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Sample records for relative line intensities

  1. Emission line relative intensity variations in the symbiotic stars: CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliversen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low resolution spectra (lambda 3800 to lambda 5900) are presented of the symbiotic stars CI Cygni, BF Cygni, AX Persei and V1016 Cygni, which were obtained with the Washburn Observatory Boller and Chivens cassegrain spectrograph and intensified Reticon. The spectra were obtained as part of a monitoring program covering 36 months since November 1978. The nebular electron temperature and density are derived from the [O III] lambda 5007 and lambda 4363 emission lines and the uv intercombination lines of lambda 1661 and lambda 1667. Relative emission line intensity variations were observed in all four stars. The relative emission line changes correlated with photometric minima for CI Cyg, AX Per and possibly BF Cyg. These changes are interpreted as due to a red giant eclipsing a nebula surrounding the exciting source. Based on the [O III] line ratio change, the nebular density of V1016 Cyg has continued to decline since 1978. The thesis also contains a discussion of the use of the emision lines of [Ne III] lambda 3869, [O III] lambda 5007, lambda 4363 and He lambda 5876 to derive nebular electron temperature and density. A decline in the intensity ratios of I(lambda 3869)/(lambda 5007) and I(lambda 5876)/I(lambda 5007) were observed during the 1980 minimum of CI Cyg. The observed I(lambda 3869)/I(lambda 5007) decline was too large to be explained by temperature or density changes. The [Ne III] and He II regions in CI Cyg are therefore closer to the hot source than the more extended (o III] emission region. Contained within the appendix is a discussion of a graphical method of solution ot the nebular temperature and density, which is based on the emission lines of [Ne III], [O III] and He I

  2. Infrared line intensities of chlorine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Faris, J. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute infrared line intensities of several ClO lines in the rotational-vibrational (1-0) band were measured using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy near 12 microns. A measurement technique using combined ultraviolet absorption and infrared line measurements near 9.5 microns and 12 microns permitted an accurate determination of the column densities of O3 and ClO in the absorption cell and thus improved ClO line intensities. Results indicate ClO line and band intensities approximately 2.4 times lower than previous experimental results. Effects of possible failure of local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the absorption cell and the implication of the results for stratospheric ClO measurements in the infrared are discussed.

  3. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates cell proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and expression of growth factor-related genes in human nucleus pulposus cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kobayashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulation has been shown to effect differentiation and activation of human chondrocytes. A study involving stimulation of rabbit disc cells with LIPUS revealed upregulation of cell proliferation and proteoglycan (PG synthesis. However, the effect of LIPUS on human nucleus pulposus cells has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether LIPUS stimulation of a human nucleus pulposus cell line (HNPSV-1 exerted a positive effect on cellular activity. HNPSV-1 cells were encapsulated in 1.2% sodium alginate solution at 1x105 cells/ml and cultured at 10 beads/well in 6-well plates. The cells were stimulated for 20 min each day using a LIPUS generator, and the effects of LIPUS were evaluated by measuring DNA and PG synthesis. Furthermore, mRNA expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray using total RNA extracted from the cultured cells. Our study revealed no significant difference in cell proliferation between the control and the ultrasound treated groups. However, PG production was significantly upregulated in HNPSV cells stimulated at intensities of 15, 30, 60, and 120 mW/cm2 compared with the control. The results of cDNA array showed that LIPUS significantly stimulated the gene expression of growth factors and their receptors (BMP2, FGF7, TGFbetaR1 EGFRF1, VEGF. These findings suggest that LIPUS stimulation upregulates PG production in human nucleus pulposus cells by the enhancement of several matrix-related genes including growth factor-related genes. Safe and non-invasive stimulation using LIPUS may be a useful treatment for delaying the progression of disc degeneration.

  4. Line intensities for diagnosing laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Whitten, B.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured relative line intensities of the K x-ray spectra of Si, Cl, and Ca from laser-produced plasmas to assess their usefulness as a plasma diagnostic. The different elements are added at low concentrations to CH disks which are irradiated at 5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 with a 0.53 μm laser pulse of 20 Joules at 1 nsec. The concentration of each element is kept low in order not to change the Z of the plasma, and therefore the plasma dynamics. The various spectra are measured with a time-resolved spectrograph to obtain line intensities as a function of time over the length of the laser pulse. These relative intensities of various He-like and H-like lines are compared with calculations from a steady-state level population code. The results give good consistency among the various line ratios. Agreement is not as good for analysis of the Li-like satellite lines. Modelling of the Li-like lines need further investigation. 10 references, 9 figures

  5. Accurate line intensities of methane from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Andrei V.; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report first-principle theoretical predictions of methane spectral line intensities that are competitive with (and complementary to) the best laboratory measurements. A detailed comparison with the most accurate data shows that discrepancies in integrated polyad intensities are in the range of 0.4%-2.3%. This corresponds to estimations of the best available accuracy in laboratory Fourier Transform spectra measurements for this quantity. For relatively isolated strong lines the individual intensity deviations are in the same range. A comparison with the most precise laser measurements of the multiplet intensities in the 2ν3 band gives an agreement within the experimental error margins (about 1%). This is achieved for the first time for five-atomic molecules. In the Supplementary Material we provide the lists of theoretical intensities at 269 K for over 5000 strongest transitions in the range below 6166 cm-1. The advantage of the described method is that this offers a possibility to generate fully assigned exhaustive line lists at various temperature conditions. Extensive calculations up to 12,000 cm-1 including high-T predictions will be made freely available through the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru) that contains ab initio born line lists and provides a user-friendly graphical interface for a fast simulation of the absorption cross-sections and radiance.

  6. Density dependence of line intensities and application to plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Kuniaki.

    1993-02-01

    Electron density dependence of spectral lines are discussed in view of application to density diagnostics of plasmas. The dependence arises from competitive level population processes, radiative and collisional transitions from the excited states. Results of the measurement on tokamak plasmas are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of line intensity ratios for density diagnostics. Also general characteristics related to density dependence are discussed with atomic-number scaling for H-like and He-like systems to be helpful for application to higher density plasmas. (author)

  7. Gamma-ray line intensities for depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray line intensities from depleted uranium allowed us to determine which of two conflicting previous experiments was correct. For the 1001-keV line we obtain a branching ratio of 0.834 +- 0.007, in good agreement with one of the previous experiments. A table compares our intensities for several lines with those obtained in previous experiments. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ne III

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, A K; Landi, E

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s sup 2 2p sup 4 , 2s2p sup 5 , 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3s, and 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT sub e (K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensi...

  9. Intensities of decimetric-wavelength radio recombination lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, A.; Pankonin, V.

    1975-01-01

    We summarize the intensity results of some of the 221 and 248α recombination-line observations taken with the Arecibo telescope, and report additional results including 166α observations from the NRAO 300-foot (91 m) telescope. The brightness temperatures of these lines increase sharply with wavelength. We show that these results require that the upper levels of the recombining atoms be overpopulated with respect to LTE conditions. The most reasonable interpretation of the results is that the line emission at these decimetric wavelengths is stimulated by a background source of continuum radiation

  10. Periodic Variations in the Coronal Green Line Intensity and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    behaviour of data results as discussed by Tsubaki (1988) in the green corona line intensity. ... This work was partly supported by the Grant Agency (5017/98) of the Slovak. Academy of Sciences. One of us (M. M.) thanks IAU for travel support.

  11. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  12. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  13. Spectral line intensity irreversibility in circulatory plasma magnetization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. Q.; Dun, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral line intensity variation is found to be irreversible in circulatory plasma magnetization process by experiments described in this paper, i.e., the curves illustrating spectral line photon fluxes irradiated from a light source immerged in a magnetic field by increasing the magnetic induction cannot be reproduced by decreasing the magnetic induction within the errors. There are two plasma magnetization patterns found. One shows that the intensities are greater at the same magnetic inductions during the magnetic induction decreasing process after the increasing, and the other gives the opposite effect. This reveals that the magneto-induced excitation and de-excitation process is irreversible like ferromagnetic magnetization. But the two irreversible processes are very different in many aspects stated in the text.

  14. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Doschek, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Fe XVII. The data pertain to the 73 levels of the configurations, 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3s, 2s 2 2p 5 3p 2s 2 2p 5 3d, 2s2p 6 3s, 2s2p 6 3p, 2s2p 6 3d, 2s 2 2p 5 4s, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4d, 2s2p 6 4s, 2s2p 6 4p, and 2s2p 6 4d. Collision strengths are calculated at 11 incident electron energies: 58.5, 65.0, 70.0, 76.0, 85.0, 127.5, 170.0, 212.5, 255.0, 340.0, and 425.0 Ry. This work is an improvement over our earlier work on Fe XVII in two respects: (1) configurations involving 4s, 4p, and 4d electrons have been added and (2) a broader range of incident electron energies is used in the computation of collision strengths and excitation rate coefficients. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated for astrophysically important transitions. These are obtained by computing the excitation rate coefficients (cm 3 s -1 ), i.e., the collision strengths integrated over a Maxwellian electron distribution, and then solving the equations of detailed balance for the populations of the 73 energy levels, assuming a collisional excitation model and an electron temperature of 4 x 10 6 K. This temperature is typical for Fe XVII when formed in equilibrium by collisional ionization and recombination. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative decay rates, level populations are computed for five electron densities and are given in this paper

  15. Dispersion relation and relative intensity for double-plasmon satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, K.S.; Shiv Singh; Harsh, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dispersion relation and the relative intensity of double-plasmon oscillations and satellites has been derived by extending the dispersion relation and the extended Bohm and Pines Hamiltonian to second order. The calculated value of the relative intensity of the double-plasmon satellite for Be agrees fairly well with the value observed experimentally by other workers. (orig.)

  16. Line intensity ratios of helium atom in an ionizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Goto, Motoshi; Kato, Takako; Takamura, Shuichi

    1998-10-01

    Effective emission rate coefficients C em eff (λ), line intensity ratios, C em eff (λ 1 )/C em eff (λ 2 ), and S eff /C em eff (λ), with S eff the ionization rate coefficient, are obtained by the collisional radiative model for an ionizing plasma using new excitation and ionization rate coefficients. In the plasma with electron density n e > 10 4 cm -3 , C em eff (λ) for various lines are enlarged, since the normalized population densities for the metastable states, n(2 1,3 S)/n He , becomes large, and the excitation rate coefficients from 2 1,3 S, C 21,3S→i , are large compared to that from the ground state C 11S→i . In high n e plasma (n e > 10 12 cm -3 ), with frequent electron impacts on the excited heliums, n(i)/n He become constant to n e , which results in the decrease of C em eff (λ). Hot electrons and resonance scattering, which are often important for the experimental applications, are included in this model. A small amount of hot electrons (several percents) can enhance the line emission and ionization rates for low electron temperature plasma with T e (T e 1 S - n 1 P) and enlarges n 1 P and 2 1 S populations when the column density of helium gas n He x L exceeds 2x10 13 [cm -2 ]. (author)

  17. Symmetries and rotational line intensities in diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veseth, L.

    1986-02-01

    The general theory of angular momenta and the full rotation group is used to reconsider the theory of the intensity factors of rotational lines in the spectra of diatomic molecules (Hoenl-London factors). It is shown that the use of the rotational symmetry (rotation matrices) leads to compact derivations of the symmetry properties of the molecular wave functions, as well as the matrix elements of the transitions operator. The present work is restricted to spin-allowed electric dipole transitions, and the general sum rule characteristic of this type of transitions is rederived by use of the general angular momentum theory. A main purpose of the present work has been to provide a unified theoretical basis for exact numerical computations of Hoenl-London factors for all types of spin-allowed electric dipole transitions in diatomic molecules. The computed Hoenl-London factors are then in the next step intended to be the basis for construction of synthetic molecular band spectra, with particular applications to upper atmosperic emissions (aurora)

  18. Generation of intensity covariations of the oxygen green and red lines in the nightglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, K.; Takeuchi, I.; Kato, Y.; Aoyama, I.

    1984-02-01

    The cause of intensity covariations of the oxygen green and red lines is studied. Intensity covariations are compared with the auroral-electrojet-activity index AE, the substorm Pi2, and the magnetogram. It is suggested that intensity covariations or double-intensity maxima of the red line occur in association with intense auroral substorms, and that they are the direct experimental evidences of Testud's theory (1973).

  19. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of L-Edge White Line Intensities: The Influence of Saturation and Transverse Coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahlin, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe, Ni, and Co L2,3 edges of in situ grown thin magnetic films. We compare electron yield measurements performed at SSRL and BESSY-I. Differences in the L2,3 white line intensities are found for all three elements, comparing data from the two facilities. We propose a correlation between spectral intensities and the degree of spatial coherence of the exciting radiation. The electron yield saturation effects are stronger for light with a higher degree of spatial coherence. Therefore the observed, coherence related, intensity variations are due to an increase in the absorption coefficient, and not to secondary channel related effects

  1. Quantitative analysis of L-edge white line intensities: the influence of saturation and transverse coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlin, A; Karis, O; Brena, B; Dunn, J H; Arvantis, D

    2001-03-01

    We have performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe, Ni, and Co L2,3 edges of in situ grown thin magnetic films. We compare electron yield measurements performed at SSRL and BESSY-I. Differences in the L2,3 white line intensities are found for all three elements, comparing data from the two facilities. We propose a correlation between spectral intensities and the degree of spatial coherence of the exciting radiation. The electron yield saturation effects are stronger for light with a higher degree of spatial coherence. Therefore the observed, coherence related, intensity variations are due to an increase in the absorption coefficient, and not to secondary channel related effects.

  2. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent development in the evaluation of Moessbauer line intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiering, H.

    1985-01-01

    The angular dependence of the intensities of pure or mixed multipole transitions is formulated in a new fashion, which takes into account arbitrary texture of the Moessbauer absorber ranging from complete orientation (single crystals) over preferred orientation to random powders and an anisotropic absorption fraction of the nuclei. The application of the theory is demonstrated by means of typical examples from the literature. (orig.)

  4. Electron temperature measurement by a helium line intensity ratio method in helicon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, R.F.; Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Electron temperature measurements in helicon plasmas are difficult. The presence of intense rf fields in the plasma complicates the interpretation of Langmuir probe measurements. Furthermore, the non-negligible ion temperature in the plasma considerably shortens the lifetime of conventional Langmuir probes. A spectroscopic technique based on the relative intensities of neutral helium lines is used to measure the electron temperature in the HELIX (Hot hELicon eXperiment) plasma [P. A. Keiter et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2741 (1997)]. This nonintrusive diagnostic is based on the fact that electron impact excitation rate coefficients for helium singlet and triplet states differ as a function of the electron temperature. The different aspects related to the validity of this technique to measure the electron temperature in rf generated plasmas are discussed in this paper. At low plasma density (n e ≤10 11 cm -3 ), this diagnostic is believed to be very reliable since the population of the emitting level can be easily estimated with reasonable accuracy by assuming that all excitation originates from the ground state (steady-state corona model). At higher density, secondary processes (excitation transfer, excitation from metastable, cascading) become more important and a more complex collisional radiative model must be used to predict the electron temperature. In this work, different helium transitions are examined and a suitable transition pair is identified. For an electron temperature of 10 eV, the line ratio is measured as a function of plasma density and compared to values predicted by models. The measured line ratio function is in good agreement with theory and the data suggest that the excitation transfer is the dominant secondary process in high-density plasmas

  5. Intensity and shape of spectral lines from laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamelot, G; Jaegle, P; Carillon, A; Wehenkel, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France); Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France))

    1979-01-01

    In starting from spectral studies of multicharged ions in dense laser-produced plasmas, the main processes which determine the intensity and the shape of lines in the X-UV range are described. The role of radiation transfer is underlined. Intensity anomalies resulting from occurrence of population inversions are considered and a recent experiment performed for investigating such anomalies is described.

  6. On the line intensity ratios of prominent Si II, Si III, and Si IV multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djenize, S.; Sreckovic, A.; Bukvic, S.

    2010-01-01

    Line intensities of singly, doubly and triply ionized silicon (Si II, Si III, and Si IV, respectively) belonging to the prominent higher multiplets, are of interest in laboratory and astrophysical plasma diagnostics. We measured these line intensities in the emission spectra of pulsed helium discharge. The Si II line intensity ratios in the 3s3p 22 D-3s 2 4p 2 P o , 3s 2 3d 2 D-3s 2 4f 2 F o , and 3s 2 4p 2 P o -3s 2 4d 2 D transitions, the Si III line intensity ratios in the 3s3d 3 D-3s4p 3 P o , 3s4p 3 P o -3s4d 3 D, 3s4p 3 P o -3s5s 3 S, 3s4s 3 S-3s4p 3 P o , and 3s4f 3 F o -3s5g 3 G transitions, and the Si IV line intensity ratios in the 4p 2 P o -4d 2 D and 4p 2 P o -5s 2 S transitions were obtained in a helium plasma at an electron temperature of about 17,000 ± 2000 K. Line shapes were recorded using a spectrograph and an ICCD camera as a highly-sensitive detection system. The silicon atoms were evaporated from a Pyrex discharge tube designed for the purpose. They represent impurities in the optically thin helium plasma at the silicon ionic wavelengths investigated. The line intensity ratios obtained were compared with those available in the literature, and with values calculated on the basis of available transition probabilities. The experimental data corresponded well with line intensity ratios calculated using the transition probabilities obtained from a Multi Configuration Hartree-Fock approximation for Si III and Si IV spectra. We recommend corrections of some Si II transition probabilities.

  7. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  8. Introducing an on-line adaptive procedure for prostate image guided intensity modulate proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Westerly, D C; Mackie, T R

    2011-08-07

    With on-line image guidance (IG), prostate shifts relative to the bony anatomy can be corrected by realigning the patient with respect to the treatment fields. In image guided intensity modulated proton therapy (IG-IMPT), because the proton range is more sensitive to the material it travels through, the realignment may introduce large dose variations. This effect is studied in this work and an on-line adaptive procedure is proposed to restore the planned dose to the target. A 2D anthropomorphic phantom was constructed from a real prostate patient's CT image. Two-field laterally opposing spot 3D-modulation and 24-field full arc distal edge tracking (DET) plans were generated with a prescription of 70 Gy to the planning target volume. For the simulated delivery, we considered two types of procedures: the non-adaptive procedure and the on-line adaptive procedure. In the non-adaptive procedure, only patient realignment to match the prostate location in the planning CT was performed. In the on-line adaptive procedure, on top of the patient realignment, the kinetic energy for each individual proton pencil beam was re-determined from the on-line CT image acquired after the realignment and subsequently used for delivery. Dose distributions were re-calculated for individual fractions for different plans and different delivery procedures. The results show, without adaptive, that both the 3D-modulation and the DET plans experienced delivered dose degradation by having large cold or hot spots in the prostate. The DET plan had worse dose degradation than the 3D-modulation plan. The adaptive procedure effectively restored the planned dose distribution in the DET plan, with delivered prostate D(98%), D(50%) and D(2%) values less than 1% from the prescription. In the 3D-modulation plan, in certain cases the adaptive procedure was not effective to reduce the delivered dose degradation and yield similar results as the non-adaptive procedure. In conclusion, based on this 2D phantom

  9. Hydrogen Balmer alpha intensity distributions and line profiles from multiple scattering theory using realistic geocoronal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Meier, R. R.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The H Balmer alpha nightglow is investigated by using Monte Carlo models of asymmetric geocoronal atomic hydrogen distributions as input to a radiative transfer model of solar Lyman-beta radiation in the thermosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it is essential to include multiple scattering of Lyman-beta radiation in the interpretation of Balmer alpha airglow data. Observations of diurnal variation in the Balmer alpha airglow showing slightly greater intensities in the morning relative to evening are consistent with theory. No evidence is found for anything other than a single sinusoidal diurnal variation of exobase density. Dramatic changes in effective temperature derived from the observed Balmer alpha line profiles are expected on the basis of changing illumination conditions in the thermosphere and exosphere as different regions of the sky are scanned.

  10. Appearance of low signal intensity lines in MRI of silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, P W; Rolland, C; Dufour, M; Grondin, P; Guidoin, R G

    1996-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of five explanted mammary prostheses were obtained with a 1.5 T GE Signa system using a conventional spin-echo pulse sequence, in order to investigate the low-intensity curvilinear lines which may be observed in MR images of silicone gel-filled breast implants under pressure from fibrous capsules. MR images showed ellipsoid prostheses, often containing multiple low-intensity curvilinear lines which in some cases presented an appearance very similar to that of the linguine sign. Upon opening the fibrous capsules, however, all of the prostheses were found to be completely intact demonstrating that the appearance of multiple low signal intensity curvilinear lines in MR images of silicone gel-filled prostheses is not necessarily a sign of prosthesis rupture. The MR image features which are specific to the linguine sign must be more precisely defined.

  11. On the inversion problem of the plasma line intensity measurements in terms of photoelectron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, G.

    1979-01-01

    Assuming that the unidimensional distribution function of the photoelectron flux can be determined from plasma line intensity measurement, it is shown that the photoelectron flux distribution is not uniquely determined if additional hypotheses are not made. The limitations of the inversion procedure are shown: in particular, plasma line measurements cannot allow the determination of more than the first two Legendre components of the photoelectron flux. Experimental procedures for this determination are finally reviewed. (author)

  12. Derivation of electron density and temperature from (S II) and (O II) line intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Meaburn, J; Theokas, A C [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy; Elliott, K H [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1980-12-01

    Line intensity ratios for (S II) and (O II) due to collisional de-excitation are briefly discussed. Comparison is made between various reaction rate parameters presented by separate investigators. Included are observations of ratios obtained from the Orion nebula which experimentally confirm the reaction rates of Pradhan as best representing the observed distribution of these ratios. (O II) and (S II) contour plots are also presented, which allow effective electron temperatures and densities to be estimated from pairs of line ratios.

  13. Price-related sensitivities of greenhouse gas intensity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Benito; Muller-Furstenberger, Georg

    2003-12-01

    Greenhouse gas intensities are an appealing tool to foster abatement without imposing constraints on economic growth. This paper shows, however, that the computation of intensities is subject to some significant statistical and conceptual problems which relate to the inflation proofing of GDP growth. It is shown that the choice of price-index, the updating of quantity weights and the choice of base year prices can have a significant impact upon the commitment of intensity targets

  14. Gamma-line intensity difference method for sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn at high resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Remeikis, V; Mazeika, K

    1998-01-01

    The method for detection of small differences in the gamma-spectrum line intensity for the radionuclide in different environments has been developed for measurements at high resolution. The experiments were realized with the pure germanium planar detector. Solution of the methodical problems allowed to measure the relative difference DELTA IOTA subgamma/IOTA subgamma=(3.4+-1.5)*10 sup - sup 4 of the sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn 156.02 keV gamma-line intensity for the radionuclide in SnO sub 2 with respect to SnS from the difference in the gamma-spectra. The error of the result is caused mainly by the statistical accuracy. It is limited by the highest counting rate at sufficiently high energy resolution and relatively short half-life of sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn. (author)

  15. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the intensity and Doppler frequency of electron plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available In an incoherent scattering radar experiment, the spectral measurement of the so-called up- and downshifted electron plasma lines provides information about their intensity and their Doppler frequency. These two spectral lines correspond, in the backscatter geometry, to two Langmuir waves travelling towards and away from the radar. In the daytime ionosphere, the presence of a small percentage of photoelectrons produced by the solar EUV of the total electron population can excite or damp these Langmuir waves above the thermal equilibrium, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity of the lines above the thermal level. The presence of photo-electrons also modifies the dielectric response function of the plasma from the Maxwellian and thus influences the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines. In this paper, we present a high time-resolution plasma-line data set collected on the Eiscat VHF radar. The analysed data are compared with a model that includes the effect of a suprathermal electron population calculated by a transport code. By comparing the intensity of the analysed plasma lines data to our model, we show that two sharp peaks in the electron suprathermal distribution in the energy range 20-30 eV causes an increased Landau damping around 24.25 eV and 26.25 eV. We have identified these two sharp peaks as the effect of the photoionisation of N2 and O by the intense flux of monochromatic HeII radiation of wavelength 30.378 nm (40.812 eV created in the chromospheric network and coronal holes. Furthermore, we see that what would have been interpreted as a mean Doppler drift velocity for a Maxwellian plasma is actually a shift of the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines due to suprathermal electrons.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; solar radiation and cosmic ray effects

  16. Effect of suprathermal electrons on the intensity and Doppler frequency of electron plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In an incoherent scattering radar experiment, the spectral measurement of the so-called up- and downshifted electron plasma lines provides information about their intensity and their Doppler frequency. These two spectral lines correspond, in the backscatter geometry, to two Langmuir waves travelling towards and away from the radar. In the daytime ionosphere, the presence of a small percentage of photoelectrons produced by the solar EUV of the total electron population can excite or damp these Langmuir waves above the thermal equilibrium, resulting in an enhancement of the intensity of the lines above the thermal level. The presence of photo-electrons also modifies the dielectric response function of the plasma from the Maxwellian and thus influences the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines. In this paper, we present a high time-resolution plasma-line data set collected on the Eiscat VHF radar. The analysed data are compared with a model that includes the effect of a suprathermal electron population calculated by a transport code. By comparing the intensity of the analysed plasma lines data to our model, we show that two sharp peaks in the electron suprathermal distribution in the energy range 20-30 eV causes an increased Landau damping around 24.25 eV and 26.25 eV. We have identified these two sharp peaks as the effect of the photoionisation of N2 and O by the intense flux of monochromatic HeII radiation of wavelength 30.378 nm (40.812 eV created in the chromospheric network and coronal holes. Furthermore, we see that what would have been interpreted as a mean Doppler drift velocity for a Maxwellian plasma is actually a shift of the Doppler frequency of the plasma lines due to suprathermal electrons.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; solar radiation and cosmic ray effects

  17. On Estimation of Contamination from Hydrogen Cyanide in Carbon Monoxide Line-intensity Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dongwoo T.; Li, Tony Y.; Viero, Marco P.; Church, Sarah E.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: dongwooc@stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Line-intensity mapping surveys probe large-scale structure through spatial variations in molecular line emission from a population of unresolved cosmological sources. Future such surveys of carbon monoxide line emission, specifically the CO(1-0) line, face potential contamination from a disjointed population of sources emitting in a hydrogen cyanide emission line, HCN(1-0). This paper explores the potential range of the strength of HCN emission and its effect on the CO auto power spectrum, using simulations with an empirical model of the CO/HCN–halo connection. We find that effects on the observed CO power spectrum depend on modeling assumptions but are very small for our fiducial model, which is based on current understanding of the galaxy–halo connection. Given the fiducial model, we expect the bias in overall CO detection significance due to HCN to be less than 1%.

  18. The measurement and interpretation of Ne VII spectral line intensity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.

    1983-03-01

    Results are presented for the measurement, using the branching ratios calibration method, of the spectral intensities of Ne VII lines emitted from a theta-pinch plasma whose electron temperature and density have been found by laser scattering and alternate techniques. (author)

  19. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  20. Electron temperature determination from the HeI 3889 angstroem and 5016 angstroem line intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility of determining electron temperature by helium spectro scopy in low-density (n(sub e) 2 m - ) plasmas is discussed. It is concluded that most lines can only be used at very low densities (n(sub e) 1 m - ) because the line intensities are highly influenced by secondary processes, such as electron impact induced transitions between excited levels or excitations from metastable levels. The density range where measurements are possible can extended if the influence of these secondary processes on the line intensities can be determined. For most helium I lines this is impossible for lack of atomic data. However, there are two exceptions, the 3889 angstroem (3 3 P yields 2 3 S) and the 5016 angstroem (3 1 yields 2 1 S) lines. The influence from secondary processes on these lines is calculated, and methods are developed which can be used for measurement of electron temperatures T(sub e 1 m - . The use of the methods is illustrated by a experiment where they have been successfully applied. (author)

  1. Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Relative Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how to define “relative” poverty lines, i.e. poverty lines based on approaches that consider the welfare position of each individual or household in relation to the welfare position of other individuals or households belonging to the same community. In particular, the module, after emphasizing the importance of the relative poverty concept in policy work, discusses two methods to define relative poverty lines: a) the “income levels” method; and b) the “income positions...

