neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized in part by misfolding, aggregation and deposition of the microtubule associated tau protein into neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). However, two questions remain: What is tau's fibrillization mechanism, and what is tau's cytotoxicity mechanism? Tau is prone to heterogeneous interactions, including with lipid membranes. Lipids have been found in NFTs, anionic lipid vesicles induced aggregation of the microtubule binding domain of tau, and other protein aggregates induced ion permeability in cells. This evidence prompted our investigation of tau's interaction with model lipid membranes to elucidate the structural perturbations those interactions induced in tau protein and in the membrane. We show that although tau is highly charged and soluble, it is highly surface active and preferentially interacts with anionic membranes. To resolve molecular-scale structural details of tau and model membranes, we utilized X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. X-ray reflectivity indicated tau aggregated at air/water and anionic lipid membrane interfaces and penetrated into membranes. More significantly, membrane interfaces induced tau protein to partially adopt a more compact conformation with density similar to folded protein and ordered structure characteristic of beta-sheet formation. This suggests possible membrane-based mechanisms of tau aggregation. Membrane morphological changes were seen using fluorescence microscopy, and X-ray scattering techniques showed tau completely disrupts anionic membranes, suggesting an aggregate-based cytotoxicity mechanism. Further investigation of protein constructs and a "hyperphosphorylation" disease mimic helped

  7. Effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of lipid content using a two-phase culture process with three microalgae.

    Ra, Chae-Hun; Kang, Chang-Han; Jung, Jang-Hyun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo


    Conditions of light-emitting diode (LED) wavelength, light intensity, nitrate concentration, and time of exposure to green LED light stress in a two-phase culture were optimized for lipid production with three species of microalgae. Among the three microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.037h(-1) and the lowest saturation constant (Ks) of 1.32mg/L. The highest lipid contents of the three microalgae in the second phase under green LED light stress were 52.0% (w/w) for Nannochloropsis salina at 2days, 53.0% (w/w) for Nannochloropsis oceanica at 2days, and 56.0% for N. oculata at 2days. Fatty acid analysis of the microalgae showed that 85-87% (w/w) of total fatty acids from N. salina, N. oceanica, and N. oculata consisted of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCA7 Regulates NKT Cell Development and Function by Controlling CD1d Expression and Lipid Raft Content

    Nowyhed, Heba N.; Chandra, Shilpi; Kiosses, William; Marcovecchio, Paola; Andary, Farah; Zhao, Meng; Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Hedrick, Catherine C.


    ABCA7 is an ABC transporter expressed on the plasma membrane, and actively exports phospholipid complexes from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of membranes. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens in the context of CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. In this study, we demonstrate that ABCA7 regulates the development of NKT cells in a cell-extrinsic manner. We found that in Abca7−/− mice there is reduced expression of CD1d accompanied by an alteration in lipid raft content on the plasma membrane of thymocytes and antigen presenting cells. Together, these alterations caused by absence of ABCA7 negatively affect NKT cell development and function. PMID:28091533

  9. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  10. Lipid Profile In Relation To Anthropometric Indices and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Maryam Saghafi-Asl


    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to investigate lipid profile in relation to anthropometric indices and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, lipid profile and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and waist to height ratio (WHtR were evaluated in 63 over-weight or obese PCOS patients subdivided into insulin-resistant (IR and non-insulin-resistant (NIR groups. IR was defined as homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥3.8. Results: Fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were higher (P<0.001 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.012 was lower in IR group. All of the anthropometric measures other than WHR and BMI showed significant correlations with several lipid parameters. Amongst, WHtR showed the strongest correlation with total cholesterol (TC (r=0.37; P=0.004 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (r=0.33; P=0.011 in the whole PCOS patients. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics (especially BMI and hip circumference are more important parameters correlated to lipid profile than IR in overweight or obese PCOS patients, confirming the importance of early treatment of obesity to prevent dyslipidemia in the future.

  11. Exploration of lipid metabolism in relation with plasma membrane properties of Duchenne muscular dystrophy cells: influence of L-carnitine.

    Françoise Le Borgne

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD arises as a consequence of mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a membrane-spanning protein that connects the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. The most distinctive features of DMD are a progressive muscular dystrophy, a myofiber degeneration with fibrosis and metabolic alterations such as fatty infiltration, however, little is known on lipid metabolism changes arising in Duchenne patient cells. Our goal was to identify metabolic changes occurring in Duchenne patient cells especially in terms of L-carnitine homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism both at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level and the consequences on the membrane structure and function. In this paper, we compared the structural and functional characteristics of DMD patient and control cells. Using radiolabeled L-carnitine, we found, in patient muscle cells, a marked decrease in the uptake and the intracellular level of L-carnitine. Associated with this change, a decrease in the mitochondrial metabolism can be seen from the analysis of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Probably, associated with these changes in fatty acid metabolism, alterations in the lipid composition of the cells were identified: with an increase in poly unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in medium chain fatty acids, mono unsaturated fatty acids and in cholesterol contents. Functionally, the membrane of cells lacking dystrophin appeared to be less fluid, as determined at 37°C by fluorescence anisotropy. These changes may, at least in part, be responsible for changes in the phospholipids and cholesterol profile in cell membranes and ultimately may reduce the fluidity of the membrane. A supplementation with L-carnitine partly restored the fatty acid profile by increasing saturated fatty acid content and decreasing the amounts of MUFA, PUFA, VLCFA. L-carnitine supplementation also restored muscle membrane fluidity. This suggests that regulating lipid metabolism

  12. Nutritional Systems Biology of Fat : integration and modeling of transcriptomics datasets related to lipid homeostasis

    Ohid Ullah, M.


    Fatty acids, in the form of triglycerides, are the main constituent of the class of dietary lipids. They not only serve as a source of energy but can also act as potent regulators of gene transcription. It is well accepted that an energy rich diet characterized by high intakes of dietary fat is link

  13. Viscosity of dietary fibre in relation to lipid digestibility in broiler chicken.

    Smits, C.H.M.


    The aim of the thesis was to identify the physicochemical properties of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) that are most relevant to the nutrition of the broiler chicken. More specifically, the mechanisms by which fibre viscosity can affect lipid digestibility in broiler chickens have been investigate

  14. Cinnamon extract regulates intestinal lipid metabolism related gene expression in primary enterocytes of rats

    Emerging evidence suggests that the small intestine is not a passive organ, but is actively involved in the regulation of lipid absorption, intracellular transport, and metabolism, and is closely linked to systemic lipoprotein metabolism. We have reported previously that the water-soluble components...

  15. Re-evaluating lipotoxic triggers in skeletal muscle: relating intramyocellular lipid metabolism to insulin sensitivity

    Bosma, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Schrauwen, P.


    Ectopic fat accumulation has been linked to lipotoxic events, including the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Indeed, intramyocellular lipid storage is strongly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Research during the last two decades has provided evidence for a ro

  16. Exosomes as new vesicular lipid transporters involved in cell-cell communication and various pathophysiologies.

    Record, Michel; Carayon, Kevin; Poirot, Marc; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine


    Exosomes are nanovesicles that have emerged as a new intercellular communication system between an intracellular compartment of a donor cell towards the periphery or an internal compartment of a recipient cell. The bioactivity of exosomes resides not only in their protein and RNA contents but also in their lipidic molecules. Exosomes display original lipids organized in a bilayer membrane and along with the lipid carriers such as fatty acid binding proteins that they contain, exosomes transport bioactive lipids. Exosomes can vectorize lipids such as eicosanoids, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and their lipid composition can be modified by in-vitro manipulation. They also contain lipid related enzymes so that they can constitute an autonomous unit of production of various bioactive lipids. Exosomes can circulate between proximal or distal cells and their fate can be regulated in part by lipidic molecules. Compared to their parental cells, exosomes are enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin and their accumulation in cells might modulate recipient cell homeostasis. Exosome release from cells appears to be a general biological process. They have been reported in all biological fluids from which they can be recovered and can be monitors of specific pathophysiological situations. Thus, the lipid content of circulating exosomes could be useful biomarkers of lipid related diseases. Since the first lipid analysis of exosomes ten years ago detailed knowledge of exosomal lipids has accumulated. The role of lipids in exosome fate and bioactivity and how they constitute an additional lipid transport system are considered in this review.

  17. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Maijon Purba


    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  18. Acrosome membrane integrity and cryocapacitation are related to cholesterol content of bull spermatozoa

    Srivastava N; Srivastava SK; Ghosh SK; Amit Kumar; Perumal P; Jerome A


    Objective: To evaluate the cryoinjury prediction of spermatozoa in relation to its cholesterol content at fresh and frozen-thaw stages. Methods: Ejaculates (n=12) were processed for cryopreservation, acrosome integrity (fluorescent and giemsa stains), cryoinjury (distribution of non capacitated, capacitated and acrosome reacted, pattern F, B and AR, respectively of Chlortetracycline, CTC assay), in vitro fertiltiy (IVF) and cholesterol content of spermatozoa at fresh, pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages were evaluated. Values were fitted in prediction equation to predict acrosome integrity (AI) and cryoinjury. Results: Study indicated that cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict cholesterol content of spermatozoa at pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages of cryopreservation protocol with medium to high level of accuracy (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict AI, pattern B and AR and Penetration Index (PI) of IVF with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05) at frozen-thaw but not at pre-freeze stage. Similarly cholesterol content of frozen-thaw spermatozoa can be used to predict AI and pattern AR of frozen-thaw spermatozoa with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed strong evidence that cholesterol content of fresh as well as frozen-thaw bull spermatozoa can be a good predictor of level of cryoinjury following preservation at ultra low temperature.

  19. Revisiting the Content-Based Instruction in Language Teaching in relation with CLIL: Implementation and Outcome

    Abdul Karim


    Full Text Available The present article has reviewed literature on Content-Based Instruction (CBI along with the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in Language Teaching based on the recent development in the field. This includes the learning principle, factors responsible for the successful implementation of CBI/CLIL, their prospect and outcome. The paper is written based on secondary data from different articles providing exploratory account of contexts observed, paying attention to the views and practices of participants, and review papers on previous studies. The goal is to understand the aspects of CBI, its relation with CLIL, success and shortcoming resulted from the implementation in language teaching. Keywords: Overview, Content-Based Instruction (CBI, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL, Immersion


    Jeevan K


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM is a metabolic disorder related to either insulin deficiency or resistance. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c is used to monitor long term regulation of blood glucose. Studies relating HbA1c with antioxidant status and lipid profile are very few. Present study was carried out to determine the relation between HbA1c and antioxidant markers along with lipid profile in these patients. METHODOLOGY: Blood samples were collected from healthy controls (n=55 and type 2 DM patie nts (n=52 and their fasting lipid profile and HbA1c levels were determined using auto analyser. Antioxidant status markers such as serum thiols, ceruloplasmin and GST were measured spectrophotometrically. RESULT: There was significant increase in fasting plasma glucose (FPG (p<0.001, HbA1c (p<0.001, LDL - C (p<0.001 and ceruloplasmin (p<0.001, and there was significant decrease in serum total antioxidant status (p<0.001, total thiols (p<0.001, GST (p<0.001, and HDL - C (p<0.001 in type 2 DM patients c ompared to healthy controls. HbA1c co rrelated positively with FPG (r= 0.749, p<0.001, LDL - C (r=0.513, p<0.00 1 and negatively with HDL - C (r= - 0 .715, p<0.001, total thiols (r= - 0.704, p<0.001 and GST (r= - 0.426, p<0.001. CONCLUSION : Findings in our study support the fact that increased glycation of biomolecules and enhanced generation of free radicals lead to deficient antioxidant status coupled with altered lipid profile may possibly increase the susceptibility to atherogenesis.

  1. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S


    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  2. Lipid composition of liver microsomes and mitochondria after acute and chronic {gamma}-irradiation of rats

    Markevich, L.N.; Kolomiitseva, I.K. [Institute of Cell Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Acute {gamma}-irradiation of rats at doses of 100 and 270 Gy stimulates lipid synthesis and changes the lipid composition of liver cell organelles. The content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in microsomes increased at 100 Gy and decreased at 270 Gy, with total phospholipid content remaining unchanged. The lipid content in mitochondria decreased considerably 1 h after irradiation at 270 Gy. This change was significantly less pronounced 47 h later. Under chronic {gamma}-irradiation (0.129 Gy/day), cholesterol and cardiolipin in mitochondria increased. The changes in lipid content caused by acute irradiation are presumed to be related to activated synthesis of lipids in the liver. The modification of the lipid content of mitochondria observed in chronically irradiated rats may indicate that energy-metabolizing liver cell systems are involved in the adaptation to irradiation.

  3. Prevalence of Marijuana-Related Traffic on Twitter, 2012-2013: A Content Analysis.

    Thompson, Leah; Rivara, Frederick P; Whitehill, Jennifer M


    This study assessed marijuana-related content posted by adolescents on Twitter and examined content variation before and after the 2012 U.S. election legalizing recreational use in two states. For two 3-week periods occurring 6 months before and after the election, a 1% random sample was obtained of all tweets matching a set of marijuana-related queries. Original content was separated from reposted content (retweets), and foreign language tweets and those not related to marijuana were excluded. Using a structured codebook, tweet content was categorized (e.g., mention of personal marijuana use, parents' views, perceived effects.) Self-reported age was extracted from tweet metadata when available. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in content by whether the user self-identified as an adolescent and to compare content pre- versus post-election. The full sample consisted of 71,901 tweets. After excluding nonrelevant tweets and separating original tweets from retweets, the analytic sample included 36,969 original tweets. A majority (65.6%) of original tweets by adolescents (n=1,928) reflected a positive attitude toward marijuana, and 42.9% indicated personal use. Of adolescents' tweets that mentioned parents, 36.0% of tweets indicated parental support for the adolescent's marijuana use. Tweets about personal marijuana use increased from 2012 to 2013, as did positive perceptions about the drug. Adolescents and others on Twitter are exposed to positive discussion normalizing use. Over the study period, Twitter was increasingly used to disclose marijuana use.

  4. Carotenoid consumption is related to lower lipid oxidation and DNA damage in middle-aged men.

    Cocate, P G; Natali, A J; Alfenas, R C G; de Oliveira, A; dos Santos, E C; Hermsdorff, H H M


    The present cross-sectional study assessed the potential relationships of carotenoid intake with lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men. A total of 296 apparently healthy middle-aged men (mean age 50.5 (SD 5.0) years, BMI 25.8 (SD 3.5) kg/m(2)) were recruited to participate in the study. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, blood and urine biomarkers were assessed using validated procedures. The lipid markers included NEFA, Castelli index, and TAG:HDL ratio; oxidative stress markers included urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-PGF2α and plasma oxidised-LDL (ox-LDL). We observed a significant inverse association (P carotenoid, while Castelli index was negatively associated with daily intake of lycopene, β-carotene and total carotenoids. Regarding oxidative stress biomarkers, urinary 8-OHdG and ox-LDL concentrations were also inversely associated (P carotenoids, regardless of confounding variables. Moreover, there was a negative association of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with dietary lutein plus zeaxanthin (β - 0.135, 95% CI - 0.268, - 0.001), β-carotene (β - 0.156, 95% CI - 0.277, - 0.034) and with the sum of all carotenoids (β - 0.189, 95% CI - 0.333, - 0.046). In conclusion, total daily carotenoid intake based on five investigated carotenoid types (β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, β-carotene and α-carotene) was inversely associated with relevant lipid and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men, with emphasis on β-carotene that was negatively associated with five of the six lipid and oxidative stress markers evaluated in the present study.


    Rakhi S


    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase1 (PON1 is a calcium dependent es terase enzyme that hydrolyses lipid peroxides accumulating on low density lipoproteins. In the serum, PON1 enzyme is almost exclusively located on the high density lipoprotein (HDL. It hydrolyses oxidised lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL and could therefore retard the development of atherosclerosis. As PON1 activity has a role in preventing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is common in Kerala, this study was conducted to assess the activity of the enzyme and its corelation to serum lipids. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this case - control study, one hundred patients with coronary artery disease and one hundred healthy controls were included. Serum paraoxonase activity was meausured using phenyl acetate as substrate and lipid profile was done in a uto analyzer . RESULTS : The mean PON 1 activity {(70.21  27.62 in cases against (135.86  33.48 in controls (p value .000} was significantly low in CAD group compared to the control group. The CHD group had a significantly lower mean total cholesterol level (202.82  57.77 against 219.45  46.08 and lower mean HDL level (40.88  10.08 against 56.79  17.24. Correlation of the activity of PON1 with other variables for the combined group ( C ases and controls taken together showed that age is negatively correlated an d HDL is positively correlated with PON 1 activity. CONCLUSIONS : The activity of serum paraoxonase enzyme (PON1 is low in patients with coronary artery disease compared to healthy controls. Thus low serum PON1 enzyme activity is a risk factor for CAD. The activity of the serum PON1 enzyme increases with increase in HDL level and decreases with increase in age for the combined group.

  6. Biophysical insights into how surfaces, including lipid membranes, modulate protein aggregation related to neurodegeneration

    Kathleen A Burke


    Full Text Available There are a vast number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and Huntington’s disease (HD, associated with the rearrangement of specific proteins to non-native conformations that promotes aggregation and deposition within tissues and/or cellular compartments. These diseases are commonly classified as protein misfolding or amyloid diseases. The interaction of these proteins with liquid/surface interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon with potential implications for protein misfolding diseases. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that significant conformational changes can be induced in proteins encountering surfaces, which can play a critical role in nucleating aggregate formation or stabilizing specific aggregation states. Surfaces of particular interest in neurodegenerative diseases are cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominately comprised of lipid components. The two-dimensional liquid environments provided by lipid bilayers can profoundly alter protein structure and dynamics by both specific and nonspecific interactions. Importantly for misfolding diseases, these bilayer properties can not only modulate protein conformation, but also exert influence on aggregation state. A detailed understanding of the influence of (subcellular surfaces in driving protein aggregation and/or stabilizing specific aggregate forms could provide new insights into toxic mechanisms associated with these diseases. Here, we review the influence of surfaces in driving and stabilizing protein aggregation with a specific emphasis on lipid membranes.