  2. Resonance broadening of Hg lines as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E

    2004-01-01

    The use of width measurements on resonance broadened lines of Hg as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps is reviewed and further developed in this paper. Optical depths of Hg I lines at 491.6 nm, 577.0 nm, and 1014 nm are computed as a function of temperature to confirm that these lines are optically thin in most HID lamps. The effect of quadratic and quartic radial temperature variation on the width of resonance broadened lines is computed for arc core temperatures from 4000 K to 7000 K. Such variations in temperature, and inverse variations in Hg density, are found to increase the line widths by less than 10% for 'side-on' emission measurements averaged over the arc radius. Theoretical profiles of resonance broadened spectral lines, both radially averaged and as a function of chord offset, are presented. Observations of resonance broadened lines in a metal-halide HID lamp are presented and analysed. It is concluded that the widths of resonance broadened lines provide a convenient and reliable diagnostic for the arc core Hg density but are generally not very sensitive to the radial temperature and Hg density gradient

  3. Measurement of the profile and intensity of the solar He I lambda 584-A resonance line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. O.; Hartmann, U. G.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disk of the sun was investigated by using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve-of-growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 + or - 10 mA, while the integrated intensity was measured to be 2.6 + or - 1.3 billion photons/s per sq cm at solar activity levels of F(10.7) = 90.8 x 10 to the -22nd per sq m/Hz and Rz = 27. The measured line width is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurements, but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of 20 + or - 10 billion photons/s per sq cm/A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  4. Line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients for the ν5 band of methyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform spectra have been recorded around 6.9 μm at room temperature using a rapid scan Bruker IFS 120 HR interferometer (unapodized Bruker resolution=0.005 cm −1 ). Transitions of both 12 CH 3 35 Cl and 12 CH 3 37 Cl isotopologues belonging to the ν 5 perpendicular band have been studied. Line positions, intensities, and self-broadening coefficients have been retrieved using a multispectrum fitting procedure that allowed to fit simultaneously the whole set of experimental spectra recorded at various pressures of CH 3 Cl. The wavenumber calibration has been performed using the frequencies of CO 2 transitions. The transition dipole moments squared have been determined for each measured line and the whole set of measurements has been compared with previous measurements and with values from HITRAN and GEISA databases. The rotational J and K dependencies of the self-broadening coefficients have been clearly observed and modeled using empirical polynomial expansions. The average accuracy of the line parameters obtained in this work has been estimated to be between 0.1×10 −3 and 1×10 −3 cm −1 for line positions, between 2% and 5% for line intensities and between 5% and 10% for self-broadening coefficients depending on the transitions. -- Highlights: ► Fourier-transform spectra of the ν 5 band of CH 3 Cl at room temperature. ► Measurements of line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients. ► Analysis of the J- and K-rotational dependences of self-widths. ► Comparisons with literature

  5. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Keenan, F. P., E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  6. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  7. Structure and intensities of microwave lines in the spectra of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the rotational levels in a diatomic molecule, and the intensities of microwave transitions between them, are reviewed. Attention is given to the statistical weights of levels that may have hyperfine structure on account of one or two nuclear spins, in the case of heteronuclear molecules and of homonuclear molecules. A new treatment is given, involving the concept of energy surfaces in a ternary diagram in the form of a triangular prism, in which the three vertices represent three limiting cases, while the interior of the prism displays energy levels where all three intermediate coupling parameters are of comparable magnitude. An example is given of a simple J = 2 to J = 1 transition in a molecule with nuclear spins 3/2 and 1, showing the 56 hyperhyperfine components into which the rotational line is split, and a movie film is described which shows how the resulting ''fingerprint'' varies with the relative strengths of the interactions between the nuclear and electronic angular momenta

  8. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-06-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  9. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  10. Study of NH3 Line Intensities in the THz and Far-IR Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan

    Ammonia (NH3) exists in the interstellar medium, late-type stars and giant planets of our solar system. Its temperature and abundance profiles in these environments, which are derived with its line parameters as fixed input , are commonly used to provide constraints on retrieving minor species. Therefore NH3 line parameters are essential for interpreting astrophysical and planetary spectra from Herschel, SOFIA, ALMA and JWST. However, our work under a predecessor grant with the APRA program revealed significant deficiencies in NH3 intensities in the terahertz and FIR region, including some weak Delta(K)=3 forbidden transitions predicted to be 100 times stronger. The Delta(K)=3 transitions are the ones connecting levels with different K values and therefore the only way other than collisions and l-doubled states to excite NH3 to K>0 levels. Their intensities have to be corrected to explain the observed high K excitation, such as the detection of NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2)&(14,14) and (18,18) transitions toward the galactic center star forming region Sgr B2, and to provide insights into the radiative- transfer vs. collision excitation mechanics of interstellar NH3. This proposal will remedy the serious deficiencies in the current databases involving NH3 line parameters in the terahertz and FIR region. We will target transitions with intensities greater than 10^{-23} cm-1/ (molecule/cm2) at 296 K, which will be among new astrophysical detections made by SOFIA, ALMA and JWST, and are 1000 times weaker than the strongest ground state transitions. We will retrieve new positions and intensities from existing laboratory spectra, use them to evaluate the current databases and ab initio calculations, and repair the line positions and intensities by replacing poorly calculated values with our new measurements. The proposed research will result in (1) a validated linelist containing the positions, intensities and lower state energies for the very important Delta(K)=3 NH3 FIR

  11. Sustained reduction of central line-associated bloodstream infections outside the intensive care unit with a multimodal intervention focusing on central line maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumyati, Ghinwa; Concannon, Cathleen; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; Graman, Paul; Pettis, Ann Marie; Greene, Linda; El-Daher, Nayef; Farnsworth, Donna; Quinlan, Gail; Karr, Gloria; Ward, Lynnette; Knab, Robin; Shelly, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Central venous catheter use is common outside the intensive care units (ICUs), but prevention in this setting is not well studied. We initiated surveillance for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) outside the ICU setting and studied the impact of a multimodal intervention on the incidence of CLABSIs across multiple hospitals. This project was constructed as a prospective preintervention-postintervention design. The project comprised 3 phases (preintervention [baseline], intervention, and postintervention) over a 4.5-year period (2008-2012) and was implemented through a collaborative of 37 adult non-ICU wards at 6 hospitals in the Rochester, NY area. The intervention focused on engagement of nursing staff and leadership, nursing education on line care maintenance, competence evaluation, audits of line care, and regular feedback on CLABSI rates. Quarterly rates were compared over time in relation to intervention implementation. The overall CLABSI rate for all participating units decreased from 2.6/1000 line-days preintervention to 2.1/1,000 line-days during the intervention and to 1.3/1,000 line-days postintervention, a 50% reduction (95% confidence interval, .40-.59) compared with the preintervention period (P .0179). A multipronged approach blending both the adaptive and technical aspects of care including front line engagement, education, execution of best practices, and evaluation of both process and outcome measures may provide an effective strategy for reducing CLABSI rates outside the ICU. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2011-06-01

    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  13. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  14. Intensity Mapping of the [CII] Fine Structure Line during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, A.; Silva, M.; Santos, M. G.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2012-01-01

    The atomic CII fine-structure line is one of the brightest lines in a typical star-forming galaxy spectrum with a luminosity 0.1% to 1% of the bolometric luminosity. It is otentially a reliable tracer of the dense gas distribution at high edshifts and could provide an additional probe to the era of reionization. By taking into account of the spontaneous, stimulated and collisional emission of the CII line, we calculate the spin temperature and the mean intensity as a function of the redshift. When averaged over a cosmologically large volume, we find that the CII emission from ionized carbon in individual galaxies is larger than the signal generated by carbon in the intergalactic medium (IGM). Assuming that the CII luminosity is proportional to the carbon mass in dark matter halos, we also compute the power spectrum of the CII line intensity at various redshifts. In order to avoid the contamination from CO rotational lines at low redshift when targeting a CII survey at high redshifts, we propose the cross-correlation of CII and 21-cm line emission from high redshifts. To explore the detectability of the CII signal from reionization, we also evaluate the expected errors on the CII power spectrum and CII-21 cm cross power spectrum based on the design of the future milimeter surveys. We note that the CII-21 cm cross power spectrum contains interesting features that captures physics during reionization, including the ionized bubble sizes and the mean ionization fraction, which are challenging to measure from 21-cm data alone. We propose an instrumental concept for the reionization CII experiment targeting the frequency range of 200 to 300 GHz with 1, 3 and 10 meter apertures and a bolometric spectrometer array with 64 independent spectral pixels with about 20,000 bolometers.

  15. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  16. Aspirin is first-line treatment for migraine and episodic tension-type headache regardless of headache intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Christian; Voelker, Michael; Steiner, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    (1) To establish whether pre-treatment headache intensity in migraine or episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) predicts success or failure of treatment with aspirin; and (2) to reflect, accordingly, on the place of aspirin in the management of these disorders. Stepped care in migraine management uses symptomatic treatments as first-line, reserving triptans for those in whom this proves ineffective. Stratified care chooses between symptomatic therapy and triptans as first-line on an individual basis according to perceived illness severity. We questioned the 2 assumptions underpinning stratified care in migraine that greater illness severity: (1) reflects greater need; and (2) is a risk factor for failure of symptomatic treatment but not of triptans. With regard to the first assumption, we developed a rhetorical argument that need for treatment is underpinned by expectation of benefit, not by illness severity. To address the second, we reviewed individual patient data from 6 clinical trials of aspirin 1000 mg in migraine (N = 2079; 1165 moderate headache, 914 severe) and one of aspirin 500 and 1000 mg in ETTH (N = 325; 180 moderate, 145 severe), relating outcome to pre-treatment headache intensity. In migraine, for headache relief at 2 hours, a small (4.7%) and non-significant risk difference (RD) in therapeutic gain favored moderate pain; for pain freedom at 2 hours, therapeutic gains were almost identical (RD: -0.2%). In ETTH, for headache relief at 2 hours, RDs for both aspirin 500 mg (-4.2%) and aspirin 1000 mg (-9.7%) favored severe pain, although neither significantly; for pain freedom at 2 hours, RDs (-14.2 and -3.6) again favored severe pain. In neither migraine nor ETTH does pre-treatment headache intensity predict success or failure of aspirin. This is not an arguable basis for stratified care in migraine. In both disorders, aspirin is first-line treatment regardless of headache intensity. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  17. Anomalous intensities of Ne-like ion resonance line in plasma produced by picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryunetkin, B.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Kalashnikov, M.P.; Nikles, P.; Shnyupep, M.

    1995-01-01

    An anomalous structure of intensities of spectral lines of CuXX and GeXXX Ne-like ions emitted by plasma produced by laser pulses of picosecond duration and up to 2x10 18 W/cm 2 flux density is recorded for the first time. It is shown that spectrum maximum of these ions is emitted from a plasma region whose density is significantly above the critical value of the length of heating laser radiation wave. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  19. Fatigue in Intensive Care Nurses and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sevim; Taşdemir, Nurten; Kurt, Aylin; İlgezdi, Ebru; Kubalas, Özge

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue negatively affects the performance of intensive care nurses. Factors contributing to the fatigue experienced by nurses include lifestyle, psychological status, work organization and sleep problems. To determine the level of fatigue among nurses working in intensive care units and the related factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 102 nurses working in intensive care units in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey. Data were collected between February and May 2014 using a personal information form, the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The intensive care nurses in the study were found to be experiencing fatigue. Significant correlations were observed between scores on the VAS-F Fatigue and anxiety (p=0.01), depression (p=0.002), and sleep quality (pnurses' levels of fatigue. These results can be of benefit in taking measures which may be used to reduce fatigue in nurses, especially the fatigue related to work organization and social life.

  20. Calculated L-shell x-ray line intensities for proton and helium ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Harrigan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical L-shell X-ray line intensities have been calculated for proton and helium bombardment of atoms from nickel (Z 2 = 28) to curium (Z 2 = 96). The ionization cross sections for the three L subshells were obtained from the recent calculations by Cohen and Harrigan in the ECPSSR theory, which uses the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) with corrections for energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), perturbed-stationary-state (PSS), and relativistic (R) effects. The fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities were taken from M. O. Krause (Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307 (1979)) and the L-subshell emission rates from S. I. Salem, S. L. Panosian, and R. A. Krause (Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 14, 91 (1974)). The line intensities Ll, Lα, Leta, Lβ 1 to Lβ 6 , Lβ/sub 9,10/, and Lγ 1 to Lgg 6 are tabulated for selected ion energies from 0.2 to 10 MeV

  1. Relative spectral response calibration using Ti plasma lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, FEI; Congyuan, PAN; Qiang, ZENG; Qiuping, WANG; Xuewei, DU

    2018-04-01

    This work introduces the branching ratio (BR) method for determining relative spectral responses, which are needed routinely in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Neutral and singly ionized Ti lines in the 250–498 nm spectral range are investigated by measuring laser-induced micro plasma near a Ti plate and used to calculate the relative spectral response of an entire LIBS detection system. The results are compared with those of the conventional relative spectral response calibration method using a tungsten halogen lamp, and certain lines available for the BR method are selected. The study supports the common manner of using BRs to calibrate the detection system in LIBS setups.

  2. Electric dipole moment function and line intensities for the ground state of carbon monxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Cheng Xin-Lu; Wu Jie; Liu Hao

    2015-01-01

    An accurate electric dipole moment function (EDMF) is obtained for the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule (X 1 Σ + ) by fitting the experimental rovibrational transitional moments. Additionally, an accurate ab initio EDMF is found using the highly accurate, multi-reference averaged coupled-pair functional (ACPF) approach with the basis set, aug-cc-pV6Z, and a finite-field with ±0.005 a.u. (The unit a.u. is the abbreviation of atomic unit). This ab initio EDMF is very consistent with the fitted ones. The vibrational transition matrix moments and the Herman–Wallis factors, calculated with the Rydberg–Klein–Rees (RKR) potential and the fitted and ab initio EDMFs, are compared with experimental measurements. The consistency of these line intensities with the high-resolution transmission (HITRAN) molecular database demonstrates the improved accuracy of the fitted and ab initio EDMFs derived in this work. (paper)

  3. Use of Six Sigma strategies to pull the line on central line-associated bloodstream infections in a neurotrauma intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Kelli; Tilley, Terry; Hoffman, Jason; Bradburn, Eric; Harvey, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The creation of a consistent culture of safety and quality in an intensive care unit is challenging. We applied the Six Sigma Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control (DMAIC) model for quality improvement (QI) to develop a long-term solution to improve outcomes in a high-risk neurotrauma intensive care unit. We sought to reduce central line utilization as a cornerstone in preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). This study describes the successful application of the DMAIC model in the creation and implementation of evidence-based quality improvement designed to reduce CLABSIs to below national benchmarks.

  4. Avaliação das práticas de adesão à higienização das mãos relacionadas com linhas vasculares em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva | Evaluation of hand hygiene practices related to placement of intravascular lines in an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Jane Gomes de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a conformidade e não conformidade das práticas de adesão à higienização das mãos com linhas vasculares na prevenção de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter venoso central de curta permanência. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, com abordagem quantitativa. A casuística baseou-se em 892 avaliações, realizadas através da observação direta, utilizando o Manual de Avaliação da Qualidade de Práticas de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo. Os resultados mostraram que as práticas relacionadas à higienização das mãos apresentaram índice de conformidade geral nulo, evidenciando baixos índices de conformidade individual, principalmente no que se refere à prática de higiene das mãos antes e após a troca do sistema de infusão, apresentando o menor índice de conformidade de todas as práticas observadas (10,3%. Já a prática relacionada à higienização das mãos antes e após a coleta de sangue apresenta melhor índice de conformidade individual (36,1%. Existe a necessidade de elaborar estratégias que assegurem a adesão das práticas de controle e prevenção de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter venoso central através de aderência ao processo de higienização das mãos, bem como instituir avaliações periódicas das condições de trabalho, no sentido de elevar os índices de conformidade. ============================================= The study aimed to evaluate the compliance and non-compliance of the intensive care unit staff with regard to hand hygiene practices when placing intravascular lines to prevent bloodstream infections related to central venous catheter placement. This was an observational study with a quantitative approach. The study was based on 892 reviews obtained through direct observation using the Manual of Quality Evaluation of Hospital Infection Control Practices of the State

  5. Hydrogen-related stress corrosion cracking in line pipe steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    1997-01-01

    A correlation between hydrogen concentration (C0) and the critical stress intensity factor for propagation of hydrogen-related cracks has been established by fracture mechanical testing of CT-specimens for the heat affected zone of an X-70 pipeline steel. This has been compared with field...

  6. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Ibarra, Alejandro [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Weniger, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)

  7. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)

  8. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  9. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities

  10. Designing a Method for AN Automatic Earthquake Intensities Calculation System Based on Data Mining and On-Line Polls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liendo Sanchez, A. K.; Rojas, R.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic intensities can be calculated using the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale or the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98), among others, which are based on a serie of qualitative aspects related to a group of subjective factors that describe human perception, effects on nature or objects and structural damage due to the occurrence of an earthquake. On-line polls allow experts to get an overview of the consequences of an earthquake, without going to the locations affected. However, this could be a hard work if the polls are not properly automated. Taking into account that the answers given to these polls are subjective and there is a number of them that have already been classified for some past earthquakes, it is possible to use data mining techniques in order to automate this process and to obtain preliminary results based on the on-line polls. In order to achieve these goal, a predictive model has been used, using a classifier based on a supervised learning techniques such as decision tree algorithm and a group of polls based on the MMI and EMS-98 scales. It summarized the most important questions of the poll, and recursive divides the instance space corresponding to each question (nodes), while each node splits the space depending on the possible answers. Its implementation was done with Weka, a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks, using the J48 algorithm which is an implementation of the C4.5 algorithm for decision tree models. By doing this, it was possible to obtain a preliminary model able to identify up to 4 different seismic intensities with 73% correctly classified polls. The error obtained is rather high, therefore, we will update the on-line poll in order to improve the results, based on just one scale, for instance the MMI. Besides, the integration of automatic seismic intensities methodology with a low error probability and a basic georeferencing system, will allow to generate preliminary isoseismal maps

  11. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  12. Effect of solar flare ans sunspot numbers on the intensity of 5577A line in the night airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, N.; Ghosh, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solar flare and sunspot number on the intensity of 5577 A line emission are presented. The time lag between the occurrence of a flare and the enhancement of 5577 A line intensity is determined by observing the intensity of the line on three successive nights- the night preceding the flare and the two nights following it. The velocity of the solar corpuscles is then calculated. The value obtained at Allahabad (2400 Km/sec) is in agreement with the De Jager's prediction for explosive flare. Day-to-day analyses of the observations taken at Allahabad exhibit high correlation of the intensity of 5577 A line emission with sunspot number. Also, correlation is found for the intensity of 5577 A with the change in sunspot number (DELTA R) from the day preceding the night of observation to the day following it. The intensity appears to vary with the magnetic field produced by the sunspot and not with the spot area. (author)

  13. Observations of Fe XIV Line Intensity Variations in the Solar Corona During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Payton; Ladd, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    We present time- and spatially-resolved observations of the inner solar corona in the 5303 Å line of Fe XIV, taken during the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse from a field observing site in Crossville, TN. These observations are used to characterize the intensity variations in this coronal emission line, and to compare with oscillation predictions from models for heating the corona by magnetic wave dissipation.The observations were taken with two Explore Scientific ED 102CF 102 mm aperture triplet apochromatic refractors. One system used a DayStar custom-built 5 Å FWHM filter centered on the Fe XIV coronal spectral line and an Atik Titan camera for image collection. The setup produced images with a pixel size of 2.15 arcseconds (~1.5 Mm at the distance to the Sun), and a field of view of 1420 x 1060 arcseconds, covering approximately 20% of the entire solar limb centered near the emerging sunspot complex AR 2672. We obtained images with an exposure time of 0.22 seconds and a frame rate of 2.36 Hz, for a total of 361 images during totality.An identical, co-aligned telescope/camera system observed the same portion of the solar corona, but with a 100 Å FWHM Baader Planetarium solar continuum filter centered on a wavelength of 5400 Å. Images with an exposure time of 0.01 seconds were obtained with a frame rate of 4.05 Hz. These simultaneous observations are used as a control to monitor brightness variations not related to coronal line oscillations.

  14. Analysis of the quadrupolar coupling effect on the line intensities using single-crystal nutation NMR in α-Al2O3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Ae Ja; Cho, So Hyun; Han, Duk Young

    2000-01-01

    With 1D-nutation NMR for a spin I = 5/2 system, the relative line intensities of central and the inner- and outer-satellite transitions are calculated as functions of quadrupolar coupling ω Q and rf pulse strength ω rf . Experimentally measured line intensities including both central and satellites are used to extract the values of ω Q and ω rf from nonlinear least-squares fits. The method is illustrated in α-Al 2 O 3 crystals (ruby and corundum) with the single-crystal 27 Al nutation NMR spectra. As a result, the new feature that the rf pulse strength shows reduced effect on the satellite transition lines according to the quadrupolar coupling is discussed by using fictitious spin-1/2 operator

  15. A comparison of theoretical and solar-flare intensity ratios for the Fe XIX X-ray lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Mason, H.E.; Fawcett, B.C.; Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Atomic data consisting of energy levels, g f-values and wavelengths are presented for the Fe XIX 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3s, 2s 2 2p 3 3d arrays that give rise to lines in solar flare and active-region X-ray spectra. Collision strengths and theoretical intensity ratios are given for the 2s 2 2p 4 -2s 2 2p 3 3d lines, which occur in the 13.2-14.3 A range. Solar spectra in this range include a large number of other intense lines, notably those due to He-like Ne (Ne IX). Although the Ne IX lines are potentially the most useful indicators of electron density in solar X-ray spectra, blending with the Fe XIX lines has been a major problem for previous analyses. Comparison of observed spectra with those calculated from the Fe XIX atomic data presented here and Ne IX lines from other work indicates that there is generally good agreement. We use the calculated Fe XIX and Ne IX line spectra and several observed spectra during a flare previously analysed to estimate electron density from Ne IX line ratios, thus for the first time properly taking into account blends with Fe XIX lines. (author)

  16. Influence of Laser Radiation Power Density on the Intensity of Spectral Lines for Main Components in a Clay Laser-Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the intensity of the spectral lines for the main components in clay: Al I 309.4 nm, Al II 358.7 nm, Mg II 279.6 nm, Ti II 323.6 nm vs. the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system when the samples are exposed to single laser pulses from a YAG:Nd3+ laser. We have determined the permissible ranges for positioning the object relative to the focus of the optical system (positive and negative defocusing) for which there is practically no change in the reproducibility of the intensity for the spectral lines for red and white clay samples. We show that the position of the object relative to the focus of the optical system should be within the range ΔZ ±1.5 mm for optimal laser pulse energies for the analyte spectral lines. We have calculated the radiation flux density for different laser pulse energies and different distances from the focus to the object. We have shown experimentally that reducing the radiation flux density leads to a decrease in the intensity of the analyte spectral lines.

  17. Consistency of neutron and proton capture intensity standards new relative intensities for 56Co, 66Ga decay and 35Cl(n,γ) reaction gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Z.; Belgya, T.

    2000-01-01

    The equivalence of efficiency determination procedures based on neutron and proton capture lines has been verified and the deviation of high-energy efficiency from linearity confirmed. The new, accurate relative intensities for 56 Co and 66 Ga extend the range of secondary radioactive standards up to 4.8 MeV. Extreme care has to be taken with any high-energy intensity value obtained in the past with the help of 56 Co and 66 Ga calibration sources, and corrections have to be made using the present data of high accuracy. Relative intensities have also been improved for the 35 Cl(n,γ) reaction, a useful secondary standard in a wide energy range, between 0.3-8.5 MeV. The new data are supported by other most recent measurements of a slightly lower precision

  18. New formulae for magnetic relative helicity and field line helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We consider a magnetic field {B} occupying the simply connected domain D and having all its field lines tied to the boundary S of D. We assume here that {B} has a simple topology, i.e., the mapping {M} from positive to negative polarity areas of S associating to each other the two footpoints of any magnetic line, is continuous. We first present new formulae for the helicity H of {B} relative to a reference field {{B}}r having the same normal component {B}n on S, and for its field line helicity h relative to a reference vector potential {{C}}r of {{B}}r. These formulae make immediately apparent the well known invariance of these quantities under all the ideal MHD deformations that preserve the positions of the footpoints on S. They express indeed h and H either in terms of {M} and {B}n, or in terms of the values on S of a pair of Euler potentials of {B}. We next show that, for a specific choice of {{C}}r, the field line helicity h of {B} fully characterizes the magnetic mapping {M} and then the topology of the lines. Finally, we give a formula that describes the rate of change of h in a situation where the plasma moves on the perfectly conducting boundary S without changing {B}n and/or non-ideal processes, described by an unspecified term {N} in Ohm’s law, are at work in some parts of D.

  19. Temporal and Latitudinal Variations of the Length-Scales and Relative Intensities of the Chromospheric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. P.

    2018-05-01

    The Calcium K spectroheliograms of the Sun from Kodaikanal have a data span of about 100 years and covers over 9 solar cycles. The Ca line is a strong chromospheric line dominated by chromospheric network and plages which are good indicators of solar activity. Length-scales and relative intensities of the chromospheric network have been obtained in the solar latitudes from 50 degree N to 50 degree S from the spectroheliograms. The length-scale was obtained from the half-width of the two-dimensional autocorrelation of the latitude strip which gives a measure of the width of the network boundary. As reported earlier for the transition region extreme ultraviolet (EUV) network, relative intensity and width of the chromospheric network boundary are found to be dependent on the solar cycle. A varying phase difference has been noticed in the quantities in different solar latitudes. A cross-correlation analysis of the quantities from other latitudes with ±30 degree latitude revealed an interesting phase difference pattern indicating flux transfer. Evidence of equatorward flux transfer has been observed. The average equatorward flux transfer was estimated to be 5.8 ms-1. The possible reasons of the drift could be meridional circulation, torsional oscillations, or the bright point migration. Cross-correlation of intensity and length-scale from the same latitude showed increasing phase difference with increasing latitude. We have also obtained the cross correlation of the quantities across the equator to see the possible phase lags in the two hemispheres. Signatures of lags are seen in the length scales of southern hemisphere near the equatorial latitudes, but no such lags in the intensity are observed. The results have important implications on the flux transfer over the solar surface and hence on the solar activity and dynamo.

  20. Improvement in dose escalation using off-line and on-line image feedback in the intensity modulated beam design for prostate cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Birkner, M.; Nuesslin, F.; Wong, J.; Martinez, A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the capability of dose escalation in the IMRT process where the organ/patient temporal geometric variation, measured using either off-line or on-line treatment CT and portal images, are adapted for the optimal design of intensity modulated beam. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study was performed on five prostate cancer patients with multiple CT scans (14∼17/patient) and daily portal images obtained during the treatment course. These images were used to determine the displacements of each subvolume in the organs of interest caused by the daily patient setup and internal organ motion/deformation. The temporal geometric information was processed in order of treatment time and fed into an inverse planning system. The inverse planning engine was specifically implemented to adapt the design of intensity modulated beam to the temporal subvolume displacement and patient internal density changes. Three image feedback strategies were applied to each patient and evaluated with respect to the capability of safe dose escalation. The first one is off-line image feedback, which designs the beam intensity based on the patient images measured within the first week of treatment. The second is an on-line 'the target of the day' strategy, which designs the beam intensity in daily bases by using 'the image of the day' alone. The last one is also the on-line based. However, it designs the instantaneous beam intensity based on also dose distribution in each organ of interest received prior to the current treatment. For each of the treatment strategies, the minimum dose delivered to the CTV was determined by applying the identical normal tissue constraints of partial dose/volumes. This minimum dose was used to represent the treatment dose for each patient. Results: The off-line strategy appears feasible after 5 days of image feedback. The average treatment dose among the patients can be 10% higher than the one in the conventional IMRT treatment where the inverse

  1. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  2. A high intensity beam line of γ-rays up to 22MeV energy based on Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Xu, W.; Chen, J.G.; Ma, Y.G.; Cai, X.Z.; Wang, H.W.; Xu, Y.; Wang, C.B.; Lu, G.C.; Tian, W.D.; Yuan, R.Y.; Xu, J.Q.; Wei, Z.Y.; Yan, Z.; Shen, W.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source, a high intensity beam line of γ-ray, has been proposed recently. The beam line is expected to generate γ-rays up to the maximum energy of 22MeV by Compton backscattering between a CO 2 laser and electrons in the 3.5 GeV storage ring of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The flux of non-collimated γ-rays is estimated to be 10 9 -10 10 s -1 when a CO 2 laser of several hundred Watt power is employed. We will discuss physics issues in the design and optimization of the beam line

  3. The spatial intensity distribution of selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 - Comparison between theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that most of the spatial intensity distribution of 11 selected emission lines for Herbig-Haro 1 (including the forbidden S II emission lines at 6731 A and 4069 A, the forbidden O III line at 5007 A, and the forbidden O II line at 3727 A) can be explained by a bow shock with a shock velocity of about 150-200 km/sec at the stagnation point, and under the assumption that the gas entering the shock is fully preionized. The results are based on three spectrograms (with a total exposure time of 180 min) obtained consecutively. Specifically, the ratios of each of the forbidden lines to H-alpha were studied, which permitted a critical test of the model. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observations was found to be remarkable, considering the complex geometry that a bow shock could have. 38 refs

  4. Influence of the operating parameters and of the sample introduction system on time correlation of line intensities using an axially viewed CCD-based ICP-AES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco, E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Mermet, Jean Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of the acquisition and operating parameters on time correlation between emission line intensities was investigated using axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-multichannel-based emission spectrometry and various sample introduction systems. It was found that to obtain flicker-noise limited signals, necessary to compensate for time-correlated signal fluctuations by internal standardization, the flicker-noise magnitude of the sample introduction system, the integration time and the emission line intensity had to be considered. The highest correlation between lines was observed for ultrasonic nebulization with desolvatation, the noisiest system among those considered, for which the contribution of the uncorrelated shot-noise was negligible. In contrast, for sample introduction systems characterized by lower flicker-noise levels, shot-noise led to high, non-correlated RSD values, making the internal standard method to be much less efficient. To minimize shot-noise, time correlation was improved by increasing the emission line intensities and the integration time. Improvement in repeatability did not depend only on time correlation, but also on the ratio between the relative standard deviations of the analytical and reference lines. The best signal compensation was obtained when RSD values of the reference and analytical lines were similar, which is usually obtained when the system is flicker-noise limited, while departure from similarity can lead to a degradation of repeatability when using the internal standard method. Moreover, the use of so-called robust plasma conditions, i.e. a high power (1500 W) along with a low carrier gas flow rate (0.8 L/min) improved also the compensation. Finally, high correlation and consequent improvement in repeatability by internal standardization was observed also in the presence of complex matrices (sediment and soil samples), although a matrix-induced degradation of the correlation between lines was generally

  5. Contribution of inner shell Compton ionization to the X-ray fluorescence line intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jorge E.; Scot, Viviana; Di Giulio, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The Compton effect is a potential ionization mechanism of atoms. It produces vacancies in inner shells that are filled with the same mechanism of atomic relaxation as the one following photo-absorption. This contribution to X-ray fluorescence emission is frequently neglected because the total Compton cross-section is apparently much lower than the photoelectric one at useful X-ray energies. However, a more careful analysis suggests that is necessary to consider single shell cross sections (instead of total cross sections) as a function of energy. In this article these Compton cross sections are computed for the shells K, L1-L3 and M1-M5 in the framework of the impulse approximation. By comparing the Compton and the photoelectric cross-section for each shell it is then possible to determine the extent of the Compton correction to the intensity of the corresponding characteristic lines. It is shown that for the K shell the correction becomes relevant for excitation energies which are too high to be influent in X-ray spectrometry. In contrast, for L and M shells the Compton contribution is relevant for medium-Z elements and medium energies. To illustrate the different grades of relevance of the correction, for each ionized shell, the energies for which the Compton contribution reaches the extent levels of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100% of the photoelectric one are determined for all the elements with Z = 11-92. For practical applications it is provided a simple formula and fitting coefficients to compute average correction levels for the shells considered.

  6. Diffusion effects on the line intensities of He I and He II in the solar transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, R.; Gerola, H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of diffusion in the solar chromosphere-corona transition region is developed. Diffusion becomes increasingly important with steeper temperature gradients, in active and quiet regions relative to coronal holes, and with increasing excitation potential. Numerical calculations are made for the resonance lines of He i and He ii and show that diffusion can enhance these lines. Thus the helium lines may appear relatively weak in coronal holes due to a weakening of the enhancement mechanism. Most transition region lines will be less affected by diffusion than He i or He ii

  7. Intensity and bunch length measurement for lepton beam in the injection lines of the SPS and LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Boccard, C; Papis, J P; Vos, L

    1995-01-01

    We describe a system which is used operationally to measure the absolute intensity of single lepton bunches in a beam transfer line. It is based on the detailed knowledge of every single item of a complex measuring chain that comprises a beam coupler on one end and an acquisition system on the other end. This knowledge can be acquired by a well tested theoretical model and careful measurement of the transfer function of each processing module. A precision better than 3 % can be obtained and no external calibration is required. A value for the bunch length can be deduced from a spectral intensity measurement at two well chosen frequencies.

  8. Comparing Administrative and Clinical Data for Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jory; Issa, Mohamed; Nasrallah, Ali; Bahroloomi, Sheena; Blackwood, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU). Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011). The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD-10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  9. Comparing administrative and clinical data for central line associated blood stream infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jory Bond

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs are a frequent source of health complication for patients of all ages, including for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU and Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit (PCTU. Many hospitals, including the University of Michigan Health System, currently use the International Classification of Disease (ICD coding system when coding for CLABSI. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of coding for CLABSI infections with ICD-9CM codes in PICU and PCTU patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 75 PICU and PCTU patients with 90 events of hospital acquired central line infections at the University of Michigan Health System (from 2007-2011. The different variables examined in the chart review included the type of central line the patient had, the duration of the stay of the line, the type of organism infecting the patient, and the treatment the patient received. A review was conducted to assess if patients had received the proper ICD-9CM code for their hospital acquired infection. In addition, each patient chart was searched using Electronic Medical Record Search Engine to determine if any phrases that commonly referred to hospital acquired CLABSIs were present in their charts. Our review found that in most CLABSI cases the hospital’s administrative data diagnosis using ICD-9CM coding systems did not code for the CLABSI. Our results indicate a low sensitivity of 32% in the PICU and an even lower sensitivity of 12% in the PCTU. Using these results, we can conclude that the ICD-9CM coding system cannot be used for accurately defining hospital acquired CLABSIs in administrative data. With the new use of the ICD- 10CM coding system, further research is needed to assess the effects of the ICD-10CM coding system on the accuracy of administrative data.

  10. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...

  11. X-ray diffraction patterns and diffracted intensity of Kα spectral lines of He-like ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, Rinku; Mohan, Man

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated fine-structure energy levels related to the configurations 1s2s, 1s2p, 1s3s and 1s3p by employing GRASP2K code. We have also computed radiative data for transitions from 1s2p 1 P1o, 1s2p 3 P2o, 1s2p 3 P1o and 1s2s 3S1 to the ground state 1s2. We have made comparisons of our presented energy levels and transition wavelengths with available results compiled by NIST and good agreement is achieved. We have also provided X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Kα spectral lines, namely w, x, y and z of Cu XXVIII, Kr XXXV and Mo with diffraction angle and maximum diffracted intensity which is not published elsewhere in the literature. We believe that our presented results may be beneficial in determination of the order parameter, X-ray crystallography, solid-state drug analysis, forensic science, geological and medical applications.