  7. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang


    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  8. Relative brookite and anatase content in sol-gel-synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Isley, Sara L; Penn, R Lee


    Sol-gel synthesis of titania typically produces a mixture of brookite and anatase. Rietveld refinements were used to systematically track the brookite content and particle size as functions of synthetic variables. Results demonstrate that brookite content and anatase particle size decrease with decreasing Ti/H(2)O ratios. In syntheses at pH 3, the addition of HCl resulted in increased amorphous content compared to samples synthesized using HNO(3). Similar amorphous contents were observed for particles prepared at pH 6-9. Hydrothermal aging for 4 h at 200 degrees C of sol-gel products containing substantial amorphous titania resulted in higher brookite content than did hydrothermal aging of sol-gel products containing little to no amorphous titania. Finally, dialysis prior to hydrothermal aging appeared to inhibit phase transformation from brookite to anatase in aged materials. Results presented demonstrate that considerable control over the relative anatase and brookite contents can be achieved through control of synthetic variables.

  9. Relation between polyphenols content and skin colour in sour cherry fruits

    Viljevac Marija


    Full Text Available Fruit skin colour plays a major role in quality assessment of food, significantly determining consumer`s choice. Colour of sour cherries depends on anthocyanins which are phenolic compounds (flavonoids present in high amounts in fruits. The aim of this study was to determine a possible relation between polyphenols (total phenolics and anthocyanins and colour parameters of fruit skin of sour cherries. The plant material used in this study was twenty two sour cherry genotypes from an orchard of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents as well as colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, h and C of fruit skin were determined. Variability between sour cherry genotypes in total phenolics and anthocyanins as well as in colour parameters was revealed. Total polyphenols content varied from 462.7 to 1049.0 mg GAE/100 g of fresh weight, while total anthocyanins ranged from 160.1 to 495.6 mg CGE/100 g of fresh weight. A significant positive correlation was found between polyphenols and anthocyanins content. Total phenolics content had a significant negative correlation with colour parameters b* and h, while anthocyanins content negatively correlated with colour parameters L*, b* and h. According to the obtained results, genotypes Maraska, Heimanns Konservenweichsel and Rexelle are the richest genotypes in polyphenols and anthocyanins content.

  10. Violence-Related Content in the Nursing Curriculum: A Follow-up National Survey.

    Woodtli, M. Anne; Breslin, Eileen T.


    A 1999 survey of 408 nursing programs followed up on a 1995 survey (n=298). Most current respondents included content on abuse of women, children, and the elderly; 63% reported no faculty development on violence issues; 67% had not evaluated violence-related curriculum since 1995; only 39% felt that the curriculum adequately addressed violence,…


    TISSUE REMODELING IN THE HUMAN LUNG IN RELATION TO PARTICLE CONCENTRATION AND METAL CONTENT. J Gallagher1, J Inmon1, S Schlaegle2, A Levine2, T Rogers3, J Scott1, F Green4, M Schenker5, K Pinkerton5 1NHEERL, US-EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2RJ Lee Group Inc, Monroeville, Pa, USA; ...

  12. Extended Relation Metadata for SCORM-Based Learning Content Management Systems

    Lu, Eric Jui-Lin; Horng, Gwoboa; Yu, Chia-Ssu; Chou, Ling-Ying


    To increase the interoperability and reusability of learning objects, Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative developed a model called Content Aggregation Model (CAM) to describe learning objects and express relationships between learning objects. However, the suggested relations defined in the CAM can only describe structure-oriented…

  13. High and Low Consensus Groups: A Content and Relational Interaction Analysis.

    DeStephen, Rolayne S.


    Analyzed the complete interaction of high and low consensus groups in a basic small group course. Interaction analysis indicated that both the relational and content levels of communication are significantly different for high versus low consensus groups. The conclusion that increased feedback leads to decision satisfaction was confirmed. (JAC)

  14. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Sánchez P., Raquel; Dicenta, Federico; Grané, Nuria


    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  15. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Guillermo Arrázola; Raquel Sánchez P; Federico Dicenta; Nuria Grané


    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  16. Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition in Grains of Wheat-Related Species

    JIANG Xiao-ling; TIAN Ji-chun; HAO Zhi; ZHANG Wei-dong


    The protein content and amino acid composition for 17 wheat-related species(WRS)and three common wheats(control) were determined and analyzed,and the essential amino acids(EAAs)in WRS were evaluated according to FAO/WHO amino acid recommendations.The results showed that the mean protein content for WRS was 16.67%,which was 23.21% higher than that for the control.The mean contents(g 100 g-1 protein)of most amino acids for WRS were lysine 2.74%,threonine 2.83%,phenylalanine 4.17%,isoleucine 3.42%,valine 3.90%,histidine 2.81%,glutamic acid 29.96%,proline 9.12%,glycine 3.59%,alanine 3.37%,and cysteine 1.57%,which were higher than those for the control.The contents of the other 6 amino acids for WRS were lower than those for the control.The materials(Triticum monococcum L.,Triticum carthlicum Nevski,and Triticum turgidum L.)contained relatively high concentration of the most deficient EAAs(lysine, threonine,and methionine).Comparing with FAO/WHO amino acid recommendations,the amino acid scores(AAS)of lysine(49.8%),threonine(70.7%),and sulfur-containing amino acids(74.8%)were the lowest,which were considered as the main limiting amino acids in WRS.It was observed that the materials with Triticum urartu Tum.(AA)and Aegilops speltoides Tausch.(SS)genomes had relatively high contents of protein and EAA.The contents of protein(16.91%), phenylalanine(4.78%),isoleucine(3.53%),leucine(6.16%),and valine(4.09%)for the diploid materials were higher than those for the other materials.These results will provide some information for selecting parents in breeding about nutrient quality and utilization of fine gene in wheat.

  17. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah


    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  18. 3种淡水硅藻油脂的含量与成分分析%Content and Component Analysis of Lipid in Three Freshwater Diatoms

    晏妮; 徐兴华; 宁爱丽; 潘静; 陈椽


    Three strains of freshwater diatoms ( Nitzschia capitellata , Synedra acus , Synedra ulna var. danica) were cultured and their lipid content and composition were examined and analyzed to assess the potential of these microalgae as biodiesel feedstocks. Growth period of Nitzschia capitellata was shorter and its biomass higher than that of Synedra acus and Synedra ulna var. danica. Total lipid represented 2.92%~9.25% of dry weight with the highest percentage in Nitzschia capitellata (9.25%).The fatty acid component was similar and indicated that the main components were myristic (C14: 0),palmitic(C16: 0 ), palmitoleic (C16: 1 ), oleic ( C18: 1 ), linoleic ( C18 : 2 ) and parinaric acids ( C18: 4 ) ; The percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in each lipid fraction was more than 60% of the total fatty acids with Nitzschia capitellata reaching up to 63.54 %. The results indicated that Nitzschia capitellata could be used as a biodiesel feedstock after further improvement of the culture conditions.%为探索3种淡水硅藻(小头端菱形藻、尖针杆藻、肘状针杆藻丹麦变种)作为生物柴油原料的潜能,培养并检测了其油脂含量及成分.结果表明:小头端菱形藻生长周期最短,生物量最高.3种淡水硅藻中总脂含量为2.92%~9.2500,小头端菱形藻的总脂含量最高,达9.25 %;脂肪酸的组成相似,且3种硅藻主要脂肪酸成分是豆蔻酸(C14:0)、软脂酸(C16:0)、棕榈油酸(C16:1)、油酸(C18:1)、亚油酸(C18:2)和十八碳四烯酸(C18:4).不饱和脂肪酸含量均占总脂肪酸含量的60%以上,小头端菱形藻达63.54%.进一步改善培养条件后小头端菱形藻可作为生产生物柴油的原料.

  19. Evaluation experiments on related terms search in Wikipedia: Information Content and Adapted HITS (In Russian)

    Krizhanovsky, A A


    The classification of metrics and algorithms search for related terms via WordNet, Roget's Thesaurus, and Wikipedia is proposed. Evaluation experiments on Information Content and adapted HITS algorithm are described. The test collection of Russian word pairs with human-assigned similarity judgments is proposed. ----- Predlozhena klassifikacija metrik i algoritmov poiska semanticheski blizkih slov v tezaurusah WordNet, Rozhe i jenciklopedii Vikipedija. S pomow'ju jeksperimentov v Vikipedii oceneny metrika Information Content i adaptirovannyj algoritm HITS. Predlozhen resurs dlja ocenki semanticheskoj blizosti russkih slov.

  20. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Anna Lubkowska


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  1. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  2. Relation between dietary and circulating lipids in lacto-ovo vegetarians.

    Fernandes Dourado, K; de Arruda Cámara E Siqueira Campos, F; Sakugava Shinohara, N K


    As factors that have a positive influence on health and specifically on serum lipids and blood pressure, the nature and composition of vegetarian diets is one of the most speculated issues in nutrition. The aim of the present study was to compare diet, lipid profile and blood pressure levels in Brazilian lacto-ovo vegetarians and non-vegetarians. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 87 male and female adult volunteers (29 lactoovo vegetarians and 58 non-vegetarians). Two non-vegetarians were selected for each vegetarian (paired for age and gender) in order to enhance the power of the statistical tests. Mean age was 40 (13) years; 58.6% were males. No differences were found regarding nutritional status based on the BMI. This similarity may be explained by the similar energy intake and degrees of physical activity in both groups. Regarding blood pressure, the only difference between groups was systolic arterial pressure, which was higher among the non-vegetarians. Among the intake parameters analysed, only energy intake and the intake of polyunsaturated fat were similar between groups. Mean total cholesterol and LDL were higher among non-vegetarians. Mean serum TG was higher among the vegetarians. The greater consumption of carbohydrates among the vegetarians was reflected in the higher serum triglyceride levels. Although all products of animal origin have a greater amount of protein, fat and saturated fatty acids, the absence of meat from the diet may have accounted for the better lipid profile among the lacto-ovo vegetarians may also stem from the high intake of fibre and antioxidants.

  3. Relation of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins with Progression of CKD: The CRIC Study

    Yang, Wei; Akkina, Sanjeev; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Raj, Dominic S.; Schelling, Jeffrey; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie; Rader, Daniel J.


    Background and objectives Hyperlipidemia is common in patients with CKD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether measures of plasma lipids and lipoproteins predict progression of kidney disease in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Prospective cohort study in adults (n=3939) with CKD aged 21–74 years recruited between 2003 and 2008 and followed for a median of 4.1 years. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I , apoB, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. The outcomes were composite end point of ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR from baseline (rate of change of GFR). Results Mean age of the study population was 58.2 years, and the mean GFR was 44.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 48% of patients had diabetes. None of the lipid or lipoprotein measures was independently associated with risk of the composite end point or rate of change in GFR. However, there were significant (P=0.01) interactions by level of proteinuria. In participants with proteinuria0.2 g/d, neither LDL-C (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.05) nor total cholesterol levels were associated with renal outcomes. Treatment with statins was reported in 55% of patients and was differential across lipid categories. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients with CKD, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, apoB, and Lp(a) were not independently associated with progression of kidney disease. There was an inverse relationship between LDL-C and total cholesterol levels and kidney disease outcomes in patients with low levels of proteinuria. PMID:24832097

  4. Effect of menopause on lipid profile in relation to body mass index

    Geetanjali Bade


    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is a natural event in the ageing process and signifies the end of reproductive years with cessation of cyclic ovarian function as manifested by cyclic menstruation. Lipid profile is altered in menopause because of various reasons. Objectives: The study was aimed to compare the lipid profile in women with normal body mass index (BMI = 18.9-24.9 and women with BMI = 25-29.9 in both pre- and post-menopausal group. Materials and Methods: Estimation of total cholesterol (TC by CHOD-PAP Cholesterol Oxidase - Peroxidase + Aminophenazone + Phenol method, triglyceride (TG by enzymatic calorimetric method, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C phosphotungstic acid method, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C by using Friedewald formula and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL was done by using the formula -VLDL = TG/5 in 30 women selected in each group. Results: Our study revealed that serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly higher in post-menopausal women in comparison to their pre-menopausal counterparts, irrespective of BMI (P < 0.05. Similarly, HDL-C levels were significantly lower in post-menopausal women as compared with pre-menopausal women of similar BMI (P < 0.05. Conclusions: We found that serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly higher in post-menopausal women in comparison to their pre-menopausal counterparts, irrespective of BMI. Similarly, HDL-C levels were significantly lower in post-menopausal women as compared to pre-menopausal women of similar BMI. Since we found similar changes in women of different BMIs, the difference in hormonal status is the probable cause of altered lipid profile. Hence, all post-menopausal women irrespective of body weight and BMI should be strongly counseled to have proper physical exercise and dietary habits to avoid the possible cardiovascular complications.

  5. Lipid-binding properties of human ApoD and Lazarillo-related lipocalins: functional implications for cell differentiation.

    Ruiz, Mario; Sanchez, Diego; Correnti, Colin; Strong, Roland K; Ganfornina, Maria D


    Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded β-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior. Using tryptophan fluorescence titration, we screened the binding of 15 potential lipid partners for NLaz, ApoD and Laz and uncovered several novel ligands with apparent dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Retinoic acid (RA), retinol, fatty acids and sphingomyelin are shared ligands. Sterols, however, showed a species-specific binding pattern: cholesterol did not show strong binding to human ApoD, whereas NLaz and Laz did bind ergosterol. Among the lipocalin-specific ligands, we found that ApoD selectively binds the endocannabinoid anandamide but not 2-acylglycerol, and that NLaz binds the pheromone 7-tricosene, but not 7,11-heptacosadiene or 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate. To test the functional relevance of lipocalin ligand binding at the cellular level, we analyzed the effect of ApoD, Laz and NLaz preloaded with RA on neuronal differentiation. Our results show that ApoD is necessary and sufficient to allow for RA differentiating activity. Both human ApoD and Drosophila NLaz successfully deliver RA to immature neurons, driving neurite outgrowth. We conclude that ApoD, NLaz and Laz bind selectively to a different but overlapping set of lipid ligands. This multispecificity can explain their varied physiological functions.

  6. Photosynthetic pigments, cell extrusion and relative leaf water content of the castor bean under silicon and salinity

    Ferraz, Rener L. de S; Magalhães, Ivomberg D; Beltrão, Napoleão E. de M; Melo, Alberto S. de; Brito Neto, Jósé F. de; Rocha, Maria do S


    .... Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of photosynthetic pigments, cell membrane extrusion and the relative water content in the leaves of the castor bean cultivar 'BRS Energia' under...

  7. Radionuclide contents in suspended sediments in relation to flood types in the lower Rhone River

    Zebracki, Mathilde; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Antonelli, Christelle; Boullier, Vincent [IRSN / PRP-ENV, SESURE / LERCM, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); De Vismes-Ott, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier [STEME / LMRE, 91400 Orsay (France)


    The aim of this work was to study the influence of watershed heterogeneity on the radionuclide contents of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a large Mediterranean river. As the Rhone River catchment is characterized by a high climatic and geological heterogeneity, floods can be distinguished according to their geographic origins. Long-term time series of particles associated with radionuclides acquired in the framework of radiological surveillance provide a relevant dataset to investigate the variability of radionuclide contents. The SPM exported during Mediterranean floods differ from other floods as they display higher {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contents and the lowest activity ratio {sup 137}Cs/{sup (239+240)}Pu; these properties could be related to bedrock type and erosion process characteristics and/or to source term differentiation. (authors)

  8. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  9. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su


    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  10. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Getting Beyond Impressions: An Evaluation of Engagement with Breast Cancer-related Facebook Content.

    Theiss, Sunita Kapahi; Burke, Rachel M; Cory, Janine L; Fairley, Temeika L


    Reaching young adults with health messages has been a documented challenge in public health. Public health researchers have initiated studies to assess how social media are changing health communication. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched social media-based health education initiatives on Facebook to increase knowledge of breast health and breast cancer among women under age 45 and those at higher risk for developing the disease. The current study used digital analytics and metrics to describe the impact of these social media efforts on health communication. Engagement rate was calculated by taking the average engagement rate for 574 posts published by the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page in multiple categories, including CDC campaign specificity, content type, time of day, and year posted. Linear regression was used to model the effect of campaign content. Engagement rate (ER) was highest for content shared for the Know:BRCA campaign posts (ER=6.4), followed by the non-campaign related posts (ER=5.5), and the Bring Your Brave posts (ER=4.6). Overall engagement rate decreased from 2014-2016. Photos consistently produced the most significant engagement rate overall. We found that users were more likely to click, share, comment, or like the content of the post that had photos. These data suggest that that branded, visual content is more effective in facilitating engagement. These findings will be used to adjust both free and paid social media efforts for the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page.

  12. Food choice by Blue-gray Tanagers in relation to protein content.

    Bosque, Carlos; Calchi, Rosanna


    We tested discriminatory ability and food choice in relation to protein content of the diet in wild-caught Blue-gray Tanagers (Thraupis episcopus), a generalist tropical frugivorous bird. In two sets of experiments we offered to five individual birds in pair-wise choice trials two nearly iso-caloric experimental diets differing in their protein content only. Protein contents of the experimental diets were 4.6 vs. 1.4% in the first experiment and 3.2 and 1.5% (dry matter basis) in the second experiment. Response varied among individual tanagers, but 6 of the 10 birds showed a clear preference for the food highest in protein. Two individuals displayed a strong positional preference. When testing each treatment group, birds ate daily significantly more of the food that had higher protein content. We conclude that Blue-gray Tanagers prefer richer nitrogen foods. Our results also demonstrate that Blue-gray Tanagers have remarkable discriminatory abilities, they reacted to differences in protein content as small as 0.09% fresh matter. We show for the first time discriminatory ability and preference of wild frugivorous birds for foods richer in protein under controlled conditions. Our findings support the hypothesis that frugivorous birds can act as selective agents for fruit pulp composition.

  13. Event-related potentials in response to violations of content and temporal event knowledge.

    Drummer, Janna; van der Meer, Elke; Schaadt, Gesa


    Scripts that store knowledge of everyday events are fundamentally important for managing daily routines. Content event knowledge (i.e., knowledge about which events belong to a script) and temporal event knowledge (i.e., knowledge about the chronological order of events in a script) constitute qualitatively different forms of knowledge. However, there is limited information about each distinct process and the time course involved in accessing content and temporal event knowledge. Therefore, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to either correctly presented event sequences or event sequences that contained a content or temporal error. We found an N400, which was followed by a posteriorly distributed P600 in response to content errors in event sequences. By contrast, we did not find an N400 but an anteriorly distributed P600 in response to temporal errors in event sequences. Thus, the N400 seems to be elicited as a response to a general mismatch between an event and the established event model. We assume that the expectancy violation of content event knowledge, as indicated by the N400, induces the collapse of the established event model, a process indicated by the posterior P600. The expectancy violation of temporal event knowledge is assumed to induce an attempt to reorganize the event model in working memory, a process indicated by the frontal P600.

  14. Maternal lipid profile and the relation with spontaneous preterm delivery: a systematic review.

    Moayeri, Maryam; Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Spiering, Wilko; de Laat, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A


    It is unknown whether an unfavorable (atherogenic) lipid profile and homocysteine level, which could supersede clinical cardiovascular disease, is also associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD). A systematic review of studies assessing the lipid profile and homocysteine value of women with sPTD compared to women with term delivery in pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles published between January 1980 and May 2014 was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane database. We included case-control and cohort studies that examined triglycerides, high/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol and homocysteine in women with sPTD. Articles were subdivided in pre-pregnancy, first, second and third trimester. Of 708 articles reviewed for eligibility, 14 met our inclusion criteria. Nine cohort studies and five case-control studies were analyzed, reporting on 1466 cases with sPTD and 11296 controls with term delivery. The studies suggest a possible elevated risk of sPTD in woman with high TG levels, no association of high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol with the risk of sPTD was found. High homocysteine levels are associated with sPTD in the second trimester. The role of triglycerides and homocysteine in sPTD should be explored further.

  15. The Relation between Thyroid Hormone and Blood Lipid in the Healthy Elderly

    何凤屏; 李山; 洗苏; 刘广钊; 夏宁


    Objectives To observethe relationship between Thyroid Hormone (TH) leveland blood lipid level in the healthy elderly with therapyof small dose of TH. Methods A total of 120healthy old persons were randomly divided into twogroups: 60 old persons as treatment group and other 60persons as control group. Each person in the treatmentgroup took a thyroid tablet 10 mg daily continuously forsix months while the control group took VitB1 30 mgdaily instead of thyroid tablet. The level of TH, M -TSH, FT3, FT4, TT4, rT3, TC, TG, LDL- C, HDL-C, ApoA1 were measured in two groups before andafter receiving TH or Vit. B1 treatment. Results Inthe treatment group the level of TH increased obvious-ly. And TC, TG, LDL- C levels decreased also tosome extent while HDL- C, ApoA1 levels increasedslightly which was significant when compared with thecontrol group and pre- treatment group. ConclusionsTo use small dose of TH as supplement treatmentcan increase the TH level of healthy old persons anddecrease their blood lipid level. It would be a benefitfor treating hyperlipidemia in the elderly.

  16. Conditional QTL mapping of oil content in rapeseed with respect to protein content and traits related to plant development and grain yield.

    Zhao, Jianyi; Becker, Heiko C; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Yaofeng; Ecke, Wolfgang


    Oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally regarded as a character with high heritability that is negatively correlated with protein content and influenced by plant developmental and yield related traits. To evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between these traits and oil content, QTL for oil content were mapped using data on oil content and on oil content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a segregating doubled haploid population of 282 lines derived from the F(1) of a cross between the old German cultivar Sollux and the Chinese cultivar Gaoyou. The material was tested at four locations, two each in Germany and in China. QTLMapper version 1.0 was used for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additive (a) and locus pairs with additive x additive epistatic (aa) effects. Clear evidence was found for a strong genetic relationship between oil and protein content. Six QTL and nine epistatic locus pairs were found, which had pleiotropic effects on both traits. Nevertheless, two QTL were also identified, which control oil content independent from protein content and which could be used in practical breeding programs to increase oil content without affecting seed protein content. In addition, six additional QTL with small effects were only identified in the conditional mapping. Some evidence was apparent for a genetic interrelationship between oil content and the number of seeds per silique but no evidence was found for a genetic relationship between oil content and flowering time, grain filling period or single seed weight. The results indicate that for closely correlated traits conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the level of individual QTL. Furthermore, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with small effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  17. Oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to high-oleic sunflower oil and vitamin E diet supplementation and storage conditions.

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cumella, Fabio; Sardi, Luca; Della Casa, Giacinto; Lercker, Giovanni


    The aim of this research work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to dietary supplementation with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and/or α-tocopheryl acetate (VE), as well as the influence of storage conditions. Four different diets (control; HOSO; VE; HOSO+VE), were fed to swines until slaughtering. Meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 3 days at 8 °C. HOSO supplementation increased oleic acid content of pork meat. The highest levels of peroxide value (PV) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were detected in the control group, whereas HOSO-enriched diets displayed the highest thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARs) content. After storage under light exposure, pork meat slices exhibited a decrease of PV, which resulted in an increasing trend of TBARs and COPs. Feeding enrichment with both HOSO and vitamin E can be, therefore, used as an appropriate supplementation strategy to produce pork meat with a suitable oxidative stability.

  18. Inflammation, lipid metabolism dysfunction, and hypertension: Active research fields in atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease in China

    YIN Kai; TANG ChaoKe


    Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in China [1].With advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis vascular inflammation,lipid metabolism dysfunction,and hypertension are regarded as the main pathogenetic pathways of both early atherogenesis and advanced plaque rupture [2,3].Currently,much attention is being paid to the control of these pathways,which offers the potential for development of novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of cardiovascular disease in China.

  19. Improved characterization of EV preparations based on protein to lipid ratio and lipid properties.

    Xabier Osteikoetxea

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved parameters to characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Here we introduce a simple 96 well plate-based total lipid assay for determination of lipid content and protein to lipid ratios of extracellular vesicle preparations from various myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blood plasma. These preparations included apoptotic bodies, microvesicles/microparticles, and exosomes isolated by size-based fractionation. We also investigated lipid bilayer order of extracellular vesicle subpopulations using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ lipid probe, and lipid composition using affinity reagents to clustered cholesterol (monoclonal anti-cholesterol antibody and ganglioside GM1 (cholera toxin subunit B. We have consistently found different protein to lipid ratios characteristic for the investigated extracellular vesicle subpopulations which were substantially altered in the case of vesicular damage or protein contamination. Spectral ratiometric imaging and flow cytometric analysis also revealed marked differences between the various vesicle populations in their lipid order and their clustered membrane cholesterol and GM1 content. Our study introduces for the first time a simple and readily available lipid assay to complement the widely used protein assays in order to better characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Besides differentiating extracellular vesicle subpopulations, the novel parameters introduced in this work (protein to lipid ratio, lipid bilayer order, and lipid composition, may prove useful for quality control of extracellular vesicle related basic and clinical studies.

  20. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption

    Joanna Łuczyńska


    Full Text Available Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch, Leuciscus idus L. (ide, Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout, Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder. and Clupea harengus L. (bream from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp (p ≤ 0.05. There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878, flounder (r = 0.925 and herring (r = 0.982 (p ≤ 0.05. The atherogenic index (AI, thrombogenicity index (TI and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ were calculated as follows 0.33–0.70 (IA, 0.16–0.31 (IT and 13.01–33.22 (FLQ. Hypocholesterolemic (OFA and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish (p > 0.05. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  1. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content.

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Flax, Valerie L; Jamieson, Denise J; Ellington, Sascha R; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H


    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer's contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9-4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151 μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5 μg/L (free thiamin, pmilk. The continuous presence of FAD in breast milk suggests an active transport and secretion system for this vitamer or possibly formation of this co-enymatic form in the mammary gland.

  2. A high-fat diet reduces ceramide synthesis by decreasing adiponectin levels and decreases lipid content by modulating HMG-CoA reductase and CPT-1 mRNA expression in the skin.

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi


    Molecules involved in skin function are greatly affected by nutritional conditions. However, the mechanism linking high-fat (HF) diets with these alterations is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular changes in skin function that result from HF diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HF diets for 28 days. The skin levels of ceramide, lipids and mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism were evaluated using TLC, oil red O staining and quantitative PCR, respectively. The serum adiponectin concentration was determined by ELISA. HF diets led to reduced ceramide levels and lowered skin lipid content. They also decreased mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in the skin and those of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α -PPAR-α), which upregulates SPT and HMG-CoA reductase expression. The HF diets reduced the serum concentration of adiponectin, which acts upstream of PPAR-α. Finally, these diets led to increased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme that acts in β-oxidation. Our study suggests that HF diets reduce ceramide and lipid synthesis in the skin by reducing levels of SPT and HMG-CoA reductase through lowered adiponectin and PPAR-α activity. Additionally, they decrease lipid content by enhancing β-oxidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    Guillermo Arrázola


    Full Text Available Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype (sweet, slightly bitter or bitter and the genotype (homozygous: sweet or bitter or heterozygous: sweet or slightly bitter with an easy analytical test. Results showed that there was a clear difference in the amount of amygdalin between bitter and non-bitter cultivars. However, the content of amygdalin did not differentiate the other genotypes, since similar amounts of amygdalin can be found in the two different genotypes with the same phenotype

  4. Pantethine Alters Lipid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Membrane Rafts, With Down-Regulation of CXCL12-Induced T Cell Migration.

    van Gijsel-Bonnello, Manuel; Acar, Niyazi; Molino, Yves; Bretillon, Lionel; Khrestchatisky, Michel; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra


    Pantethine, a natural low-molecular-weight thiol, shows a broad activity in a large range of essential cellular pathways. It has been long known as a hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic agent. We have recently shown that it exerts a neuroprotective action in mouse models of cerebral malaria and Parkinson's disease through multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we looked at its effects on membrane lipid rafts that serve as platforms for molecules engaged in cell activity, therefore providing a target against inappropriate cell response leading to a chronic inflammation. We found that pantethine-treated cells showed a significant change in raft fatty acid composition and cholesterol content, with ultimate downregulation of cell adhesion, CXCL12-driven chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration of various T cell types, including human Jurkat cell line and circulating effector T cells. The mechanisms involved include the alteration of the following: (i) CXCL12 binding to its target cells; (ii) membrane dynamics of CXCR4 and CXCR7, the two CXCL12 receptors; and (iii) cell redox status, a crucial determinant in the regulation of the chemokine system. In addition, we considered the linker for activation of T cells molecule to show that pantethine effects were associated with the displacement from the rafts of the acylated signaling molecules which had their palmitoylation level reduced.. In conclusion, the results presented here, together with previously published findings, indicate that due to its pleiotropic action, pantethine can downregulate the multifaceted process leading to pathogenic T cell activation and migration.

  5. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural


    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  6. The serum protein carbonyl content level in relation to exercise stress test

    Titiporn Mekrungruangwong


    Full Text Available Background: Protein carbonyl (P is oxidatively-modified protein with diagnostic potential for acute myocardial infarction. However, many findings indicated the elevation of serum PC content level related to exercise, which could cause false positive results and limiting the specificity for acute coronary syndrome diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the level of serum protein carbonyl content in healthy volunteers subjected to exercise stress test (EST. Materials and Methods: Serum from healthy volunteers was collected 5-10 min before performing EST and 1 hour after the EST was achieved. The serum was collected, and the serum PC content level was determined by spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Results: The serum PC content level after exercise stress test was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.373 ± 0.05 nM/mg vs. 0.275 ± 0.02 nM/mg, P < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that in both male and female, serum PC content level after EST was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.29 ± 0.03 nM/mg vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in male, 0.27 ± 0.02 nM/mg vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in female, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that exercise stress test could result in non-specificity and false positive increasing in serum PC content level in healthy subjects, which may cause misinterpretation when using PC as cardiac marker, especially in patients, who underwent exercise stress test or patients who performing heavy physical activities.

  7. Ballet-related content in music education in the first cycle of primary education

    Kovačič, Bojan; Črčinovič Rozman, Janja; Stergulec, Tjaša


    This paper deals with the integration of ballet-related content into music lessons in the first cycle of primary education. It seeks to outline some current findings concerning the positive impact of dance and classical ballet on integrated child development and the results of an empirical research study the objective of which was to compare the ability of primary school pupils aged six to nine years to perform a simple ballet choreography against that of ballet school pupils and to examine p...


    Szilvia Várallyay


    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most toxic elements that can be found in the environment. Excessive uptake of arsenic may cause physiological changes in plants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different arsenic treatments on relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of shoot and root of maize and sunflower in the early phases of plant development. Seedlings were grown in climatic room in nutrient solution under strictly regulated environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1arsenic, whereas there was no arsenic treatment on the control plants. We applied arsenic in the form of arsenite (NaAsO2 and arsenate (KH2AsO4, respectively. After 14 days of arsenic treatments, changes in relative chlorophyll content and dry weight of maize shoots and roots were recorded. In the case of sunflower these physiological parameters were measured after 21 day. The applied arsenic decreased the relative chlorophyll content of maize and sunflower leaves, especially at concentration of30 mg kg-1. The increasing amount of As treatment were resulted the lower weight of the experimental plants, which was more considerable in the case of the roots. The results indicate that the sunflower plants is more sensitive to arsenic toxicity than maize plants and all data demonstrate that the As(III is more toxic to these crop plants than the As(V.

  9. High School Science Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Content-Related Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Williams, Theresa

    In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.

  10. The most widely viewed YouTube videos with content related to multivitamins

    Basch, Corey H.; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Berdnik, Alyssa; Basch, Charles E.


    Background: Use of multivitamin/multimineral (MVM) and other dietary supplements is common among American adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the source and content of the most widely viewed YouTube videos associated with MVM supplements. Methods: Videos were filtered by number of views and the source of the video upload was recorded. A comparison of video characteristics and differences in video content was conducted. Results: Cumulatively, the videos in this sample were viewed 25 573 055 times. The majority of videos found in this sample were uploaded by a nutrition, wellness, or fitness channels. Most videos mentioned benefits (80.4%, 95% CI: 72.5%, 88.3%) and advocated for use of the supplement (72.2%, 95% CI: 63.3%, 81.1%). Over 84% (84.5%, 95% CI: 77.3, 91.7%) of the videos did not mention risks associated with taking a particular vitamin or supplement. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that MVMs are often promoted and encouraged, yet risks associated with MVMs were infrequently mentioned. Health professionals should be aware of the extent to which MVM related content appears on social media and, more importantly, be attuned to the content, which can be misleading, or missing information regarding risks and/or evidence of possible benefits. PMID:27766240

  11. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  12. Effects of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics on Lipid Metabolism, Antioxidative Status, Histopathological Lesions, and Related Gene Expression in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Mengistu, Berhe Mekonnen; Liu, Yunhuan; Khan, Alam Zeb; Gan, Fang; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Huang, Kehe


    A total of 80 female albino mice were randomly allotted into five groups (n = 16) as follows: (A) normal control, (B) high-fat diet (HFD),; (C) HFD + probiotics (P), (D) HFD + sodium selenite (SS), and (E) HFD + selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). The selenium content of diets in groups A, B, C, D, and E was 0.05, 0.05, 0.05, 0.3, and 0.3 μg/g, respectively. The amount of probiotics contained in groups C and E was similar (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.25 × 10(11)/mL and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.25 × 10(9)/mL colony-forming units (CFU)). The high-fat diet was composed of 15 % lard, 1 % cholesterol, 0.3 % cholic acid, and 83.7 % basal diet. At the end of the 4-week experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for the measurements of lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expressions. The result shows that HFD significantly increased the body weights and liver damages compared to control, while P, SS, or SP supplementation attenuated the body weights and liver damages in mice. P, SS, or SP supplementation also significantly reversed the changes of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels induced by HFD. Generally, adding P, SS, or SP up-regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase II (ACAT2), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and down-regulated mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) involved in lipid metabolism. Among the group

  13. Isoflavone Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Expression of Related Genes in OVX Rats Fed on a High-fat Diet



    Objective To investigate the effects of isoflavone on body weight, fat mass, and gene expression in relation to lipid metabolism. Methods Thirty-six female SD rats were variectomized or sham-operated and fed on a high-fat diet. Two months later, abdominal incision was made, blood was collected to separate serum, and the liver and adipose tissue were immediately collected and weighed. Some portions of these tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃. Results Ovariectomy (OVX) with a high-fat diet could induce obesity in rats, while treatment with isoflavone significantly inhibited the increase in body weight and fat mass in abdomen. Serum total cholesterol and leptin were significantly decreased in isoflavone group, compared with the OVX group. The mRNA expression of liver fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the OVX group was significantly higher than that in sham-operated group, while this difference was not observed in the isoflavone group. The mRNA expression of liver hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the OVX rats tended to be lower than that in the sham-operated rats. Furthermore, a large amount of isoflavone maintained the mRNA expression at a sham level. Conclusion lsoflavone may prevent obesity induced by ovariectomy with a high-fat diet, in part by modulating gene expression related to lipid metabolism.

  14. Non-polar lipids accumulate during storage of transfusion products and do not contribute to the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Peters, A L; Vervaart, M A T; van Bruggen, R; de Korte, D; Nieuwland, R; Kulik, W; Vlaar, A P J


    The accumulation of non-polar lipids arachidonic acid, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-HETE and 15-HETE during storage of transfusion products may play a role in the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress after transfusion. We investigated non-polar lipid accumulation in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for 42 days, plasma stored for 7 days at either 4 or 20°C and platelet (PLT) transfusion products stored for 7 days. Furthermore, we investigated whether transfusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids induces TRALI in a 'two-hit' human volunteer model. All products were produced following Dutch Blood Bank protocols and are according to European standards. Non-polar lipids were measured with high-performance liquid chromotography followed by mass spectrometry. All non-polar lipids increased in RBCs after 21 days of storage compared to baseline. The non-polar lipid concentration in plasma increased significantly, and the increase was even more pronounced in products stored at 20°C. In platelets, baseline levels of 5-HETE and 15-HETE were higher than in RBCs or plasma. However, the non-polar lipids did not change significantly during storage of PLT products. Infusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids did not induce TRALI in LPS-primed human volunteers. We conclude that non-polar lipids accumulate in RBC and plasma transfusion products and that accumulation is temperature dependent. Accumulation of non-polar lipids does not appear to explain the onset of TRALI (Dutch Trial Register - NTR4455). © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Is content of medical journals related to advertisements? Case-control study.