  12. Line positions and intensities for the ν3 band of 5 isotopologues of germane for planetary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, V.; Grigoryan, T.; Philipot, F.; Richard, C.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Manceron, L.; Rizopoulos, A.; Auwera, J. Vander; Encrenaz, Th.

    2018-01-01

    The germane molecule, GeH4, is present in the atmospheres of giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. The ongoing NASA mission Juno has renewed interest in its spectroscopy, whose accurate modeling is essential for the retrieval of other tropospheric species. We present here the first complete analysis and modeling of line positions and intensities in the strongly absorbing ν1/ν3 stretching dyad region near 2100 cm-1 , for all five germane isotopologues in natural abundance. New infrared spectra were recorded, absolute intensities were extracted through a careful procedure and modeled thanks to the formalism and programs developed in the Dijon group. A database of calculated germane lines, GeCaSDa, has been build and is available online through the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) portal and at http://vamdc.icb.cnrs.fr/PHP/gecasda.php.

  13. Line Intensity Measurements in 14N 216O and Their Treatment Using the Effective Dipole Moment Approach . I. The 4300- to 5200-cm -1 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumont, L.; Auwera, J. Vander; Teffo, J.-L.; Perevalov, V. I.; Tashkun, S. A.

    2001-08-01

    This work continues a series of publications devoted to the application of the effective operator approach to the vibrational-rotational treatment of linear triatomic molecules, aiming at the analysis and prediction of their infrared spectra. In that frame work, we have started a large-scale work aiming at the global description of line intensities of cold and hot bands of 14N216O in its ground electronic state in the spectral range above 3600 cm-1. In 14N216O, vibrational interacting levels group in polyads as a result of the relation 2ω1≈4ω2≈ω3 existing between the harmonic frequencies. The polyads are identified by the so-called polyad number P=2V1+V2+4V3. The work described in the present paper concerns bands associated with transitions corresponding to ΔP=7, 8, and 9. The absorption spectra of N2O at room temperature have been recorded at a resolution of 0.007 cm-1 in the range from 4300 to 5200 cm-1 using a Bruker IFS120HR Fourier transform spectrometer. Sample pressure/absorption path length products ranging from 7 to 1753 mbar × m have been used. More than 3000 absolute line intensities have been measured in 66 different bands belonging to the ΔP=7, 8, and 9 series. Dicke narrowing has been observed in the high-pressure spectra. Using wavefunctions previously determined from a global fit of an effective Hamiltonian to about 18,000 line positions (S. A. Tashkun, V. I. Perevalov, and J.-L. Teffo to be published), the experimental intensities measured in this work and by R. A. Toth (J. Mol. Spectrosc.197, 158-187 (1999)) were fitted to 47 parameters of a corresponding effective dipole moment, with residuals very close to the experimental uncertainty. Exa mples are given showing that the modeling reproduces intensities of perturbed lines well.

  14. Relative Contribution of Odour Intensity and Valence to Moral Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Parma, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs. supra-threshold) favours deontological moral choices, those based on the principle of not harming others even when such harm provides benefits. As expected, this odour intensity effect is tracked by skin conductance responses, whereas no difference in cardiac activity - proxy for the valence dimension - is revealed. Study 2 suggests that the same neutral odour presented sub-threshold increases deontological choices even when compared to iso-intense ambiguous odour, perceived as pleasant or unpleasant by half of the participants, respectively. Skin conductance responses, as expected, track odour pleasantness, but cardiac activity fails to do so. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms alternative to disgust induction underlying moral choices.

  15. The relation between rumination and temporal features of emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Verleysen, Gregory; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe; Verduyn, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Intensity profiles of emotional experience over time have been found to differ primarily in explosiveness (i.e. whether the profile has a steep vs. a gentle start) and accumulation (i.e. whether intensity increases over time vs. goes back to baseline). However, the determinants of these temporal features remain poorly understood. In two studies, we examined whether emotion regulation strategies are predictive of the degree of explosiveness and accumulation of negative emotional episodes. Participants were asked to draw profiles reflecting changes in the intensity of emotions elicited either by negative social feedback in the lab (Study 1) or by negative events in daily life (Study 2). In addition, trait (Study 1 & 2), and state (Study 2) usage of a set of emotion regulation strategies was assessed. Multilevel analyses revealed that trait rumination (especially the brooding component) was positively associated with emotion accumulation (Study 1 & 2). State rumination was also positively associated with emotion accumulation and, to a lesser extent, with emotion explosiveness (Study 2). These results provide support for emotion regulation theories, which hypothesise that rumination is a central mechanism underlying the maintenance of negative emotions.

  16. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  17. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  18. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  19. The proposed INEL intense slow positron source, beam line, and positron microscope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Denison, A.B.; Brown, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program is currently underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to design and construct an Intense Slow Positron Beam Facility with an associated Positron Microscope. Positron beams have been shown to be valuable research tools and have potential application in industrial processing and nondestructive evaluation (microelectronics, etc.). The limit of resolution or overall usefulness of the technique has been limited because of lack of sufficient intensity. The goal of the INEL positron beam is ≥ 10 12 slow e+/s over a 0.03 cm diameter which represents a 10 3 to 10 4 advancement in beam current over existing beam facilities. The INEL is an ideal site for such a facility because of the nuclear reactors capable of producing intense positron sources and the personnel and facilities capable of handling high levels of radioactivity. A design using 58 Co with moderators and remoderators in conjunction with electrostatic positron beam optics has been reached after numerous computer code studies. Proof-of-principle electron tests have demonstrated the feasibility of the large area source focusing optics. The positron microscope development is occurring in conjunction with the University of Michigan positron microscope group. Such a Beam Facility and associated Intense Slow Positron Source (ISPS) can also be utilized for the generation and study of positron, and positron electron plasmas at ≤ 10 14 particles/cm 3 with plasma temperatures ranging from an eV to many keV, as well as an intense x-ray source via positron channeling radiation. The possibility of a tunable x-ray laser based on channeling positron radiation also exists. In this discussion the authors will present a progress report on various activities associated with the INEL ISPS

  20. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three...... observation period. Side effects were evaluated clinically. No tumors appeared in untreated control mice or in just IPL-treated mice. Skin tumors developed in UV-exposed mice independently of IPL treatments. The time it took for 50% of the mice to first develop skin tumor ranged from 47 to 49 weeks...... in preoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.94) and from 22 to 23 weeks in pre- and postoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.11). IPL rejuvenation of lightly pigmented skin did not induce pigmentary changes (p=1.00). IPL rejuvenation of UV-pigmented skin resulted in an immediate increased skin pigmentation and a subsequent...

  1. NH3 quantum rotators in Hofmann clathrates: intensity and width of rotational transition lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorderwisch, Peter; Sobolev, Oleg; Desmedt, Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    Inelastic structure factors for rotational transitions of uniaxial NH 3 quantum rotators, measured in a Hofmann clathrate with biphenyl as guest molecule, agree with those calculated for free rotators. A finite intrinsic line width, found for rotational transitions involving the rotational level j=3 at low temperature, supports a recently suggested model based on resonant rotor-rotor coupling

  2. Relating Solar Energetic Particle Event Fluences to Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; Ling, Alan G.

    2018-02-01

    Recently we (Kahler and Ling, Solar Phys. 292, 59, 2017: KL) have shown that time-intensity profiles [I(t)] of 14 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be fitted with a simple two-parameter fit, the modified Weibull function, which is characterized by shape and scaling parameters [α and β]. We now look for a simple correlation between an event peak energy intensity [Ip] and the time integral of I(t) over the event duration: the fluence [F]. We first ask how the ratio of F/Ip varies for the fits of the 14 KL events and then examine that ratio for three separate published statistical studies of SEP events in which both F and Ip were measured for comparisons of those parameters with various solar-flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters. The three studies included SEP energies from a 4 - 13 MeV band to E > 100 MeV. Within each group of SEP events, we find a very robust correlation (CC > 0.90) in log-log plots of F versus Ip over four decades of Ip. The ratio increases from western to eastern longitudes. From the value of Ip for a given event, F can be estimated to within a standard deviation of a factor of {≤} 2. Log-log plots of two studies are consistent with slopes of unity, but the third study shows plot slopes of { 10 MeV to {>} 100 MeV. This difference is not explained.

  3. Principal component analysis of the main factors of line intensity enhancements observed in oscillating direct current plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, Milovan M.; Pasti, Igor A.; Momcilovic, Milos D.; Savovic, Jelena J.; Pavlovic, Mirjana S.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of emission line intensities by induced oscillations of direct current (DC) arc plasma with continuous aerosol sample supply was investigated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to evaluate enhancements of 34 atomic spectral lines belonging to 33 elements and 35 ionic spectral lines belonging to 23 elements. Correlation and classification of the elements were done not only by a single property such as the first ionization energy, but also by considering other relevant parameters. Special attention was paid to the influence of the oxide bond strength in an attempt to clarify/predict the enhancement effect. Energies of vaporization, atomization, and excitation were also considered in the analysis. In the case of atomic lines, the best correlation between the enhancements and first ionization energies was obtained as a negative correlation, with weak consistency in grouping of elements in score plots. Conversely, in the case of ionic lines, the best correlation of the enhancements with the sum of the first ionization energies and oxide bond energies was obtained as a positive correlation, with four distinctive groups of elements. The role of the gas-phase atom-oxide bond energy in the entire enhancement effect is underlined.

  4. Transient thermal stresses and stress intensity factors induced by thermal stratification in feedwater lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.; Pardo, E.

    1985-01-01

    General analytical solutions for the thermal stresses and circumferential crack propagation in piping branches of nuclear power plants, that connect two circuits of the same fluid at different temperatures, are presented in this paper. Under certain conditions, two regions of the fluid possessing both temperatures with a separating layer of small thickness are formed ('flow stratification'). Dimensionless analytical expressions for the steady state temperature distribution in the pipe wall and the corresponding thermal stress are here derived, in terms of the basic geometrical and physical parameters. The position and thickness of the separating layer are considered as data of the model. Stress intensity ranges at any point of the tube wall are then determined. Finally, thermally induced stress intensity factors are calculated for hipothetically inside surface cracks. (orig.)

  5. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of auroral emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric auroral emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been found in nightglow emissions from photometer measurements and in the spectrochemical field from studies of optical light sources. Linear graphs have been obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. This new effect has been studied with a spectrophotometer in auroral emissions, where linear graphs have been obtained on different auroral occasions. By doing such studies of auroral light it is possible to see the importance of the inelastic scattering cross section between electrons - atoms and electrons - molecules. In this way it has shown to be possible to determine the mean energy of the interacting thermal electrons that are active in the different auroral phases. (author)

  6. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakakis, E.; Karabourniotis, D.

    2012-01-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  7. Atomic gas temperature in a nonequilibrium high-intensity discharge lamp determined from the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakakis, E. [Technological Educational Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Karabourniotis, D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2012-09-01

    For developing low-wattage high intensity discharge (HID) lamps, a better understanding of the relatively unexplored nonequilibrium phenomena is essential. This needs interpretation of diagnostic results by methods free from equilibrium assumptions. In this paper, the atomic temperature is determined from the simulation of a quasistatic broadened resonance line by distinguishing between atomic temperature and excitation temperature in the equation of radiative transfer. The proposed method is applied to the red wing of the resonance mercury line 254 nm emitted from a HID lamp working on ac. The experimental results show severe deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. More than one thousand degrees difference was obtained between atomic and electron temperatures at the maximum current phase.

  8. Relationship between the intensity of nonthermal radiation and widths of Balmer lines in the spectra of quasar-like nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komberg, B.V.; Shefer, E.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The data summarized by Steiner (1981) were used to derive the relationship between the intensity of nonthermal X-ray and radio emission and fullwidths of Balmer emission lines. It is shown that the existence of such dependences does not contradict the assumption on partition equidistribution of nonthermal radiation and motion of gas clouds energy in the region of formation of wide lines. Emphasis is given to similar dependence drived by Vayana (1981) for X-ray radiation from hot coronas of fast-rotating single stars, and a suggestion is made about radiation anisotropy from active nuclei (similar to that observed in the SS 433 system). The latter may imply the double nature of active nuclei

  9. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  10. Factors Related to Burnout in the Neonatal Intensive Care Nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    stages of psychosocial development , intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus...1983) eluded can be related to one’s attempt to master the psychosocial stages of development utilizing Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development ...early adulthood one must work through Erikson’s stage of 9 intimacy versus isolation. It is during this stage that one develops "the capacity

  11. High intensity beam profile monitors for the LAMPF primary beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; van Dyck, O.; Lee, D.; Harvey, A.; Bridge, J.; Cainet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitors are in use at LAMPF to measure the properties of the 800 MeV, 500 μA proton beam external to the linac. Both types use secondary electron emission from a wire to produce a current signal proportional to the amount of proton beam that intercepts the wire. The wire scanner system uses a pair of orthogonal wires which are passed through the beam and the harp system uses two fixed planes of parallel wires. Most of the harps are not retractable and are exposed continuously to the primary beam. The high beam intensities available lead to a number of technical problems for instruments that intercept the beam or are close to primary beam targets. The thermal, electrical, radiation-damage, and material selection problems encountered, and some solutions which have been implemented are discussed

  12. Effective line intensity measurements of trans-nitrous acid (HONO) of the ν1 band near 3600 cm-1 using laser difference-frequency spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Fourmentin, Marc; Dewaele, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Chen, Changshui; Chen, Weidong

    2017-07-01

    We report on the measurements of the effective line intensities of the ν1 fundamental band of trans-nitrous acid (trans-HONO) in the infrared near 3600 cm-1 (2.78 μm). A home-made widely tunable laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) was used for this study. The strengths of 28 well-resolved absorption lines of the ν1 band were determined by scaling their absorption intensities to the well referenced absorption line intensity of the ν3 band of trans-HONO around 1250 cm-1 recorded simultaneously with the help of a DFB quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectrometer. The maximum measurement uncertainty of 12% in the line intensities is mainly determined by the uncertainty announced in the referenced line intensities, while the measurement precision in frequency positions of the absorption lines is better than 6×10-4 cm-1. The cross-measurement carried out in the present work allows one to perform intensity calibration using well referenced line parameters.

  13. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  14. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  15. Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm - Selected intensities, N2-collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.

  16. Implementation of intensity ratio change and line-of-sight rate change algorithms for imaging infrared trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of the intensity change and line-of-sight (LOS) change concepts have previously been documented in the open-literature as techniques used by non-imaging infrared (IR) seekers to reject expendable IR countermeasures (IRCM). The purpose of this project was to implement IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) algorithms based on target intensity and kinematic behavior for a generic imaging IR (IIR) seeker model with the underlying goal of obtaining a better understanding of how expendable IRCM can be used to defeat the latest generation of seekers. The report describes the Intensity Ratio Change (IRC) and LOS Rate Change (LRC) discrimination techniques. The algorithms and the seeker model are implemented in a physics-based simulation product called Tactical Engagement Simulation Software (TESS™). TESS is developed in the MATLAB®/Simulink® environment and is a suite of RF/IR missile software simulators used to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures against various classes of guided threats. The investigation evaluates the algorithm and tests their robustness by presenting the results of batch simulation runs of surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) IIR missiles engaging a non-maneuvering target platform equipped with expendable IRCM as self-protection. The report discusses how varying critical parameters such track memory time, ratio thresholds and hold time can influence the outcome of an engagement.

  17. Simultaneous reconstruction, segmentation, and edge enhancement of relatively piecewise continuous images with intensity-level information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.; Johnson, V.

    1991-01-01

    A multinomial image model is proposed which uses intensity-level information for reconstruction of contiguous image regions. The intensity-level information assumes that image intensities are relatively constant within contiguous regions over the image-pixel array and that intensity levels of these regions are determined either empirically or theoretically by information criteria. These conditions may be valid, for example, for cardiac blood-pool imaging, where the intensity levels (or radionuclide activities) of myocardium, blood-pool, and background regions are distinct and the activities within each region of muscle, blood, or background are relatively uniform. To test the model, a mathematical phantom over a 64x64 array was constructed. The phantom had three contiguous regions. Each region had a different intensity level. Measurements from the phantom were simulated using an emission-tomography geometry. Fifty projections were generated over 180 degree, with 64 equally spaced parallel rays per projection. Projection data were randomized to contain Poisson noise. Image reconstructions were performed using an iterative maximum a posteriori probability procedure. The contiguous regions corresponding to the three intensity levels were automatically segmented. Simultaneously, the edges of the regions were sharpened. Noise in the reconstructed images was significantly suppressed. Convergence of the iterative procedure to the phantom was observed. Compared with maximum likelihood and filtered-backprojection approaches, the results obtained using the maximum a posteriori probability with the intensity-level information demonstrated qualitative and quantitative improvement in localizing the regions of varying intensities

  18. Correction factors for {gamma}-ray relative intensities in the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Chasteler, R.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Laymon, C.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Weller, H.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Moore, E.F. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Bybee, C.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Drake, J.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Tilley, D.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Vavrina, G. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Wallace, P.M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-16

    We present here strong evidence that recently published values for the relative intensities of {gamma}-ray lines in the {sup 66}Ga({beta}{sup +}+EC){sup 66}Zn decay are incorrect at the higher energies ({proportional_to}30% too low at 4.8 MeV). In particular, we find that our current results are consistent with a set of correction factors which were first suggested 20 years ago, but have gone largely ignored until now. Our validation of these little known correction factors will have bearing on experiments which use the {sup 66}Ga radioisotope to extrapolate absolute detector efficiencies to higher energies. In particular, we discuss the conclusions of a recent D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment which will be strongly affected by our current results. The astrophysical S-factor data derived from this D(p, {gamma}){sup 3}He experiment are now seen to be systematically too low by {proportional_to}30%. (orig.).

  19. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  20. Self-focusing and its related interactions at very high laser intensities for fast ignition at Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.A.; Kodama, R.; Izumi, N.; Takahashi, K.; Heya, M.; Fujita, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Miyanaga, N.; Norimatsu, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Sunahara, A.; Takabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Koase, T.; Iwatani, T.; Ohtani, F.; Miyakoshi, T.; Habara, H.; Tanpo, M.; Tohyama, S.; Weber, F.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Dasilva, L.B.; Dasilva, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    At the Institute of Laser Engineering, various type of experiments related to fast ignition were performed with the 12-beam laser system GEKKO XII and the newly added 100 TW beams line. Using both X-ray and UV laser probes, drilling via ponderomotive laser light self-focusing was studied to show drilling well into the overdense plasma over a distance of 100 μm at a self-focused laser intensity of 10 18 W/cm 2 . This type of self-focusing accelerated electrons up to 0.1 to 1 MeV and was also applied to an imploding shell. (authors)

  1. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  2. Funding intensive care - approaches in systems using diagnosis-related groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Ettelt, S; Nolte, E

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews approaches to funding intensive care in health systems that use activitybased payment mechanisms based on diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to reimburse hospital care. The report aims to inform the current debate about options for funding intensive care services for adults, children and newborns in England. Funding mechanisms reviewed here include those in Australia (Victoria), Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United States (Medicare). Approaches to org...

  3. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-09-01

    To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors.

  4. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  5. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA. The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  6. Tennis Play Intensity Distribution and Relation with Aerobic Fitness in Competitive Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Baiget

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2. Ventilatory and gas exchange parameters were monitored using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4 b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy. Two weeks later the participants played a simulated tennis set against an opponent of similar level. Intensity zones (1: low, 2: moderate, and 3: high were delimited by the individual VO2 values corresponding to VT1 and VT2, and expressed as percentage of maximum VO2 and heart rate. When expressed relative to VO2max, percentage of playing time in zone 1 (77 ± 25% was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than in zone 2 (20 ± 21% and zone 3 (3 ± 5%. Moderate to high positive correlations were found between VT1, VT2 and VO2max, and the percentage of playing time spent in zone 1 (r = 0.68-0.75, as well as low to high inverse correlations between the metabolic variables and the percentage of time spent in zone 2 and 3 (r = -0.49-0.75. Players with better aerobic fitness play at relatively lower intensities. We conclude that players spent more than 75% of the time in their low-intensity zone, with less than 25% of the time spent at moderate to high intensities. Aerobic fitness appears to determine the metabolic intensity that players can sustain throughout the game.

  7. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  8. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  9. Implementation of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundles in a surgical intensive care unit using peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Ko, Suhui; An, Hye-Sun; Bang, Ji Hwan; Chung, Woo-Young

    2017-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P  = 0.102) and post-intervention (9 m; P  = 0.036) periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period ( P  tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.

  10. Differences in work environment for staff as an explanation for variation in central line bundle compliance in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuna S H; Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a common and costly quality problem, and their prevention is a national priority. A decade ago, researchers identified an evidence-based bundle of practices that reduce CLABSIs. Compliance with this bundle remains low in many hospitals. The aim of this study was to assess whether differences in core aspects of work environments-workload, quality of relationships, and prioritization of quality-are associated with variation in maximal CLABSI bundle compliance, that is, compliance 95%-100% of the time in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional study of hospital medical-surgical ICUs in the United States was done. Data on work environment and bundle compliance were obtained from the Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-Effectiveness Refined Survey completed in 2011 by infection prevention directors, and data on ICU and hospital characteristics were obtained from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Factor and multilevel regression analyses were conducted. Reasonable workload and prioritization of quality were positively associated with maximal CLABSI bundle compliance. High-quality relationships, although a significant predictor when evaluated apart from workload and prioritization of quality, had no significant effect after accounting for these two factors. Aspects of the staff work environment are associated with maximal CLABSI bundle compliance in ICUs. Our results suggest that hospitals can foster improvement in ensuring maximal CLABSI bundle compliance-a crucial precursor to reducing CLABSI infection rates-by establishing reasonable workloads and prioritizing quality.

  11. Implementing a multifaceted intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in SEHA (Abu Dhabi Health Services Company) intensive care units: the Abu Dhabi experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asad; Kelly, Bernadette; Edrees, Hanan; Kent, Paula S; Weaver, Sallie J; Jovanovic, Branislava; Attallah, Hadeel; de Grouchy, Kristin K; Al-Obaidli, Ali; Goeschel, Christine A; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether implementation of a multifaceted intervention would significantly reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort collaborative. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Intensive care units of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. INTERVENTIONS A bundled intervention consisting of 3 components was implemented as part of the program. It consisted of a multifaceted approach that targeted clinician use of evidence-based infection prevention recommendations, tools that supported the identification of local barriers to these practices, and implementation ideas to help ensure patients received the practices. Comprehensive unit-based safety teams were created to improve safety culture and teamwork. Finally, the measurement and feedback of monthly infection rate data to safety teams, senior leaders, and staff in participating intensive care units was encouraged. The main outcome measure was the quarterly rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections. RESULTS Eighteen intensive care units from 7 hospitals in Abu Dhabi implemented the program and achieved an overall 38% reduction in their central line-associated bloodstream infection rate, adjusted at the hospital and unit level. The number of units with a quarterly central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of less than 1 infection per 1,000 catheter-days increased by almost 40% between the baseline and postintervention periods. CONCLUSION A significant reduction in the global morbidity and mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infections is possible across intensive care units in disparate settings using a multifaceted intervention.

  12. Age-related variability of some characters of karyotype instability in the mouse line CC57W/Mv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, T.T.; Safonova, N.A.; Kovaleva, O.A.; Stolina, M.P.; Solomko, A.P.; Malyuta, S.S.; Glazko, V.I.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1995-01-01

    The investigations of relations between cytogenetical variability in cells of bone marrow of the mouse line CC57W/Mv and factors of age and radioactivity pollution (the specific vivarium in the 30-km Chernobyl zone) were carried out. The karyotype instability on some characters were similarly between young mice in the Chernobyl zone and old mice under control conditions. The old Chernobyl mice differentiated from old control ones by a low frequency of some cytogenetic anomalies and higher values of the mitotic index. The contribution of the intensity of cell division into observed variabilities of cytogenetic character between different mouse groups was discussed

  13. Clinical Competence and Its Related Factors of Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Mirlashari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical competence of nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units together with advancements in medical science and technology increased the survival rate of newborns that need specialized care. To ensure the quality of care and provide the safety of patients, evaluating the clinical competence of nurses seems necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical competence of nurses in the neonatal intensive care units. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 117 nurses working in the neonatal intensive care units of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by census method. The research tool was Development of Competency Inventory for Registered Nurses questionnaire which completed by self-assessment. The mean clinical competence scores of participants categorized into 3 levels: weak: 273. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using the Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The highest levels of competence were related to critical thinking and research attitude and interpersonal relationships, and the lowest level was related to training and mentoring. There was a direct statistically significant relationship between marital status, employment status, level of interest in working in the neonatal intensive-care units and the clinical competence of nurses. Conclusion: Since the clinical competence of nurses in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units is vital, some variables such as interest in the nursing profession, employment status, the neonatal intensive theoretical and practical training courses and the amount of overtime working hours should be taken into consideration.

  14. DISCOVERY OF TIME VARIATION OF THE INTENSITY OF MOLECULAR LINES IN IRC+10216 IN THE SUBMILLIMETER AND FAR-INFRARED DOMAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla-Prieto, L. [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de La Cruz N3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Teyssier, D.; García-Lario, P. [ESA, ESAC, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Daniel, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St-Martin d' Hères (France); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); De Beck, E. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE 439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pearson, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We report on the discovery of strong intensity variations in the high rotational lines of abundant molecular species toward the archetypical circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216. The observations have been carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on board Herschel and with the IRAM30 m telescope. They cover several observing periods spreading over three years. The line intensity variations for molecules produced in the external layers of the envelope most likely result from time variations in the infrared pumping rates. We analyze the main implications this discovery has on the interpretation of molecular line emission in the envelopes of Mira-type stars. Radiative transfer calculations must take into account both the time variability of infrared pumping and the possible variation of the dust and gas temperatures with stellar phase in order to reproduce the observation of molecular lines at different epochs. The effect of gas temperature variations with stellar phase could be particularly important for lines produced in the innermost regions of the envelope. Each layer of the circumstellar envelope sees the stellar light radiation with a different lag time (phase). Our results show that this effect must be included in the models. The submillimeter and far infrared lines of asymptotic giant branch stars can no longer be considered as safe intensity calibrators.

  15. Issues of work intensity, pace, and sustainability in relation to work context and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This article raises issues about work intensity, pace, and sustainability during physical activity, focusing attention on the nature of work in labor-intensive societies, the management of exertion in habitual tasks, and the health and broad socioeconomic correlates of alternative ways to regulate work patterns. At the heart of this review are concerns to document human adaptability (in terms of the physical and behavioral management of heavy work) and to renew debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of work intensity (variously evaluated in absolute or relative terms, as indexed by oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, percentage maximal work capacity, heart rate elevation, time and motion indicators, or physiological cost). Three questions are examined: Is heavy work primarily a matter of time or energy intensity? How is heavy work habitually sustained? What is the bigger picture relating work performance to work context and to nutritional or health status? It is argued that many arduous activities, such as carrying loads, demand endurance over time rather than intensive effort per unit time, and that work pace management lies in regulating both the rate of work and the time in rest during physical activity. Furthermore, strategies that maximize long-term endurance (adopted by "tortoises") and those that maximize short-term productivity (adopted by "hares") are appropriate to different work contexts (e.g., a subsistence or wage-labor economy) and suit individuals with different health status and ability. Thus, work intensity is an important aspect of the links between physical activity, health, productivity, and society, as noted in literature reviewing objectives for sustainable development and public health messages for disease risk management. These areas of scholarship are underresearched, partly because consensus has been slow in agreeing on which are the best measures of work pace and work intensity for use in field situations, and which

  16. Alexithymia Is Related to the Need for More Emotional Intensity to Identify Static Fearful Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Starita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of alexithymia, a personality trait marked by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented style of thinking, appear to require more time to accurately recognize intense emotional facial expressions (EFEs. However, in everyday life, EFEs are displayed at different levels of intensity and individuals with high alexithymia may also need more emotional intensity to identify EFEs. Nevertheless, the impact of alexithymia on the identification of EFEs, which vary in emotional intensity, has largely been neglected. To address this, two experiments were conducted in which participants with low (LA and high (HA levels of alexithymia were assessed in their ability to identify static (Experiment 1 and dynamic (Experiment 2 morphed faces ranging from neutral to intense EFEs. Results showed that HA needed more emotional intensity than LA to identify static fearful – but not happy or disgusted – faces. On the contrary, no evidence was found that alexithymia affected the identification of dynamic EFEs. These results extend current literature suggesting that alexithymia is related to the need for more perceptual information to identify static fearful EFEs.

  17. The intensity-pitch relation revisited: monopolar versus bipolar cochlear stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Riss, Dominik; Kaider, Alexandra; Mair, Alois; Wagenblast, Jens; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstöttner, Wolfgang; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan

    2008-09-01

    The very high speech perception scores now being achieved with cochlear implants have led to demands for similar levels of achievement in music perception and perception in noisy environments. One of the crucial factors in these fields is pitch perception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which pitch perception is influenced by the intensity of the stimulus, through the use of different stimulation modes (monopolar, bipolar) and different electrodes (lateral and perimodiolar). Sixteen postlingually deafened patients with an average implant use of 3.1 years were included in this study. All patients were using a Cochlear (CI24M, CI24R, CI24RE) cochlear implant. Subjects were asked to compare the pitch of an intensity-constant reference tone with the pitch of a test tone of varying intensity. The test was repeated for apical, mediocochlear, and basal channel locations, and also for monopolar and bipolar stimulation. It was found that in monopolar stimulation 87.5% and in bipolar stimulation 85.7% of the patients perceived a clear pitch change with changing intensity of the stimulus (Spearman correlation coefficients r 0.3, respectively). A total of 73.1% of these patients perceived lower pitches with increasing intensity, 26.9% reported the opposite effect. No statistically significant difference in the intensity-pitch correlation could be found between mono- and bipolar stimulation. Neither the mean dynamic range nor the type of electrode used was found to be related to the correlation coefficient. Although the majority of today's cochlear implant recipients perform well and the intensity-pitch relation in cochlear implant recipients is still poorly understood, rising demands on speech-coding strategies may soon make a compensation of the pitch shifts desirable. Although the results of our study tend to argue against a peripheral mechanism, the exact origin of this phenomenon remains unclear.