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V


    To assess the relatedness of journal content to paid advertisements published in the journal. The case-control study was performed on a convenience sample of 7 journals subscribed by Central Medical Library in Moscow--4 international (American Journal of Hypertension, British Journal of General Practice, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) and 3 Russian peer reviewed journals (Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, Khirurgiia, and Voeno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal). In each issue containing a paid advertisement, classifieds excluded, we searched for articles related to the advertised product and compared this issue with a control issue - the next or a later issue without this advertisement. In American Journal of Hypertension (33 issues from 2002-2004) 94 placements of advertisements were found, 7 of which were closely related to the article topic in the same issue (7/94) vs 2/66 in the control issue. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for advertisements to be accompanied by related articles was OR, 2.6; 95%CI, 0.5-13). In British Journal of General Practice (27 issues from 2003-2005) there were 7/63 advertisements related to the article topic vs 0/28 in the control issue (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 44). In The Lancet (49 issues from 2004) there were 8/162 advertisements related to the article topic vs 8/104 in the control issue (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). In New England Journal of Medicine (37 issues from 2004) there were 12/81 advertisements related to the article topic vs 8/75 in the control issue (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.56-3.79). In Terapevticheskii Arkhiv (10 issues from 2004) there were 38/93 advertisements related to the article topic vs 1/83 in the control issue (OR, 56.66; 95% CI, 4.4-253). In Khirurgiia (25 issues from 2003-2005) there were 3/83 advertisements related to the article topic vs 0/70 in the control issue (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.3-26). In Voeno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal (33 issues from 2003-2005) there were 17/31 advertisements related to the

  16. Getting Beyond Impressions: An Evaluation of Engagement with Breast Cancer-related Facebook Content

    Theiss, Sunita Kapahi; Burke, Rachel M; Cory, Janine L; Fairley, Temeika L


    Background Reaching young adults with health messages has been a documented challenge in public health. Public health researchers have initiated studies to assess how social media are changing health communication. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched social media-based health education initiatives on Facebook to increase knowledge of breast health and breast cancer among women under age 45 and those at higher risk for developing the disease. The current study used digital analytics and metrics to describe the impact of these social media efforts on health communication. Methods Engagement rate was calculated by taking the average engagement rate for 574 posts published by the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page in multiple categories, including CDC campaign specificity, content type, time of day, and year posted. Linear regression was used to model the effect of campaign content. Results Engagement rate (ER) was highest for content shared for the Know:BRCA campaign posts (ER=6.4), followed by the non-campaign related posts (ER=5.5), and the Bring Your Brave posts (ER=4.6). Overall engagement rate decreased from 2014–2016. Photos consistently produced the most significant engagement rate overall. Conclusions We found that users were more likely to click, share, comment, or like the content of the post that had photos. These data suggest that that branded, visual content is more effective in facilitating engagement. These findings will be used to adjust both free and paid social media efforts for the CDC Breast Cancer Facebook page. PMID:27840816

  17. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel


    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  18. Central action of xenin affects the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins in mouse white adipose tissue.

    Bhavya, Sharma; Lew, Pei San; Mizuno, Tooru M


    Xenin is a gastrointestinal hormone that reduces food intake when administered centrally and it has been hypothesized that central action of xenin participates in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. The present study was performed to address this hypothesis by investigating the central effect of xenin on the expression of genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male obese ob/ob mice received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of xenin (5μg) twice 12h apart. Food intake and body weight change during a 24-h period after the first injection were measured. Epididymal WAT was collected at the end of the 24-h treatment period and levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and proteins were measured. Xenin treatment caused significant reductions in food intake and body weight compared to control vehicle treatment. Levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN) protein were significantly reduced by xenin treatment, while levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and beta-3 adrenergic receptor (Adrb3) mRNA and phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (Ser(660)-pHSL and Ser(563)-pHSL) were significantly increased by xenin treatment. These findings suggest that central action of xenin causes alterations in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue toward reduced lipogenesis and increased lipolysis, possibly contributing to xenin-induced body weight reduction. Thus, enhancing central action of xenin and its downstream targets may be possible targets for the treatment of obesity by reducing the amount of stored fat in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf


    the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...... and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during...... a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between...

  20. Particle size distribution and particle size-related crystalline silica content in granite quarry dust.

    Sirianni, Greg; Hosgood, Howard Dean; Slade, Martin D; Borak, Jonathan


    Previous studies indicate that the relationship between empirically derived particle counts, particle mass determinations, and particle size-related silica content are not constant within mines or across mine work tasks. To better understand the variability of particle size distributions and variations in silica content by particle size in a granite quarry, exposure surveys were conducted with side-by-side arrays of four closed face cassettes, four cyclones, four personal environmental monitors, and a real-time particle counter. In general, the proportion of silica increased as collected particulate size increased, but samples varied in an inconstant way. Significant differences in particle size distributions were seen depending on the extent of ventilation and the nature and activity of work performed. Such variability raises concerns about the adequacy of silica exposure assessments based on only limited numbers of samples or short-term samples.

  1. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential (low organic soils with n > 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  2. Modulation of endotoxicity of Shigella generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA) by genetic lipid A modifications: relative activation of TLR4 and TLR2 pathways in different mutants.

    Rossi, Omar; Pesce, Isabella; Giannelli, Carlo; Aprea, Susanna; Caboni, Mariaelena; Citiulo, Francesco; Valentini, Sara; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; MacLennan, Calman Alexander; D'Oro, Ugo; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane


    Outer membrane particles from Gram-negative bacteria are attractive vaccine candidates as they present surface antigens in their natural context. We previously developed a high yield production process for genetically derived particles, called generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA), from Shigella. As GMMA are derived from the outer membrane, they contain immunostimulatory components, especially lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined ways of reducing their reactogenicity by modifying lipid A, the endotoxic part of LPS, through deletion of late acyltransferase genes, msbB or htrB, in GMMA-producing Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains. GMMA with resulting penta-acylated lipid A from the msbB mutants showed a 600-fold reduced ability, and GMMA from the S. sonnei ΔhtrB mutant showed a 60,000-fold reduced ability compared with GMMA with wild-type lipid A to stimulate human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in a reporter cell line. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed a marked reduction in induction of inflammatory cytokines (S. sonnei ΔhtrB, 800-fold; ΔmsbB mutants, 300-fold). We found that the residual activity of these GMMA is largely due to non-lipid A-related TLR2 activation. In contrast, in the S. flexneri ΔhtrB mutant, a compensatory lipid A palmitoleoylation resulted in GMMA with hexa-acylated lipid A with ∼10-fold higher activity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells than GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A, mostly due to retained TLR4 activity. Thus, for use as vaccines, GMMA will likely require lipid A penta-acylation. The results identify the relative contributions of TLR4 and TLR2 activation by GMMA, which need to be taken into consideration for GMMA vaccine development.

  3. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Hamid Najafipour


    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  4. Importance of the fat content within the cheese-matrix for blood lipid profile, faecal fat excretion, and gut microbiome in growing pigs

    Thorning, Tanja K.; Raben, Anne; Bendsen, Nathalie T.


    Cheese and butter have been shown to affect blood lipids differently. This parallel-arm, randomised, controlled study in 36 crossbred growing sows compared the effect of diets with either regular-fat cheese (REG), reduced-fat cheese + butter (RED) or butter (BUT) on blood lipids, faecal fat...

  5. [Lipid parameters of the skin, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata during immersion stress in rats].

    Gribanov, G A; Kostiuk, N V; Abramov, Iu V; Bykov, V A; Rebrov, L B; Volodina, T V; Pertsov, S S


    The influence of short-form water immersion stress of rats on lipids in the skin, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata was studied. The level of total lipids and absolute and relative contents of the main lipid fractions (phospholipids, nonesterified cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters) were measured. Stress induced delayed changes of the lipid component of the skin. The first significant changes of lipid fractions were only observed 20 h later after the stress procedure. These changes were retained (being at nearly constant levels) till the end of the second day. The decrease in contents of total lipids and esterified cholesterol was revealed in the cerebellum of stressed rats (in comparison to these levels in control rats). These results suggest the involvement of cholesterol metabolic system in the stress reaction. The content of total lipids decreased also in the medulla oblongata. However, levels of the main lipid fractions changed differently. The content of diglycerides increased and the content of cholesterol decreased. The data obtained suggest that degradation of triglycerides is the principle pathway of metabolic conversions of lipids. Free fatty acids formed during these processes are probably involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol esters. The data indicate absolutely different mechanisms of interrelations between individual lipid fractions in the brain regions studied. Various roles of the brain structures in the stress response of the body may account for the differences revealed.

  6. Higher peroxidase activity, leaf nutrient contents and carbon isotope composition changes in Arabidopsis thaliana are related to rutin stress.

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J


    Rutin, a plant secondary metabolite that is used in cosmetics and food additive and has known medicinal properties, protects plants from UV-B radiation and diseases. Rutin has been suggested to have potential in weed management, but its mode of action at physiological level is unknown. Here, we report the biochemical, physiological and oxidative response of Arabidopsis thaliana to rutin at micromolar concentrations. It was found that fresh weight; leaf mineral contents (nitrogen, sodium, potassium, copper and aluminum) were decreased following 1 week exposure to rutin. Arabidopsis roots generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species after rutin treatment, consequently increasing membrane lipid peroxidation, decreasing leaf Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) contents and losing root viability. Carbon isotope composition in A. thaliana leaves was less negative after rutin application than the control. Carbon isotope discrimination values were decreased following rutin treatment, with the highest reduction compared to the control at 750μM rutin. Rutin also inhibited the ratio of CO2 from leaf to air (ci/ca) at all concentrations. Total protein contents in A. thaliana leaves were decreased following rutin treatment. It was concluded carbon isotope discrimination coincided with protein degradation, increase lipid peroxidation and a decrease in ci/ca values may be the primary action site of rutin. The present results suggest that rutin possesses allelopathic potential and could be used as a candidate to develop environment friendly natural herbicide.

  7. Effect of genetic variants related to lipid metabolism as risk factors for cholelithiasis after bariatric surgery in Brazilian population.

    Pinheiro-Júnior, Sidney; Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nakazone, Marcelo A; Pinheiro, Anielli; Amorim, Gisele F S; Florim, Greiciane M S; Mazeti, Camila M; Gregório, Michele L; Moschetta, Marina G; Brito, Gilberto B; Brienze, Sérgio L A; Nonino, Carla B; Brandão, Antonio C; Souza, Dorotéia R S


    The manifestation of cholelithiasis after bariatric surgery may depend on genetic factors related to lipid metabolism, including apolipoprotein E (APOE) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene polymorphisms. We investigated the association between APOE HhaI and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms [PCR-RFLP] and occurrence of cholelithiasis over up to 8 months of follow-up after gastroplasty to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in 220 patients distributed in Group 1 (G1) 114 with cholelithiasis postoperatively and Group 2 (G2) 106 without cholelithiasis, including biochemical and anthropometric profiles analyses. In our series, the allelic and genotypic distributions of CETP TaqIB and APOE HhaI polymorphisms were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The subgroup analysis evidenced that 54% of the patients from G1, APOE*4 allele carriers compared with APOE*3/3 carriers, presented altered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) serum levels (P = 0.022) before bariatric surgery. The B1 allele for CETP was associated to more quickly elevation of HDL cholesterol levels just in individuals without cholelitiasis (P cholelithiasis was not associated with altered lipid profile. The CETP TaqIB and APOE HhaI polymorphisms do not seem to have association with gallstones in the late postoperative bariatric surgery, considering that these genetic variants do not differ subgroups of patients who are eligible to routine prophylactic cholecystectomy, at least in Brazilian population.

  8. Significant differences in alkaloid content of Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, from its related American species

    Skeels Matthew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing popularity of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States has prompted large-scale import of raw herbs from Asia. Many of the Asian herbs have phylogenetically related North American species. We compared three phylogenetically related species, namely Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis trifolia to show whether they can be substituted by one another in terms of alkaloid content. Methods We used microwave assisted extraction to obtain alkaloids berberine, coptisine, palmatine and hydrastine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify each alkaloid. Results Hydrastis canadensis has the most berberine, whereas Coptis trifolia has the most coptisine. Hydrastine and palmatine were unique to Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis chinensis respectively. Conclusion Neither Hydrastis canadensis nor Coptis trifolia contains all the alkaloids found in Coptis chinensis used in Chinese medicine. Substitutes of this Chinese species by its American relatives are not recommended.

  9. Changes in mechanical properties of the cuticle and lipid accumulation in relation to adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus.

    Morita, A; Soga, K; Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Numata, H


    Photoperiodically controlled adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) was due to suppression of corpus allatum activity under short-day conditions. The mechanical extensibility of the cuticle of the pronotum was significantly higher in nondiapause adults reared under long-day conditions than in diapause adults reared under short-day conditions. Furthermore, diapause adults accumulated significantly larger amount of lipids than nondiapause ones. It was then examined whether these two characteristics of adult diapause also depend on activity of the corpus allatum, by removal of the corpus allatum and transection of the nervi corporis allati. Even after these two kinds of surgery, adults responded to photoperiod and showed similar differences both in mechanical properties of the cuticle and in lipid content between long-day and short-day conditions. Therefore, inactivity of the corpus allatum is not responsible for the stiffer cuticle or higher lipid accumulation in diapause adults.

  10. Combining content and relation analysis for recommendation in social tagging systems

    Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Kening; Guo, Pengwei; Sun, Daming


    Social tagging is one of the most important ways to organize and index online resources. Recommendation in social tagging systems, e.g. tag recommendation, item recommendation and user recommendation, is used to improve the quality of tags and to ease the tagging or searching process. Existing works usually provide recommendations by analyzing relation information in social tagging systems, suffering a lot from the over sparse problem. These approaches ignore information contained in the content of resources, which we believe should be considered to improve recommendation quality and to deal with the over sparse problem. In this paper we propose a recommendation approach for social tagging systems that combines content and relation analysis in a single model. By modeling the generating process of social tagging systems in a latent Dirichlet allocation approach, we build a fully generative model for social tagging, leverage it to estimate the relation between users, tags and resources and achieve tag, item and user recommendation tasks. The model is evaluated using a CiteULike data snapshot, and results show improvements in metrics for various recommendation tasks.

  11. A fundamental relation between the metallicity, gas content, and stellar mass of local galaxies

    Bothwell, M S; Kennicutt., R; Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Marconi, A; Cicone, C


    Recent results have suggested that the well known mass-metallicity relation has a strong dependence on the star formation rate, to the extent that a three dimensional `fundamental metallicity relation' exists which links the three parameters with minimal scatter. In this work, we use a sample of 4253 local galaxies observed in atomic hydrogen from the ALFALFA survey to demonstrate, for the first time, that a similar fundamental relation (the HI-FMR) also exists between stellar mass, gas-phase metallicity, and HI mass. This latter relation is likely more fundamental, driving the relation between metallicity, SFR and mass. At intermediate masses, the behaviour of the gas fundamental metallicity relation is very similar to that expressed via the star formation rate. However, we find that the dependence of metallicity on HI content persists to the highest stellar masses, in contrast to the `saturation' of metallicity with SFR. It is interesting to note that the dispersion of the relation is very low at intermedia...

  12. Non-erotic thoughts: content and relation to sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction.

    Purdon, Christin; Holdaway, Laura


    We examined the possible range of content of non-erotic thoughts experienced during typical sexual activities with a partner. Undergraduate men (n = 47) and women (n = 50) were administered a measure of non-erotic thought content, frequency, and anxiety, along with measures of sexual attitude, satisfaction, and functioning. Men were more likely to report performance-related thoughts, and women were more likely to report thoughts about body image. However, men and women were equally likely to report thoughts about the external consequences of the activity (e.g., pregnancy, being caught) and the emotional consequences of the activity (e.g., morality, implications of the activity for the relationship). Women reported that their thoughts occurred more frequently and caused more anxiety. Greater thought frequency and greater anxiety over thoughts were associated with poorer sexual functioning for both men and women. For women, greater frequency of and anxiety evoked by thoughts was associated with lower sexual satisfaction. These data provide modest support for cognitive-behavioral models of sexual dysfunction and indicate the importance of both examining a broad range of non-erotic thought content and taking gender into account when applying these models to understanding and treating sexual difficulties.

  13. Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.

    Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V


    1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg

  14. Changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition along the reproductive cycle of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Its modulation by clofibrate exposure

    Lazzara, Raimondo; Fernandes, Denise, E-mail:; Faria, Melissa; Lopez, Jordi F.; Tauler, Roma; Porte, Cinta, E-mail:


    Total lipids and fatty acid profiles were determined along the reproductive cycle of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A total of 33 fatty acids with carbon atoms from 14 to 22 were identified: palmitic acid (16:0) was the most abundant fatty acid (13-24%) followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7). Some individual fatty acids (16:0, 16:2n-4, 18:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-4, 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, 20:5n-3) were strongly related to reproductive events, while others having structural-type functions (18:0 and 22:6n-3) were rather stable during the study period. Multivariate analysis of the whole data set using the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares method confirmed the strong relationship of fatty acid profiles with the reproductive cycle of zebra mussel. Additionally, the effects of the pharmaceutical clofibrate on lipid composition and fatty acid profiles were assessed following 7-day exposure of zebra mussels to a wide range of concentrations (20 ng/L to 2 mg/L). A significant reduction in total triglycerides (38%-48%) together with an increase in the amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight (1.5- to 2.2-fold) was observed in the exposed mussels. This work highlights the ability of clofibrate to induce changes on the lipidome of zebra mussels at concentrations as low as 200 ng/L. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clofibrate exposure leads to a reduction of total triglycerides in zebra mussel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of fatty acids per gram wet weight increased in exposed mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects were evidenced at concentrations of clofibrate as low as 200 ng/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fatty acid profiles were closely related to reproductive events.

  15. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling for determining the effect of non-polar solvent (hexane)/polar solvent (methanol) ratio and moisture content on the lipid extraction efficiency from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Malekzadeh, Mohammad; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Hakim, Maziar; Feilizadeh, Mehrzad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Rashtchian, Davood


    In this research, organic solvent composed of hexane and methanol was used for lipid extraction from dry and wet biomass of Chlorella vulgaris. The results indicated that lipid and fatty acid extraction yield was decreased by increasing the moisture content of biomass. However, the maximum extraction efficiency was attained by applying equivolume mixture of hexane and methanol for both dry and wet biomass. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to estimate the effect of hexane/methanol ratio and moisture content on fatty acid extraction yield. Hansen solubility parameter was used in adjusting the interaction parameters of the model, which led to decrease the number of tuning parameters from 6 to 2. The results indicated that the model can accurately estimate the fatty acid recovery with average absolute deviation percentage (AAD%) of 13.90% and 15.00% for the two cases of using 6 and 2 adjustable parameters, respectively.

  16. Lake Superior lipids

    Fish chemistry data (d13C, d15N, C:N, lipid content) published in Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 29, 2069??2077 DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7367This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hoffman , J., M. Sierszen , and A. Cotter. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Wiley InterScience, Silver Spring, MD, USA, 29(21): 2069–2077, (2015).

  17. Analysis of Learning of Contents Related to Astronomy in Elementary Education II

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; de Moraes e Poffo, Roberta Izabella


    The Curriculum Proposal of the State of São Paulo presents in the discipline of Physical and Biological Sciences contents related to Earth and Universe, which are covered by the subject of Astronomy in the Elementary Education II (aged between 11 and 14). During the school year 2010, in a public school in Santo André, São Paulo, 89 pupils of the sixth year of an elementary school answered a questionnaire with ten open questions related to Astronomy to perform an analysis of the learning success of these concepts before and after the approach of the contents. With this work it is possible to compare the previous knowledge, mainly if there was an improvement in learning after imparting the concepts. In this way, it is possible to conclude what contents may be considered appropriate for this age and how to enhance the conveyance of astronomical contents in this step. With respect to learning the concepts by analysing the questionnaires, one can draw the following conclusions. In the first phase: The results generally indicate a lack of specific knowledge related to the subject Astronomy. Few pupils were able to say what a star is and had difficulties in citing constellations, and most could not identify the Milky Way. In the second phase: the results show a significant improvement in the pupils' performance in general. All groups showed a good level in conceptualizing and associating the discussed topics. It could be observed that it still proved as a difficulty for most of the pupils to conceptualize a star, to explain what it is, but on the other hand, one of the issues with greater correctness was precisely the one with respect to the sun. They do not exactly define a star but know that the Sun is one, and that is really good because there was an association. With respect to learning, it is concluded that it was significant and efficient, considering that most learners progressed better at the end of the school year with respect to the concepts.

  18. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Giovanni Mauromicale


    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  19. Effects of boiling and roasting on proximate composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame varieties commercialized and consumed in Far-North Region of Cameroon.

    Tenyang, Noël; Ponka, Roger; Tiencheu, Bernard; Djikeng, Fabrice T; Azmeera, Thirupathi; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Womeni, Hilaire M


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of boiling and roasting on the proximate, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame seeds varieties. The proximate composition was significantly affected (PBoiling appeared to be the best processing method for cooking the two sesame varieties concerning oxidative stability and fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.


    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  1. Demographic-Based Content Analysis of Web-Based Health-Related Social Media

    Shahbazi, Moloud; Wiley, Matthew T; Hristidis, Vagelis


    Background An increasing number of patients from diverse demographic groups share and search for health-related information on Web-based social media. However, little is known about the content of the posted information with respect to the users’ demographics. Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the content of Web-based health-related social media based on users’ demographics to identify which health topics are discussed in which social media by which demographic groups and to help guide educational and research activities. Methods We analyze 3 different types of health-related social media: (1) general Web-based social networks Twitter and Google+; (2) drug review websites; and (3) health Web forums, with a total of about 6 million users and 20 million posts. We analyzed the content of these posts based on the demographic group of their authors, in terms of sentiment and emotion, top distinctive terms, and top medical concepts. Results The results of this study are: (1) Pregnancy is the dominant topic for female users in drug review websites and health Web forums, whereas for male users, it is cardiac problems, HIV, and back pain, but this is not the case for Twitter; (2) younger users (0-17 years) mainly talk about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression-related drugs, users aged 35-44 years discuss about multiple sclerosis (MS) drugs, and middle-aged users (45-64 years) talk about alcohol and smoking; (3) users from the Northeast United States talk about physical disorders, whereas users from the West United States talk about mental disorders and addictive behaviors; (4) Users with higher writing level express less anger in their posts. Conclusion We studied the popular topics and the sentiment based on users' demographics in Web-based health-related social media. Our results provide valuable information, which can help create targeted and effective educational campaigns and guide experts to reach the right users on Web

  2. Decision-tree analysis of factors influencing rainfall-related building structure and content damage

    Spekkers, M. H.; Kok, M.; Clemens, F. H. L. R.; ten Veldhuis, J. A. E.


    Flood-damage prediction models are essential building blocks in flood risk assessments. So far, little research has been dedicated to damage from small-scale urban floods caused by heavy rainfall, while there is a need for reliable damage models for this flood type among insurers and water authorities. The aim of this paper is to investigate a wide range of damage-influencing factors and their relationships with rainfall-related damage, using decision-tree analysis. For this, district-aggregated claim data from private property insurance companies in the Netherlands were analysed, for the period 1998-2011. The databases include claims of water-related damage (for example, damages related to rainwater intrusion through roofs and pluvial flood water entering buildings at ground floor). Response variables being modelled are average claim size and claim frequency, per district, per day. The set of predictors include rainfall-related variables derived from weather radar images, topographic variables from a digital terrain model, building-related variables and socioeconomic indicators of households. Analyses were made separately for property and content damage claim data. Results of decision-tree analysis show that claim frequency is most strongly associated with maximum hourly rainfall intensity, followed by real estate value, ground floor area, household income, season (property data only), buildings age (property data only), a fraction of homeowners (content data only), a and fraction of low-rise buildings (content data only). It was not possible to develop statistically acceptable trees for average claim size. It is recommended to investigate explanations for the failure to derive models. These require the inclusion of other explanatory factors that were not used in the present study, an investigation of the variability in average claim size at different spatial scales, and the collection of more detailed insurance data that allows one to distinguish between the

  3. Changes of trehalose content and expression of relative genes during the bioethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Yi, Chenfeng; Wang, Fenglian; Dong, Shijun; Li, Hao


    Traditionally, trehalose is considered as a protectant to improve the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, to clarify the changes and roles of trehalose during the bioethanol fermentation, trehalose content and expression of related genes at lag, exponential, and stationary phases (i.e., 2, 8, and 16 h of batch fermentation process) were determined. Although yeast cells at exponential and stationary phase had higher trehalose content than cells at lag phase (P 0.05). Moreover, expression of the trehalose degradation-related genes NTH1 and NTH2 decreased at exponential phase in comparison with that at lag phase; compared with cells at lag phase, cells at stationary phase had higher expression of TPS1, ATH1, NTH1, and NTH2 but lower expression of TPS2. During the lag-exponential phase transition, downregulation of NTH1 and NTH2 promoted accumulation of trehalose, and to some extent, trehalose might confer ethanol tolerance to S. cerevisiae before stationary phase. During the exponential-stationary phase transition, upregulation of TPS1 contributed to accumulation of trehalose, and Tps1 protein might be indispensable in yeast cells to withstand ethanol stress at the stationary phase. Moreover, trehalose would be degraded to supply carbon source at stationary phase.

  4. Association mapping of caffeine content with TCS1 in tea plant and its related species.

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Liang


    Caffeine is the most abundant purine alkaloid in majority of tea plant and its related species. This purine alkaloid contributes to the important flavor and health attributes of tea. Tea caffeine synthase 1 (TCS1, EC gene plays a crucial role in caffeine biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between the TCS1 and caffeine content of tea plant and its related species using association mapping. We identified 87 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, π = 0.00447) by resequencing the TCS1 locus of 44 tea accessions. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r(2) caffeine content in four environments, explaining 4.0%-7.7% of the phenotypic variance. We also validated the significant marker-trait associations in site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of caffeine biosynthesis. Moreover, the SNP marker identified in this study can potentially be applied for future marker-assisted selection to improve tea quality.

  5. [Erythrocyte cholesterol content in polycythemia vera: relation to ischemic heart disease].

    Torkhovskaia, T I; Khalilov, E M; Gorokhovskaia, G N; Fortinskaia, E S; Soboleva, V V; Kochetova, M M; Nikitina, N A; Martynov, A I


    Relative cholesterol content and its distribution between erythrocytes and plasma were studied in 34 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) both with and without concomitant coronary heart disease (CHD). Deformability of erythrocytes, disturbances of microcirculation (blood flow fragmentation, decrease of capillary density) were also assessed. Erythrocytes cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratios (0.68+/-0.03) in patients was lower than normal value (0.8) in spite of decreased cell deformability. This was associated with some increase of peroxidation products. Blood cholesterol distribution between cell and plasma species had some peculiarities caused by high hematocrit: compared with normal value erythrocytes of patients carried relatively larger portion of total blood cholesterol (23.7+/-0.8% and 27-31%, respectively). However in CHD patients these values were significantly lower with correspondent increase of plasma cholesterol quota. This allowed to suggest possible protective role of blood cholesterol redistribution in polycythemia patients, through erythrocytes trafficking of some part of plasma cholesterol.

  6. [The relation between the contents of "Yamaizoushi" picture scrolls and Goshirakawa Houou's thought].

    Koyama, Satoko


    "Yamaizoushi," depicting the "human way" of reincarnation in Buddhism, was ordered by Goshirakawa Houou in the latter half of the 12C. This paper deals with the relation between the contents of "Yamaizoushi" and Goshirakawa Houou's thought. While earlier literature about "Yamaizoushi" emphasized its religious aspects, this paper suggests that "Yamaizoushi" actually lacks a sense of religion, because the accompanying texts are not related to any sutra, and the pictures are mocking sick people. The paper argues that these features originate from Goshirakawa Houou's discriminative feelings towards the sick, which were actually typical for that time. The lack of sympathy may also be due to the fact that, as a noble, he hadn't really experienced any hardships of human existence himself. In ordering such a scroll, Goshirakawa Houou was hunting for the bizarre. The paper claims these are the reasons why the "Yamaizoushi" picture scroll is so different from any other paintings depicting the "human way".

  7. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, and related lipid droplets

    Ollila, O H Samuli; Lamberg, Antti; Lehtivaara, Maria; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    .... Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface...

  8. Content Analysis of Diet-Related Mobile Apps: A Self-Regulation Perspective.

    Zahry, Nagwan R; Cheng, Ying; Peng, Wei


    Diet-related mobile apps hold promise in helping individuals self-regulate their eating behaviors. Nevertheless, little is known about the extent to which diet-related mobile apps incorporate the established behavior change theories and evidence-based practices that promote dietary self-regulation. Guided by the self-regulation aspect of Bandura's social cognitive theory and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this study conducts a content analysis of diet-related mobile apps for iPhone (N = 400). In terms of the adherence to the self-regulation aspect of the social cognitive theory, results show that although 72.5% of the apps incorporate at least one theoretical construct, few apps tap all three processes of self-regulation (i.e., self-observation/monitoring, judgment process, and self-reaction). Additionally, outcome expectation is manifested in a majority of the diet-related apps. In terms of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, while the diet-related apps equally emphasize setting goals for calorie intake or nutrient consumption, more apps feature nutrient tracking than calorie tracking. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  9. Pronounced limb and fibre type differences in subcellular lipid droplet content and distribution in elite skiers before and after exhaustive exercise

    Koh, Han-Chow E; Nielsen, Joachim; Saltin, Bengt


    was 53% lower (P = 0.0082) in both fibre types in arm, but not leg muscles. This reduction was positively associated with the corresponding volume fraction prior to exercise (R(2) = 0.84, P detected. These findings indicate clear...... differences in the subcellular distribution of lipid droplets in the type 1 and 2 fibres of well-trained arm and leg muscles, as well as preferential utilisation of the intermyofibrillar pool during prolonged exhaustive exercise. Apparently, the metabolism of lipid droplets within a muscle fibre......Although the intramyocellular lipid pool is an important energy store during prolonged exercise, our knowledge concerning its metabolism is still incomplete. Here, quantitative electron microscopy was used to examine subcellular distribution of lipid droplets in type 1 and 2 fibres of the arm...

  10. Lipids and lipid binding proteins: a perfect match.

    Glatz, Jan F C


    Lipids serve a great variety of functions, ranging from structural components of biological membranes to signaling molecules affecting various cellular functions. Several of these functions are related to the unique physico-chemical properties shared by all lipid species, i.e., their hydrophobicity. The latter, however, is accompanied by a poor solubility in an aqueous environment and thus a severe limitation in the transport of lipids in aqueous compartments such as blood plasma and the cellular soluble cytoplasm. Specific proteins which can reversibly and non-covalently associate with lipids, designated as lipid binding proteins or lipid chaperones, greatly enhance the aqueous solubility of lipids and facilitate their transport between tissues and within tissue cells. Importantly, transport of lipids across biological membranes also is facilitated by specific (membrane-associated) lipid binding proteins. Together, these lipid binding proteins determine the bio-availability of their ligands, and thereby markedly influence the subsequent processing, utilization, or signaling effect of lipids. The bio-availability of specific lipid species thus is governed by the presence of specific lipid binding proteins, the affinity of these proteins for distinct lipid species, and the presence of competing ligands (including pharmaceutical compounds). Recent studies suggest that post-translational modifications of lipid binding proteins may have great impact on lipid-protein interactions. As a result, several levels of regulation exist that together determine the bio-availability of lipid species. This short review discusses the significance of lipid binding proteins and their potential application as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Increases in synthetic cannabinoids-related harms: Results from a longitudinal web-based content analysis.

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Barratt, Monica J; Smith, Alan G; Sheth, Amit; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G


    Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRA), also known as "K2" or "Spice," have drawn considerable attention due to their potential of abuse and harmful consequences. More research is needed to understand user experiences of SCRA-related effects. We use semi-automated information processing techniques through eDrugTrends platform to examine SCRA-related effects and their variations through a longitudinal content analysis of web-forum data. English language posts from three drug-focused web-forums were extracted and analyzed between January 1st 2008 and September 30th 2015. Search terms are based on the Drug Use Ontology (DAO) created for this study (189 SCRA-related and 501 effect-related terms). EDrugTrends NLP-based text processing tools were used to extract posts mentioning SCRA and their effects. Generalized linear regression was used to fit restricted cubic spline functions of time to test whether the proportion of drug-related posts that mention SCRA (and no other drug) and the proportion of these "SCRA-only" posts that mention SCRA effects have changed over time, with an adjustment for multiple testing. 19,052 SCRA-related posts (Bluelight (n=2782), Forum A (n=3882), and Forum B (n=12,388)) posted by 2543 international users were extracted. The most frequently mentioned effects were "getting high" (44.0%), "hallucinations" (10.8%), and "anxiety" (10.2%). The frequency of SCRA-only posts declined steadily over the study period. The proportions of SCRA-only posts mentioning positive effects (e.g., "High" and "Euphoria") steadily decreased, while the proportions of SCRA-only posts mentioning negative effects (e.g., "Anxiety," 'Nausea," "Overdose") increased over the same period. This study's findings indicate that the proportion of negative effects mentioned in web forum posts and linked to SCRA has increased over time, suggesting that recent generations of SCRA generate more harms. This is also one of the first studies to conduct automated content analysis

  12. Lipid hydroperoxides in plants.

    Griffiths, G; Leverentz, M; Silkowski, H; Gill, N; Sánchez-Serrano, J J


    Hydroperoxides are the primary oxygenated products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and were determined spectrophotometrically based on their reaction with an excess of Fe2+ at low pH in the presence of the dye Xylenol Orange. Triphenylphosphine-mediated hydroxide formation was used to authenticate the signal generated by the hydroperoxides. The method readily detected lipid peroxidation in a range of plant tissues including Phaseolus hypocotyls (26 +/- 5 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1); mean +/- S.D.), Alstroemeria floral tissues (sepals, 66+/-13 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1); petals, 49+/-6 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)), potato leaves (334+/-75 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)), broccoli florets (568+/-68 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)) and Chlamydomonas cells (602+/-40 nmol.g of wet weight(-1)). Relative to the total fatty acid content of the tissues, the percentage hydroperoxide content was within the range of 0.6-1.7% for all tissue types (photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic) and represents the basal oxidation level of membrane fatty acids in plant cells. Leaves of transgenic potato with the fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase enzyme expressed in the antisense orientation were elevated by 38%, indicating a role for this enzyme in the maintenance of cellular levels of lipid hydroperoxides.

  13. Content analysis of oncology-related pharmaceutical advertising in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

    Kan Yonemori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oncology market represents one of the largest pharmaceutical markets in any medical field, and printed advertising in medical journals is an important channel by which pharmaceutical companies communicate with healthcare professionals. The aim of the present study was to analyze the volume and content of and trends and changes in oncology-related advertising intended for healthcare professionals in a peer-reviewed medical journal. Information that could be included in advertisements to promote drug development and improve treatment strategies for cancer patients is discussed on the basis of the results of the analysis. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages in a leading oncology medical journal published (by the American Society of Clinical Oncology between January 2005 and December 2009 were analyzed. The advertisements targeting pharmaceuticals and clinical trials, in particular, were reviewed. A total of 6,720 advertisements covering 13,039 pages were included in the analysis. For the years 2005-2009, the percentages of total journal pages dedicated to advertising were 24.0%, 45.7%, 49.8%, 46.8%, and 49.8%, respectively. Package insert information and efficacy and safety explanations appeared in more than 80% of advertisements intended for pharmaceutical promotion. From 2005 to 2009, the overall quantity of drug advertisements decreased by approximately 13%, whereas advertisements calling for the enrollment of patients into registration trials increased by approximately 11%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Throughout the study period, oncology-related pharmaceutical advertisements occupied a considerable number of pages relative to other journal content. The proportion of advertisements on ongoing clinical trials increased progressively throughout the study period.

  14. Ballet-Related Content in Music Education in the First Cycle of Primary Education

    Stergulec Tjaša


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the integration of ballet-related content into music lessons in the first cycle of primary education. It seeks to outline some current findings concerning the positive impact of dance and classical ballet on integrated child development and the results of an empirical research study the objective of which was to compare the ability of primary school pupils aged six to nine years to perform a simple ballet choreography against that of ballet school pupils and to examine pupils’ attitude towards classical ballet. For this end, we prepared additional ballet-related content in 2011 and incorporated it into classroom practice with students attending Fran Korun Koželjski Music School in Velenje and pupils attending the first and the third grades of Franc Rozman Stane Primary School in Maribor. To compare the performance of one and the other we used specific evaluation criteria, while we obtained pupils’ feedback on ballet lessons by means of a short questionnaire. It was established that children did possess the ability as well as the desire to practice classical ballet. The executions of the ballet choreography by both groups were comparable, and the only difference noticed regarded the physical ability, body coordination, and spatial coordination criteria, which were not fully achieved by the primary school pupils. Due to the positive influence of the activity on the integrated development of children and the children’s positive reaction, it is necessary to incorporate as many ballet-related subject matter as possible into music education.