  18. Accounting for adaptation and intensity in projecting heat wave-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Nordio, Francesco; Nairn, John; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D

    2018-02-01

    How adaptation and intensity of heat waves affect heat wave-related mortality is unclear, making health projections difficult. We estimated the effect of heat waves, the effect of the intensity of heat waves, and adaptation on mortality in 209 U.S. cities with 168 million people during 1962-2006. We improved the standard time-series models by incorporating the intensity of heat waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and estimating adaptation empirically using interactions with yearly mean summer temperature (MST). We combined the epidemiological estimates for heat wave, intensity, and adaptation with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model dataset to project heat wave-related mortality by 2050. The effect of heat waves increased with its intensity. Adaptation to heat waves occurred, which was shown by the decreasing effect of heat waves with MST. However, adaptation was lessened as MST increased. Ignoring adaptation in projections would result in a substantial overestimate of the projected heat wave-related mortality (by 277-747% in 2050). Incorporating the empirically estimated adaptation into projections would result in little change in the projected heat wave-related mortality between 2006 and 2050. This differs regionally, however, with increasing mortality over time for cities in the southern and western U.S. but decreasing mortality over time for the north. Accounting for adaptation is important to reduce bias in the projections of heat wave-related mortality. The finding that the southern and western U.S. are the areas that face increasing heat-related deaths is novel, and indicates that more regional adaptation strategies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sour Taste preferences of children relate to preference of novel and intense stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Westerbeek, A.; Wolterink, S.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that some children have a preference for sour tastes. The origin of this preference remains unclear. We investigated whether preference for sour tastes is related to a difference in rated sour intensity due to physiological properties of saliva, or to an overall

  20. Causal relations between knowledge-intensive business services and regional employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, T.; Capasso, M.; Duschl, M.; Frenken, K.; Treibich, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural

  1. Intensity, but not duration, of physical activities is related to cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Vanhees, Luc; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Verhaar, Harald J. J.; Aufdernkarnpe, Geert; Aleman, Andrie; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  2. Intensity, but not duration of physical activities is related to cognitive function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Aleman; Geert Aufdemkampe; H.J. Verhaar; W. Wendel-Vos; Drs. Maaike Angevaren; Prof. Dr. Luc L.E.M.J. Vanhees; W.M. Verschuren

    2007-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is thought to facilitate cognitive performance and to slow down the rate of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the association between the time spent on physical activity as well as the average intensity of these activities and cognitive

  3. Use of deformed intensity distributions for on-line modification of image-guided IMRT to account for interfractional anatomic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Radhe; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang He; Kang Yixiu; Wang Xiaochun; Liu, Helen; Ang, K.; Kuban, Deborah; Dong Lei

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that there can be significant changes in anatomy from day to day and over the course of radiotherapy as a result of daily positioning uncertainties and physiologic and clinical factors. There are a number of strategies to minimize such changes, reduce their impact, or correct for them. Measures to date have included improved immobilization of external and internal anatomy or adjustment of positions based on portal or ultrasound images. Perhaps the most accurate way is to use CT image-guided radiotherapy, for which the possibilities range from simple correction of setup based on daily CT images to on-line near real-time intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) replanning. In addition, there are numerous intermediate possibilities. In this paper, we report the development of one such intermediate method that takes into account anatomic changes by deforming the intensity distributions of each beam based on deformations of anatomy as seen in the beam's-eye-view. Methods and materials: The intensity distribution deformations are computed based on anatomy deformations discerned from the changes in the current image relative to a reference image (e.g., the pretreatment CT scan). First, a reference IMRT plan is generated based on the reference CT image. A new CT image is acquired using an in-room CT for every fraction. The anatomic structure contours are obtained for the new image. (For this article, these contours were manually drawn. When image guided IMRT methods are implemented, anatomic structure contours on subsequent images will likely be obtained with automatic or semiautomatic means. This could be achieved by, for example, first deforming the original CT image to match today's image, and then using the same deformation transformation to map original contours to today's image.) The reference intensity distributions for each beam are then deformed so that the projected geometric relationship within the beam

  4. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  5. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  6. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...

  7. Increasing land-use intensity reverses the relative occupancy of two quadrupedal scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Twining

    Full Text Available Human land use is continuously altering the natural environment, yet the greater ecological implications of this change for many groups that are key to healthy ecosystem functioning remains uncharacterised in the tropics. Terrestrial scavenging vertebrates are one such group, providing integral ecosystem services through the removal of carrion which is a crucial component of both nutrient cycling and disease dynamics. To explore how anthropogenic processes may affect forest scavengers, we investigated the changes in the relative occupancy of two important terrestrial scavengers along a gradient of land use intensity, ranging from protected forest to oil palm plantation in Borneo. We found the Malay civet (Viverra tangalunga had highest, albeit variable, occupancy in areas of low land use intensity and the Southeast Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator macromaculatus had highest occupancy in areas of high land use intensity. Land use had no effect on the combined occupancy of the two species. In high land use intensity sites, individual water monitors were larger and had better body condition, but at population level had a highly biased sex ratio with more males than females and increased signs of intraspecific conflict. We did not assess scavenging rate or efficiency as a process, but the high occupancy rates and apparent health of the scavengers in high land use intensity landscapes suggests this ecological process is robust to land use change.

  8. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Silva, Ikaro; Park, Shinhyuk; Moody, George B; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-10

    The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge "Predicting mortality of ICU Patients". QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database.

  9. Development of apparatus for high-intensity beam lines at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    The new counter experimental hall was constructed at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (the KEK-PS) in order to handle high-intensity primary proton beams of up to 1 x 10 13 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1 x 10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the new hall construction. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beam is briefly reported. (author)

  10. Implementation of central line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundles in a surgical intensive care unit using peer tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. Methods A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. Results The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P = 0.102 and post-intervention (9 m; P = 0.036 periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period (P < 0.001, with incidence-rate ratios of 0.348 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.23 in the intervention period and 0.257 (95% CI, 0.07–0.91 in the post-intervention period. However, after the 9-month post-intervention period, the yearly CLABSI rates reverted to 3.0–5.4 infections per 1000 catheter-days over 3 years. Conclusions Implementation of CLABSI prevention bundles using peer tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.

  11. Revealing discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts: Line-intensity correlation analysis from laser-induced plasma emission spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yonghoon, E-mail: yhlee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Kyung-Sik [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Song-Hee [Division of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Jeonnam 530-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jonghyun, E-mail: jyoo@appliedspectra.com [Applied Spectra, Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the discriminating power of the elements in edible sea salts using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). For the ten different sea salts from South Korea, China, Japan, France, Mexico and New Zealand, LIBS spectra were recorded in the spectral range between 190 and 1040 nm, identifying the presence of Na, Cl, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Sr, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, C, O, N, and H. Intensity correlation analysis of the observed emission lines provided a valuable insight into the discriminating power of the different elements in the sea salts. The correlation analysis suggests that the elements with independent discrimination power can be categorized into three groups; those that represent dissolved ions in seawater (K, Li, and Mg), those that are associated with calcified particles (Ca and Sr), and those that are present in soils contained in the sea salts (Al, Si, Ti, and Fe). Classification models using a few emission lines selected based on the results from intensity correlation analysis and full broadband LIBS spectra were developed based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and their performances were compared. Our results indicate that effective combination of a few emission lines can provide a dependable model for discriminating the edible sea salts and the performance is not much degraded from that based on the full broadband spectra. This can be rationalized by the intensity correlation results. - Highlights: • Broadband LIBS spectra of various edible sea salts were obtained. • Intensity correlation of emission lines of the elements in edible sea salts was analyzed. • The elements were categorized into three groups with independent discriminating power. • The effective combination of a few lines can provide dependable classification models.

  12. THE ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECTRAL LINE INTENSITY MAPPING AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS AND CMB SPECTRAL DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L.; Walter, F. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chluba, J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Nucleo de Astronomia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Lower Withington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Popping, G. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Cortes, P. [Joint ALMA Observatory—ESO, Av. Alonso de Cordova, 3104, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL2333 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Riechers, D., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99 and 242 GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for spectral line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the ALMA spectral deep field observations “ASPECS” survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242 GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [C ii] 158 μ m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ( z  ∼ 6–7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean line surface brightness, independent of conversion factors, excitation, or other galaxy formation model assumptions. The mean surface brightness in the 99 GHZ band is: T{sub B}  = 0.94 ± 0.09 μ K. In the 242 GHz band, the mean brightness is: T{sub B}  = 0.55 ± 0.033 μ K. These should be interpreted as lower limits on the average sky signal, since we only include lines detected individually in the blind survey, while in a low resolution intensity mapping experiment, there will also be the summed contribution from lower luminosity galaxies that cannot be detected individually in the current blind survey.

  13. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  14. A prospective window into medical device-related pressure ulcers in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona M; Stotts, Nancy A; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, location, aetiology, treatment and healing of medical device-related pressure ulcers (PUs) in intensive care patients for up to 7 days. A prospective repeated measures study design was used. Patients in six intensive care units of two major medical centres, one each in Australia and the USA, were screened 1 day per month for 6 months. Those with device-related ulcers were followed daily for up to 7 days. The outcome measures were device-related ulcer prevalence, pain, infection, treatment and healing. Fifteen of 483 patients had device-related ulcers and 9 of 15 with 11 ulcers were followed beyond screening. Their mean age was 60·5 years, and most were men, overweight and at increased risk of PU. Endotracheal (ET) and nasogastric (NG) tubes were the cause of most device-related ulcers. Repositioning was the most frequent treatment. Four of 11 ulcers healed within the 7-day observation period. In conclusion, device-related ulcer prevalence was 3·1%, similar to that reported in the limited literature available, indicating an ongoing problem. Systematic assessment and repositioning of devices are the mainstays of care. We recommend continued prevalence determination and that nurses remain vigilant to prevent device-related ulcers, especially in patients with NG and ET tubes. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Numerical modelling of the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An accurate numerical model to investigate the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer in two-pump fibre optical parametric amplifiers (2-P FOPAs) for low modulation frequencies is presented. Compared to other models in the field, this model takes into account the fibre loss, pump depletion as well as the gain ...

  16. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  17. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  18. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  19. Obstetric patients' health-related quality of life before and after intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pia, Seppänen; Reijo, Sund; Tero, Ala-Kokko; Mervi, Roos; Jukka, Uotila; Mika, Helminen; Tarja, Suominen

    2018-03-23

    Intensive care admissions during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period are relatively well investigated. However, very little is known about these obstetric patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) before and after critical care. The objective of this study was to assess obstetric patients' HRQoL before intensive care admission (baseline) and at 6 months after discharge (follow-up) DESIGN: This was a retrospective database study. In a 5-year period, the data of all women admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during pregnancy, delivery, or up to 42 days postpartum were analysed. Four multidisciplinary ICUs of Finnish University hospitals participated. The HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) instrument with utility score (EQsum) and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). A total of 283 obstetric patients were identified from the clinical information system. Of these, 99 (35%) completed the EQ-5D questionnaires both at baseline and follow-up, and 65 of them (23%) completed EQ-VAS. The comparison of patients' EQsum scores before intensive care admission and after discharge showed that patients' HRQoL remained good (0.970 vs 0.972) (max 1.0) or increased (0.788 vs 0.982) in 80.8% of the patients. Patients reported improved overall health on the EQ-VAS at 6 months follow-up (EQ-VAS mean, 71.86 vs 88.20; p ≤ 0.001) (max 100). However, 19.2% of the patients had lower HRQoL (EQsum mean 0.987 vs 0.798) at follow-up. Following intensive care, 15% of the patients had more pain/discomfort, and 11% expressed more depression/anxiety. Multiparous patients were more likely to suffer from worsened depression/anxiety (p = 0.024). In the majority of the obstetric patients, HRQoL at 6 months follow-up remained good or had increased from baseline. However, nearly one-fifth of the patients had impaired HRQoL after discharge. Thus, intensive care management should take in to consideration follow-up program after intensive care of ICU-admitted obstetric

  20. New analysis of the ν5 and 2 ν9 bands of HNO 3 by infrared and millimeter wave techniques: line positions and intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, A.; Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.-M.; Klee, S.; Mellau, G.; Mäder, H.; Walbrodt, D.; Winnewisser, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3) plays an important role in the Earth's atmosphere as a reservoir molecule of NO x species. It has a strong infrared signature at 11 μm which is one of the most commonly used for the infrared retrieval of this species in the atmosphere since this spectral region coincides with an atmospheric window. It is therefore essential to have high quality spectral parameters in this spectral region. The main goal of this work is then to generate as reliable as possible line positions and intensities for the ν5 and 2 ν9 cold bands centered at 879.1075 and 896.4467 cm -1, respectively. In particular the existing line parameters need improvement in the wings of the 11 μm window in order to retrieve more accurately the CFC-11 (CCl 3F) and CFC-12 (CCl 2F 2) atmospheric species at ˜850 and ˜920 cm -1, respectively. This work is also motivated by theoretical considerations. Very strong resonances couple indeed the 5 1 and 9 2 rotational levels. In addition the ν9 mode (OH torsion) is a "large amplitude" motion, and torsional splittings affect both the v9=2 and the v5=1 rotational transitions. In the present study, these effects are accounted for simultaneously both for the line position and line intensity calculations. To calculate the line positions the Hamiltonian matrix accounts for the very strong Fermi and the weaker Coriolis interactions linking the 5 1⇔9 2 rotational levels, and the torsional effects are accounted for within the frame of the IAM (Internal Axis Method) approach. In addition, the v-diagonal blocks involve non-orthorhombic operators together with Watson's type rotational operators. This means that the z-quantization axis deviates from the a inertial axis for both the 5 1 and 9 2 vibrational states. The line intensity calculations were performed accounting also for the axis switching effects. As far as the experimental line positions are concerned we have used the millimeter wave data available in the literature [J. Mol. Spectrosc

  1. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  2. Non-equilibrium Modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D Line Ratio in an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  3. Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Shonenkov, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Pustyl'nik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Thoma, M. A.; Thomas, H. M.; Padalka, G. I.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of the elongated dust cloud on the intensities of different neon spectral lines in visible and near ir spectral ranges in the uniform positive column has been experimentally investigated using the Russian-European space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4” (SA PK-4) on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The investigation was performed in the low pressure (0.5 mbar) direct current (dc, 1 mA) gas discharge in neon. Microgravity allowed us to perform experiments with a large dust cloud in the steady-state regime. To avoid the dust cloud drift in the dc electric field a switching dc polarity discharge mode has been applied. During the experiment a dust cloud of 9 mm in diameter in the discharge tube of 30 mm in diameter with the length of about 100 mm has been observed in the steady-state regime. In this regard, the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3p → 3s electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.4 times, while the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3d → 3p electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.6 times. The observed phenomenon is explained on the basis of the Schottky approach by a self-consistent rising dc electric field in the dusty plasma cloud resulting in an increase of the electron temperature.

  4. Life satisfaction in patients with chronic pain – relation to pain intensity, disability, and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke BM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenAims: To investigate pain intensity, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, disability, and life satisfaction in patients with injury-related chronic pain and to analyze differences in these variables regarding gender.Methods: Questionnaires addressing pain intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS], anxiety and depression (hospital anxiety and depression [HAD] scale, posttraumatic stress (impact of event scale, disability (disability rating index, and life satisfaction [LiSat-11] were answered by 160 patients at assessment at the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden.Results: High level of pain intensity was scored on the VAS (mean value 64.5 ± 21.1 mm together with high levels of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Activity limitations in everyday life and decreased life satisfaction were reported, especially on the items physical health and psychological health. A multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant association between low scores on the overall life satisfaction on LiSat-11 and high scores on HAD-depression (odds ratio = 1.141, confidence interval 1.014–1.285. Few gender differences were found.Conclusion: These findings highlight the value of a broad screening in patients with injury-related chronic pain with respect to the relationship of life satisfaction with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and disability. In addition, these findings support the biopsychosocial approach to assess and treat these patients optimally.Keywords: whiplash injuries, depression, quality of life

  5. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h(-1) (D>14.4 km·h(-1)) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen's d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h(-1) (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h(-1) was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h(-1) increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in 'fitness' do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key pointsWhen playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a 'tolerable' relative exercise intensity.While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008).In the context of

  6. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth: The International Children's Accelerometry Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Corder

    2016-12-01

    Age-related declines in vigorous-intensity activity during youth appear relatively greater than those of moderate activity. However, due to a higher baseline, absolute moderate-intensity activity decreases more than vigorous. Overweight/obese individuals, girls, and North Americans appear especially in need of vigorous-intensity activity promotion due to low levels at 5.0–5.9 y and larger negative annual differences.

  7. The SAURON project : XVIII. The integrated UV-line-strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, Martin; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Sohn, Young-Jong; Thomas, Daniel; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) photometry from guest investigator programmes on the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite, optical photometry from the MDM Observatory and optical integral-field spectroscopy from SAURON, we explore the UV-line-strength relations of the

  8. Schistosome infection intensity is inversely related to auto-reactive antibody levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Mutapi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal experimental models, parasitic helminth infections can protect the host from auto-immune diseases. We conducted a population-scale human study investigating the relationship between helminth parasitism and auto-reactive antibodies and the subsequent effect of anti-helminthic treatment on this relationship. Levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA and plasma IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 613 Zimbabweans (aged 2-86 years naturally exposed to the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium. ANA levels were related to schistosome infection intensity and systemic IL-10 levels. All participants were offered treatment with the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel and 102 treated schoolchildren (5-16 years were followed up 6 months post-antihelminthic treatment. ANA levels were inversely associated with current infection intensity but were independent of host age, sex and HIV status. Furthermore, after allowing for the confounding effects of schistosome infection intensity, ANA levels were inversely associated with systemic levels of IL-10. ANA levels increased significantly 6 months after anti-helminthic treatment. Our study shows that ANA levels are attenuated in helminth-infected humans and that anti-helminthic treatment of helminth-infected people can significantly increase ANA levels. The implications of these findings are relevant for understanding both the aetiology of immune disorders mediated by auto-reactive antibodies and in predicting the long-term consequences of large-scale schistosomiasis control programs.

  9. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  10. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  11. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Aviram

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucid dreaming (LD is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD, and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187 self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy, stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78 reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming, emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in

  12. Role of soil biology and soil functions in relation to land use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Giulia; Wall, David; Bacher, Matthias; Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Graça, Jessica; Marongiu, Irene; Creamer, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The delivery of the ecosystem's functions is predominantly controlled by soil biology. The biology found in a gram of soil contains more than ten thousand individual species of bacteria and fungi (Torsvik et al., 1990). Understanding the role and the requirements of these organisms is essential for the protection and the sustainable use of soils. Soil biology represents the engine of all the processes occurring in the soil and it supports the ecosystem services such as: 1) nutrient mineralisation 2) plant production 3) water purification and regulation and 4) carbon cycling and storage. During the last years land management type and intensity have been identified as major drivers for microbial performance in soil. For this reason land management needs to be appropriately studied to understand the role of soil biology within this complex interplay of functions. We aimed to study whether and how land management drives soil biological processes and related functions. To reach this objective we built a land use intensity index (LUI) able to quantify the impact of the common farming practices carried out in Irish grassland soils. The LUI is derived from a detailed farmer questionnaire on grassland management practices at 38 farms distributed in the five major agro-climatic regions of Ireland defined by Holden and Brereton (2004). Soils were classified based on their drainage status according to the Irish Soil Information System by Creamer et al. (2014). This detailed questionnaire is then summarised into 3 management intensity components: (i) intensity of Fertilisation (Fi), (ii) frequency of Mowing (Mi) and (iii) intensity of Livestock Grazing (Gi). Sites were sampled to assess the impact of land management intensity on microbial community structure and enzyme behaviour in relation to nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycling. Preliminary results for enzymes linked to C and N cycles showed higher activity in relation to low grazing pressure (low Gi). Enzymes linked to P

  13. Biased resistor network model for electromigration failure and related phenomena in metallic lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta, C.; Alfinito, E.; Reggiani, L.; Fantini, F.; Demunari, I.; Scorzoni, A.

    2004-11-01

    Electromigration phenomena in metallic lines are studied by using a biased resistor network model. The void formation induced by the electron wind is simulated by a stochastic process of resistor breaking, while the growth of mechanical stress inside the line is described by an antagonist process of recovery of the broken resistors. The model accounts for the existence of temperature gradients due to current crowding and Joule heating. Alloying effects are also accounted for. Monte Carlo simulations allow the study within a unified theoretical framework of a variety of relevant features related to the electromigration. The predictions of the model are in excellent agreement with the experiments and in particular with the degradation towards electrical breakdown of stressed Al-Cu thin metallic lines. Detailed investigations refer to the damage pattern, the distribution of the times to failure (TTFs), the generalized Black’s law, the time evolution of the resistance, including the early-stage change due to alloying effects and the electromigration saturation appearing at low current densities or for short line lengths. The dependence of the TTFs on the length and width of the metallic line is also well reproduced. Finally, the model successfully describes the resistance noise properties under steady state conditions.

  14. The communication between patient relatives and physicians in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicekci, Faruk; Duran, Numan; Ayhan, Bunyamin; Arican, Sule; Ilban, Omur; Kara, Iskender; Turkoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Fatma; Hasirci, Ismail; Karaibrahimoglu, Adnan; Kara, Inci

    2017-07-17

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians. The questionnaire included three sub-dimensions: informing, empathy and trust. The study included 181 patient relatives and 103 ICU physicians from three different cities and six hospitals. Based on the results of the questionnaire, identification of the mutual expectations and substance of the messages involved in the communication process between the ICU patients' relatives and physicians was made. The gender and various disciplines of the physicians and the time of the conversation with the patients' relatives were found to affect the communication attitude towards the patient. Moreover, the age of the patient's relatives, the level of education, the physician's perception, and the contact frequency with the patient when he/she was healthy were also proven to have an impact on the communication attitude of the physician. This study demonstrates the mutual expectations and substance of messages in the informing, empathy and trust sub-dimensions of the communication process between patient relatives and physicians in the ICU. The communication between patient relatives and physicians can be strengthened through a variety of training programs to improve communication skills.

  15. Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sean T; Hale, Bruce D

    2007-06-01

    This study considered relationships between the intensity and directional aspects of competitive state anxiety as measured by the modified Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2(D) (Jones & Swain, 1992) in a sample of 12 experienced male golfers. Anxiety and performance scores from identical putting tasks performed under three different anxiety-manipulated competitive conditions were used to assess both the predictions of Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the relative value of intensity and direction in explaining performance variance. A within-subjects regression analysis of the intra-individual data showed partial support for the three MAT hypotheses. Cognitive anxiety intensity demonstrated a negative linear relationship with performance, somatic anxiety intensity showed a curvilinear relationship with performance, and self-confidence intensity revealed a positive linear relation. Cognitive directional anxiety illustrated a positive linear relationship with putting performance. Multiple regression analyses indicated that direction (42% of variance) was a better predictor of performance than intensity (22%).

  16. Provision of protein and energy in relation to measured requirements in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Esmailzadeh, Negar; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2012-01-01

    , also when adjusted for baseline prognostic variables (APACHE II, SOFA scores and age). Provision of energy, measured resting energy expenditure or energy and nitrogen balance was not related to mortality. The possible cause-effect relationship is discussed after a more detailed analysis of the initial......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequacy of nutritional support in intensive care patients is still a matter of investigation. This study aimed to relate mortality to provision, measured requirements and balances for energy and protein in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of 113 ICU...... part of the admission. CONCLUSION: In these severely ill ICU patients, a higher provision of protein and amino acids was associated with a lower mortality. This was not the case for provision of energy or measured resting energy expenditure or energy or nitrogen balances. The hypothesis that higher...

  17. Karoshi Related to Labor Intensity and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning-guo; Wang, Tao; Huang, Pingf; Qing, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Jian-hua; Chen, Yi-jiu

    2015-10-01

    Karoshi remains one of the most troublesome issues in forensic identification. It is rather a social medicine than a clinical disease. Japanese scholars pioneered examining the relation between sud- den cardiac death (SCD) and chronic fatigue from long time and/or high-tension work. In the current case, a 55-year-old man, whose job was loading and carrying heavy cement bags, was found dead after 11 days of continuous hard work. His family members sued the cement factory for his death and claimed for compensation. The problem was the difficulty of identifying the causative relation without the precedent or the relevant regulations. However, the forensic problems were finally acknowledged after autopsy and calculation of labor intensity. The lawsuit was won as the first case pertaining to Karoshi in the Chinese court.

  18. How Do Different Aspects of Spatial Skills Relate to Early Arithmetic and Number Line Estimation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Cornu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the predictive role of spatial skills for arithmetic and number line estimation in kindergarten children (N = 125. Spatial skills are known to be related to mathematical development, but due to the construct’s non-unitary nature, different aspects of spatial skills need to be differentiated. In the present study, a spatial orientation task, a spatial visualization task and visuo-motor integration task were administered to assess three different aspects of spatial skills. Furthermore, we assessed counting abilities, knowledge of Arabic numerals, quantitative knowledge, as well as verbal working memory and verbal intelligence in kindergarten. Four months later, the same children performed an arithmetic and a number line estimation task to evaluate how the abilities measured at Time 1 predicted early mathematics outcomes. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that children’s performance in arithmetic was predicted by their performance on the spatial orientation and visuo-motor integration task, as well as their knowledge of the Arabic numerals. Performance in number line estimation was significantly predicted by the children’s spatial orientation performance. Our findings emphasize the role of spatial skills, notably spatial orientation, in mathematical development. The relation between spatial orientation and arithmetic was partially mediated by the number line estimation task. Our results further show that some aspects of spatial skills might be more predictive of mathematical development than others, underlining the importance to differentiate within the construct of spatial skills when it comes to understanding numerical development.

  19. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 10^{9} particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E_{0} at FWHM. A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90  deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  20. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  1. The meaning and importance of vigilant attendance for the relatives of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Cant, Bob; Fouka, Georgia; Vardaki, Zambia

    2014-09-01

    To explore the meaning of vigilant attendance for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece. A plethora of international research has identified proximity to the patient to be a major concern for relatives of critically ill patients. Greece however follows a strict visiting policy in intensive care units (ICUs) so Greek relatives spend great amounts of time just outside the ICUs. This qualitative study adopted the social constructionist version of grounded theory. Data were collected from three ICUs in Athens through in depth interviews with 25 informants and approximately 10 h of observations outside the ICUs on 159 relatives. Vigilant attendance was one of the main coping mechanisms identified for relatives. Four subcategories were found to comprise vigilant attendance: (1) being as close as possible to feel relief, (2) being there to find out what is going on, (3) monitoring changes in the loved one and making own diagnosis and (4) interacting with the ICU professionals. Vigilant attendance describes the way in which relatives in Greece stayed outside the ICUs. Relatives felt satisfaction from being close as the best alternative for not actually being inside the ICU and they tried to learn what was going on by alternative methods. By seeing the patients, relatives were also able to make their own diagnoses and could therefore avoid relying solely on information given to them. However, a prerequisite for successful vigilant attendance was to get on well with doctors and nurses. Changes in visiting policies in Greece are needed to meet the needs of relatives adequately. Recommendations for changes with minimal investment of time and funding are made. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  2. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm extension movements were associated with predictable and unpredictable electrocutaneous pain or its absence. During a subsequent test phase non-painful electrocutaneous stimuli with a high or low intensity were presented during movement execution. We used hierarchical drift diffusion modeling to examine the influence of expecting pain on the perceptual decision-making process underlying intensity perception of non-painful sensations. In the first experiment (n=36), the pain stimulus was never presented during the test phase after conditioning. In the second experiment (n=39), partial reinforcement was adopted to prevent extinction of pain expectations. In both experiments, movements that were associated with (un)predictable pain led to higher pain-expectancy, self-reported fear, unpleasantness and arousal, as compared to movements that were never paired with pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .119 - .557; all p-values threat of the pain US remained present - we found that the expectation of pain affected decision-making. Compared to the no pain condition, an a priori decision-making bias towards the high intensity decision threshold was found with the strongest bias during unpredictable pain (effect sizes ηp ranging from .469 - .504; all p-values affects inferential processes for subsequent painful but also for non-painful bodily stimuli, with unpredictability moderating these effects, and only when the threat of pain remains present due to partial reinforcement.

  3. Barbara's story: a thematic analysis of a relative's reflection of being in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin; Probst, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this reflective account is to provide a view of the intensive care unit (ICU) relative's experiences of supporting and being supported in the ICU. Understanding the relatives' experiences of ICU is important especially because a recent work has identified the potential for this group to develop post-traumatic stress disorder, a condition that is normally equated with the ICU survivor. A thematic analysis was used in identifying emerging themes that would be significant in an ICU nursing context. The incident took place in two 8-bedded ICUs (Private and National Health Service) in October. Two emergent themes were identified from the reflective story - fear of the technological environment and feeling hopeless and helpless. The use of relative stories as an insight into the live experiences of ICU relatives may give a deeper understanding of their life-world. The loneliness, anguish and pain of the ICU relative extends beyond the walls of the ICU, and this is often negated as the focus of the ICU team is the patient. Developing strategies to support relatives might include the use of relative diaries used concurrently with patient diaries to support this groups recovery or at the very least a gaining a sense of understanding for their ICU experience. Relative follow-up clinics designed specifically to meet their needs where support and advice can be given by the ICU team, in addition to making timely and appropriate referrals to counselling services and perhaps involving spiritual leaders where appropriate. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. The relative-intensity method of X-ray fluorescence analysis and its application to soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, C.W.; Furkert, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative-intensity X-ray fluorescence method of analysis of rock and soil samples has been investigated and compared with the net-intensity method. Strong, coherently scattered radiation originating from the X-ray tube is shown to be preferable to background radiation as an internal standard, and scattered radiation measured at one wavelength can usefully be applied in the determination of several elements. When the concentrations of an element in two soil samples of different composition (for example concretions and the soil adjacent to them) are compared, the ratio of the relative intensities may be different from the ratio of net intensities by a factor of about two. The concentrations of manganese in thirteen standard rock samples determined by the relative-intensity method are within or very close to the ranges of values reported previously

  5. Coping With Staff Burnout and Work-Related Posttraumatic Stress in Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Gillian A; Smith, Jared G; Brierley, Joe; Citron, Kim; Nguru, Noreen M; Shaunak, Priyanka D; Tam, Olivia; Perkins-Porras, Linda

    2017-07-01

    To examine the associations with symptoms of 1) burnout and 2) work-related posttraumatic stress, in adult and pediatric intensive care staff, focusing on the particular contributions of resilience and coping strategies. Point prevalence cross-sectional study. Three adult ICUs and four PICUs. Three hundred seventy-seven ICU staff. None. Brief Resilience Scale, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of burnout (defined as high emotional exhaustion or high depersonalization) was 37%. Prevalence of clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms was 13%. There was a degree of overlap between burnout and other measures of distress, most notably for anxiety (odds ratio, 10.56; 95% CI, 4.12-27.02; p work-related distress (burnout: odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36-0.74; p stress: odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.46; p stress were less if staff used talking to seniors (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92; p = 0.029) or hobbies (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93; p = 0.030) to cope with stress at work. Venting emotion (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.12-3.31; p = 0.018) and using alcohol (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.26-4.20; p = 0.006) were associated with a doubling in risk of reporting burnout. The use of particular coping strategies was systematically associated with symptoms of burnout and work-related posttraumatic stress in this group of intensive care staff, even after controlling for resilience and other factors. More research on how best to promote adaptive coping is needed in these challenging settings.

  6. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  7. High resolution study of MSiH4 (M=28, 29, 30) in the Dyad Region: Analysis of line positions, intensities and half-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-12-01

    The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.

  8. Case management for high-intensity service users: towards a relational approach to care co-ordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Escott, Diane; Bee, Penny

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a formative evaluation of a case management service for high-intensity service users in Northern England. The evaluation had three main purposes: (i) to assess the quality of the organisational infrastructure; (ii) to obtain a better understanding of the key influences that played a role in shaping the development of the service; and (iii) to identify potential changes in practice that may help to improve the quality of service provision. The evaluation was informed by Gittell's relational co-ordination theory, which focuses upon cross-boundary working practices that facilitate task integration. The Assessment of Chronic Illness Care Survey was used to assess the organisational infrastructure and qualitative interviews with front line staff were conducted to explore the key influences that shaped the development of the service. A high level of strategic commitment and political support for integrated working was identified. However, the quality of care co-ordination was variable. The most prominent operational factor that appeared to influence the scope and quality of care co-ordination was the pattern of interaction between the case managers and their co-workers. The co-ordination of patient care was much more effective in integrated co-ordination networks. Key features included clearly defined, task focussed, relational workspaces with interactive forums where case managers could engage with co-workers in discussions about the management of interdependent care activities. In dispersed co-ordination networks with fewer relational workspaces, the case managers struggled to work as effectively. The evaluation concluded that the creation of flexible and efficient task focused relational workspaces that are systemically managed and adequately resourced could help to improve the quality of care co-ordination, particularly in dispersed networks. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  10. Retention predictors related to intensive outpatient programs for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, L J; Remley, T P; Kippers, S M; Sorg, J D

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to expand knowledge in the current literature regarding treatment retention in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. The sample in this study participated in a hospital-based program accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation for Health Organizations (JCAHO) that utilized the Minnesota model. Specifically, this inquiry investigated whether treatment retention would be predicted by gender, age, employment status, number of problems on the treatment plan, whether the referral was related to driving while intoxicated (DWI), marital status, race, and whether each of the following substance problems was listed as the client's primary DSM-IV diagnosis: alcohol dependence, cocaine dependence, polysubstance dependence, opioid dependence, sedative/hypnotic dependence, cannabis dependence, other (or unknown) dependence, alcohol abuse, cannabis abuse, amphetamine abuse, and caffeine intoxication. Findings indicated that those retained in treatment, when compared to those who dropped out, had significantly more problems on their treatment plans, were more likely to be alcoholics, were less often cocaine addicts, and were more likely to be employed. The results of this study suggest that clients with this profile have increased likelihood of being retained in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

  11. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  12. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-01-01

    Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics o...