  15. [Filter content after carotid angioplasty and stenting: relation to ischemic lesions in diffusion-weighted imaging].

    Piñero González de la Peña, P; González García, A; Moniche Álvarez, F; Mayol Deyá, A; González Marcos, J R; Cayuela Domínguez, A; Gil Peralta, A


    To evaluate the relation between the material retrieved from distal filters after carotid angioplasty and stenting and the development of ischemic brain lesions in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). To determine the influence of demographic, clinical, and procedural variables in the pathogenesis of emboli and in ischemia after carotid angioplasty and stenting. We submitted the contents of the filters of 76 patients (60 men; mean age, 68.39 years; range, 46-82) who had undergone angioplasty and stenting for severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery for histologic analysis evaluating volume ( 10 λ) and the composition of the particles. All patients underwent DWI before and 24 hours after the procedure; we recorded whether lesions appeared and their number, size, and distribution. We correlated the findings with demographic, clinical, and procedural variables. Symptoms were present before the procedure in 58 (76.3%) patients. Particles were present in 49 (64.5%) of the filters; most particles (77.5%) were 1 λ with a predominance of fibrin-platelet aggregates, cell remnants, and cholesterol crystals. DWI after the procedure detected lesions in 12 (15.8%) patients. We found no statistically significant correlation between filter contents and lesion detection after the procedure or between filter contents and other variables. Ischemia after carotid angioplasty and stenting does not depend solely on the embolic load and its nature. We consider that the lower prevalence of postprocedural lesions in our series compared to others suggests that appropriate patient selection and experience minimize the negative influence of some variables like age in their development. Copyright © 2010 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The glycemic index of pigmented potatoes is related to their polyphenol content.

    Ramdath, D Dan; Padhi, Emily; Hawke, Aileen; Sivaramalingam, Theva; Tsao, Rong


    Polyphenol extracts from coloured fruits and vegetables inhibit α-glucosidase in vitro, however it is not known whether this translates into an attenuation of blood glucose response in vivo. We examined this relationship in a GI study by feeding coloured potatoes to 9 healthy volunteers. We also examined the in vitro inhibitory activity of potato anthocyanin extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Potatoes (Purple Majesty; Red-Y38; Yukon Gold and Snowden) were fed with skin after cooking in a convection oven, using a random block design and 50 g available carbohydrate. Glucose was used as the standard and venous blood collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min. Areas under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin were calculated, and GI and Insulin Index derived. Neither AUC for blood glucose response nor insulin was significantly different among the various potatoes studied. Although the mean GI (±SE) values for the potato types varied (purple = 77.0 ± 9.0; red = 78.0 ± 14.0; yellow = 81.0 ± 16.0; and white = 93.0 ± 17.0), these differences were not significantly different. The mean (±SE) polyphenol content (mg GAE/100 g DW) was 234 ± 28; 190 ± 15; 108 ± 39; 82 ± 1 for purple, red, yellow and white potatoes, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between polyphenol content and GI of the potatoes (r = -0.825; p < 0.05; n = 4). In vitro, polyphenol extracts of red and purple potatoes inhibited α-glucosidase by 37.4 ± 2.2% and 28.7 ± 3.2%, respectively. The GI of coloured potatoes is significantly related to their polyphenol content, possibly mediated through an inhibitory effect of anthocyanins on intestinal α-glucosidase.

  17. Time-related variation of volatile contents of Western Ghats volcanic formations, Deccan, India

    Marzoli, Andrea; Callegaro, Sara; Baker, Don R.; De Min, Angelo; Renne, Paul R.


    Deccan volcanism in India covered more than 1 million square km and reached a maximum thickness of about 3 km, as presently preserved in the Western Ghats volcanic lava piles. Volcanic activity started at about 66.4 Ma (Jawhar formation) and ended at about 65.5 Ma (Mahabaleshwar unit; Renne et al., 2015). Deccan volcanism straddled the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 66.0 Ma) and possibly contributed to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event through emission of gases such as SO2, CO2, Cl, F that may have triggered global climate changes. Severe pollution by volcanic gases is supported by the high S and Cl contents (up to 1400 and up to 900 ppm, respectively; Self et al., 2008) measured in a few olivine- and plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the Jawhar, Neral, and Thakurvadi Formations (early lava flows, ca. 66.3-66.4 ± 0.1 Ma; Renne et al., 2015) and by magmatic S contents (up to 1800 ppm; Callegaro et al., 2014) calculated from S measurements in clinopyroxenes from the Mahabaleshwar unit (ca. 65.5 ± 0.1; Schoene et al., 2015). Here, we present new analyses of S, Cl, and F, obtained by ion-probe and synchrotron light micro-fluorescence analyses on clinopyroxenes and plagioclase phenocrysts from ?al? lava flow units of the Western Ghats. The volatile contents of the host magmas have been calculated from recently published clinopyroxene/basalt partition coefficients. These new data will describe the time-related variation of volatile elements hosted and eventually emitted by Deccan lavas and shed light on their environmental impact. References: Callegaro S. et al. (2014). Geology 42, 895-898. Renne P.R. et al. (2015). Science 350, 76-78. Schoene B. et al. (2015). Science 347, 192-184. Self S. et al. (2008). Science 319, 1654-1657.

  18. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.


    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact ...

  19. Quantification of hormone sensitive lipase phosphorylation and colocalization with lipid droplets in murine 3T3L1 and human subcutaneous adipocytes via automated digital microscopy and high-content analysis.

    McDonough, Patrick M; Ingermanson, Randall S; Loy, Patricia A; Koon, Erick D; Whittaker, Ross; Laris, Casey A; Hilton, Jeffrey M; Nicoll, James B; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Price, Jeffrey H


    Lipolysis in adipocytes is associated with phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and translocation of HSL to lipid droplets. In this study, adipocytes were cultured in a high-throughput format (96-well dishes), exposed to lipolytic agents, and then fixed and labeled for nuclei, lipid droplets, and HSL (or HSL phosphorylated on serine 660 [pHSLser660]). The cells were imaged via automated digital fluorescence microscopy, and high-content analysis (HCA) methods were used to quantify HSL phosphorylation and the degree to which HSL (or pHSLser660) colocalizes with the lipid droplets. HSL:lipid droplet colocalization was quantified through use of Pearson's correlation, Mander's M1 Colocalization, and the Tanimoto coefficient. For murine 3T3L1 adipocytes, isoproterenol, Lys-γ3-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and forskolin elicited the appearance and colocalization of pHSLser660, whereas atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) did not. For human subcutaneous adipocytes, isoproterenol, forskolin, and ANP activated HSL phosphorylation/colocalization, but Lys-γ3-melanocyte stimulating hormone had little or no effect. Since ANP activates guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase, HSL serine 660 is likely a substrate for cGMP-dependent protein kinase in human adipocytes. For both adipocyte model systems, adipocytes with the greatest lipid content displayed the greatest lipolytic responses. The results for pHSLser660 were consistent with release of glycerol by the cells, a well-established assay of lipolysis, and the HCA methods yielded Z' values >0.50. The results illustrate several key differences between human and murine adipocytes and demonstrate advantages of utilizing HCA techniques to study lipolysis in cultured adipocytes.

  20. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone


    3294 men and women aged 18-69 years from a general population based study in Copenhagen, Denmark. Estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was calculated by measurements of creatinine and sodium concentration in spot urine in combination with information of sex, age, height and weight. The relations...

  1. Production of lipids in 10 strains of Chlorella and Parachlorella, and enhanced lipid productivity in Chlorella vulgaris

    Pribyl, Pavel; Cepak, Vladislav [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Algological Centre and Centre for Bioindication and Revitalization; Zachleder, Vilem [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Lab. of the Cell Cycles of Algae


    We tested 10 different Chlorella and Parachlorella strains under lipid induction growth conditions in autotrophic laboratory cultures. Between tested strains, substantial differences in both biomass and lipid productivity as well as in the final content of lipids were found. The most productive strain (Chlorella vulgaris CCALA 256) was subsequently studied in detail. The availability of nitrates and/or phosphates strongly influenced growth and accumulation of lipids in cells by affecting cell division. Nutrient limitation substantially enhanced lipid productivity up to a maximal value of 1.5 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. We also demonstrated the production of lipids through large-scale cultivation of C. vulgaris in a thin layer photobioreactor, even under suboptimal conditions. After 8 days of cultivation, maximal lipid productivity was 0.33 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1}, biomass density was 5.7 g l{sup -1} dry weight and total lipid content was more than 30% dry weight. C. vulgaris lipids comprise fatty acids with a relatively high degree of saturation compared with canola oil offering a possible alternative to the use of higher plant oils. (orig.)

  2. Assessing Electronic Cigarette-Related Tweets for Sentiment and Content Using Supervised Machine Learning.

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Varghese, Arun; Sanders, Amy; Schwarz, Mary; Pugatch, Jillian; Augustson, Erik


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) continue to be a growing topic among social media users, especially on Twitter. The ability to analyze conversations about e-cigarettes in real-time can provide important insight into trends in the public's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding e-cigarettes, and subsequently guide public health interventions. Our aim was to establish a supervised machine learning algorithm to build predictive classification models that assess Twitter data for a range of factors related to e-cigarettes. Manual content analysis was conducted for 17,098 tweets. These tweets were coded for five categories: e-cigarette relevance, sentiment, user description, genre, and theme. Machine learning classification models were then built for each of these five categories, and word groupings (n-grams) were used to define the feature space for each classifier. Predictive performance scores for classification models indicated that the models correctly labeled the tweets with the appropriate variables between 68.40% and 99.34% of the time, and the percentage of maximum possible improvement over a random baseline that was achieved by the classification models ranged from 41.59% to 80.62%. Classifiers with the highest performance scores that also achieved the highest percentage of the maximum possible improvement over a random baseline were Policy/Government (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 80.62%), Relevance (performance: 0.94; % improvement: 75.26%), Ad or Promotion (performance: 0.89; % improvement: 72.69%), and Marketing (performance: 0.91; % improvement: 72.56%). The most appropriate word-grouping unit (n-gram) was 1 for the majority of classifiers. Performance continued to marginally increase with the size of the training dataset of manually annotated data, but eventually leveled off. Even at low dataset sizes of 4000 observations, performance characteristics were fairly sound. Social media outlets like Twitter can uncover real-time snapshots of

  3. Relation between obesity and the attainment of optimal blood pressure and lipid targets in high vascular risk outpatients.

    Bhan, Vineet; Yan, Raymond T; Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Langer, Anatoly; Lonn, Eva; Tan, Mary; Silagy, Stewart; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Andrew T


    Obesity is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, but it is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We sought to evaluate the differences in treatment patterns and attainment of guideline-recommended targets among high-risk vascular outpatients in relation to their body mass index (BMI). The prospective Vascular Protection and Guideline Orientated Approach to Lipid Lowering Registries recruited 7,357 high-risk vascular outpatients in Canada from 2001 to 2004. We stratified the patient population into 3 groups according to their BMI: normal weight (BMI 30 kg/m²). We evaluated the rates of attainment for contemporary guideline targets of blood pressure (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] ratio blood pressure, TC, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels and TC/HDL ratio, and lower HDL cholesterol. Obese patients were more likely to be treated with antihypertensive agents (p = 0.002), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p = 0.024), angiotensin receptor blockers (p high-dose statin therapy (p = 0.001). On multivariable analyses, obese patients were less likely to attain the blood pressure (odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.90, p = 0.001) and TC/HDL ratio (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.55, p high cardiovascular risk achieved both guideline-recommended blood pressure and lipid targets, and this significant treatment gap was more pronounced among obese patients. Our findings underscore the opportunity to optimize the treatment of these high-risk patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of CO2 concentration on growth, lipid accumulation, and carbon-concentrating-mechanism-related gene expression in oleaginous Chlorella.

    Fan, Jianhua; Xu, Hui; Luo, Yuanchan; Wan, Minxi; Huang, Jianke; Wang, Weiliang; Li, Yuanguang


    Biodiesel production by microalgae with photosynthetic CO2 biofixation is thought to be a feasible way in the field of bioenergy and carbon emission reduction. Knowledge of the carbon-concentrating mechanism plays an important role in improving microalgae carbon fixation efficiency. However, little information is available regarding the dramatic changes of cells suffered upon different environmental factors, such as CO2 concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth, lipid accumulation, carbon fixation rate, and carbon metabolism gene expression under different CO2 concentrations in oleaginous Chlorella. It was found that Chlorella pyrenoidosa grew well under CO2 concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 %. The highest biomass and lipid productivity were 4.3 g/L and 107 mg/L/day under 5 % CO2 condition. Switch from high (5 %) to low (0.03 %, air) CO2 concentration showed significant inhibitory effect on growth and CO2 fixation rate. The amount of the saturated fatty acids was increased obviously along with the transition. Low CO2 concentration (0.03 %) was suitable for the accumulation of saturated fatty acids. Reducing the CO2 concentration could significantly decrease the polyunsaturated degree in fatty acids. Moreover, the carbon-concentrating mechanism-related gene expression revealed that most of them, especially CAH2, LCIB, and HLA3, had remarkable change after 1, 4, and 24 h of the transition, which suggests that Chlorella has similar carbon-concentrating mechanism with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The findings of the present study revealed that C. pyrenoidosa is an ideal candidate for mitigating CO2 and biodiesel production and is appropriate as a model for mechanism research of carbon sequestration.

  5. 布朗葡萄藻脂质含量的荧光光谱检测方法的改进%Improved fluorescence spectrometric determination of lipid content in Botryococcus braunii

    刘新颖; 汪志平; 于金鑫; 吕蓓芬; 马丽芳; 陈子元


    Botryococcus braunii is a unique colonial green microalga and a great potential renewable resource of liquid fuel because of its ability to produce lipids. Due to the dense cell colonies and rigidly thick cell wall of B. braunii, the traditional Nile red method is usually of low sensitivity and bad repeatability and hard for the determination of lipid content in the cells. By dispersing the colony with ultrasonic, assisting permeation of Nile red across the cell wall with dimethyl sulfoxide and optimizing the staining conditions, we established an improved detection method. The details were as follows: after the colonial algal sample was treated by ultrasonic at 20 kHz for 20 s, 100 W transmitting power and with 1 s on/1 s off intermittent cycle, the equivoluminal 15% (V/V) dimethyl sulfoxide and 3 ng/mL Nile red were successively added and mixed evenly, then the staining system was incubated in dark at 40 ℃ for 10 min, and subsequently was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy detection with an excitation wavelength of 490 nm. Compared with the traditional method, the improved one not only had higher detection sensitivity which was increased by 196.6%, but also had obviously better detection repeatability whose characteristic parameter - relative standard deviation (RSD) was decreased from 10.91% to 1.84%. Therefore, the improved method could provide a rapid and sensitive detection of lipid content for B. braunii breeding and cultivation.%布朗葡萄藻是一种含脂量高、开发潜力大的能源微藻,但因其细胞呈集落态且胞壁较坚厚,应用传统的尼罗红荧光光谱法测定其脂质含量时,通常因灵敏度低、重复性差而难以获得可靠结果.本研究通过超声波分散集落、二甲基亚砜辅助尼罗红进入细胞、优化染色条件,有效地解决了上述问题.具体方法为:藻液先经频率为20 kHz、发射功率为100 W的超声波按1 s/1 s(开/关)间歇处理20 s使细胞分散,而后依

  6. Triterpenoid saponin content and the expression level of some related genes in calli of Centella asiatica.

    Mangas, Susana; Moyano, Elisabeth; Osuna, Lidia; Cusido, Rosa M; Bonfill, Mercedes; Palazón, Javier


    Centella asiatica has been extensively studied but there has been no report to date that relates gene expression and centelloside production in non-differentiated tissues. We have determined the content of the four principal triterpenoid bioactive compounds of C. asiatica (asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid) in calli grown in different media and checked the expression level of some of the genes in the centelloside biosynthetic pathway. The results when compared with data from in vitro plant cultures showed a significantly lower expression of the gene encoding beta-amyrin synthase in calli, which is consistent with the observed lower production of centellosides (less than 900 microg/g DW), while in the plants the production was around 1.5-2 mg/g DW. Moreover, we find an efficient housekeeping gene for this plant. The biosynthesis of phytosterols is also discussed.

  7. A Content Analysis on Management and Terms related with Management in the Quran

    Kürşat ÖZDAŞLI


    Full Text Available Guidelines and principles feeding the system of belief have the power of diverting behaviors of an individual included in that system as well as being able to affect the management style of managers. Therefore, use of the term of management by basic sources of Islamic belief and which other sources it refers to along with the term of management will be helpful in understanding the holistic message given in terms of management in Islamic style, and approaching from a different aspect to the management literature. This study aims to reveal characteristics of management and related terms in basic Islamic sources, and with which words and in what aspects they are associated and used, and to see the perception of the religion of Islam on management. The content analysis conducted in this context included examination of the verses containing the terms of management, administration, leader, directing and steering

  8. Predictors of "Liking" Three Types of Health and Fitness-Related Content on Social Media: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Lim, Megan S C


    Adolescence and young adulthood are key periods for developing norms related to health behaviors and body image, and social media can influence these norms. Social media is saturated with content related to dieting, fitness, and health. Health and fitness-related social media content has received significant media attention for often containing objectifying and inaccurate health messages. Limited research has identified problematic features of such content, including stigmatizing language around weight, portraying guilt-related messages regarding food, and praising thinness. However, no research has identified who is "liking" or "following" (ie, consuming) such content. This exploratory study aimed to identify demographics, mental health, and substance use-related behaviors that predicted consuming 3 types of health and fitness-related social media content-weight loss/fitness motivation pages (ie, "fitspiration"), detox/cleanse pages, and diet/fitness plan pages-among young social media users. Participants (N=1001; age: median 21.06, IQR 17.64-24.64; female: 723/1001, 72.23%) completed a cross-sectional 112-question online survey aimed at social media users aged between 15-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia. Logistic regression was used to determine which characteristics predicted consuming the 3 types of health and fitness-related social media content. A total of 378 (37.76%) participants reported consuming at least 1 of the 3 types of health and fitness-related social media content: 308 (30.77%) fitspiration pages, 145 (14.49%) detox pages, and 235 (23.48%) diet/fitness plan pages. Of the health and fitness-related social media content consumers, 85.7% (324/378) identified as female and 44.8% (324/723) of all female participants consumed at least 1 type of health and fitness-related social media content. Predictors of consuming at least one type of health and fitness-related social media content in univariable analysis included female gender (OR 3.5, 95% CI

  9. Heavy Metal Content in Chinese Vegetable Plantation Land Soils and Related Source Analysis

    ZENG Xi-bai; LI Lian-fang; MEI Xu-rong


    According to the previous literature published since 1989,statistical analysis for reported data on the heavy metals in Chinese vegetable plantation soils was carried out systematically in this article.The purpose of this investigation was to study the status of heavy metal content in vegetable land soils systematically through objective assessment to promote the development of vegetable production with high quality and efficiency.It is concluded that Zn,Cr,Cu had relatively high concentrations while the mean concentrations of toxic metals,As,Hg,Cd were 8.03,0.12,0.28 mg kg-1,respectively with comparatively low concentrations in Chinese vegetable land.Comparing to Chinese Soil Quality Criterion GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5),about 24.1,10.3,and 9.2% of the total samples was contaminated by Cd,Hg,and As,respectively,and the descending order of heavy metals was Cd > Hg > As > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb.When compared among different regions,the more serious heavy metal contamination was found in the vegetable land of eastern China and the main contamination elements were Cd,Hg,and Zn.In the mid region,vegetable plantation land soil was mainly polluted by As and Cd,as well as by Hg,Zn,and Cu,to some extent.In the west region of China,Cd and As contamination was also observed to some degree,along with few soil samples exceeding the grade H level of GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5) for Cu,Cr,and Hg content.Compared to the five vegetable plantation land patterns,the highest concentration of As,Cd,Hg,and Zn occurred in the industrial/sewage irrigation vegetable land,especially for Hg with 2.36 mg kg-1 content averagely,which is 10.5-21.1 times higher than the other four types of vegetable lands.The highest concentration of Cu and Cr occurred in the greenhouse vegetable land soils,and urban vegetable land soil had the highest Pb content in comparison with the other types of vegetable plantation land patterns.By analyzing heavy metal content under different

  10. Expression profile of hepatic genes related to lipid homeostasis in LSR heterozygous mice contributes to their increased response to high-fat diet.