  13. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-01-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft–Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  14. Inpatient Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Complications: Should Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter Lines Be Placed in the Intensive Care Unit Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyak, Michael; Kabir, Ishraq; Britt, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are now commonly used for central access in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting; however, there is a paucity of data evaluating the complication rates associated with these lines. We performed a retrospective review of all PICCs placed in the inpatient setting at our institution during a 1-year period from January 2013 to December 2013. These were divided into two groups: those placed at the bedside in the ICU and those placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients. Data regarding infectious and thrombotic complications were collected and evaluated. During the study period, 1209 PICC line placements met inclusion criteria and were evaluated; 1038 were placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients, and 171 were placed at the bedside in ICU patients. The combined thrombotic and central line associated blood stream infection rate was 6.17 per cent in the non-ICU group and 10.53 per cent in the ICU group (P = 0.035). The thrombotic complication rate was 5.88 per cent in the non-ICU group and 7.60 per cent in the ICU group (P = 0.38), whereas the central line associated blood stream infection rate was 0.29 per cent in the non-ICU group and 2.92 per cent in the ICU group (P = 0.002). This study seems to suggest that PICC lines placed at the bedside in the ICU setting are associated with higher complication rates, in particular infectious complications, than those placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients. The routine placement of PICC lines in the ICU settings needs to be reevaluated given these findings.

  15. Displacements and intensities of the components of hydrogenic lines of the helium atom in the presence of exterior uniform electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, C.; Herman, L.; Nguyen, H.; Drawin, H.W.

    1967-01-01

    The Waller-Foster method for hydrogenic lines of neutral helium is extended in order to take into account an external magnetic field (vector K) having an arbitrary angle with an external constant electric field (vector F). The diagonal correction has been evaluated numerically taking into account recent experimental data. A Fortran IV program written for the CDC 3600 computer allows to calculate the displacements and the intensities for any hydrogenic transition. Special attention is given to the {2-4} transitions in neutral helium. (authors) [fr

  16. Two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature in ergodic layer of LHD measured from line intensity ratio of CIV and NeVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Murakami, Izumi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Dong, Chunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional distribution of impurity lines emitted from ergodic layer with stochastic magnetic field lines in Large Helical Device (LHD) has been observed using a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer. The two-dimensional electron temperature distribution in the ergodic layer is successfully measured using the line intensity ratio of Li-like NeVIII 2s-3p ( 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 3/2 : 88.09 Å, 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 1/2 : 88.13 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 102.91 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 103.09 Å) transitions emitted from radial location near Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The intensity ratio analyzed with ADAS code shows no dependence on the electron density below 10 14 cm -3 . The result indicates a little higher temperature, i.e., 220 eV, in the poloidal location at high-field side near helical coils called O-point compared to the temperature near X-point, i.e., 170 eV. The electron temperature profile is also measured at the edge boundary of ergodic layer using the line intensity ratio of Li-like CIV 2p-3d ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 D 3/2 : 384.03 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 D 5/2 : 384.18 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.53 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.71 Å) transitions. The intensity ratios analyzed with CHIANTI, ADAS and T.Kawachi codes show a slightly higher temperature near O-point, i.e., 25 eV for CHIANTI, 21 eV for ADAS and 11 eV for T.Kawachi's codes, compared to the temperature at X-point, i.e., 15 - 21 eV for CHIANTI, 9 - 15 eV for ADAS and 6 - 9 eV for T.Kawachi codes. It suggests that the transport coefficient in the ergodic layer is varied with three-dimensional structure. (author)

  17. The Attachment Imperative: Parental Experiences of Relation-making in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navne, Laura E; Svendsen, Mette N; Gammeltoft, Tine M

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we explore how parents establish relations with extremely premature infants whose lives and futures are uncertain. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), we engage recent discussions of the limits of conventional anthropological thinking on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment. Such "cuts" in parent-infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as "maybe-lives" by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for "maybe-parents." © 2017 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. A Pilot Directional Protection for HVDC Transmission Line Based on Relative Entropy of Wavelet Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing high-voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system and its fault superimposed circuit, the direction of the fault components of the voltage and the current measured at one end of transmission line is certified to be different for internal faults and external faults. As an estimate of the differences between two signals, relative entropy is an effective parameter for recognizing transient signals in HVDC transmission lines. In this paper, the relative entropy of wavelet energy is applied to distinguish internal fault from external fault. For internal faults, the directions of fault components of voltage and current are opposite at the two ends of the transmission line, indicating a huge difference of wavelet energy relative entropy; for external faults, the directions are identical, indicating a small difference. The simulation results based on PSCAD/EMTDC show that the proposed pilot protection system acts accurately for faults under different conditions, and its performance is not affected by fault type, fault location, fault resistance and noise.

  19. Effect of Intensive Education and Training of Nurses on Ventilator-associated Pneumonia and Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection Incidence in Intensive Care Unit at a Tertiary Care Center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Neeru; Biswal, Manisha; Gandhi, Komal; Kaur, Kulbeer; Saini, Vikas; Yaddanapudi, Lakshminarayana N

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to analyze the impact of education and training of nurses on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). A prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital included adult patients with Intensive Care Unit stay >48 h. The study was done in three phases: in Phase 1, baseline VAP and CLABSI incidence was calculated; in Phase 2, education and training of nurses; and in Phase 3, data were recollected for the incidence of VAP and CLABSI. The baseline incidence of VAP in Phase 1 was 28.86/1000 ventilator days and that of CLABSI was 7.89/1000 central-line days. In Phase 3, the incidence of VAP increased to 35.06 and that of CLABSI decreased significantly, 1.73. Intensive education and training sessions with feedback from nurses over a period of 6 months led to significant reduction in the incidence of CLABSI; however, the incidence of VAP increased.

  20. A Solar-Pumped Fluorescence Model for Line-By-Line Emission Intensities in the B-X, A-X, and X-X Band Systems of 12C14N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new quantitative model for detailed solar-pumped fluorescent emission of the main isotopologue of CN. The derived fluorescence efficiencies permit estimation and interpretation of ro-vibrational infrared line intensities of CN in exospheres exposed to solar (or stellar) radiation. Our g-factors are applicable to astronomical observations of CN extending from infrared to optical wavelengths, and we compare them with previous calculations in the literature. The new model enables extraction of rotational temperature, column abundance, and production rate from astronomical observations of CN in the inner coma of comets. Our model accounts for excitation and de-excitation of rotational levels in the ground vibrational state by collisions, solar excitation to the A(sup 2)Pi(sub I) and B(sup 2)Sum(sup +) electronically excited states followed by cascade to ro-vibrational levels of X(sup 2)Sum(sup +), and direct solar infrared pumping of ro-vibrational levels in the X(sup 2)Sum(sup +) state. The model uses advanced solar spectra acquired at high spectral resolution at the relevant infrared and optical wavelengths and considers the heliocentric radial velocity of the comet (the Swings effect) when assessing the exciting solar flux for a given transition. We present model predictions for the variation of fluorescence rates with rotational temperature and heliocentric radial velocity. Furthermore, we test our fluorescence model by comparing predicted and measured line-by-line intensities for X(sup 2)Sum(sup +) (1-0) in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), thereby identifying multiple emission lines observed at IR wavelengths.

  1. Accelerated line-by-line calculations for the radiative transfer of trace gases related to climate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we are studying the effects of including carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, and the halocarbons in addition to water vapor in the radiating atmosphere. The study has focused on two principal issues: the effect on the spectral fluxes and cooling rates of carbon dioxide, ozone and the halocarbons at 1990 concentration levels and the change in fluxes and cooling rates as a consequence of the anticipated ten year change in the profiles of these species. For the latter study the water vapor profiles have been taken as invariant in time. The radiative line-by-line calculations using LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model) have been performed for tropical (TRP), mid-latitude winter (MLW) and mid-latitude summer (MLS) model atmospheres. The halocarbons considered in the present study are CCl 4 , CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-22. In addition to considering the radiative effects of carbon dioxide at 355 ppM, the assumed current level, we have also obtained results for doubled carbon dioxide at 710 ppM. An important focus of the current research effort is the effect of the ozone depletion profile on atmospheric radiative effects

  2. Relating Line Width and Optical Depth for CO Emission in the Large Mgellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Evan; Wong, Tony; Bandurski, Jeffrey; MC3 (Mapping CO in Molecular Clouds in the Magellanic Clouds) Team

    2018-01-01

    We investigate data produced from ALMA observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using 12CO(2–1) and 13CO(2–1) emission. The spectral line width is generally interpreted as tracing turbulent rather than thermal motions in the cloud, but could also be affected by optical depth, especially for the 12CO line (Hacar et al. 2016). We compare the spectral line widths of both lines with their optical depths, estimated from an LTE analysis, to evaluate the importance of optical depth effects. Our cloud sample includes two regions recently published by Wong et al. (2017, submitted): the Tarantula Nebula or 30 Dor, an HII region rife with turbulence, and the Planck cold cloud (PCC), located in a much calmer environment near the fringes of the LMC. We also include four additional LMC clouds, which span intermediate levels of star formation relative to these two clouds, and for which we have recently obtained ALMA data in Cycle 4.

  3. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  4. Long-term Modulation of Cosmic Ray Intensity in relation to Sunspot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it should be more closely connected with cosmic ray modulation than with other solar characteristics (sunspot numbers or coronal emission intensity). The intensity of galactic cosmic rays varies inversely with sunspot numbers, having their maximum intensity at the minimum of the 11-year sunspot cycle (Forbush 1954, 1958) ...

  5. Open intensive care units: a global challenge for patients, relatives, and critical care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Elena; Bambi, Stefano; Lucchini, Alberto; Milanesio, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the current status of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours policies internationally and to explore the influence of ICUs' open visiting policies on patients', visitors', and staff perceptions, as well as on patients' outcomes. A review of the literature was done through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. The following keywords were searched: "visiting," "hours," "ICU," "policy," and "intensive care unit." Inclusion criteria for the review were original research paper, adult ICU, articles published in the last 10 years, English or Italian language, and available abstract. Twenty-nine original articles, mainly descriptive studies, were selected and retrieved. In international literature, there is a wide variability about open visiting policies in ICUs. The highest percentage of open ICUs is reported in Sweden (70%), whereas in Italy there is the lowest rate (1%). Visiting hours policies and number of allowed relatives are variable, from limits of short precise segments to 24 hours and usually 2 visitors. Open ICUs policy/guidelines acknowledge concerns with visitor hand washing to prevent the risk of infection transmission to patients. Patients, visitors, and staff seem to be inclined to support open ICU programs, although physicians are more inclined to the enhancement of visiting hours than nurses. The percentages of open ICUs are very different among countries. It can be due to local factors, cultural differences, and lack of legislation or hospital policy. There is a need for more studies about the impact of open ICUs programs on patients' mortality, length of stay, infections' risk, and the mental health of patients and their relatives.

  6. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Definition of dose intensity (DI), average relative DI and effective DI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, P.

    1995-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of cancer chemotherapy is related to the dose and to the amount of drug delivered per time unit. the significance of time in the effectiveness of a treatment program is frequently overlooked. The term of dose intensity (DI) is used to define the drug dose delivered per time unit and is expressed as mg/m 2 per week. A delay in the sequence of treatment cycles decreases the DI in the DI in the same proportion as a reduction of dose. Average relative DI corresponds to the mean DI of combined agents and is expressed as a fraction of a similar combination selected as a standard. Di is useful to compare the dose actually received with the prescribed dose. The relation of DI with tumor response or survival has not been fully demonstrated. A threshold DI level for therapeutic activity is evident. Above this threshold, a linear relationship of DI and effectiveness is not obvious, particularly regarding high-dose chemotherapy. The term of DI is more useful in its principle than in the significance of its calculated value. (authors). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  9. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  10. Line tester analysis of yield and yield related attributed in different sunflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, S.U.; Khan, M.A.; Usman, K.; Sayal, O.U.

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses the study of line * tester analysis to chalk out genetic implications regarding yield and yield relating components in different genotypes of sunflower. Eight parents (four CMS lines and four restorers) along with their sixteen F1 hybrids were considered and planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice at experimental area of Oilseed Research Program, National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan in 2011. Combining ability for some important morphological traits included days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter and seed yield plant-1. In this concern general combining ability (GCA), reciprocals combining ability (RCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for all traits were studied. The GCA and SCA variances due to lines and testers interaction were significant for all the characters. However, the magnitude of GCAs from CMS lines (females) and restorers (pollinators) were higher than the SCA indicating preponderance of additive genes in the expression of all the traits. Among the lines, CMS-HA-54 whereas in testers, RHP-71, by manifesting maximum GCA effects were considered as the best general combiners for almost all the traits indicating the presence of more additive gene effects in these parents, therefore may serve as potential parents for hybridization and to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids, CMS HA-99 * RHP-76 (1.54, 212.65) and CMS HA-101 * RHP-73 (0.91, 432.73) were found as the best specific combiners for head or capitulum and seed yield. Hence, if farming community and researchers include these hybrids in their selection and hybridization program for the trait under study optimum result may be obtained. (author)

  11. Counterbalancing work-related stress? Work engagement among intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2018-07-01

    Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need

  12. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author)

  13. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell X-rays of some heavy elements using Cd-109 radioisotope source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko, J.B.; Tetteh, G.K. (Ghana Univ., Legon (Ghana). Dept. of Physics)

    The relative L-shell x-ray intensities of Sm, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Pb and U were measured using a Cd-109 radioisotope source and a Si(Li) detector. The measured relative intensities were compared with the theoretically calculated values due to Scofield, computed for the present excitation energy of 22.6 keV. The experimental results were found to agree with theory in most cases. (author).

  14. [Occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manufacturing service and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y Q; Li, S; Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, X M

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manu-facturing service (EMS) and related influencing factors. Methods: From June to October, 2015, a cross-sectional survey was performed for 5 944 assembly line workers in EMS (observation group) and 6 270 workers from other posts (non-assembly line workers and management personnel; control group) using the self-made questionnaire for basic information, job demand-control (JDC) model questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire to collect respondents' basic information and occupational stress. Results: The observation group had significantly lower work autonomy, social support, and work reward scores than the control group (2.72 ± 0.63/3.64 ± 0.68/4.06 ± 0.80 vs 3.00 ± 0.67/3.83 ± 0.68/4.24 ± 0.75, t =23.53, 15.41, and 12.70, all P occupational stress determined by JDC and ERI models than the control group (64.5%/12.7% vs 52.6%/9.9%, χ 2 =182.26 and 23.41, both P 60 hours/week, and sleeping time occupational stress in JDC model; education background of Bachelor's degree or above, working time >60 hours/week, and sleeping timeoccupational stress in ERI model, while female sex and a high monthly income reduced the risk of occupational stress in ERI model. Conclusion: Assembly line workers in EMS are a relatively vulnerable group and have a high degree of occupational stress. Working time >60 hours/week and sleeping time occupational stress.

  15. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  16. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  17. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  18. Virtual water flows related to land use in an intensive agriculture in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, A.; Schneider, K.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to low annual precipitation, agricultural production in Uzbekistan is depending on irrigation from the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers to a great deal. One of the most important cash crops of the country is cotton. Current irrigation management leads to elevated groundwater levels, salinization of soils and to a degradation of soil and water resources. Through export of cotton and other crops, the problems related to water consumption and water management are transported beyond the producing country. The amount of water transported through production and export is referred to as virtual water. To distinguish between productive and unproductive partitioning of water flows, the terms green and blue water have been introduced. Information on virtual water flows due to crop production usually only exist on country level. To reduce uncertainties related to generalization, the effect of land management and environmental factors on the partitioning of water flows needs to be studied on smaller scales. The presented study analyzes water fluxes in an intensively used agricultural area in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. The study aims to a) quantify crop specific water consumption in agricultural production under current management and b) analyze water use efficiency as subject to land use and irrigation management. Based on crop production, irrigation management and environmental conditions in the study area, virtual water flows will be calculated on the level of agricultural collectives (Water Users Associations). In a further step, the partitioning of green and blue water fluxes will be quantified. Alternative scenarios for improved water management will be analyzed in a model study.

  19. Compliance with Prevention Practices and their Association with Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Furuya, E. Yoko; Edwards, Jeffrey; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Bundles and checklists have been shown to decrease CLABSIs, but implementation of these practices and association with CLABSI rates have not been described nationally. We describe implementation and levels of compliance with prevention practices in a sample of US Neonatal ICUs and assess their association with CLABSI rates. Methods An online survey assessing infection prevention practices was sent to hospitals participating in National Healthcare Safety Network CLABSI surveillance in October 2011. Participating hospitals permitted access to their NICU CLABSI rates. Multivariable regressions were used to test the association between compliance with NICU specific CLABSI prevention practices and corresponding CLABSI rates. Results Overall, 190 Level II/III and Level III NICUs participated. The majority of NICUs had written policies (84%-93%) and monitored compliance with bundles and checklists (88% - 91%). Reporting ≥ 95% compliance for any of the practices ranged from 50%- 63%. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with insertion checklist and assessment of daily line necessity were significantly associated with lower CLABSI rates (pprevention policies and monitor compliance, although reporting compliance ≥ 95% was suboptimal. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with select CLABSI prevention practices was associated with lower CLABSI rates. Further studies should focus on identifying and improving compliance with effective CLABSI prevention practices in neonates. PMID:25087136

  20. Intensity of the Fe XV emission line corona, the level of geomagnetic activity and the velocity of the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.; Noci, G.

    1976-01-01

    The average solar wind velocity and the level of geomagnetic activity (Kp) following central meridian passage of coronal weak and bright features identified from Oso 7 isophotograms of Fe XV (284 A) are determined by the method of superposed epochs. Results are consistent with the concept that bright regions possess magnetic field of closed configurations, thereby reducing particle escape, while coronal holes possess open magnetic field lines favorable to particle escape or enhanced outflow of the solar wind. Coronal holes are identified with Bartels' M regions not only statistically but by linking specific long-lived holes with individual sequences of geomagnetic storms. In the study of bright region a subdivision by brightness temperature (T/sub b/) of associated 9.1-cm radiation was found to be significant, with the region s of higher T/sub b/ having a stronger inhibiting power on the outflow of the solar wind when they were located in the solar hemisphere on the same side of the solar equator as the earth. Regions of highest T/sub b/ most strongly depress the outflow of solar wind but are also the most likely to produce flare-associated great storms

  1. [Post-traumatic stress disorder-related to intensive care stay: influence of sedation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, Nadège; Masseret, Elodie; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dequin, Pierre-François; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-03-01

    The stay in intensive care unit can be potentially traumatic at the origin of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms is linked to the intensity and the type of traumatic memories of the intensive care stay. Sedatives and analgesics given to ventilated patients in intensive care influence the traumatic memory. The level, the duration and the type of sedation-analgesia protocol are risk factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Links between sedation, dissociative symptoms, delirium and post-traumatic stress symptoms are documented. Environmental and pharmacological measures are to be considered to reduce the traumatic potential risk of the intensive care. Intensive care caregivers, liaison-psychiatrist and general practitioner have each a specific role to play in the screening of the post-traumatic stress symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of high-intensity statin therapy on atherosclerosis in non-infarct-related coronary arteries (IBIS-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Taniwaki, Masanori; Zaugg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition, and phen......AIM: The effect of long-term high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of high-intensity statin therapy on plaque burden, composition......-infarct-related epicardial coronary arteries (non-IRA) after successful primary PCI. Patients were treated with high-intensity rosuvastatin (40 mg/day) throughout 13 months and serial intracoronary imaging with the analysis of matched segments was available for 82 patients with 146 non-IRA. The primary IVUS end...

  3. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  4. Prospective study of device-related complications in intensive care unit detected by virtual autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, D; Heinemann, A; Zähler, S; Vogel, H; Höpker, W; Püschel, K; Kluge, S

    2018-06-01

    There has been increasing use of invasive techniques, such as extracorporeal organ support, in intensive care units (ICU), and declining autopsy rates. Thus, new measures are needed to maintain high-quality standards. We investigated the potential of computed tomography (CT)-based virtual autopsy to substitute for medical autopsy in this setting. We investigated the potential of virtual autopsy by post-mortem CT to identify complications associated with medical devices in a prospective study of patients who had died in the ICU. Clinical records were reviewed to determine the number and types of medical devices used, and findings from medical and virtual autopsies, related and unrelated to the medical devices, were compared. Medical and virtual autopsies could be performed in 61 patients (Group M/V), and virtual autopsy only in 101 patients (Group V). In Group M/V, 41 device-related complications and 30 device malpositions were identified, but only with a low inter-method agreement. Major findings unrelated to a device were identified in about 25% of patients with a high level of agreement between methods. In Group V, 8 device complications and 36 device malpositions were identified. Device-related complications are frequent in ICU patients. Virtual and medical autopsies showed clear differences in the detection of complications and device malpositions. Both methods should supplement each other rather than one alone for quality control of medical devices in the ICU. Further studies should focus on the identification of special patient populations in which virtual autopsy might be of particular benefit. NCT01541982. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Weiß, A.; Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang, Z.-Y. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, 43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. S. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Departamento de Fśica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Harris, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Naylor, D. A. [Institute for Space Imaging Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Smith, H. A. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Spaans, M., E-mail: t.greve@ucl.ac.uk [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 μm]–CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=αlog L{sub CO}{sup ′}+β) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ≤ 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub μm]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIR–CO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIR–CO luminosity relations (i.e., α ≅ 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (β ∼ 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR–(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (∼100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for

  6. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  7. Burnout in the neonatal intensive care unit and its relation to healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, D S; Sexton, J B; Kan, P; Sharek, P J; Nisbet, C C; Rigdon, J; Lee, H C; Profit, J

    2017-03-01

    To examine burnout prevalence among California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to test the relation between burnout and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Retrospective observational study of provider perceptions of burnout from 2073 nurse practitioners, physicians, registered nurses and respiratory therapists, using a validated four-item questionnaire based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The relation between burnout and HAI rates among VLBW (<1500 g) neonates from each NICU was evaluated using multi-level logistic regression analysis with patient-level factors as fixed effects. We found variable prevalence of burnout across the NICUs surveyed (mean 25.2±10.1%). Healthcare-associated infection rates were 8.3±5.1% during the study period. Highest burnout prevalence was found among nurses, nurse practitioners and respiratory therapists (non-physicians, 28±11% vs 17±19% physicians), day shift workers (30±3% vs 25±4% night shift) and workers with 5 or more years of service (29±2% vs 16±6% in fewer than 3 years group). Overall burnout rates showed no correlation with risk-adjusted rates of HAIs (r=-0.133). Item-level analysis showed positive association between HAIs and perceptions of working too hard (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.28). Sensitivity analysis of high-volume NICUs suggested a moderate correlation between burnout prevalence and HAIs (r=0.34). Burnout is most prevalent among non-physicians, daytime workers and experienced workers. Perceptions of working too hard associate with increased HAIs in this cohort of VLBW infants, but overall burnout prevalence is not predictive.

  8. Instrument-related geometrical factors affecting the intensity in XPS and ARXPS experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Gomez, A., E-mail: aherrera@qro.cinvestav.mx [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); Mani-Gonzalez, P.G.; Vazquez-Lepe, M.; Sanchez-Martinez, A.; Ceballos-Sanchez, O. [CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Wallace, R.M. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Conti, G.; Uritsky, Y. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Instrument geometrical-factors affecting the XPS angular dependence are described. {yields} The geometrical factors in XPS instruments are transferable to other systems. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of analysis area and volume. {yields} Practical protocols are presented for assessing the size of the X-ray beam spot. {yields} Practical protocols are described for assessing the manipulator's axis of rotation. - Abstract: The angular dependence of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) signal is influenced not only by the electron take-off angle, but also by instrument-related geometrical factors. The XPS signal is, in fact, integrated over the overlap between the X-ray beam, the spectrometer analysis volume, and the sample surface. This overlap depends on the size and shape of the spectrometer analysis volume and X-ray beam, as well as on their relative orientation. In this paper it is described the models and protocols for the characterization of the parameters defining the geometry of an XPS instrument. The protocols include practical methods for assessing the spectrometer analysis area and the X-ray beam spot dimension. Simple systems consisting of flat and 'thick' gold films on silicon wafers were employed. The parameters found with those samples are transferable to other more complex systems since they are geometrical in nature. The method allows for the prediction of the actual intensity of XPS peaks, hence removing the need of normalizing the peak areas to the area of a determined substrate peak. The associated reduction of the uncertainty in half is of special importance since the quantitative analysis of angle-resolved XPS data could be very sensitive to noise. Two rotating and one non-rotating XPS instruments are described. Some examples of the applications of the method are also provided.

  9. Nutritional decline in cystic fibrosis related diabetes: the effect of intensive nutritional intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, H

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that nutritional and respiratory decline occur up to four years prior to diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Our aim was to establish whether intensive nutritional intervention prevents pre-diabetic nutritional decline in an adult population with CFRD. METHODS: 48 adult patients with CFRD were matched to 48 controls with CF, for age, gender and lung pathogen status. Nutritional and other clinical indices were recorded at annual intervals from six years before until two years after diagnosis. Data were also analysed to examine the impact of early and late acquisition of CFRD. RESULTS: No important differences in weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lung function or intravenous treatment were found between groups in the six years prior to diagnosis, nor any significant deviation over time. In those who developed diabetes, use of overnight enteral tube feeding (ETF) was four times as likely at the time of diagnosis, compared to controls [ETF 43.8% (CFRD) v 18.8% (CF Controls), OR 4.0, CI 1.3 to 16.4, p=0.01]. Age at onset of CFRD played a significant role in determining the pre-diabetic clinical course. Younger diabetics with continued growth at study onset (n=17) had a lower BMI from 2 years prior to diagnosis compared to controls [BMI 18.9 kg\\/m(2) (CFRD) v 20.8 kg\\/m(2) (CF Controls), diff=1.9, CI -0.1 to 3.7 p=0.04]. The BMI of older diabetics (completed growth at study onset) was equal to that of controls throughout. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetic nutritional decline is not inevitable in adults with CFRD, but is influenced by age of onset. In the group overall, those with CFRD are more likely to require ETF from 2 years prior to diagnosis. Despite intensive nutritional intervention, patients who continue to grow throughout the pre-diabetic years, show a level of nutritional decline absent in older adults.

  10. Avidity of anti-malarial antibodies inversely related to transmission intensity at three sites in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewanyana, Isaac; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Yeka, Adoke; Sullivan, Richard; Kamya, Moses R; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Drakeley, Chris; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tetteh, Kevin K A

    2017-02-10

    People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in children and adults at three sites in Uganda with varied P. falciparum transmission intensity (entomological inoculation rates; 3.8, 26.6, and 125 infectious bites per person per year). Sandwich ELISA was used to measure antibody responses to two P. falciparum merozoite surface antigens: merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1-19) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). In individuals with detectable antibody levels, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) was added to measure the relative avidity of antibody responses by ELISA. Within a site, there were no significant differences in median antibody levels between the three age groups. Between sites, median antibody levels were generally higher in the higher transmission sites, with differences more apparent for AMA-1 and in ≥5 year group. Similarly, median avidity index (proportion of high avidity antibodies) showed no significant increase with increasing age but was significantly lower at sites of higher transmission amongst participants ≥5 years of age. Using 5 M GuHCl, the median avidity indices in the ≥5 year group at the highest and lowest transmission sites were 19.9 and 26.8, respectively (p = 0.0002) for MSP1-19 and 12.2 and 17.2 (p = 0.0007) for AMA1. Avidity to two different P. falciparum antigens was lower in areas of high transmission intensity compared to areas with lower transmission. Appreciation of the mechanisms behind these findings as

  11. Application of the Spectral Neighborhood of Soil Line Technique to Analyze the Intensity of Soil Use in 1985-2014 (by the Example of Three Districts of Tula Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Rukhovich, A. D.; Rukhovich, D. D.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Koroleva, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    The technique of separation of the spectral neighborhood of soil line (SNSL) makes it possible to perform quantitative estimates of the intensity of agricultural land use. This is achieved via calculation of the frequency of occurrence of bare soil surface (BSS). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of BSS in 1984-1994 was linearly related to the soil type within the sequence of soddy strongly podzolic, soddy moderately podzolic, soddy slightly podzolic (Eutric Albic Glossic Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)); light gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)), gray forest (Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Ochric)), and dark gray forest soils (Luvic Retic Greyzemic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric)); podzolized chernozems (Luvic Greyzemic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernic Phaeozems (Loamic, Aric, Pachic)). The intensity of exploitation of the least and most fertile soils in this sequence comprised 28 and 48%, respectively. In the next decade (1995-2004) the relationship between the type of soil and the intensity of its exploitation drastically changed; the intensity of exploitation of the leas and most fertile soils comprised 14 and 43%, respectively. Nearly a half of agricultural lands in the zones of soddy-podzolic and gray forest soils were abandoned, because the cultivation of the soils with the natural fertility below that in the podzolized chernozems became economically unfeasible under conditions of the economic crisis of the 1990s. The spatiotemporal relationships between the character of the soil cover and the intensity of exploitation of the agricultural lands manifest themselves by the decreasing frequency of occurrence of BSS from leached chernozems to soddy strongly podzolic soils and from 1985 to 2014.

  12. Women On-Line: Cultural and Relational Aspects of Women's Communication in On-line Discussion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy

    1996-01-01

    Women's online communication often mirrors that of face-to-face communication, linguistically and relationally. Women-only online communities, however, provide an opportunity to develop a distinct relational and cultural style. Discusses gender differences in face-to-face language use, and in mixed gender online discussion groups. Describes…

  13. Age-Related Changes in Associations Between Reasons for Alcohol Use and High-Intensity Drinking Across Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Evans-Polce, Rebecca; Kloska, Deborah D; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2017-07-01

    Analyses focus on whether self-reported reasons for drinking alcohol change in their associations with high-intensity drinking across the transition to adulthood. Self-report data on high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) collected from the national Monitoring the Future study in 2005 to 2014 from those ages 18-26 were used (N = 2,664 [60% women] for all drinkers and 1,377 for heavy episodic [5+] drinkers; up to 6,541 person-waves). Time-varying effect modeling examined changes in the direction and magnitude of associations between eight reasons for drinking and high-intensity alcohol use across continuous age. Four reasons to drink showed quite stable associations with high-intensity drinking across age: drinking to get away from problems, to get high, to relax, and to sleep. Associations between two reasons and high-intensity drinking decreased with age: anger/frustration and to have a good time. The association between drinking because of boredom and high-intensity drinking increased with age. Drinking because it tastes good had a weak association with high-intensity drinking. Among heavy episodic drinkers, reasons for use also differentiated high-intensity drinking, with two exceptions: drinking to have a good time and to relax did not distinguish drinking 10+ drinks from drinking 5-9 drinks. Reasons for drinking are differentially associated with high-intensity drinking, compared with any other drinking and compared with lower intensity heavy drinking, across age during the transition to adulthood. Intervention programs seeking to mitigate alcohol-related harms should focus on reasons for use when they are the most developmentally salient.

  14. On image tube spectrophotometry of weak emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot, R.

    1979-01-01

    The usual precision of image tube spectrophotometry measures relative to low intensity lines can be improved by the 'method of two lines'. This operating process tested on H II galactic regions leads to a precision of 13%. (Auth.)

  15. Prediction of line failure fault based on weighted fuzzy dynamic clustering and improved relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaocheng; Che, Renfei; Gao, Shi; He, Juntao

    2018-04-01

    With the advent of large data age, power system research has entered a new stage. At present, the main application of large data in the power system is the early warning analysis of the power equipment, that is, by collecting the relevant historical fault data information, the system security is improved by predicting the early warning and failure rate of different kinds of equipment under certain relational factors. In this paper, a method of line failure rate warning is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy dynamic clustering is carried out based on the collected historical information. Considering the imbalance between the attributes, the coefficient of variation is given to the corresponding weights. And then use the weighted fuzzy clustering to deal with the data more effectively. Then, by analyzing the basic idea and basic properties of the relational analysis model theory, the gray relational model is improved by combining the slope and the Deng model. And the incremental composition and composition of the two sequences are also considered to the gray relational model to obtain the gray relational degree between the various samples. The failure rate is predicted according to the principle of weighting. Finally, the concrete process is expounded by an example, and the validity and superiority of the proposed method are verified.

  16. Relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation in Singapore during 1980-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    Observed studies on inter-annual variation of precipitation provide insight into the response of precipitation to anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability. Inter-annual variation of precipitation results from the concurrent variations of precipitation frequency and intensity, understanding of the relative importance of frequency and intensity in the variability of precipitation can help fathom its changing properties. Investigation of the long-term changes of precipitation schemes has been extensively carried out in many regions across the world, however, detailed studies of the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inter-annual variation of precipitation are still limited, especially in the tropics. Therefore, this study presents a comprehensive framework to investigate the inter-annual variation of precipitation and the dominance of precipitation frequency and intensity in a tropical urban city-state, Singapore, based on long-term (1980-2013) daily precipitation series from 22 rain gauges. First, an iterative Mann-Kendall trend test method is applied to detect long-term trends in precipitation total, frequency and intensity at both annual and seasonal time scales. Then, the relative importance of precipitation frequency and intensity in inducing the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation total is analyzed using a dominance analysis method based on linear regression. The results show statistically significant upward trends in wet-day precipitation total, frequency and intensity at annual time scale, however, these trends are not evident during the monsoon seasons. The inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation intensity for most of the stations at annual time scale and during the Northeast monsoon season. However, during the Southwest monsoon season, the inter-annual variation of wet-day precipitation is mainly dominated by precipitation frequency. These results have

  17. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Kotwicki: Relative light intensity collected during bottom trawl surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Assessing the effect of light intensity and light penetration on the distributionand behavior of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the eastern Bering Sea and...

  18. Memory in relation to depth of sedation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Karin; Lundberg, Dag; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between memory and intensive care sedation. Design and setting: Prospective cohort study over 18 months in two general intensive care units (ICUs) in district university hospitals. Patients: 313 intubated mechanically ventilated adults admitted for more than 24 h, 250 of whom completed the study. Measurements: Patients (n = 250) were interviewed in the ward 5 days after discharge from the ICU using the ICU Memory Tool. Patient characteristics, doses ...

  19. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies on the intensity changes of the 5.9 and 5.1 nm actin layer lines from frog skeletal muscle during an isometric tetanus using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Tanaka, H.; Amemiya, Y.; Fujishima, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Hamanaka, T.; Sugi, H.; Mitsui, T.

    1985-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies have been made on the 5.9- and 5.1-nm actin layer lines from frog skeletal muscles during an isometric tetanus at 6 degrees C, using synchrotron radiation. The integrated intensities of these actin layer lines were found to increase during a tetanus by 30-50% for the 5.9-nm reflection and approximately 70% for the 5.1-nm reflection of the resting values. The intensity increase of both reflections was greater than that taking place in the transition from rest to rigor state. The intensity change of the 5.9-nm reflection preceded those of the myosin 42.9-nm off-meridional reflection and of the equatorial reflections, as well as the isometric tension development. The intensity profile of the 5.9-nm layer line during contraction was found to be different from that observed in the rigor state

  20. Decreased waterborne pathogenic bacteria in an urban aquifer related to intense shallow geothermal exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Gasco-Cavero, Samanta; Garrido, Eduardo; Mejías, Miguel; Epting, Jannis; Navarro-Elipe, Mercedes; Alejandre, Carmen; Sevilla-Alcaine, Elena

    2018-08-15

    The implications of intensive use of shallow geothermal energy resources in shallow urban aquifers are still not known for waterborne pathogens relevant to human health. Firstly, we hypothesized that waterborne enteric pathogens would be relatively increased in heated groundwater plumes. To prove this, microbiological sampling of 31 piezometers covering the domain of an urban groundwater body affected by microbiological contamination and energetically exploited by 70 groundwater heat pump systems was performed. Mean differences of pathogenic bacteria contents between impacted and non-impacted monitoring points were assessed with a two-tailed independent Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Surprisingly, the results obtained revealed a significant and generalized decrease in waterborne pathogen contents in thermally impacted piezometers compared to that of non-impacted piezometers. This decrease is hypothesized to be caused by a heat shock to bacteria within the heat exchangers. The statistically significant negative correlations obtained between waterborne pathogen counts and temperature could be explained by the spatial distribution of the bacteria, finding that bacteria start to recover with increasing distance from the injection point. Also, different behavior groups fitting exponential regression models were found for the bacteria species studied, justified by the different presence and influence of several aquifer parameters and major, minor and trace elements studied, as well as the coexistence with other bacteria species. The results obtained from this work reinforce the concept of shallow geothermal resources as a clean energy source, as they could also provide the basis to control the pathogenic bacteria contents in groundwater bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Torbica, Aleksandra; Franzetti, Fabio; Rosenthal, Victor D

    2010-05-10

    The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass) infusion containers. A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases) and patients without CLABSI (controls) were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days) associated with the two infusion containers. A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143); 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922). The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  2. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  3. Intensive care delirium - effect on memories and health-related quality of life - a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Tønnesen, Else K; Videbech, Poul

    2013-01-01

    after intensive care unit. Interviews were repeated after two and six months and supplemented with Short Form-36 and the Barthel Index. RESULTS: Delirium was detected in 60% of the patients in our study, and delirious patients had significantly fewer factual memories and more memories of delusion than...... than half of the patients in intensive care unit experience delirium, which is associated with fewer factual memories and more memories of delusions. Short Form-36 might not be sensitive to delirium-related outcomes. Future research should include the development of better assessment tools to determine...... the long-term consequences of intensive care unit delirium. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: We recommend regular assessment to prevent, detect and treat delirium. We also recommend an intensive care unit follow-up programme providing an opportunity for postintensive care unit patients, particularly...

  4. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  5. A renormalization group invariant line and an infrared attractive top-Higgs mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.

    1992-10-01

    The renormalization group equations (RGE's) of the Standard Model at one loop in terms of the gauge couplings g 1,2,3, the top Yukawa coupling g t and the scalar self coupling λ are reexamined. For g 1,2 = 0, the general solution of the RGE's is obtained analytically in terms of an interesting special solution for the ratio λ/g 2 t as function of the ratio g 2 t /g 2 3 which i) represents an RG invariant line which is strongly infrared attractive ii) interpolates all known quasi-fixed points and iii) is finite for large g 2 t /g 2 3 (ultraviolet limit). All essential features survive for g 1,2 ≠ 0. The invariant line translates into an infrared attractive top-Higgs mass relation, which e.g. associates to the top masses m t = 130/145/200 GeV the Higgs masses m H ≅ 68-90/103-115/207 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  6. Study in the plasma with non-equilibrium ionization state by relative intensities in K-spectra of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The pressure of the K-spectra formation of multicharge h-, He-, Li-like ions in a plasma with an arbitrary ionization state are considered. It is shown that comparison of experimental and theoretical data on the intensities of f a number of spectral lines belonging to such ions allows one to determine both the plasma electron temperature and ion distribution versus the ionization degre ees. The proposed method of plasma diagnostics is used for measuring parameters of the expanding laser-produced magnesium plasme

  7. Energy and protein relations in the broiler chicken. 4. Role of sex, line and substrate on in vitro lipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosebrough, R.W.; Steele, N.C.; McMurtry, J.P.; Richards, M.P.; Mitchell, A.D.; Calvert, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with dwarf (dw) and normal lines of chickens to determine the effect of sex, diet and line on lipogenesis in the 28-day-old chick. The chicks were fed diets containing 12, 18, 23 and 30% protein. In the first experiment, in vitro lipogenesis (incorporation of [2- 14 C] sodium acetate into hepatic fatty acids) as well as growth from 7 to 28 days of age were determined in males and females of both lines. In the second experiment, only males and females of the dwarf line were fed to determine the relative contribution of acetate and pyruvate to in vitro lipogenesis (incorporation of either [2- 14 C] sodium acetate or [2- 14 C) pyruvate into hepatic fatty acids). Chicks of the dwarf line were smaller than were those of the normal line. Females of both lines were smaller than males. In vitro lipogenesis was lower in the dwarf line; however the rate for both sexes within a given line was equal. An increase in the dietary protein decreased in vitro lipogenesis in both lines. The use of pyruvate as an in vitro precursor indicated that the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism may be an integrated process involving pyruvate carboxylation and subsequent flux of pyruvate carbon into either glucose or fatty acids. Based on the data presented, there is no evidence to assume, that the dwarf gene per se influences lipogenesis

  8. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  10. The Clash of Discourses Regarding Relations with Russia: New Fault Lines in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Naumescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the annexation of Crimea and the secession war in Eastern Ukraine, the topic of European security has returned as a major benchmark for a number of EU and non-EU countries. For a couple of years, in 2014-2015, the discourse of condemnation and international sanctions against the Russian regime dominated the agenda of the European-Russian relations. Nevertheless, the economic considerations and the ascension of right-wing or left-wing populism(s in the European Union acted as a drag on European unity and solidarity. Thereby a series of political leaders in the EU and its Eastern Neighbourhood began to ask for economic rapprochement with Russia, while others remained very cautious. Based on a comparative qualitative method, this paper explores the clashing discourses about relations with Russia, in light of the discourse theory. The dynamics of divergent positioning regarding Russia after 2016 led to the question of possible new fault lines in the European Union. Inconsistencies on this topic can be seen between West and East, between post-communist countries on the Eastern Flank with Poland, Romania and the Baltic States, on one side, and Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic on the other side, and between Western chancelleries with rather different views such as Berlin, London or Rome. The aim of this article is to explore the increasing differences and clarify whether conflicting approaches regarding relations with Russia could create real cleavages between EU Member States and threaten European unity.

  11. Comparable Efficacy of Abatacept Used as First-line or Second-line Biological Agent for Severe Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-related Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birolo, Carolina; Zannin, Maria Elisabetta; Arsenyeva, Svetlana; Cimaz, Rolando; Miserocchi, Elisabetta; Dubko, Margarita; Deslandre, Chantal Job; Falcini, Fernanda; Alessio, Maria; La Torre, Francesco; Denisova, Ekaterina; Martini, Giorgia; Nikishina, Irina; Zulian, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Abatacept (ABA) has recently been proposed as second-line treatment in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) agents, but little is known about its efficacy as a first-line approach. The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy of ABA as a first-line biological agent (ABA-1) with that of ABA as a second-line treatment after 1 or more anti-TNF agents (ABA-2), in patients with severe JIA-related uveitis. In this multicenter study, we collected data on patients with severe JIA-related uveitis treated with ABA as a first-line or second-line biological agent. Changes in frequency of uveitis flares/year and ocular complications before and after ABA treatment, clinical remission, and side effects were recorded. Thirty-five patients with a mean age of 10.8 years were treated with ABA for a mean period of 19.6 months. In 4 patients, ABA administration was discontinued, owing to inefficacy on arthritis in 3 cases and allergic reaction in 1. Thirty-one patients, 14 in the ABA-1 group and 17 in the ABA-2 group, completed the 12-month followup period; of these, 17 (54.8%) had clinical remission. The mean frequency of uveitis flares decreased from 4.1 to 1.2 in the ABA-1 group (p = 0.002) and from 3.7 to 1.2 in the ABA-2 group (p = 0.004). Preexisting ocular complications improved or remained stable in all but 5 patients, all in the ABA-2 group. No significant difference was found between the efficacy of the 2 treatment modalities. ABA confirmed its good safety profile. ABA, used as first-line biological treatment or after 1 or more anti-TNF agents, induces a comparable improvement in severe refractory JIA-related uveitis.

  12. Tritium solid targets for intense D-T neutron production and its related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    This review paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, to attain an intense neutron production rate, the construction of a design with a higher tritium-containing surface and an effective cooling system like a rotating target device are discussed. The maximum attainable intensity based on tritium solid targets shall be estimated regarding planning for future D-T sources. Secondly, on the way to carry out some experiments, an absolute intensity calibration and an angular dependent neutron energy spectrum of the neutron source are essential parameters to analyse the results of the experiments. Sometimes the space dependent neutron spectrum is required as well as the space dependent neutron flux near the targets and irradiation samples. The measurement methods and their examples are reviewed for tritium solid targets. The third part is devoted to discuss the protection to tritium contamination problems due to unavoidable release of tritium gas from targets. Performance and effectiveness of tritium collection systems for intense D-T neutron sources shall be discussed in some examples. Tritium contamination incidents due to the faulted film powder of target surface are also reported in some real incident cases. (author). Abstract only

  13. Suppression of Helicobacter pylori infection during intensive care stay: related to stress ulcer bleeding incidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, P. H.; van der Hulst, R. W.; Zandstra, D. F.; Geraedts, A. A.; van der Ende, A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of active Helicobacter pylori infection in patients admitted to the intensive care unit, to determine the effect of selective gut decontamination on the persistence of this organism, and to explore the possible relationship between H. pylori infection and stress

  14. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Eglington

    Full Text Available Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  15. 20 CFR 652.208 - How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described in § 652.207(b)(2)? 652.208 Section 652.208 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND...

  16. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  17. The Impact of Intensive Vocation-Related Course Taking on Employment Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Wendel, Erica M.; Bond, Mark P.; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are deaf have historically faced significant obstacles to equity in employment. This secondary analysis of data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS2) examined (a) intensive vocation-related courses taken by students who are deaf and (b) their impact on long-term employment outcomes. Deaf students in general…

  18. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40

  19. EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS RELATED TO QUALITY BREAD WHEAT PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Munyanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  20. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    , the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive...... antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development...

  1. Study related to the generation of the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oklah, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will answer on the following question: Are there any conditions on the chemical potential and temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when generating the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas, and will the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas be a Gibbs-process. The study shows that there should be no conditions on the chemical potential and thermodynamical temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when we generate the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas except that the fundamental conditions, the chemical potential is negative and the inverse temperature is positive. Thus the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas may only be a Gibbs-process, in the special case when the thermodynamical temperature of the ideal BOSE gas tends to the absolute zero. (author)

  2. Relative contributions of local wind and topography to the coastal upwelling intensity in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Hu, Jianyu; Chen, Ju; Zhuang, Wei; Zu, TingTing; Xu, Jindian

    2014-04-01

    Topographically induced upwelling caused by the interaction between large-scale currents and topography was observed during four cruises in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) when the upwelling favorable wind retreated. Using a high-resolution version of the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigate relative contributions of local wind and topography to the upwelling intensity in the NSCS. The results show that the topographically induced upwelling is sensitive to alongshore large-scale currents, which have an important contribution to the upwelling intensity. The topographically induced upwelling is comparable with the wind-driven upwelling at surface and has a stronger contribution to the upwelling intensity than the local wind does at bottom in the near-shore shelf region. The widened shelf to the southwest of Shanwei and west of the Taiwan Banks intensifies the bottom friction, especially off Shantou, which is a key factor for topographically induced upwelling in terms of bottom Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. The local upwelling favorable wind enhances the bottom friction as well as net onshore transport along the 50 m isobath, whereas it has less influence along the 30 m isobath. This implies the local wind is more important in upwelling intensity in the offshore region than in the nearshore region. The contribution of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity is comparable with that of topography along the 50 m isobath. The effects of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity are twofold: on one hand, the wind transports surface warm water offshore, and as a compensation of mass the bottom current transports cold water onshore; on the other hand, the wind enhances the coastal current, and the bottom friction in turn increases the topographically induced upwelling intensity.

  3. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  4. The relation between intensity and complexity of coronary artery lesion and oxidative stress in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Turhan; Menteşe, Ümit; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarık; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Kul, Selim; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Bektaş, Hüseyin; Korkmaz, Levent; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Dursun, İhsan; Çelik, Şükrü

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between oxidative stress and complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease is less clear. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between oxidative stress markers and the complexity and intensity of coronary artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty-seven consecutive patients with an early phase of ACS (=22). Likewise patients were divided into two CAD severity groups according to the median Gensini score of 64: less intensive CAD with Gensini score (=64. Blood samples were taken in 1 hour within administration in order to measure total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by Erel method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by TOS /TAC. There was no significant difference between the two SYNTAX groups for oxidative stress markers. Median TOS and OSI values were significantly high in the intensive CAD group (p=0.005, p=0.04, respectively). The Gensini score was positively correlated with TOS and OSI (p=0.003, p=0.02, respectively). Oxidative stress markers may be considered supportive laboratory parameters related to CAD intensity but not complexity in ACS patients.

  5. The Association of State Legal Mandates for Data Submission of Central Line-associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units with Process and Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Reagan, Julie; Furuya, E. Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn T.A; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process/outcome measures. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance. Methods State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices i.e. compliance with checklist and bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate Standardized Infection Ratios (SIR). The association between mandates and process/outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) NICUs were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place for 3 or more years for half. More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least one CLABSI prevention practice (52.3% – 66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9% – 48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the prevention practices but not with lower CLABSI rates. PMID:25111921

  6. High Intensity Beam Test of Low Z Materials for the Upgrade of SPS-to-LHC Transfer Line Collimators and LHC Injection Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Maciariello, Fausto; Butcher, Mark; Calviani, Marco; Folch, Ramon; Kain, Verena; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Lechner, Anton; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Steele, Genevieve; Uythoven, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) and High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, the collimators in the SPS-to LHC transfer lines will undergo important modifications. The changes to these collimators will allow them to cope with beam brightness and intensity levels much increased with respect to their original design parameters: nominal and ultimate LHC. The necessity for replacement of the current materials will need to be confirmed by a test in the High Radiation to Materials (HRM) facility at CERN. This test will involve low Z materials (such as Graphite and 3-D Carbon/Carbon composite), and will recreate the worst case scenario those materials could see when directly impacted by High luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) or Batch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) beams. Thermo-structural simulations used for the material studies and research, the experiment preparation phase, the experiment itself, pre irradiation analysis (including ultrasound and metrology tests on the target materials), the resul...

  7. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  8. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  9. Become Related: FIAS, an Intensive Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Kievit, Esther; Spiegel, René; Dima, Diana; Goth, Kirstin; Schmeck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), impairments in fundamental social abilities and a lack of interest in social stimuli become apparent early in life. These impairments are thought to negatively affect further brain and behavioural development. Early intensive interventions can help to attenuate social-development and other risk factors and, thus, to ameliorate the deficits associated with ASDs. We present FIAS, an intensive early intervention approach for young children with ASD, which aims at developing children's social motivation. During 18 days, therapists work continuously for 6 h a day with the affected child, involving the whole family in a day care setting. Follow-up care at home over 1 year as well as fresh-up interventions and inclusion in kindergarten or a play group should stabilise the effects and help to respond to further challenges. Here, we present observations from the first 12 patients (25-48 months of age) treated according to the FIAS approach. We evaluated changes in core autistic symptoms and level of functioning after the 18 days of intensive intervention. Beyond standardised assessment, two innovative video-based instruments (Autism Behaviour Coding System and Evaluationsfragebogen) have been developed to assess autistic symptoms and interaction parameters during intervention. Improvements were noted in most core autistic symptom domains, with the highest effect sizes in domains like eye contact, communication, repetitive behaviour, imitation, motivation and reciprocity. In addition, the level of functioning significantly improved. The first evaluation of the FIAS approach shows promising results, as the FIAS intervention appears to improve core autistic symptom domains as well as the level of everyday functioning. Limitations of this study are the small sample size and the lack of a control group. A more comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation is in progress; this will focus on the stability of the observed effects and will attempt to

  10. Behavioural profiles of two Wistar rat lines selectively bred for high or low anxiety-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, G; Montkowski, A; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R

    1998-08-01

    Over the past years, two breeding lines, derived originally from outbred Wistar rats, have been established that differ markedly and consistently in their anxiety-related behaviour in the elevated plus-maze. At the age of ten weeks, rats were tested once on the elevated plus-maze and the males and females displaying the most anxious and the least anxious behaviour were sib-mated to start a new generation of the high anxiety-related behaviour (HAB) and the low anxiety-related behaviour (LAB) lines, respectively. The resulting difference in emotionality between these two lines was also evident in an open field test and correlated with differences in the forced swim test. In the open field, the HAB rats tended to be less active and explored the central zone of the open field much less than the LAB animals. In the forced swim test, HAB rats started floating earlier, spent significantly more time in this immobile posture and struggled less than LAB rats. However, in an olfactory-cued social discrimination task there was no difference between male and female animals from either line. The overall performance in these various behavioural tests suggests that selective breeding has resulted in rat lines not only differing markedly in their innate anxiety-related behaviour in the plus-maze, but also in other stress-related behavioural performances, suggesting a close link between the emotional evaluation of a novel and stressful situation and an individual's coping strategy.

  11. Effects of competition on great and blue tit reproduction: intensity and importance in relation to habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A

    2010-01-01

    1. In studies on the effect of competition in plant communities two terms are used to describe its effects: the absolute reduction in growth of an individual as a consequence of the presence of another one is called intensity, while the relative impact of competition on an individual as a proportion of the impact of the whole environment is called importance. One school of thought is that the role of competition remains constant across productivity gradients, while the other is that it decreases with increasing severity. J.B. Grace (1991. A clarification of the debate between grime and tilman. Functional Ecology, 5, 583-587.) suggested that the apparent contradiction might be solved if we acknowledge that the two schools are discussing different aspects of competition: the intensity of competition might remain constant while its importance declines with increasing severity. 2. There are no studies that compare intensity and importance of competition in bird populations between areas that differ in quality or productivity and hence it is not possible to make predictions how intensity or importance of competition would vary between them. 3. I compared variation in intensity and importance of competition of three demographic variables between five plots that differ strongly in quality for great Parus major L. and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.). 4. Both intensity and importance of competition are larger in great than in blue tit populations meaning that the effect of competition on demographic variables is stronger in great than in blue tits and that the contribution of competition to variation in these variables is relatively higher in great than in blue tits. 5. Intensity of competition is higher in low quality than in high quality plots for both species, a result not expected from studies in plant communities. 6. Importance of competition varies strongly between plots. It is larger in oak-dominated plots than in mixed deciduous plots. 7. In birds breeding density

  12. High-intensity interval training for improving health-related fitness in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Lubans, D R

    2015-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a feasible and efficacious strategy for improving health-related fitness in young people. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the utility of HIIT to improve health-related fitness in adolescents and to identify potential moderators of training effects. Studies were considered eligible if they: (1) examined adolescents (13-18 years); (2) examined health-related fitness outcomes; (3) involved an intervention of ≥4 weeks in duration; (4) included a control or moderate intensity comparison group; and (5) prescribed high-intensity activity for the HIIT condition. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on health-related fitness components using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software and potential moderators were explored (ie, study duration, risk of bias and type of comparison group). The effects of HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition were large, and medium, respectively. Study duration was a moderator for the effect of HIIT on body fat percentage. Intervention effects for waist circumference and muscular fitness were not statistically significant. HIIT is a feasible and time-efficient approach for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in adolescent populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Usefulness of creep work-time relation for determining stress intensity limit of high-temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Kyung Yong

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine creep stress intensity limit of high-temperature components, the usefulness of the creep work and time equation, defined as W c t p = B (where W c = σ ε is the total creep work done during creep, and p and B are constants), was investigated using the experimental data. For this purpose, the creep tests for generating 1.0% strain for commercial type 316 stainless steel were conducted with different stresses; 160 MPa, 150 MPa, 145 MPa, 140 MPa and 135 MPa at 593 .deg. C. The plots of log W c - log t showed a good linear relation up to 10 5 hr, and the results of the creep work-time relation for p, B and stress intensity values showed good agreement to those of Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves (ISSC) presented in ASME BPV NH. The relation can be simply obtained with only several short-term 1% strain data without ISSC which can be obtained by long-term creep data. Particularly, this relation is useful in estimating stress intensity limit for new and emerging class of high-temperature creeping materials

  14. Measurement of relative L X-ray intensity ratio following radioactive decay and photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, P. [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Erzincan University, 24030 Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: pasayalcin@hotmail.com; Porikli, S.; Kurucu, Y.; Sahin, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-05-22

    The measurements of the L X-ray intensity ratio I(L{alpha})/I(L{beta}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{gamma}), I(L{alpha})/I(L{iota}), I(L{beta})/I(L{gamma}) and I(L{iota})/I(L{gamma}) for elements Dy, Ho, Yb, W, Hg, Tl and Pb were experimentally determined both by photon excitation, in which 59.5 keV {gamma}-rays from a filtered radioisotope {sup 241}Am was used, and by the radioactive decay of {sup 160}Tb, {sup 160}Er, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 182}Re, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 207}Bi. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Obtained values were compared with the calculated theoretical values. Theoretical values of the I(L{alpha}/L{beta}), I(L{alpha}/L{gamma}), I(L{alpha}/L{iota}), I(L{beta}/L{gamma}) and I(L{iota}/L{gamma}) intensity ratios were calculated using theoretically tabulated values of subshell photoionization cross-section, fluorescence yield, fractional X-ray emission rates, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. It was observed that present values agree with previous theoretical and other available experimental results.

  15. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koboroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development. We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  16. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboroff, A; Kaplan, G; Rogers, Lj

    2013-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian) known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development). We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping) were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  17. Memory in relation to depth of sedation in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Karin; Lundberg, Dag; Fridlund, Bengt

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between memory and intensive care sedation. Prospective cohort study over 18[Symbol: see text]months in two general intensive care units (ICUs) in district university hospitals. 313 intubated mechanically ventilated adults admitted for more than 24 h, 250 of whom completed the study. Patients (n=250) were interviewed in the ward 5 days after discharge from the ICU using the ICU Memory Tool. Patient characteristics, doses of sedative and analgesic agents, and sedation scores as measured by the Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MAAS) were collected from hospital records after the interview. Patients with no recall (18%) were significantly older, had higher baseline severity of illness, and experienced fewer periods of wakefulness (median proportion of MAAS score 3; 0.37 vs. 0.70) than those who had memories of the ICU (82%). Multivariate analyses showed that increasing proportion of MAAS 0-2 and older age were significantly associated with having no recall. Patients with delusional memories (34%) had significantly longer ICU stay (median 6.6 vs. 2.2 days), higher baseline severity of illness, higher proportions of MAAS scores 4-6, and more administration of midazolam than those with recall of the ICU without delusional memories. Heavy sedation increases the risk of having no recall, and longer ICU stay increases the risk of delusional memories. The depth of sedation during total ICU stay as recorded with the MAAS may predict the probability of having memories of the ICU.

  18. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  19. Disease-related mortality exceeds treatment-related mortality in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia on second-line or later therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Edward; McGarry, Lisa; Gala, Smeet; Nieset, Christopher; Nanavaty, Merena; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Levy, Yair

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of newly-diagnosed patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) results in near-normal life expectancy. However, CP-CML patients resistant to initial TKIs face a poorer prognosis and significantly higher CML-related mortality. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the specific causes of deaths (diseases progression versus drug-related) in CP-CML patients receiving second- or third-line therapy. We identified eight studies based on our criteria that reported causes of death. Overall, 5% of second-line and 10% of third-line patients died during the study follow-up period. For second-line, (7 studies, n=1926), mortality was attributed to disease progression for 41% of deaths, 2% to treatment-related causes, 3% were treatment-unrelated, and 50% were unspecified adverse events (AEs), not likely related to study drug. In third-line, (2 studies, n=144), 71% deaths were attributed to disease progression, 7% treatment-related AEs, 14% treatment-unrelated and 7% unspecified AEs. Annual death rates for second- and third-line therapy were significantly higher than for general population in similar age group. Our findings suggest death attributed to disease progression is approximately 10 times that due to treatment-related AEs in patients with CP-CML receiving second- or third-line therapy. Therefore, the potential benefits of effective treatment for these patients with the currently available TKIs outweigh the risks of treatment-induced AEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on health-related quality of life? Results from the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Kibele, Eva U. B.; Smidt, Nynke

    We investigated whether social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on mental and physical health-related quality of life. Baseline data from the LifeLines Cohort Study (N=68,111) and a neighborhood deprivation index were used to perform mixed effect linear regression analyses.

  1. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  2. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  3. Oxygen-related Differences in Cellular and Vesicular Phenotypes Observed for Ovarian Cell Cancer Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evo K. Lindersson Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    The phenotyping of EVs from cancer cell lines provides information about their molecular composition. This information may be translated to knowledge regarding the functionality of EVs and lead to a better understanding of their role in cancer.

  4. Evaluating hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines for tumour samples using within-sample relative expression orderings of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lu; Guo, You; Song, Xuekun; Guan, Qingzhou; Zheng, Weicheng; Zhang, Jiahui; Huang, Haiyan; Zou, Yi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2017-11-01

    Concerns are raised about the representativeness of cell lines for tumours due to the culture environment and misidentification. Liver is a major metastatic destination of many cancers, which might further confuse the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand how well they can represent hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCC-specific gene pairs with highly stable relative expression orderings in more than 99% of hepatocellular carcinoma but with reversed relative expression orderings in at least 99% of one of the six types of cancer, colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma, were identified. With the simple majority rule, the HCC-specific relative expression orderings from comparisons with colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma could exactly discriminate primary hepatocellular carcinoma samples from both primary colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma samples. Especially, they correctly classified more than 90% of liver metastatic samples from colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma to their original tumours. Finally, using these HCC-specific relative expression orderings from comparisons with six cancer types, we identified eight of 24 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (Huh-7, Huh-1, HepG2, Hep3B, JHH-5, JHH-7, C3A and Alexander cells) that are highly representative of hepatocellular carcinoma. Evaluated with a REOs-based prognostic signature for hepatocellular carcinoma, all these eight cell lines showed the same metastatic properties of the high-risk metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Caution should be taken for using hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Our results should be helpful to select proper hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines for biological experiments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Avian species richness in relation to intensive forest management practices in early seral tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jay E; Kroll, Andrew J; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D; Ellis, Tana M; Betts, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35-80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with

  6. A Review of Related Work on Machine Learning in Semiconductor Manufacturing and Assembly Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisavljevic, Darko; Spitzer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with applications of machine learning algorithms in manufacturing. Machine learning can be defined as a field of computer science that gives computers the ability to learn without explicitly developing the needed algorithms. Manufacturing is the production of merchandise by manual labour, machines and tools. The focus of this paper is on automatic production lines. The areas of interest of this paper are semiconductor manufacturing and production on assembly lines. The purpos...