    Akbar, Samina; Pinçon, Anthony; Lanhers, Marie-Claire; Claudepierre, Thomas; Corbier, Catherine; Gregory-Pauron, Lynn; Malaplate-Armand, Catherine; Visvikis, Athanase; Oster, Thierry; Yen, Frances T


    Perturbations of lipid homeostasis manifest as dyslipidemias and obesity, which are significant risk factors for atherosclerosis and diabetes. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver are key players in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, among which the hepatic lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor, LSR, was recently shown to play an important role in the removal of lipoproteins from the circulation during the postprandial phase. Since heterozygous LSR+/- mice demonstrate moderate dyslipidemia and develop higher body weight gain in response to high-fat diet compared with littermate LSR+/+ controls, we questioned if LSR heterozygosity could affect genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism. A target-specific qPCR array for 84 genes related to lipid metabolism was performed on mRNA isolated from livers of 6 mo old female LSR+/- mice and LSR+/+ littermates following a 6 wk period on a standard (STD) or high-fat diet (60% kcal, HFD). Of the 84 genes studied, 32 were significantly downregulated in STD-LSR+/- mice compared with STD-LSR+/+, a majority of which were PPARα target genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and insulin and adipokine-signaling pathways. Of these 32 genes, 80% were also modified in HFD-LSR+/+, suggesting that STD-LSR+/- mice demonstrated a predisposition towards a "high-fat"-like profile, which could reflect dysregulation of liver lipid homeostasis. Since similar profiles of genes were affected by either LSR heterozygosity or by high-fat diet, this would suggest that LSR is a key receptor in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis, and whose downregulation combined with a Western-type diet may increase predisposition to diet-induced obesity.

  11. Identification of genes related to intramuscular fat content of pig using genome-wide association study.

    Won, Sohyoung; Jung, Jaehoon; Park, Eungwoo; Kim, H B


    The aim of this study is to identify SNPs and genes related to pig IMF and estimate the heritability of IMF. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 704 inbred Berkshires was performed for intramuscular fat content (IMF). To consider the inbreeding among samples, associations of the SNPs with IMF were tested as random effects in a mixed linear model using the genetic relationship matrix by GEMMA. Significant genes were compared with reported pig IMF QTL regions and functional classification of the identified genes were also performed. Heritability of IMF was estimated by GCTA tool. Total 365 SNPs were found to be significant from a cutoff of p-value IMF QTL regions. BMPER, FOXO1, EDAR, RNF149, CD40, PTPN1, SOX9, MYC, MIF were related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which regulates the differentiation to adipocytes. These genes and the genes mapped on QTLs could be the candidate genes affecting IMF. Heritability of IMF was estimated as 0.52, which was relatively high, suggesting that a considerable portion of the total variance of IMF is explained by the SNP information. Our results can contribute to breeding pig with better IMF and therefore, producing pork with better sensory qualities.

  12. A review of the content and format of transgender-related webpages.

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy A; Bockting, Walter


    Transgender persons represent a highly diverse group of individuals who have been historically underserved, despite being disproportionately at risk for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and other health conditions. Despite the need for more research on transgender health issues, no review of online transgender-related resources has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to broadly characterize (1) the types of transgender-related webpages that appear as a result of keyword searches, and (2) the extent to which webpages differ in content and format depending on whether the intended audience for the webpage was transgender individuals, health professionals, or the general population. An online search using 28 keywords yielded 204 eligible webpages, of which 58% targeted transgendered individuals, 23% targeted health professionals, and 39% targeted the general public. The highest percentage of webpages appeared to be operated and/or created by transgender individuals or groups (46%), followed by for-profit businesses (17%). The majority of mental health (80%), HIV-related (89%), and primary care (100%) webpages targeted health professionals. Although various features are available that may increase user interest in and perceived credibility of a webpage, the results show that many of these features were underutilized. There appears to be significant opportunity to develop web resources that directly target unique subgroups within the transgender community to improve their health outcomes, increase the visibility of features that increase user interest and perceived credibility of webpages, and possibly train transgender individuals to seek relevant online information.

  13. Transcriptomic profiling in muscle and adipose tissue identifies genes related to growth and lipid deposition.

    Tao, Xuan; Liang, Yan; Yang, Xuemei; Pang, Jianhui; Zhong, Zhijun; Chen, Xiaohui; Yang, Yuekui; Zeng, Kai; Kang, Runming; Lei, Yunfeng; Ying, Sancheng; Gong, Jianjun; Gu, Yiren; Lv, Xuebin


    Growth performance and meat quality are important traits for the pig industry and consumers. Adipose tissue is the main site at which fat storage and fatty acid synthesis occur. Therefore, we combined high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing in adipose and muscle tissues with the quantification of corresponding phenotypic features using seven Chinese indigenous pig breeds and one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire). We obtained data on 101 phenotypic traits, from which principal component analysis distinguished two groups: one associated with the Chinese breeds and one with Yorkshire. The numbers of differentially expressed genes between all Chinese breeds and Yorkshire were shown to be 673 and 1056 in adipose and muscle tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes are associated with biological functions and canonical pathways related to oxidoreductase activity, immune response, and metabolic process. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis found more coexpression modules significantly correlated with the measured phenotypic traits in adipose than in muscle, indicating that adipose regulates meat and carcass quality. Using the combination of differential expression, QTL information, gene significance, and module hub genes, we identified a large number of candidate genes potentially related to economically important traits in pig, which should help us improve meat production and quality.


    沈菁; 常小荣; 严洁; 曹湘萍; 岳增辉


    Objective: To observe effects of herbal cake-separated moxibustion on blood lipids, including total cholesterol (TCh), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-Ch (HDL-Ch), low density lipoprotein-Ch (LDL-Ch), apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) contents and analyse its mechanism. Methods: The hyperlipemia rabbit model was established by breeding of high fat forage and injection of bovine serum albumin. They were treated respectively by continuously for 40 days. Blood TCh and TG contents were detected with enzymatic method, LDL-Ch and HDL-Ch with colorimetric method, Apo A and Apo B with electrophoretic method, and TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α with radioimmunoassay. Results: Both the herbal cake-separated moxibustion and direct moxibustion could effectively decrease TCh, TG, LDL-Ch, Apo B and TXB2 contents and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α, and increase HDL-CH and 6-keto-PGF1α contents in the rabbit of hyperlipemia. Conclusion: 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 are possibly involved in the mechanism of herbal cake-separated moxibustion decreasing blood lipids.

  15. Effects of two-months balanced diet in metabolically healthy obesity: lipid correlations with gender and BMI-related differences.

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Chaterine; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Montorfano, Gigliola; Roderi, Paola; Colombo, Irma; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Fioravanti, Marisa; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria


    Nowadays no researches has been performed on fatty acid profile (FA) and desaturase activity in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The aim of this study was to assessed gender and BMI-related difference in FA, estimated desaturase activities and the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by 2-months well-balance diet in MHO subjects. In 103 MHO subjects (30/73 M/F; age:42.2 ± 9.5) FA, estimated desaturase activity, body composition (by DXA), Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, grelin, glucagon-like peptide-1), insulin resistence (by Homestasis metabolic assessment), C-reactive proteine, Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) have been assessed. Gender and BMI related difference have been evaluated and the efficacy produced by 2-months well-balance diet has been considered. At baseline, obese subjects, compared to overweight, show a significantly higher oleic (p diet was associated with a significantly increase in arachidonic acid (p = 0.007), eicosapentaenoic acid (p = 0.030), docosahexaenoic acid (p diet intervention was effective in improving metabolic indices.

  16. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi


    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  17. Lipid diffusion and swelling in a phase separated biocompatible thermoplastic elastomer.

    Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R


    Lipid uptake was analyzed via gravimetric measurements in a biocompatible poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) (SIBS) copolymer. Absorption followed Fickian diffusion behavior very closely, although some deviation was noticed once saturation was reached. Diffusion parameters of three different SIBS formulations were calculated and used to predict the behavior of a fourth type based on molecular weight and relative polystyrene content. SIBS with lower polystyrene content and molecular weight showed lower physical stability and developed surface cracks that propagated with exposure to the lipid medium. Saturation lipid content varied from 45% to 63% by weight and was inversely related to polystyrene content, suggesting most of the plasticization is occurring in the isobutylene phase of SIBS. Moreover, swelling of specimens was monitored throughout the immersion in the lipid medium and ranged from 32% to 58%. Swelling in formulations with lower hard phase (polystyrene) was significantly higher than the swelling in SIBS with higher hard phase content. This is consistent with lipid-induced plasticization occurring in the soft (polyisobutylene) segments, relaxing the polymer network and leading to increased swelling and lipid uptake. The biocompatibility and tailorability of SIBS through control of hard/soft phase ratio offer significant advantages for in vivo applications. However, the lipophilic nature of the material and the associated degradation may render the polymer unusable in certain applications. The predictive model of lipid uptake introduced here will allow more accurate evaluation of lipid susceptibility during the preliminary design phase of SIBS-based in vivo structures.

  18. Metabolomics as a functional genomic tool for understanding lipid dysfunction in diabetes, obesity and related disorders.

    Griffin, Julian L; Nicholls, Andrew W


    With the rise of systems biology, a number of approaches have been developed to globally profile a tier of organization in a cell, tissue or organism. Metabolomics is an approach that attempts to profile all the metabolites in a biological matrix. One of the major challenges of this approach, as with other 'omic' technologies, is that the metabolome is context-dependent and will vary with pathology, developmental stage and environmental factors. Thus, the possibility of globally profiling the metabolome of an organism is a genuine analytical challenge, as by definition this must also take into consideration all relevant factors that influence metabolism. Despite these challenges, the approach has already been applied to understand the metabolism in a range of animal models, and has more recently started to be projected into the clinical situation. In this review, the technologies currently being used in metabolomics will be assessed prior to examining their use to study diseases related to the metabolic syndrome, including Type II diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and fatty liver disease.

  19. What Are Health-Related Users Tweeting? A Qualitative Content Analysis of Health-Related Users and Their Messages on Twitter

    DeCamp, Matthew; Dredze, Mark; Chisolm, Margaret S; Berger, Zackary D


    Background Twitter is home to many health professionals who send messages about a variety of health-related topics. Amid concerns about physicians posting inappropriate content online, more in-depth knowledge about these messages is needed to understand health professionals’ behavior on Twitter. Objective Our goal was to characterize the content of Twitter messages, specifically focusing on health professionals and their tweets relating to health. Methods We performed an in-depth content analysis of 700 tweets. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on tweets by health users on Twitter. The primary objective was to describe the general type of content (ie, health-related versus non-health related) on Twitter authored by health professionals and further to describe health-related tweets on the basis of the type of statement made. Specific attention was given to whether a tweet was personal (as opposed to professional) or made a claim that users would expect to be supported by some level of medical evidence (ie, a “testable” claim). A secondary objective was to compare content types among different users, including patients, physicians, nurses, health care organizations, and others. Results Health-related users are posting a wide range of content on Twitter. Among health-related tweets, 53.2% (184/346) contained a testable claim. Of health-related tweets by providers, 17.6% (61/346) were personal in nature; 61% (59/96) made testable statements. While organizations and businesses use Twitter to promote their services and products, patient advocates are using this tool to share their personal experiences with health. Conclusions Twitter users in health-related fields tweet about both testable claims and personal experiences. Future work should assess the relationship between testable tweets and the actual level of evidence supporting them, including how Twitter users—especially patients—interpret the content of tweets posted by health providers. PMID

  20. What are health-related users tweeting? A qualitative content analysis of health-related users and their messages on twitter.

    Lee, Joy L; DeCamp, Matthew; Dredze, Mark; Chisolm, Margaret S; Berger, Zackary D


    Twitter is home to many health professionals who send messages about a variety of health-related topics. Amid concerns about physicians posting inappropriate content online, more in-depth knowledge about these messages is needed to understand health professionals' behavior on Twitter. Our goal was to characterize the content of Twitter messages, specifically focusing on health professionals and their tweets relating to health. We performed an in-depth content analysis of 700 tweets. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on tweets by health users on Twitter. The primary objective was to describe the general type of content (ie, health-related versus non-health related) on Twitter authored by health professionals and further to describe health-related tweets on the basis of the type of statement made. Specific attention was given to whether a tweet was personal (as opposed to professional) or made a claim that users would expect to be supported by some level of medical evidence (ie, a "testable" claim). A secondary objective was to compare content types among different users, including patients, physicians, nurses, health care organizations, and others. Health-related users are posting a wide range of content on Twitter. Among health-related tweets, 53.2% (184/346) contained a testable claim. Of health-related tweets by providers, 17.6% (61/346) were personal in nature; 61% (59/96) made testable statements. While organizations and businesses use Twitter to promote their services and products, patient advocates are using this tool to share their personal experiences with health. Twitter users in health-related fields tweet about both testable claims and personal experiences. Future work should assess the relationship between testable tweets and the actual level of evidence supporting them, including how Twitter users-especially patients-interpret the content of tweets posted by health providers.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich tea plant, Camellia oleifera, reveals candidate genes related to lipid metabolism.

    En-Hua Xia

    Full Text Available Rapidly driven by the need for developing sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids and the rising concerns about environmental impacts after using fossil oil, oil-plants have received increasing awareness nowadays. As an important oil-rich plant in China, Camellia oleifera has played a vital role in providing nutritional applications, biofuel productions and chemical feedstocks. However, the lack of C. oleifera genome sequences and little genetic information have largely hampered the urgent needs for efficient utilization of the abundant germplasms towards modern breeding efforts of this woody oil-plant.Here, using the 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform, we generated approximately 600,000 RNA-Seq reads from four tissues of C. oleifera. These reads were trimmed and assembled into 104,842 non-redundant putative transcripts with a total length of ∼38.9 Mb, representing more than 218-fold of all the C. oleifera sequences currently deposited in the GenBank (as of March 2014. Based on the BLAST similarity searches, nearly 42.6% transcripts could be annotated with known genes, conserved domains, or Gene Ontology (GO terms. Comparisons with the cultivated tea tree, C. sinensis, identified 3,022 pairs of orthologs, of which 211 exhibited the evidence under positive selection. Pathway analysis detected the majority of genes potentially related to lipid metabolism. Evolutionary analysis of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2 genes among 20 oil-plants unexpectedly suggests that a parallel evolution may occur between C. oleifera and Olea oleifera. Additionally, more than 2,300 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 20,200 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the C. oleifera transcriptome.The generated transcriptome represents a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in the public databases, providing an unprecedented opportunity to discover all related-genes associated with lipid metabolic pathway in C

  2. Forage fish quality: seasonal lipid dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    Røjbek, Maria; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    This study investigates lipid content and fatty acid composition of two important forage fish, sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Seasonal variation in lipids was studied during three periods following the annual reproductive cycle considering...... potential differences relating to fish size, sex, and reproductive status. The isopod Saduria entomon, being at times an important prey for predatory fish, was included for comparison. In both sprat and herring, lipid content and absolute contents of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) varied...... seasonally with high levelstowards the end of the annual zooplankton production cycle, succeeded by a decline. Lipid content and fatty acid composition differed significantly between sprat and herring. Sprat lipid content was higher than herring, increasing with fish size and characterized by large...

  3. Social Scientists on Ethnic Relations in Croatia after 1989: Content Analysis of an Annotated Bibliography

    Árpád Baráth


    Full Text Available The article presents the main results of qualitative analysis of an annotated bibliography on ethnic relations in Croatia after 1989, prepared by the CEU, South-Eastern European Studies Department (Budapest. The bibliography was a selected sample of academic literature published, with few exceptions, by Croatian social and political scientists between 1989 and 1998. Five major classification criteria were found that “best” describe the mainstream of academic interest in-, and for Croatia during the past decade. These are issues dealing with: (1 ethnic identity, (2 nationalism & ethnic conflicts, (3 war & related human catastrophes, (4 human, ethnic & minority rights, (5 multiculturalism & democracy. The content analysis of abstracts and listed key words uncovered a significant shift of interest of Croatian scholars during the past 10 years from issues on ethnic identity & conflicts toward issues of multiculturalism & human rights. With the exception of few titles, the reviewer found the annotated bibliography complete with customary library search data, representative for a wide range of disciplines and balanced in selection.