  7. Screening the Drug Sensitivity Genes Related to GEM and CDDP in the Lung Cancer Cell-lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu YANG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Screening of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines with gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM and cisplatin (CDDP related to drug sensitivity gene might clarify the action mechanism of anti-cancer drugs and provide a new clue for overcoming drug resistance and the development of new anti-cancer drugs, and also provide theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of individual. Methods The drug sensitivity of CDDP and GEM in 4 SCLC cell lines and 6 NSCLC cell lines was determined using MTT colorimetric assay, while the cDNA macroarray was applied to detect the gene expression state related to drug sensitivity of 10 lung cancer cell line in 1 291, and the correlation between the two was analysized. Results There were 6 genes showing significant positive correlation (r≥0.632, P < 0.05 with GEM sensitivity; 45 genes positively related to CDDP; another 41 genes related to both GEM and CDDP (r≥± 0.4. Lung cancer with GEM and CDDP sensitivity of two types of drugs significantly related genes were Metallothinein (Signal transduction molecules, Cathepsin B (Organization protease B and TIMP1 (Growth factor; the GEM, CDDP sensitivity associated genes of lung cancer cell lines mainly distributed in Metallothinein, Cathepsin B, growth factor TIMP1 categories. Conclusion There existed drug-related sensitive genes of GEM, CDDP in SCLC and NSCLC cell lines; of these genes, Metallothinein, Cathepsin B and TIMP1 genes presented a significant positive correlation with GEM drug sensitivity, a significant negative correlation with CDDP drug sensitivity.

  8. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  9. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilov, Gil; Schiel, David R

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat). Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs) is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  10. Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rilov

    Full Text Available Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat. Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure.

  11. Evaluating application of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance definition: a survey of pediatric intensive care and hematology/oncology units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditya H; Miller, Marlene R; Gao, Cuilan; Rosenberg, Carol; Morrell, Gloria C; Coffin, Susan E; Huskins, W Charles

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the application of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) definition in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and pediatric hematology/oncology units (PHOUs) participating in a multicenter quality improvement collaborative to reduce CLABSIs; to identify sources of variability in the application of the definition. Online survey using 18 standardized case scenarios. Each described a positive blood culture in a patient and required a yes- or-no answer to the question "Is this a CLABSI?" NHSN staff responses were the reference standard. Sixty-five US PICUs and PHOUs. Staff who routinely adjudicate CLABSIs using NHSN definitions. Sixty responses were received from 58 (89%) of 65 institutions; 78% of respondents were infection preventionists, infection control officers, or infectious disease physicians. Responses matched those of NHSN staff for 78% of questions. The mean (SE) percentage of concurring answers did not differ for scenarios evaluating application of 1 of the 3 criteria ("known pathogen," 78% [1.7%]; "skin contaminant, >1 year of age," 76% [SE, 2.5%]; "skin contaminant, ≤1 year of age," 81% [3.8%]; [Formula: see text]). The mean percentage of concurring answers was lower for scenarios requiring respondents to determine whether a CLABSI was present or incubating on admission (64% [4.6%]; [Formula: see text]) or to distinguish between primary and secondary bacteremia (65% [2.5%]; [Formula: see text]). The accuracy of application of the CLABSI definition was suboptimal. Efforts to reduce variability in identifying CLABSIs that are present or incubating on admission and in distinguishing primary from secondary bloodstream infection are needed.

  12. CellMiner: a relational database and query tool for the NCI-60 cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold William C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the high-throughput omic technologies have made it possible to profile cells in a large number of ways at the DNA, RNA, protein, chromosomal, functional, and pharmacological levels. A persistent problem is that some classes of molecular data are labeled with gene identifiers, others with transcript or protein identifiers, and still others with chromosomal locations. What has lagged behind is the ability to integrate the resulting data to uncover complex relationships and patterns. Those issues are reflected in full form by molecular profile data on the panel of 60 diverse human cancer cell lines (the NCI-60 used since 1990 by the U.S. National Cancer Institute to screen compounds for anticancer activity. To our knowledge, CellMiner is the first online database resource for integration of the diverse molecular types of NCI-60 and related meta data. Description CellMiner enables scientists to perform advanced querying of molecular information on NCI-60 (and additional types through a single web interface. CellMiner is a freely available tool that organizes and stores raw and normalized data that represent multiple types of molecular characterizations at the DNA, RNA, protein, and pharmacological levels. Annotations for each project, along with associated metadata on the samples and datasets, are stored in a MySQL database and linked to the molecular profile data. Data can be queried and downloaded along with comprehensive information on experimental and analytic methods for each data set. A Data Intersection tool allows selection of a list of genes (proteins in common between two or more data sets and outputs the data for those genes (proteins in the respective sets. In addition to its role as an integrative resource for the NCI-60, the CellMiner package also serves as a shell for incorporation of molecular profile data on other cell or tissue sample types. Conclusion CellMiner is a relational database tool for

  13. Pierce-type dispersion relation for an intense relativistic electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes

  14. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  15. Radiosensitivity related to neuroendocrine and endodermal differentation in lung carcinoma lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, G.; Casoni, A.; Pera, M.

    1988-01-01

    A panel of human lung carcinoma lines was studied with respect to hormone production and intermediate filament expression to distinguish between endodermal and neuroendocrine differentation. An index of the degree of neuroendocrine differentiation of each line was derived from the presence or absence of hormone production, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and an embryonic endodermal cell marker, which allowed identification of three groups showing high, intermediate or low neuroendocrine expression. This grouping correlated well with the in vitro radiosensitivity of the lines, those expressing pure neuroendocrine features being significantly more radiosensitive than those with an endodermal phenotype, with the intermediate group having intermediate sensitivity. Use of such an index might predict those patients likely to benefit from the use of radiotherapy in their management. 30 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Measurement of relative intensities of L-shell x-rays in some high-Z elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Mittal, R; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1982-10-14

    The L-shell x-ray relative intensities I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(l)),I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(..beta..)) and I(Lsub(..cap alpha..))/I(Lsub(..gamma..)) for U, Th, Pb and ratios I(Lsub(..cap alpha..+l))/I(Lsub(..beta..)) and I(Lsub(..cap alpha..+l))/I(Lsub(..gamma..)) for W have been measured. The L-shell electrons are excited by 59.57 keV gamma rays from /sup 241/Am and the fluorescent L-shell x-ray intensities are measured with a Si(Li) detector. The experimental results are found to agree well with theory.

  17. How Nurse Work Environments Relate to the Presence of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-09-25

    Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is essential for families to participate in infant care and prepare them to transition from hospital to home. Nurses are the principal caregivers in the NICU. The nurse work environment may influence whether parents spend time with their hospitalized infants. To examine the relationship between the NICU work environment and parental presence in the NICU using a national data set. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of a national sample of 104 NICUs, where 6060 nurses reported on 15,233 infants cared for. Secondary analysis was used to examine associations between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) (subscale items and with a composite measure) and the proportion of parents who were present during the nurses' shift. Parents of 60% (SD = 9.7%) of infants were present during the nurses' shift. The PES-NWI composite score and 2 domains-Nurse Participation in Hospital Affairs and Manager Leadership and Support-were significant predictors of parental presence. A 1 SD higher score in the composite or either subscale was associated with 2.5% more parents being present. Parental presence in the NICU is significantly associated with better nurse work environments. NICU practices may be enhanced through enhanced leadership and professional opportunities for nurse managers and staff. Future work may benefit from qualitative work with parents to illuminate their experiences with nursing leaders and nurse-led interventions in the NICU and design and testing of interventions to improve the NICU work environment.

  18. Validation of a 10-item care-related regret intensity scale (RIS-10) for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine S; Cullati, Stéphane; Haller, Chiara S; Schmidt, Ralph E; Haller, Guy; Agoritsas, Thomas; Perneger, Thomas V

    2013-03-01

    Regret after one of the many decisions and interventions that health care professionals make every day can have an impact on their own health and quality of life, and on their patient care practices. To validate a new care-related regret intensity scale (RIS) for health care professionals. Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study with a 1-month follow-up (test-retest) in a French-speaking University Hospital. A total of 469 nurses and physicians responded to the survey, and 175 answered the retest. RIS, self-report questions on the context of the regret-inducing event, its consequences for the patient, involvement of the health care professionals, and changes in patient care practices after the event. We measured the impact of regret intensity on health care professionals with the satisfaction with life scale, the SF-36 first question (self-reported health), and a question on self-esteem. On the basis of factor analysis and item response analysis, the initial 19-item scale was shortened to 10 items. The resulting scale (RIS-10) was unidimensional and had high internal consistency (α=0.87) and acceptable test-retest reliability (0.70). Higher regret intensity was associated with (a) more consequences for the patient; (b) lower life satisfaction and poorer self-reported health in health care professionals; and (c) changes in patient care practices. Nurses reported analyzing the event and apologizing, whereas physicians reported talking preferentially to colleagues, rather than to their supervisor, about changing practices. The RIS is a valid and reliable measure of care-related regret intensity for hospital-based physicians and nurses.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  20. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a

  1. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation ... The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes (Ms ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the ... city and attenuation of strong seismic ground motion. ... Seismologists have benefitted from the development .... In that case, we inferred.

  2. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. METHODS: In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm

  3. Intensive care staff, the donation request and relatives' satisfaction with the decision: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vries, A. de; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of the donation request is generally measured by consent rates, rather than by relatives' satisfaction with their decision. Our aim was to elicit Dutch ICU staffs' views and experiences with the donation request, to investigate their awareness of (dis)satisfaction with

  4. fMRI activation in relation to sound intensity and loudness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.; van Dijk, Pirn; Schoemaker, Esther S.; Backes, Walter H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to relate cortical fMRI responses to both physical and perceptual sound level characteristics. Besides subjects with normal hearing, subjects with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss were included, as distortion of loudness perception is a characteristic of such

  5. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  6. Interest of a simple on-line screening registry for measuring ICU burden related to an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jean-Christophe Marie; Pham, Tài; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Reignier, Jean; Mercat, Alain; Beduneau, Gaëtan; Régnier, Bernard; Mourvillier, Bruno; Guitton, Christophe; Castanier, Matthias; Combes, Alain; Le Tulzo, Yves; Brochard, Laurent

    2012-07-09

    The specific burden imposed on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) during the A/H1N1 influenza 2009 pandemic has been poorly explored. An on-line screening registry allowed a daily report of ICU beds occupancy rate by flu infected patients (Flu-OR) admitted in French ICUs. We conducted a prospective inception cohort study with results of an on-line screening registry designed for daily assessment of ICU burden. Among the 108 centers participating to the French H1N1 research network on mechanical ventilation (REVA) - French Society of Intensive Care (SRLF) registry, 69 ICUs belonging to seven large geographical areas voluntarily participated in a website screening-registry. The aim was to daily assess the ICU beds occupancy rate by influenza-infected and non-infected patients for at least three weeks. Three hundred ninety-one critically ill infected patients were enrolled in the cohort, representing a subset of 35% of the whole French 2009 pandemic cohort; 73% were mechanically ventilated, 13% required extra corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22% died. The global Flu-OR in these ICUs was only 7.6%, but it exceeded a predefined 15% critical threshold in 32 ICUs for a total of 103 weeks. Flu-ORs were significantly higher in University than in non-University hospitals. The peak ICU burden was poorly predicted by observations obtained at the level of large geographical areas. The peak Flu-OR during the pandemic significantly exceeded a 15% critical threshold in almost half of the ICUs, with an uneven distribution with time, geographical areas and between University and non-University hospitals. An on-line assessment of Flu-OR via a simple dedicated registry may contribute to better match resources and needs.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Health-Related Secondary Metabolites in a Brassica rapa Recombinant Inbred Line Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, H.; Soda, El M.; Kim, H.K.; Fritsche, S.; Jung, C.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic basis of the wide variation for nutritional traits in Brassica rapa is largely unknown. A new Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) population was profiled using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  8. Diffuse Intense {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake at PET in Unilateral Breast Related to Breastfeeding Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hye Kyoung [Department of Radiololgy, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Joo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    We present an interesting case of incidental diffuse fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at PET in her left breast, related to atypical breastfeeding practice. Clinically, differential diagnoses of diffuse intense FDG uptake in unilateral breast include advanced breast cancer, breast lymphoma and inflammatory condition. However, normal physiologic lactation may also show increased FDG uptake in the breasts. Therefore, if we encounter that finding in daily practice, we should question the patient regarding unilateral breastfeeding. In addition, mammography and ultrasound would be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.

  9. Relative Intensity Influences the Degree of Correspondence of Jump Squats and Push Jerks to Countermovement Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Emily J; Goodwin, Jon E; Cleather, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical similarity between push jerk (PJ) and jump squat (JS) to countermovement jump (CMJ) and further understand the effect increasing external load may have on this relationship. Eight physically trained men (age 22 ± 3; height 176 ± 7 kg; weight 83 ± 8 kg) performed an unloaded CMJ followed by JS under a range of loads (10, 25, 35, and 50% 1RM back squat) and PJ (30, 50, 65, and 75% 1RM push jerk). A portable force platform and high-speed camera both collecting at 250 Hz were used to establish joint moments and impulse during the propulsive phase of the movements. A standard inverse dynamics model was used to determine joint moment and impulse at the hip, knee, and ankle. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were shown between CMJ knee joint moment and JS knee joint moment at 25% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 50% load. Significant correlations were also observed between CMJ knee joint impulse and JS knee joint impulse at 10% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 65% load. Significant correlation was also observed between CMJ hip joint impulse and PJ hip joint impulse at 30% load. No significant joint × load interaction was shown as load increased for either PJ or JS. Results from the study suggest partial correspondence between PJ and JS to CMJ, where a greater mechanical similarity was observed between the PJ and CMJ. This interaction is load and joint dependent where lower relative loads showed greatest mechanical similarity. Therefore using lower relative loads when programming may provide a greater transfer of training effect.

  10. Absolute transition probabilities for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Absolute radiative transition probabilities are reported for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium covering the wavelength range 340-880 nm. These transition probabilities are obtained by scaling published relative line intensities (Meggers et al 1975 Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (National Bureau of Standards Monograph 145)) with a smaller set of published absolute transition probabilities (Bisson et al 1991 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8 1545). All 559 new values are for lines for which transition probabilities have not previously been available. The estimated relative random uncertainty of the new data is +-35% for nearly all lines.

  11. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  12. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  13. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  14. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio; Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar; Matschke, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  15. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  16. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Tomimoto, Hidekazu [Kyoto University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Junya [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  17. Age-related signal intensity changes in the corpus callosum: assessment with three orthogonal FLAIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Miki, Yukio; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Takahiro; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Togashi, Kaori; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Konishi, Junya

    2005-01-01

    The presence of age-related hyperintensities of the corpus callosum has not been thoroughly evaluated. Fifty-two patients of 50 years of age or older (mean, 71 years; range, 50-87 years) were included in this study. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were obtained in three orthogonal planes. Periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) were graded according to Fazekas' rating scale. Correlations between the presence of hyperintensities in the corpus callosum and age, and the grade of PVH and DWMH were statistically analyzed. PVH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=28), grade 2 (n=10), or grade 3 (n=10). DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=4), grade 1 (n=25), grade 2 (n=8), or grade 3 (n=15). Hyperintensity was considered present in the corpus callosum in 31 of the 52 patients (60%). In these 31 patients, PVH was categorized as grade 1 (n=16), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=8), while DWMH was categorized as grade 0 (n=1), grade 1 (n=10), grade 2 (n=7), or grade 3 (n=13). The presence of callosal hyperintensities was significantly correlated with age (p=0.001), and with PVH (p=0.04) and DWMH grades (p=0.004). Hyperintensities may be present in the corpus callosum with aging, and are correlated with PVH and DWMH. (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  19. Effect of venous dexamethasone, oral caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudifar, Mehrdad; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Adib, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a relatively common complication after regional anesthesia, especially in younger people, bothersome to patients and needs prophylaxis to prevent this complication. This study was conducted aiming to determine the preventive effect of dexamethasone plus caffeine and acetaminophen on relative frequency and intensity of PDPH after spinal anesthesia. In a clinical trial study, 90 candidates for the lower extremities orthopedic elective operation were divided into two groups of 45 individuals each. Intervention group received the compound of 500 mg acetaminophen +65 mg oral caffeine +8 mg venous dexamethasone an hour before spinal blocking, and the control group received placebo tablets + a dexamethasone equivalent volume of venous normal saline. The level of postoperative headache at the time of entrance to recovery and discharge, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively were measured based on Visual Analog Scale criterion in the two groups and then compared with each other. During the study, 24 patients in the control group and 17 patients in the intervention group were afflicted with headache; however, with no significant difference (P = 0.14). Total frequency of headache incidence was 35 times in the control group and 27 times in the intervention group (P = 0.32). Though the taking of acetaminophen + caffeine + dexamethasone is associated with a decrease in headache intensity and duration and decrease in PDPH incidence, compared with placebo, however, no essentially and statistically significant effect was produced.

  20. Murine transgenic embryonic stem cell lines for the investigation of sinoatrial node-related molecular pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schmitteckert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that restrict the potential of pluripotent stem cells and promote cardiac lineage differentiation is of crucial relevance, since embryonic stem cells (ESCs hold great potential for cell based heart therapies. The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 is essential for the development and proper function of the native cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node. This prompted us to develop a cardiac differentiation model using ESC lines isolated from blastocysts of Shox2-deficient mice. The established cell model provides a fundamental basis for the investigation of molecular pathways under physiological and pathophysiological conditions for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches.

  1. On two energy-like invariants of line graphs and related graph operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For a simple graph G of order n, let μ 1 ≥ μ 2 ≥ ⋯ ≥ μ n = 0 $\\mu_{1}\\geq\\mu_{2}\\geq\\cdots\\geq\\mu_{n}=0$ be its Laplacian eigenvalues, and let q 1 ≥ q 2 ≥ ⋯ ≥ q n ≥ 0 $q_{1}\\geq q_{2}\\geq\\cdots\\geq q_{n}\\geq0$ be its signless Laplacian eigenvalues. The Laplacian-energy-like invariant and incidence energy of G are defined as, respectively, LEL ( G = ∑ i = 1 n − 1 μ i and IE ( G = ∑ i = 1 n q i . $$\\mathit{LEL}(G=\\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}\\sqrt{ \\mu_{i}} \\quad\\mbox{and}\\quad \\mathit {IE}(G=\\sum_{i=1}^{n} \\sqrt{q_{i}}. $$ In this paper, we present some new upper and lower bounds on LEL and IE of line graph, subdivision graph, para-line graph and total graph of a regular graph, some of which improve previously known results. The main tools we use here are the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and the Ozeki inequality.

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors for Intensive Care Unit–related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans and Civilians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627

  3. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a minute-to-minute basis from July 2002 until April 2003. Data collected included, amongst others, crop transpiration from lysimeter data (2 m2), canopy temperature using infrared sensors, rockwool water...

  4. The Role of the MHV Receptor and Related Glycoproteins in Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Murine Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-13

    vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase s y stem for e xpression of target genes . Mol . Cell . BioI . 7 : 2538-2544 . Gagneten , S ., Gout , 0 ., Dubois-Dalcq...glycoprotein. These results showed f or the first time that two murine CEA- related genes can be co-expressed in some cell lines from inbred mice...49 Southern Hybridization ................ . ............ 50 Subcloning of PCR Products and Gene Cloning ........ 51 Growth

  5. Relation between parental psychopathology and posttraumatic growth after a child's admission to intensive care: Two faces of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a child's admission to a paediatric intensive care unit, parents may experience psychopathological post-trauma symptoms as well as posttraumatic growth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relation between psychopathology symptoms, namely, posttraumatic stress disorder), anxiety and depression, as well as post traumatic growth in parents following their child's hospitalisation in a paediatric intensive care unit. Six months after their child's discharge, 143 parents completed the questionnaire, which assessed post traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), post traumatic stress disorder (Davidson Trauma Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Of the 143 parents, 23.1% reported symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder, 21% reported symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety, 9.1% reported symptoms of moderate to severe depression and 37.1% reported at least a medium degree of post traumatic growth. There was a moderate, direct association between post traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety with post traumatic growth. Higher scores in anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder were associated with higher levels of post traumatic growth, contradicting the notion of an inverted U-shaped relationship between psychopathology symptoms and post traumatic growth. Given that positive and negative outcomes after a child's critical admission tend to co-occur, it is surmised that parents who indicate post traumatic growth do not deny the difficulties. While not negating the negative impact on the mental health of a parent with a child admitted to intensive care, including the assessment of post traumatic growth as an outcome following this event has important implications for research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The clonic phase of seizures in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy is related to age and stimulus intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh eTseng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in patients who are drug-naïve or less-receptive to antipsychotic drugs. Several studies have discussed the correlation between patient characteristics, input current volume and seizure duration. According to the present principle of ECT guidelines, the therapeutic effect of ECT mostly correlates with seizure duration. As the tonic phase is different from the clonic phase with respect to brain function and activity, it is informative to analyse both the tonic and clonic phases. Thus, this study sought to clarify the relationship between the features of the two phases, and to re-examine and refine guidelines regarding ECT treatment.Method: ECT-course data from 44 schizophrenia patients were recollected, including the number of treatments that they had received, their gender, age, and the association of these characteristics with motor seizure duration was analysed. A two-factor correlation was employed to test the relationship between each of the two factors.Result: The meta-analysis results indicate that seizure duration and age are significantly correlated. Older patients had relatively short seizure durations after ECT-treatment. Notably, a negative correlation was only found between age and the clonic phase of the seizure, not between age and the tonic phase. Furthermore, this study also found an inverse relationship between ECT-intensity and the clonic phase, but not between ECT-intensity and the tonic phase.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that age and ECT-intensity are negatively correlated with seizure duration, particularly in the clonic phase. The present observations are not fully consistent with the basic guidelines of the APA-ECT practical manual. Accordingly, the predictions regarding the therapeutic effect of ECT can be based on both the seizure duration and the clonic phase.

  7. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) constitute a group of retroposons propagating in the genome via a mechanism of reverse transcription, in which they depend on the enzymatic machinery of long retroposons (LINEs). Over 70 SINE families have been described to date from the genomes of various eukaryotes. Here, we characterize two novel SINEs from salmons (Actinopterygii: Salmonoidei). The first family, termed SlmI, was shown to be widespread among all genera of the suborder. These SINEs have a tRNA(Leu)-related promoter region at their 5'-end, a unique central conserved domain with a subfamily-specific region, and an end with RSg-1-LINE-derived 3'-terminus preceding the A/T-rich tail. The same LINE-related segment is also shared by two other salmonid SINEs: HpaI and OS-SINE1. The structural peculiarities and overall sequence identity of the SlmI 3'-terminus suggest that it has been acquired from HpaI SINEs but not directly from the partner LINE. This region plays a crucial role in the process of retrotransposition of short interspersed elements, and the case of its SINE-to-SINE transmission is the first recorded to date. Possible scenarios and potential evolutionary implications of the observed interaction between short retroposons are discussed. Apart from the above, we found a copy of the SlmI SINE in the GenBank entry for the blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Strigeiformes) -- a trematode causing one of the most important human helminth infections, with its genome known to host other groups of salmonoid retroposons. In the present article, we suggest our views with regard to possible ways in which such an intensive horizontal transfer of salmonoid retroposons to the schistosomal genome occurs. The second novel SINE family, termed SlmII, originates from one of the SlmI subfamilies, with which it shares the same tRNA-related region, central domain, and a part of RSg-1-derived segment, but has a different 3'-tail of unidentified origin. Its distribution

  8. A Solution Approach to Assembly Line Balancing Problem With Task Related Constraints and an Application At An Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally certain tasks in an assembly line balancing problem are required to be kept together due to some specific reasons. These tasks are attained to the same work stations. Such problems are called as 'Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Task Related Constraints (ALBTRC'. Certain situations like awkward product construction, simultaneous operations or specific requirements leading to zoning and positional constraints like utilization of common resources as tools, jigs and fixtures are implemented thanks to these supplementary constraints. Additionally, materials handling and tooling costs, distances, set-up and lead times are also reduced. Literature on ALBTRC seems quite rare compared to Classical Line Balancing papers, although ALBTRC is one of the common real life balancing problems. This study aimed to develop and implement a novel line balancing method for a manufacturing concern where known methods are impractical to employ due to some specific positional constraints. 'Largest Candidate Method' known as a simple but effective tool is modified for this purpose first. Then a thorough 'method and time study' is conducted to get the necessary data to utilize that method. As a result, more efficient alternatives are generated and presented to decision maker.

  9. Oxygen-Related Differences in Cellular and Vesicular Phenotypes Observed for Ovarian Cell Cancer Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Evo K. Lindersson; Pugholm, Lotte Hatting; Bæk, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one of several tools that cells use to communicate with each other. This communication is facilitated by a number of surface-associated proteins and the cargo of the vesicles. For several cancer types, the amount of EVs is observed to be up-regulated in patients c...... produced more EVs.The phenotyping of EVs from cancer cell lines provides information about their molecular composition. This information may be translated to knowledge regarding the functionality of EVs and lead to a better understanding of their role in cancer.......Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one of several tools that cells use to communicate with each other. This communication is facilitated by a number of surface-associated proteins and the cargo of the vesicles. For several cancer types, the amount of EVs is observed to be up-regulated in patients...

  10. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  12. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miki Mei-Chi; Yeh, Yun; Shih, Yu-En; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Mei-Chi Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Keywords: 5-Galloylquinic acid, Aging, Baking, Gallic acid, Oolong tea

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Pruritus: An Analysis Related to Disease Etiology, Clinical Skin Conditions and Itch Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlich, Benjamin; Fritz, Fleur; Osada, Nani; Bruland, Philipp; Stumpf, Astrid; Schneider, Gudrun; Dugas, Martin; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Ständer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differs between diseases associated with chronic pruritus (CP). To analyze HRQoL in relation to age, gender, skin lesions (primary vs. scratch-induced secondary) and itch intensity. Consecutive patients of our itch clinic were assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). In 510 CP patients (282 females; median age, 61.4 years), DLQI scores and VAS values were highly correlated, irrespective of the type of skin lesion. Overall, women had a lower HRQoL compared to men (females: 10.7 ± 6.7, males: 8.9 ± 6.7), but female gender was only associated with worse quality of life in patients skin lesion or underlying cause. With limitations to item bias, DLQI is a suitable instrument for estimating quality of life impairment by CP. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of... consumer protection and civil rights laws and regulations related to air transportation. The Enforcement... travelers, and to ensure safe and adequate service in air transportation. Filing a complaint using a web...

  16. Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 using the MAX-DOAS method combined with relative intensity measurements for aerosol correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Levelt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS is a technique to measure trace gas amounts in the lower troposphere from ground-based scattered sunlight observations. MAX-DOAS observations are especially suitable for validation of tropospheric trace gas observations from satellite, since they have a representative range of several kilometers, both in the horizontal and in the vertical dimension. A two-step retrieval scheme is presented here, to derive aerosol corrected tropospheric NO2 columns from MAX-DOAS observations. In a first step, boundary layer aerosols, characterized in terms of aerosol optical thickness (AOT, are estimated from relative intensity observations, which are defined as the ratio of the sky radiance at elevation α and the sky radiance in the zenith. Relative intensity measurements have the advantage of a strong dependence on boundary layer AOT and almost no dependence on boundary layer height. In a second step, tropospheric NO2 columns are derived from differential slant columns, based on AOT-dependent air mass factors. This two-step retrieval scheme was applied to cloud free periods in a twelve month data set of observations in De Bilt, The Netherlands. In a comparison with AERONET (Cabauw site a mean difference in AOT (AERONET minus MAX-DOAS of −0.01±0.08 was found, and a correlation of 0.85. Tropospheric-NO2 columns were compared with OMI-satellite tropospheric NO2. For ground-based observations restricted to uncertainties below 10%, no significant difference was found, and a correlation of 0.88.

  17. The processing of infrequently-presented low-intensity stimuli during natural sleep: An event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muller-Gass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs provide an exquisite means to measure the extent of processing of external stimuli during the sleep period. This study examines ERPs elicited by stimuli with physical characteristics akin to environmental noise encountered during sleep. Brief duration 40, 60 or 80 dB sound pressure level (SPL tones were presented either rapidly (on average every two seconds or slowly (on average every 10 seconds. The rates of presentation and intensity of the stimuli were similar to those observed in environmental studies of noise. ERPs were recorded from nine young adults during sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the amplitude of an early negative ERP, N1, systematically increased as intensity level increased. A later positivity, the P3a, was apparent following the loudest 80 dB stimulus regardless of the rate of stimulus presentation; it was also apparent following the 60 dB stimulus, when stimuli were presented slowly. The appearance of the N1-P3a deflections suggests that operations of the central executive controlling ongoing cognitive activity was interrupted, forcing subjects to become aware of the obtrusive task-irrelevant stimuli. The auditory stimuli elicited very different ERP patterns during sleep. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the ERP was characterized by an enhanced (relative to wakefulness early positivity, P2, followed by a very prominent negativity, the N350. Both deflections systematically varied in amplitude with stimulus intensity level; in addition, N350 was much larger when stimuli were presented at slow rates. The N350, a sleep-specific ERP, is thought to reflect the inhibition of processing of potentially sleep-disrupting stimulus input. During rapid eye movement (REM sleep, a small amplitude N1 was apparent in the ERP, but only for the loudest, 80 dB stimulus. A small (nonsignificant P3a-like deflection was also visible following the 80 dB stimulus, but only when stimuli were presented

  18. Associations Between the Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Campaign and Calls to Related Crisis Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Stephens, Brady; Draper, John; Kemp, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Transit Authority Suicide Prevention (TASP) campaign was launched by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in a limited number of U.S. cities to promote the use of crisis lines among veterans of military service. Methods We obtained the daily number of calls to the VCL and National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) for six implementation cities (where the campaign was active) and four control cities (where there was no TASP campaign messaging) for a 14-month period. To identify changes in call volume associated with campaign implementation, VCL and NSPL daily call counts for three time periods of equal length (pre-campaign, during campaign, and post-campaign) were modeled using a Poisson log-linear regression with inference based on the generalized estimating equations. Results Statistically significant increases in calls to both the VCL and the NSPL were reported during the TASP campaign in implementation cities, but were not reported in control cities during or following the campaign. Secondary outcome measures were also reported for the VCL and included the percentage of callers who are veterans, and calls resulting in a rescue during the study period. Conclusions Results from this study reveal some promise for suicide prevention messaging to promote the use of telephone crisis services and contribute to an emerging area of research examining the effects of campaigns on help seeking. PMID:25364053

  19. Recursion relations for multi-gluon off-shell amplitudes on the light-front and Wilson lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cruz-Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the off-shell scattering amplitudes in the framework of the light-front perturbation theory. It is shown that the previously derived recursion relation between tree level off-shell amplitudes in this formalism actually resums whole classes of graphs into a Wilson line. More precisely, we establish a correspondence between the light-front methods for the computation of the off-shell amplitudes and the approach which makes use of the matrix elements of straight infinite Wilson lines, which are manifestly gauge invariant objects. Furthermore, since it is needed to explicitly verify the gauge invariance of light-front amplitudes, it is demonstrated that the Ward identities in this framework need additional instantaneous terms in the light-front graphs.

  20. Can Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Preserve Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pow, Edmond H.N.; Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Lee, Victor H.F.; Ng, Sherry C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in salivary function and oral health-related quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT. The parotid and whole saliva flow was measured, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire 35-item head-and-neck module, and Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires were completed at baseline and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after IMRT. Results: Parotid saliva flow recovered fully after 1 year and maintained. Whole saliva flow recovered partially to 40% of baseline. A general trend of deterioration in most quality of life scales was observed after IMRT, followed by gradual recovery. Persistent oral-related symptoms were found 2 years after treatment. Conclusion: IMRT for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma could only partially preserve the whole salivary function and oral health-related quality of life.