  4. Profiles of relative permittivity and electrical conductivity from unsaturated soil water content models

    Roberta Porretta


    Full Text Available A mathematical model of water diffusion in the vadose zone has been implemented for different types of soil textures in order to determine the soil water content (SWC profiles in dependence of depth and time. From these profiles, obtained for different soils, we derived the characteristic electrical parameters, such as relative permittivity (epsilonr and electrical conductivity (sigma, and their variation in time, employing empirical relations available in the scientific literature. The simulation through mathematical models has been performed taking into account different types of soils characterized by the percentage composition of sand, clay and silt in the textural triangle, which provides some physical and chemical properties that affect the water retention in the soil. The resulting simulated profiles of SWC and consequently permittivity and conductivity profiles, span over a certain range of values suggesting the best techniques and the limits in geophysical investigation. Moreover this a-prior knowledge helps in the elaboration and interpretation of permittivity and conductivity data obtained by the measurements. Permittivity and conductivity profiles are particularly useful in some environmental applications when the soil textures are (or supposed to be known as in the typical case of landfill leachate dispersion. Since the soil textures beneath or nearby a disposal waste are characterized by a SWC, the values of (epsilonr and (sigma at various depth can be directly inferred.

  5. Measurement of the Relative Free Radical Content of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin

    Issouf Fofana


    Full Text Available Oil/paper insulation degradation in transformers involves chemical and physical changes in the materials. Some of the chemical reactions involve very reactive intermediates called free radicals. Free radicals play a major role in a wide variety of ageing processes. The detection of these reactive species in oil may, in principle, provide useful information for monitoring oil degradation. This manuscript details a laboratory technique, which determines the relative content of free radicals in insulating oils of petroleum origin by a spectrophotometric method. Free radicals may be formed in oils under operating or test conditions. The procedure enables the determination of the relative concentration of free radicals, which can act as the precursors of decay products such as charge carriers, oxidized molecules, as well as polymerization products. The technique involves using a reactive free radical reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, added to oil to assess free radical concentration. This method is applicable to new, reclaimed, or used oils as well as naturally or artificially oxidized oil (the cause of aging can be chemical, physical, or electrical. In this contribution, free radicals were assessed following electrical discharge application in oil.

  6. An evaluation of low back-pain-related content in Canadian newspaper media.

    Gross, Douglas P; Field, Jasmine; Shanski, Kurt; Ferrari, Robert


    Review of newspaper articles. To assess the content of newspaper articles in 2 provinces in Canada to determine if rest or avoidance of activity is being recommended for back pain. Inaccurate back pain beliefs in the general public may arise due to messages in the mass media. One persisting belief in Canada is that rest or activity avoidance is needed until back pain resolves. We searched newspapers in 2 Canadian provinces via an electronic database for articles discussing back pain. Two trained raters used an article review template to indicate whether the article's main recommendation was to stay active, rest, was neutral (indicating a balance between rest and activity), or did not provide advice on level of activity during an episode of back pain. One hundred 29 articles were identified. The primary advice provided related to level of activity during an episode of back pain was stay active in 24% of articles, whereas no articles primarily recommended rest or avoidance of activity. Sixteen percent of articles were rated as neutral, indicating the authors suggested a balance between rest and activity. Back-pain-related newspaper articles do not carry messages that advocate rest or avoidance of activity, but rather highlight the importance of staying active during an episode or participating in exercise.

  7. When Ideology Meets Conflict-Related Content: Influences on Emotion Generation and Regulation.

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Halperin, Eran; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal


    Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what types of content lead to ideological differences in emotional intensity or whether these content-dependent differences relate to differing preferences for engaging versus disengaging emotion-regulation strategies. We posited that right-left differences in experienced emotional intensity would be context-dependent, emerging mostly in response to depictions of harm to the outgroup, in accordance with the centrality of intergroup attitudes to ideological self-placement in conflict. Study 1 (N = 83) supported this hypothesis, with leftists (vs. rightists) experiencing outgroup harm (but not ingroup harm or conflict-irrelevant harm) with greater emotional intensity. Study 2 (N = 101), which replicated this finding, additionally examined whether behavioral differences in regulatory choice consequently emerge mostly regarding outgroup harm. We tested 2 competing hypotheses as to the nature of these differences: (a) the intensity hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would regulate their intensified reactions to outgroup harm through disengagement-distraction (vs. engagement-reappraisal) due to a documented greater preference for disengaging coping strategies as intensity increases, and (b) the motivation hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would prefer engagement-reappraisal (vs. disengagement-distraction), consistent with leftists' documented greater preference for intergroup empathy. Results exclusively supported the intensity hypothesis, and the significance of both studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Asia Pacific menu patterns in relation to lipid abnormalities: An Indonesian perspective

    Walujo Soerjodibroto


    which is 1.47% of the total energy intake. Although appears to be low, but it has a 157% increase if compared to the same value fifteen years before. Indonesian CHD mortality rate is still relatively low (below 50 per 100,000, however it is only a matter of time that the this value will soon increase in line with the increase of fat (especially animal fat and total energy intakes. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 252-7Keywords: Asia Pacific, Indonesia, menu pattern, energy, protein, fat, animal fat, mortality rate, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease

  9. Identification and validation of seven new loci showing differential DNA methylation related to serum lipid profile: an epigenome-wide approach. The REGICOR study

    Lipid traits (total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DNA methylation is not only an inherited but also modifiable epigenetic mark that has been related to cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to identify loci s...

  10. Effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and related cytokine contents after sevoflurane anesthesia

    Qing-Bo Han


    Objective:To analyze the effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and related cytokine contents after sevoflurane anesthesia.Methods:A total of 118 who received surgical treatment in our hospital all received sevoflurane intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia, and according to the intraoperative application of dexmedetomidine or not, all included patients were divided into observation group and control group by half. Control group received sevoflurane intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia alone, observation group received dexmedetomidine on the basis of intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia, and then differences in the values of hemodynamic parameters, immune function indicators, cognition-related indicators, illness-related indicators and so son were compared between two groups. Results:CVP values of observation group at T2 and T3 were higher than those of control group, and Rv, CO and CI values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+/CD56+ values of observation group at T2 and T3 were higher than those of control group, and TNF-α and IL-1β values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum BDNF, S100β andβ-EP values of observation group immediately after operation were lower than those of control group, and ChAT and NGF values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); serum HIF-1α value of observation group immediately after operation was higher than that of control group, and ALD, NF-κB and sICAM-1 values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Application of dexmedetomidine in sevoflurane anesthesia can protect patients’ cognitive function and stabilize circulation, and contributes to postoperative body function recovery.

  11. A content analysis of health-related advertisements in Islamic Republic of Iran broadcasting (IRIB).

    Etemad, Koorosh; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Azimi, Hassan; Lotfi, Mansoureh; Nojomi, Marzieh


    Media advertisements especially radio and TV are one of the most important and effective ways for health promotion and consumption of healthy productions worldwide. Ministry of Health and some other ministries in Iran agreed to control and restrict the advertising of unhealthy products and services. Therefore, adequate supervision and monitoring should be done in this field. A content analysis of Health-related Advertisements was done in Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) Methods: This study was a cross-sectional research and collecting of data was carried out in 2012. Ten selected TV and radio channels were recorded from 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. for two successive months in the special weekdays. Broadcasted advertisements data were extracted by the trained observers according to a checklist and analyzed using SPSS 18 software and described with descriptive statistics. The percentage of different types of advertising were including 73.9% unrelated to health, 21.9% harmless health related, 2.9% less healthy, 1.3% harmful or harmful with a probability of abuse. Non-harmful to health advertisements included 95.86% of total advertisements out of ten TV and radio channels; and the remained advertisements (4.14%) were related to the harmful, less healthy foodstuff and detrimental services and products. Also, 0.8% of the advertisements were shown during children programs. The main findings of the current study revealed that majority of the advertisements of Islamic Republic Broadcasting were unrelated to health. It seems advertising of harmful for health in IRIB was less than 5%, and the levels of these type ads were less than the other countries. Even so, the policymakers need to pass and enforce some executive and governing law for the prevention of broadcasting unhealthy advertisements to increase the society health level and prevent the diseases resulted from unhealthy products causing the considerable damages in a long time.

  12. Lipid biomarkers for anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulphate reduction in cold seep sediments of Nyegga pockmarks (Norwegian margin): discrepancies in contents and carbon isotope signatures

    Chevalier, N.; Bouloubassi, I.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Taphanel, M.H.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    Distributions and carbon isotopic compositions of microbial lipid biomarkers were investigated in sediment cores from the G11 and G12 pockmarks in the Nyegga sector of the Storegga Slide on the mid-Norwegian margin to explore differences in depth zonation, type and carbon assimilation mode of anaero

  13. Heavy metals content in degraded agricultural soils of a mountain region related to soil properties

    Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Zorpas, Antonis


    Agriculture has been practiced for long time in Mediterranean regions. Intensive agriculture and irrigation have developed mainly in the valleys and coastal areas. In the mountainous areas, dry farming has been practiced for centuries. Soils have been fertilized using mainly organic amendments. Plants extracted nutrients and other elements like heavy metals presented in soils and agricultural practices modified soil properties that could favor the presence of heavy metals. In this work, it has been checked the content of heavy metals in 100 agricultural soils samples of the NorthWest area of the province of Alicante (Spain) which has been long cultivated with cereals and olive trees, and now soils are abandoned and degraded because of the low agricultural yields. European policy has the aim to improve the sustainable agriculture and recover landscapes of mountain regions. So that, it is important to check the state of the soils (Marques et al. 2007). Soils samples (arable layer) were analyzed determining: pH (1:5, w/v, water extract), equivalent calcium carbonate content, organic matter by Walkley-Black method (Nelson and Sommers 1996), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) extracted with DTPA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978) and measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and total content of metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) measured in soil samples after microwave acid digestion (Moral et al. 1996), quantifying the content of metals by ICP analysis. The correlation between soil properties and metals. The results indicated that pH and carbonates are the most important properties of these soils correlated with the metals (both micronutrients and heavy metals). The available micronutrients (all of them) are close correlated with the pH and carbonates in soils. Moreover, heavy metals like Pb and Ni are related to available Mn and Zn. Keywords: pH, carbonates, heavy metals, abandoned soils. References: Lindsay,W.L., andW.A. Norvell. 1978. "Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron

  14. Trans isomeric octadecenoic acids are related inversely to arachidonic acid and DHA and positively related to mead acid in umbilical vessel wall lipids

    Decsi, T; Boehm, G; Tjoonk, HMR; Molnar, S; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Hadders-Algra, M; Martini, IA; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER


    Long-chain PUFA play an important role in early human neurodevelopment. Significant inverse correlations were reported between values of trans isomeric and long-chain PUFA in plasma lipids of preterm infants and children aged 1-15 yr as well as in venous cord blood lipids of full-term infants. Here

  15. High Lipid Induction in Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    Peer M. Schenk


    Full Text Available Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodiesel production without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipid productivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercial production of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions, large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, while species with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Major advances in this area can be made through the induction of lipid biosynthesis, e.g., by environmental stresses. Lipids, in the form of triacylglycerides typically provide a storage function in the cell that enables microalgae to endure adverse environmental conditions. Essentially algal biomass and triacylglycerides compete for photosynthetic assimilate and a reprogramming of physiological pathways is required to stimulate lipid biosynthesis. There has been a wide range of studies carried out to identify and develop efficient lipid induction techniques in microalgae such as nutrients stress (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorus starvation, osmotic stress, radiation, pH, temperature, heavy metals and other chemicals. In addition, several genetic strategies for increased triacylglycerides production and inducibility are currently being developed. In this review, we discuss the potential of lipid induction techniques in microalgae and also their application at commercial scale for the production of biodiesel.

  16. Effect of Cottonseed Meal Fermented with Yeast on the Lipid-related Gene Expression in Broiler Chickens

    CX Nie


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM is widely used in poultry diets in China. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of FCSM on lipid-related gene expression in broilers. Initially, 180 broiler chickens (21-days-old, equal number of males and females were randomly divided into three groups, with six pens per group and 10 birds per pen. The chickens in the control group were fed a diet containing unfermented cottonseed meal, and those in the treatment groups were fed with diets including either CSM fermented by Candida tropicalis (Ct group or CSM fermented by Candida tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae (Ct-Sc group until 64 days old. The results revealed that, compared with the control group (p0.05. Likewise, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-g and LPL in the abdominal fat were not altered by the FCSM-supplemented diets (p>0.05. The results in this study indicate that CSM fermented by Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiaeeffectively regulated the genes involved in fatty acid b-oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in male broiler chickens. Furthermore, the effects of the FCSM-supplemented diets were significantly different between bird sexes and between yeast strains used in the fermentation process.

  17. RNA-Seq analysis of the parietal cortex in Alzheimer's disease reveals alternatively spliced isoforms related to lipid metabolism.

    Mills, James D; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Janitz, Caroline; Merico, Daniele; Hu, Pingzhao; Janitz, Michael


    The parietal cortex of the human brain plays a unique role in the coordination of movement and in the integration of signals from the other cortices. Because of its extensive connections and involvement in many higher-order cognitive functions, neurodegenerative changes in the parietal lobe are believed to be crucial in the early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about the transcriptome of this part of the human brain or how it is perturbed by the neurodegenerative process. To that end, we performed mRNA sequencing using the Illumina RNA-Seq technique on samples derived from normal and AD parietal lobes. Gene expression analysis evaluating alternatively spliced isoform expression and promoter usage revealed surprisingly elevated transcriptome activity in the AD condition. This phenomenon was particularly apparent in the alternative usage of transcriptional start sites. A Gene Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed enrichment in the functional pathways related to lipid metabolism, thus highlighting the importance of astrocyte activity in the neurodegenerative process. We also identified an upregulation of the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) gene in AD, as the result of a splicing switch toward shorter, intron-retaining isoforms driven by alternative promoters and was coupled with a simultaneous decrease in the abundance of protein-coding transcripts. These two DBI isoforms have not been described previously.

  18. Adolescents' Viewing of Suicide-Related Web Content and Psychological Problems: Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement.

    Görzig, Anke


    Possible links of cyberbullying with suicide and psychological problems have recently received considerable attention. Suicide-related behaviors have also been linked with viewing of associated web content. Studies on traditional bullying indicate that the roles of bullying involvement (bullies, victims, and bully-victims) matter in terms of associations with specific suicide-related behaviors and psychological problems. Yet, related research in the area of cyberbullying is lacking. The current study investigates the association of cyberbullying roles with viewing of specific suicide-related web content and psychological problems. Data from N = 19,406 (50 percent girls) 11-16-year-olds (M = 13.54, SD = 1.68) of a representative sample of Internet-using children in Europe were analyzed. Self-reports were obtained for cyberbullying role, viewing of web content related to self-harm, and suicide, as well as the emotional, peer, and conduct problem subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with those not involved in cyberbullying, viewing of web content related to suicide was higher for cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, but not for cyberbullies. Viewing of web content related to self-harm was higher for all cyberbullying roles, especially for cyberbully-victims. Rates of emotional problems were higher among cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, rates of peer problems were higher for cybervictims, and rates of conduct problems were higher for all cyberbullying roles. Moreover, the links between cyberbullying role and viewing of suicide-related web content were independent of psychological problems. The results can be useful to more precisely target efforts toward the specific problems of each cyberbullying role. The outcomes on viewing of web content also indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on Internet platforms.

  19. Relative permeability of fractured wellbore cement: an experimental investigation using electrical resistivity monitoring for moisture content

    Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Strickland, C. E.


    Permeability is a critical parameter needed to understand flow in subsurface environments; it is particularly important in deep subsurface reservoirs where multiphase fluid flow is common, such as carbon sequestration and geothermal reservoirs. Cement is used in the annulus of wellbores due to its low permeable properties to seal aquifers, reducing leaks to adjacent strata. Extreme subsurface environments of CO2 storage and geothermal production conditions will eventually reduce the cement integrity, propagating fracture networks and increasing the permeability for air and/or water. To date, there have been no reproducible experimental investigations of relative permeability in fractured wellbore cement published. To address this gap, we conducted a series of experiments using fractured Portland cement monoliths with increasing fracture networks. The monolith cylinder sides were jacketed with heavy-duty moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing, then fractured using shear force applied via a hydraulic press. Fractures were generated with different severity for each of three monoliths. Stainless steel endcaps were fixed to the monoliths using the same shrink-wrapped jacket. Fracture characteristics were determined using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. Flow controllers were used to control flow of water and air to supply continuous water or water plus air, both of which were delivered through the influent end cap. Effluent air flow was monitored using a flow meter, and water flow was measured gravimetrically. To monitor the effective saturation of the fractures, a RCON2 concrete bulk electrical resistivity test device was attached across both endcaps and a 0.1M NaNO3 brine was used as the transport fluid to improve resistivity measurements. Water content correlated to resistivity measurements with a r2 > 0.96. Data from the experiments was evaluated using two relative permeability models, the Corey-curve, often used for modeling relative permeability in porous media

  20. Intrinsic stability of Brassicaceae plasma membrane in relation to changes in proteins and lipids as a response to salinity.

    Chalbi, Najla; Martínez-Ballesta, Ma Carmen; Youssef, Nabil Ben; Carvajal, Micaela


    Changes in plasma membrane lipids, such as sterols and fatty acids, have been observed as a result of salt stress. These alterations, together with modification of the plasma membrane protein profile, confer changes in the physical properties of the membrane to be taken into account for biotechnological uses. In our experiments, the relationship between lipids and proteins in three different Brassicaceae species differing in salinity tolerance (Brassica oleracea, B. napus and Cakile maritima) and the final plasma membrane stability were studied. The observed changes in the sterol (mainly an increase in sitosterol) and fatty acid composition (increase in RUFA) in each species led to physical adaptation of the plasma membrane to salt stress. The in vitro vesicles stability was higher in the less tolerant (B. oleracea) plants together with low lipoxygenase activity. These results indicate that the proteins/lipids ratio and lipid composition is an important aspect to take into account for the use of natural vesicles in plant biotechnology.

  1. Inflammation-modulating cytokine profile and lipid interaction in HIV-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

    Gori E


    Full Text Available Elizabeth Gori,1,2 Takafira Mduluza,3,4 Mudavanhu Nyagura,2 Babill Stray-Pedersen,5 Zvenyika Alfred Gomo1 1Chemical Pathology Department, College of Health Sciences, 2Preclinical Veterinary Studies Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, 3Biochemistry Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; 4School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway Abstract: HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART are associated with changes in plasma levels of lipoproteins, thus posing the risk of cardiovascular complications in infected individuals. The alteration in plasma lipoprotein levels results from dysregulation o