  1. Can Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Preserve Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pow, Edmond H.N., E-mail: ehnpow@hku.hk [Oral Rehabilitation, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Dentistry, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Kwong, Dora L.W.; Sham, Jonathan S.T.; Lee, Victor H.F.; Ng, Sherry C.Y. [Department of Clinical Oncology, University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the changes in salivary function and oral health-related quality of life for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 57 patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT. The parotid and whole saliva flow was measured, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire 35-item head-and-neck module, and Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires were completed at baseline and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after IMRT. Results: Parotid saliva flow recovered fully after 1 year and maintained. Whole saliva flow recovered partially to 40% of baseline. A general trend of deterioration in most quality of life scales was observed after IMRT, followed by gradual recovery. Persistent oral-related symptoms were found 2 years after treatment. Conclusion: IMRT for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma could only partially preserve the whole salivary function and oral health-related quality of life.

  2. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil.

  3. Risk-informed decision-making related to the on-line maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, Marko

    2011-01-01

    On-line maintenance (OLM) represents the term, which includes testing and maintenance that is performed when the main generator of the nuclear power plant is connected to the grid. OLM on one side helps to decrease the number of activities, which would be performed during the scheduled outage, but on the other side it may contribute to a different level of risk, if the activity is performed when the plant is operating. If the risk of OLM during the power operation is much larger than the risk of similar activity performed during the shutdown the OLM may not be the desired strategy. Additionally, if the risk of OLM during the power operation is not larger than the risk of similar activity performed during the shutdown, the OLM would be the preferred strategy. The objective of the paper is to show risk evaluations of selected OLM activities of selected real plants and to examine if the current practices are suitable for the new nuclear power plants. The results of risk evaluations of OLM and their comparison show that the criteria or guidelines developed for existing plants are not completely suitable for new plants. The new power plants with expected lower risk measures, which can be lower for more than couple of orders of magnitude compared to existing plants, would be able to deal with OLM in plant configurations which would increase the risk for orders of magnitude, but would still be acceptable in terms of risk, if the existing criteria or guidelines are used. Results suggest that the risk guidelines for the OLM should be updated for their use in the case of new nuclear power plants.

  4. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, S.; Matsuoka, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  5. The identification of new genes related to cisplatin resistance in ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line A2780

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar, P.; Fedorocko, P.; Sytkowski, A.; Hodorova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells are usually sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin (CDDP), initially but typically become resistant to the drug over time. The phenomenon of clinical drug resistance represents a serious problem for successful disease treatment, and the molecular mechanism(s) are not fully understood. In search of novel mechanisms that may lead to the development of CDDP chemoresistance we have applied subtractive hybridization based on the PCR-select cDNA subtraction. In current study we have used subtractive hybridization to identify differentially-expressed genes in CDDP resistant CP70 and C200 cells versus CDDP-sensitive A2780 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. We have analyzed 256 randomly selected clones. Subtraction efficiency was determined by dot blot and DNA sequencing. Confirmation of differentially expressed cDNAs was done by virtual northern blot analysis, and 17 genes that were differentially expressed in both CDDP resistant cell lines versus CDDP sensitive A2780 cells were identified. The expression of 10 of these genes was undetectable or detected with low expression in sensitive A2780 cells in comparison to resistant ones. These genes included ARHGDIB, RANBP2, ASPH, PRTFDC1, SSX2IP, MBNL1, DNAJC15, MMP10, TCTE1L and one unidentified sequence. Additional 7 genes that were more highly expressed in resistant CP70 and C200 vs. A2780 cells included ANXA2, USP8, HSPCA, TRA1, CNAP1, ATP2B1 and COX2. Interestingly, multi-drug resistance associated p-glycoprotein (p170) was not detected by the western blot in CDDP resistant CP70 and C200 cells. Our identified genes are involved in diverse processes, such as stress response, chromatin condensation, protection from protein degradation, invasiveness of cells, alterations of Ca 2+ homeostasis and others which may contribute to CDDP resistance of ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. Further characterization of these genes and gene products should yield important insights into the biology of

  6. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mathias Döll-Boscardin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential.

  8. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia Mathias; Sartoratto, Adilson; Sales Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Nakashima, Tomoe; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene) on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential. PMID:22645627

  9. Desensitizing Addiction: Using Eye Movements to Reduce the Intensity of Substance-Related Mental Imagery and Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littel, Marianne; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall traumatic memories while making horizontal eye movements (EM). Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on (1) vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students and (2) vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment. Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (experiment 2) and affected behavior (experiment 1): participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, these data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance-related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  10. Desensitizing addiction: using eye movements to reduce the intensity of substance-related mental imagery and craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eLittel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall a traumatic memory while making horizontal eye movements (EM. Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories, but also positive memories and imagined events. Substance use behavior and craving are maintained by maladaptive memory associations and visual imagery. Preliminary findings have indicated that these mental images can be desensitized by EMDR techniques. We conducted two proof-of-principle studies to investigate whether EM can reduce the sensory richness of substance-related mental representations and accompanying craving levels. We investigated the effects of EM on 1 vividness of food-related mental imagery and food craving in dieting and non-dieting students, and 2 vividness of recent smoking-related memories and cigarette craving in daily smokers. In both experiments, participants recalled the images while making EM or keeping eyes stationary. Image vividness and emotionality, image-specific craving and general craving were measured before and after the intervention. As a behavioral outcome measure, participants in study 1 were offered a snack choice at the end of the experiment.Results of both experiments showed that image vividness and craving increased in the control condition, but remained stable or decreased after the EM intervention. EM additionally reduced image emotionality (exp 2, and affected behavior (exp 1: participants in the EM condition were more inclined to choose healthy over unhealthy snack options. In conclusion, the data suggest that EM can be used to reduce intensity of substance related imagery and craving. Although long-term effects are yet to be demonstrated, the current studies suggest that EM might be a useful technique in addiction treatment.

  11. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  12. Yeast cell inactivation related to local heating induced by low-intensity electric fields with long-duration pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Stéphane; Ferret, Eric; Boehm, Jean-Baptiste; Gervais, Patrick

    2007-01-25

    The effects of electric field (EF) treatments on Saccharomyces cerevisiae viability were investigated using a PG200 electroporator (Hoefer Scientific Instrument, San Fransisco, CA, USA) with specific attention to induced thermal effects on cell death. Lethal electric fields (1.5 kV cm(-1) for 5 s) were shown to cause heat variations in the cell suspension medium (water+glycerol), while corresponding classical thermal treatments at equivalent temperatures had no effect on the cells viability. Variations of the electrical conductivity of the intra- and extracellular matrix caused by ions and solutes transfer across the membrane were shown to be involved in the observed heating. The results permitted to build a theoretical model for the temperature variations induced by electric fields. Using this model and the electrical conductivity of the different media, a plausible explanation of the cell death induced by low-intensity electric fields with long-duration pulses has been proposed. Indeed, cell mortality could in part be caused by direct and indirect effects of electric fields. Direct effects are related to well known electromechanical phenomena, whereas indirect effects are related to secondary thermal stress caused by plasma membrane thermoporation. This thermoporation was attributed to electrical conductivity variations and the corresponding intracellular heating.

  13. An After-School, high-intensity, interval physical activity programme improves health-related fitness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Reloba Martínez

    Full Text Available Abstract Health problems related to a low level of physical activity (PA in children and adolescents have prompted research into extracurricular PA programs. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different levels of PA on the health-related fitness of school children. Ninety-four girls and boys (7-9 years were randomly assigned to a control group (CG or intervention group (IG. Over a 12 week study period, children in the CG participated in a similar PA program to that of a standard school physical education program while those in the IG completed a high intensity interval training (HIIT program. Both programs involved two 40 minute extracurricular sessions per week. Our findings indicate that the HIIT intervention improved motor capacity (speed/agility, Vpeak, VO2 max and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC (p < 0.05 along with the musculoskeletal capacity of the lower trunk (mean propulsive velocity and standing long jump, p < 0.05. The PA program had no effect on anthropometric variables or hand-grip strength. The data indicate that a 12 week strength training program using workloads adapted to children may significantly improve several markers of health and physical fitness compared to a standard school PA program.

  14. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  15. Decomposition of intensity of energy-related CO_2 emission in Chinese provinces using the LMDI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Ke; Zhou, Dequn; Zhang, Wenrui; Gao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Uncovering the driving factors of CO_2 emission intensity declining is important for China. This paper improves the logarithmic mean Divisia index technique, which includes energy density and energy consumption intensity, to explore the driving factors of carbon emission intensity (CI) in 29 Chinese provinces from 1995–2012. The main results are: (1) energy consumption intensity plays a more important role than carbon emission density (CD) for a rapid decrease in CI during the research period, so a much room is left for a significant CD reduction through carbon emission reduction technology, energy structural reduction, and energy consumption proportional reduction. (2) The decrease in energy consumption technology and energy structure in secondary industries contributes the most reduction in energy consumption intensity. (3)The energy consumption proportions of secondary and tertiary industries are the two most important drivers to decrease CD. (4) During the research period, the energy consumption proportions of secondary industries result in the most decrease in CD, whereas the energy consumption proportions of tertiary industries cause the most increase in CD. - Highlights: •Carbon emission intensity decreased rapidly from 1995 to 2012. •Energy intensity is the more significant driver for decrease of carbon intensity. •The most contribution of EI's decrease came from secondary industries. •The most contribution of CD's decrease came from secondary and tertiary industries. •Several policies of reducing carbon emission intensity in China have been raised.

  16. Human rights on the thin red line between universality and relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights represent an open legal and political concept with a very wide value variable. Academic discussions on human rights nature have mostly commenced after the World War II during the trend of human rights internationalization, reaching their climax after the Cold war. This paper examines actual theories on human rights, from those accepting them as universal, up to those marking another pole, favoring idea of absolute relativity of human rights. The author asserts that the most acceptable should be a middle solution, standing of moderate relativism or position of relative universalism of human rights. He claims that only a very limited circle of basic, 'substantial' human rights, having been accepted through an intercultural consensus, may pretend to be treated as universal. Out of that narrow sphere, there are many other human rights whose meaning and interpretation depend strongly upon concrete cultural context. The author points that in those cases it is important to respect a relativistic discourse and that the only solution should be explored within an intercultural and inter-civilizational dialogue, where non-western values should be equally treated as the western ones.

  17. FT-IR measurements of NH3 in the 1.5 μm region: line positions, intensities and their quantum assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.; Huang, X.; Schwenke, D. W.; Lee, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of an effort to provide a complete set of spectroscopic line parameters of NH3 in the 1.5 μm region, we have analyzed the laboratory spectra recorded at various temperatures (200 - 299 K) with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak Observatory in Arizona. The integrated sum of observed line strengths is measured to be 4.7×10-19 cm/molecule in the 6300 - 7000 cm-1 region. In this poster, we present line positions and strengths for the lines from four strong bands (2v1, 2v3, v1+v3, v1+2v4 and v3+2v4), which contribute more than 65% of opacity in the region. Lower state energies and quantum assignments determined by constructing combination differences are also presented. A theoretical IR linelist (X. Huang, D. W. Schwenke, and T. J. Lee. J. Chem. Phys., 134, 044320/044321, 2011) built upon the recent HSL-2 potential energy surface (nonadiabatic corrections included) is complementarily used for the quantum assignments. This work will support spectroscopic studies of atmospheres of outer planets, low mass brown dwarfs, and possibly extrasolar planets, in the 1.5 μm region (the H-band), where ammonia is one of significant opacity sources. (Research described in this talk was performed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was supported by the Planetary Atmospheric Research Program under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The AMES group acknowledges support from the NASA APRA & Herschel GO Program, and X.H. acknowledges the support by NASA/SETI Institute Co-operative Agreement.)

  18. PORTA: A three-dimensional multilevel radiative transfer code for modeling the intensity and polarization of spectral lines with massively parallel computers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 557, September (2013), A143/1-A143/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line formation * magnetic fields * numerical methods Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  19. Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

    2011-10-01

    The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective.

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  1. Risk for work-related fatigue among the employees on semiconductor manufacturing lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Hui-I; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2015-03-01

    To examine the potential risk factors for work-related fatigue (WRF) among workers in modern industries, the authors analyzed the records of need-for-recovery questionnaires and health checkup results for 1545 employees. Compared with regular daytime workers, and after adjusting for confounders, the workers adapting to day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) had a 4.0-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-5.9) increased risk for WRF, higher than the 2.2-fold risk (95% CI = 1.5-3.3) for persistent shift workers. Based on highest education level, the male employees with university degrees had the highest adjusted odds ratio (a-OR) 2.8 (95% CI = 1.0-7.8) for complaining of WRF versus compulsory education group. For female workers, currently married/cohabiting status was inversely associated with WRF (a-OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9), and child-rearing responsibility moderately increased WRF risk (a-OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.7). Day-and-night RSW and the adaptation, educational levels of males, and domestic factors for females contributed to WRF among semiconductor manufacturing employees. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation of hematological diseases from related, haploidentical donors after reduced-intensity conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Kavita; Pagliuca, Antonio; Bradstock, Kenneth; Noriega, Victor; Potter, Victoria; Streetly, Matthew; McLornan, Donal; Kazmi, Majid; Marsh, Judith; Kwan, John; Huang, Gillian; Getzendaner, Lisa; Lee, Stephanie; Guthrie, Katherine A; Mufti, Ghulam J; O'Donnell, Paul

    2014-06-01

    In a multicenter collaboration, we carried out T cell-replete, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations from related, HLA-haploidentical donors with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in 55 patients with high-risk hematologic disorders. Patients received 2 doses of Cy 50 mg/kg i.v. on days 3 and 4 after infusion of PBSC (mean, 6.4 × 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells; mean, 2.0 × 10(8)/kg CD3(+) cells). The median times to neutrophil (500/μL) and platelet (>20,000/μL) recovery were 17 and 21 days respectively. All but 2 of the patients achieved full engraftment. The 1-year cumulative incidences of grade II and grade III acute GVHD were 53% and 8%, respectively. There were no cases of grade IV GVHD. The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GHVD was 18%. With a median follow-up of 509 days, overall survival and event-free survival at 2 years were 48% and 51%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 23% and 28%, respectively. Our results suggest that PBSC can be substituted safely and effectively for bone marrow as the graft source for haploidentical transplantation after RIC. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influences of optical-spectrum errors on excess relative intensity noise in a fiber-optic gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing

    2018-03-01

    The excess relative intensity noise (RIN) generated from broadband sources degrades the angular-random-walk performance of a fiber-optic gyroscope dramatically. Many methods have been proposed and managed to suppress the excess RIN. However, the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical errors in the fiber-optic gyroscope have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, it is difficult for the existing RIN-suppression methods to achieve the optimal results in practice. In this work, the influences of different optical-spectrum errors on the power spectral density of the excess RIN are theoretically analyzed. In particular, the properties of the excess RIN affected by the raised-cosine-type ripples in the optical spectrum are elaborately investigated. Experimental measurements of the excess RIN corresponding to different optical-spectrum errors are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis, demonstrating its validity. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical-spectrum errors. Potentially, it can be utilized to optimize the configurations of the existing RIN-suppression methods by accurately evaluating the power spectral density of the excess RIN.

  4. Organizational Stressors and Related Stress Intensities in Tehran\\'s Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers: From the Employees\\' Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyereh Tavafi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rehabilitation services employees are exposed to stressors at everyday work because they are in touch with people who disability and problems have associated with. Inappropriate policies and processes in work place aggravate stress and would adversely affect mental and physical health of this population which in turn would affect their quality of work. Materials & Methods: In order to determine the status of inappropriate organizational policies and processes as organizational stressors and related stress intensities in Tehran’s comprehensive rehabilitation centers, in a descriptive study all of the personnel were asked to fill a questionnaire which consisted of 32 questions. Content validity was approved by expertise people and reliability was 0.83. Results: Revealed that misevaluation of employees (%98 and using unclear and inappropriate criteria for evaluating personal (%95 were the most prevalent inappropriate organizational policy and process that personnel confronted with. Also we found that exposure to "inequality of payment for similar jobs" and "invalidity of criteria which were used for personnel evaluation", induced highest degree of stress on employees (2.64 from 4 & 1.71from 4 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that as the most prevalent factor which induced stress in personnel is misevaluation, correction of personnel evaluation system should be over emphasized.

  5. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  6. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  7. Mind the Gap? An Intensive Longitudinal Study of Between-Person and Within-Person Intention-Behavior Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Shrout, Patrick E; Bolger, Niall; Stadler, Gertraud; Scholz, Urte

    2016-08-01

    Despite their good intentions, people often do not eat healthily. This is known as the intention-behavior gap. Although the intention-behavior relationship is theorized as a within-person process, most evidence is based on between-person differences. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the within-person intention-behavior association for unhealthy snack consumption. Young adults (N = 45) participated in an intensive longitudinal study. They reported intentions and snack consumption five times daily for 7 days (n = 1068 observations analyzed). A within-person unit difference in intentions was associated with a halving of the number of unhealthy snacks consumed in the following 3 h (CI95 27-70 %). Between-person differences in average intentions did not predict unhealthy snack consumption. Consistent with theory, the intention-behavior relation for healthy eating is best understood as a within-person process. Interventions to reduce unhealthy snacking should target times of day when intentions are weakest.

  8. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  9. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  10. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollace Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection.

  11. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole; Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Held, Kathryn D.; Willers, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and 137 Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to 60 Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation

  12. Lung Cancer Cell Line Screen Links Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Defects to Increased Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Ghosh, Priyanjali; Magpayo, Nicole [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Testa, Mauro; Tang, Shikui [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gheorghiu, Liliana [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Biggs, Peter; Paganetti, Harald [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Held, Kathryn D. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: Growing knowledge of genomic heterogeneity in cancer, especially when it results in altered DNA damage responses, requires re-examination of the generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 of protons. Methods and Materials: For determination of cellular radiosensitivity, we irradiated 17 lung cancer cell lines at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer, 2.5 keV/μm). For comparison, 250-kVp X rays and {sup 137}Cs γ-rays were used. To estimate the RBE of protons relative to {sup 60}Co (Co60eq), we assigned an RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to X rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor damage responses. FANCD2 was depleted using RNA interference. Results: Five lung cancer cell lines (29.4%) exhibited reduced clonogenic survival after proton irradiation compared with X-irradiation with the same physical doses. This was confirmed in a 3-dimensional sphere assay. Corresponding proton RBE(Co60Eq) estimates were statistically significantly different from 1.1 (P≤.05): 1.31 to 1.77 (for a survival fraction of 0.5). In 3 of these lines, increased RBE was correlated with alterations in the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA pathway of DNA repair. In Calu-6 cells, the data pointed toward an FA pathway defect, leading to a previously unreported persistence of proton-induced RAD51 foci. The FA/BRCA-defective cells displayed a 25% increase in the size of subnuclear 53BP1 foci 18 hours after proton irradiation. Conclusions: Our cell line screen has revealed variations in proton RBE that are partly due to FA/BRCA pathway defects, suggesting that the use of a generic RBE for cancers should be revisited. We propose that functional biomarkers, such as size of residual 53BP1 foci, may be used to identify cancers with increased sensitivity to proton radiation.

  13. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  14. Age-related changes in physical and perceptual markers of recovery following high-intensity interval cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5 min rest between efforts. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 s sprint (10SST), 30-min time trial (30TT) performance, creatine kinase concentration (CK) and perceptual measures of motivation, total recovery, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected at baseline and at standardised time points across the 48 h recovery period. No significant group-time interactions were observed for performance of MVC, 10SST, 30TT and CK (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in 10SST peak power was found in both masters (P = 0.002) and young (P = 0.003) cyclists at 1 h post exercise, however, both groups physically recovered at similar rates. Neither group showed significant (P > 0.05) or practically meaningful increases in CK (%∆ < 10%). A significant age-related difference was found for perceptual fatigue (P = 0.01) and analysis of effect size (ES) showed that perceptual recovery was delayed with masters cyclists reporting lower motivation (ES ±90%CI = 0.69 ± 0.77, moderate), greater fatigue (ES = 0.75 ± 0.93, moderate) and muscle soreness (ES = 0.61 ± 0.70, moderate) after 48 h of recovery. The delay in perceived recovery may have negative effects on long-term participation to systematic training.

  15. The Role of Parental Perceptions of Tic Frequency and Intensity in Predicting Tic-Related Functional Impairment in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency. PMID:24395287

  16. The role of parental perceptions of tic frequency and intensity in predicting tic-related functional impairment in youth with chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espil, Flint M; Capriotti, Matthew R; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-12-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with chronic tic disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic frequency and intensity predicted tic-related impairment in several areas; including family and peer relationships, school interference, and social endeavors, even when controlling for the presence of comorbid anxiety symptoms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnostic status. Results showed that tic intensity predicted more variance across more domains than tic frequency.

  17. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  18. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: a new first line patient quality assurance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean

    2011-04-01

    To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference > 3% or < or = 3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  19. Non-impact modeling of electron broadening of hydrogen spectral lines in dense but relatively cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Buescher, S.; Wrubel, Th.; Kunze, H.-J.; Calisti, A.; Stamm, R.; Talin, B.

    2001-01-01

    The standard static-ion/impact-electron theory of line broadening is assessed with calculations of hydrogen lines over a broad range of plasma conditions. In most cases, discrepancies between results from theory and experiments are explained by the neglect of ion-dynamics effects. Nevertheless, recent experiments involving high density but low temperature plasmas indicate that ion-dynamics/impact-electron models may seriously overestimate the broadening for such conditions. We show that the observed discrepancies are not due to the ion modeling but due to the impact approximation of the electrons in the Original Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM). This situation arises for plasma conditions where the interactions with the electrons are a major broadening mechanism and quasi-static, i.e. non-binary, electron effects are important. An alternative approach to a binary collision operator is therefore proposed by means of the FFM code generalized to the two components (ions and electrons) of the plasma. Accurate simulations accounting for the electron plus ion field dynamics have been used to corroborate the FFM as applied to both ion and electron perturbers, and good agreement is found with recent experiments on H α and P α for dense but relatively cold plasmas

  20. Epigenetics-related genes in prostate cancer: expression profile in prostate cancer tissues, androgen-sensitive and -insensitive cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Lindstrot, Andreas; Ochsenfahrt, Jacqueline; Fuchs, Kerstin; Wernert, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic changes have been suggested to drive prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify novel epigenetics-related genes in PCa tissues, and to examine their expression in metastatic PCa cell lines. We analyzed the expression of epigenetics-related genes via a clustering analysis based on gene function in moderately and poorly differentiated PCa glands compared to normal glands of the peripheral zone (prostate proper) from PCa patients using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays. Our analysis identified 12 epigenetics-related genes with a more than 2-fold increase or decrease in expression and a p-value epigenetics-related genes that we identified in primary PCa tissues may provide further insight into the role that epigenetic changes play in PCa. Moreover, some of the genes that we identified may play important roles in primary PCa and metastasis, in primary PCa only, or in metastasis only. Follow-up studies are required to investigate the functional role and the role that the expression of these genes play in the outcome and progression of PCa using tissue microarrays.

  1. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register-based occupational codes (1993-2007) to a general population job exposure matrix to obtain year-by-year exposure intensities on measurement scales for force, upper arm elevation >90° and repetition and expert rated intensities of exposure to HAV. For 10-year exposure time windows, we calculated the duration of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular velocity 90° >2 min/day implied an increased risk reaching ORs of 1.7 and 1.5 after 10 years at low intensities. No associations were found for HAV. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition. Any intensities of force and upper arm elevation >90° above minimal implied an increased risk across 10-year exposure time windows. No independent associations were found for HAV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Application of failure mode and effect analysis in managing catheter-related blood stream infection in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xixi; He, Mei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, was applied to reduce errors associated with the process which begins with assessment of patient and ends with treatment of complications. The aim of this study is to assess whether FMEA implementation will significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in intensive care unit.The FMEA team was constructed. A team of 15 medical staff from different departments were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible processes of central venous catheterization failures. Failure modes with risk priority number (RPN) ≥100 (top 10 RPN scores) were deemed as high-priority-risks, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications were put, the resulting RPN was compared with the previous one. A centralized nursing care system was designed.A total of 25 failure modes were identified. High-priority risks were "Unqualified medical device sterilization" (RPN, 337), "leukopenia, very low immunity" (RPN, 222), and "Poor hand hygiene Basic diseases" (RPN, 160). The corrective measures that we took allowed a decrease in the RPNs, especially for the high-priority risks. The maximum reduction was approximately 80%, as observed for the failure mode "Not creating the maximal barrier for patient." The averaged incidence of CRBSIs was reduced from 5.19% to 1.45%, with 3 months of 0 infection rate.The FMEA can effectively reduce incidence of CRBSIs, improve the security of central venous catheterization technology, decrease overall medical expenses, and improve nursing quality. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-related quality of life using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gysen, Kirsten L.; Guo, Linxin; Kneebone, Andrew B.; Eade, Thomas N.; Vaux, Kenneth J.; Lazzaro, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    Post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to decrease toxicity by reducing dose to surrounding structures. We assessed its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). PPRT patients were enrolled in a prospective HRQoL database. To be eligible, patients were required to be treated with IMRT and have a minimum of 15-month follow up. HRQoL was assessed at baseline, 3, 9 and 15–24 months using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire. Higher scores reflected better HRQoL. Results were analysed as both population means and as individual scores where a moderate change was 10–20 points and a substantial change was >20 points. There were 64 patients eligible and 83% of the cohort received salvage radiotherapy. Prescribed dose was 64Gy in 32 fractions for adjuvant and 66Gy in 33 fractions for salvage IMRT. Mean function scores for urinary, bowel and sexual domains were similar at baseline and 15 months (83.5, 94.2 and 16.9 vs. 82.2, 93.1 and 14.3, respectively). Mean global physical functioning (51.0 vs. 48.1) and mental functioning (51.6 vs. 54.2) showed no difference over time. Individual patient scores by 2 years showed a >20-point deterioration in urinary (12.5%), bowel (1.6%), sexual function (9.4%), physical functioning (3.1%) and mental functioning (1.6%). This report on HRQoL following post-prostatectomy IMRT demonstrates no variation in mean scores in any domain and only 1.6% of patients reporting a greater than 20-point deterioration between baseline and 15–24 months in bowel function.

  4. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yang, Yeping [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Wang, Meng [Fudan University, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Soochow University, Division of Endocrinology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Jingjing [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Yao, Zhenwei [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Lu, Yun [Fudan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-15

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly. (orig.)

  5. [French law related to patient's rights and end of life: pediatric intensive care unit's health professionals' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, L; Cremer, R; Elie, C; Lesage, F; Dupic, L; Hubert, P

    2014-01-01

    To identify the knowledge of caregivers of pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) on the French law related to patients' rights and end of life, their views on withholding/withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (WWLST) decisions, and their feelings about how these decisions were made and implemented. A multicenter survey in 24 French PICUs during the fourth trimester 2010. One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine professional healthcare workers (1005 paramedics and 334 physicians) responded. Over 85% of caregivers had good knowledge of the WWLST decision-making processes required by law. More than 80% of caregivers accepted mechanical ventilation, hemodiafiltration, or hemodynamic support withdrawal or withholding. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration generated reluctance or opposition for the majority of respondents. While paramedics' participation in the decision-making process was deemed necessary by all caregivers, paramedics found more often than physicians that they were insufficiently involved. The quality of end-of-life care was judged very positively by caregivers. The answers on how WWLST was applied suggest very different interpretations of the law. Some caregivers respect the principles of palliative care as stated in the public health code and 40% of doctors and 64% of caregivers consider it "acceptable" to hasten death if resulting from a collaborative decision-making process. This study is the first to show that caregivers of French PICUs have good knowledge of the French law concerning the end of life. Yet, there is still confusion about the limits of practice during the end-of-life period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-related quality of life after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, V.; Baco, E.; Dahl, A.A.; Karlsen, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Since June 2006 we have treated 61 patients consecutively by salvage HIFU. All patients were offered the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up. Scores ranged from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Clinically significant changes were defined as a minimum difference of 10 points between the baseline score and the score at follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (93%) had evaluable data at baseline, compared with 46 (75%) after treatment. The mean time lapse between HIFU treatment and questionnaire response was 17.5 months (range 6-29 months). The mean score for urinary function decreased from 79.7±12.1 prior to HIFU to 67.4±17.8 after HIFU (P<0.001). The mean score for sexual function decreased from 32.1±24.1 prior to HIFU to 17.2±17.0 after HIFU (P<0.001). There were no significant effects on bowel function. There was a significant reduction in the mean score for Physical HRQOL, but the mean score for Mental HRQOL was did not change significantly. Treatment of localized radiorecurrent PCa by salvage HIFU is associated with clinically significant reductions in urinary and sexual function domains after a mean follow-up of 17.5 months. (author)

  7. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yang, Yeping; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Jingjing; Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei; Yao, Zhenwei; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly. (orig.)

  8. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Jingjing; Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yao, Zhenwei; Lu, Yun; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Yang, Yeping; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei

    2016-11-01

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly.

  9. The use of biologically related model (Eclipse for the intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning of nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W K Kan

    Full Text Available Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT is the most common treatment technique for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Physical quantities such as dose/dose-volume parameters are used conventionally for IMRT optimization. The use of biological related models has been proposed and can be a new trend. This work was to assess the performance of the biologically based IMRT optimization model installed in a popular commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse as compared to its dose/dose volume optimization model when employed in the clinical environment for NPC cases.Ten patients of early stage NPC and ten of advanced stage NPC were selected for this study. IMRT plans optimized using biological related approach (BBTP were compared to their corresponding plans optimized using the dose/dose volume based approach (DVTP. Plan evaluation was performed using both biological indices and physical dose indices such as tumor control probability (TCP, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, target coverage, conformity, dose homogeneity and doses to organs at risk. The comparison results of the more complex advanced stage cases were reported separately from those of the simpler early stage cases.The target coverage and conformity were comparable between the two approaches, with BBTP plans producing more hot spots. For the primary targets, BBTP plans produced comparable TCP for the early stage cases and higher TCP for the advanced stage cases. BBTP plans reduced the volume of parotid glands receiving doses of above 40 Gy compared to DVTP plans. The NTCP of parotid glands produced by BBTP were 8.0 ± 5.8 and 7.9 ± 8.7 for early and advanced stage cases, respectively, while those of DVTP were 21.3 ± 8.3 and 24.4 ± 12.8, respectively. There were no significant differences in the NTCP values between the two approaches for the serial organs.Our results showed that the BBTP approach could be a potential alternative approach to the DVTP approach for NPC.

  10. The Role of Parental Perceptions of Tic Frequency and Intensity in Predicting Tic-Related Functional Impairment in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Espil, Flint M.; Capriotti, Matthew R.; Conelea, Christine A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Tic severity is composed of several dimensions. Tic frequency and intensity are two such dimensions, but little empirical data exist regarding their relative contributions to functional impairment in those with Chronic Tic Disorders (CTD). The present study examined the relative contributions of these dimensions in predicting tic-related impairment across several psychosocial domains. Using data collected from parents of youth with CTD, multivariate regression analyses revealed that both tic ...

  11. Development of a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI/MS/MS assay for the quantification of propofol using a simple off-line dansyl chloride derivatization reaction to enhance signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Guénette, Sarah Annie; Winterborn, Andrew; Marier, Jean-Francois; Vachon, Pascal

    2005-09-15

    A rapid, selective and sensitive method was developed for the determination of propofol concentration using an off-line dansyl chloride derivatization step to enhance signal intensity. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by derivatization with dansyl chloride and analysis by liquid chromatography ionspray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). The separation was achieved using a 100 mm x 2 mm C8 analytical column combined with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 80:20 acetonitrile: 0.5% formic acid in water. Signal intensity of the propofol-dansyl chloride derivative was increased up to 200-fold as compared to the underivatized propofol in positive electrospray mode. An analytical range of 20-20,000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve of plasma and blood samples. The novel method met all requirements of specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats and the novel analytical method was used as a routine analysis to provide enhanced measurements of plasma and blood concentrations of propofol. Blood and plasma pharmacokinetic results show that a very important fraction of propofol distributes into red blood cells. In conclusion, a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI/MS/MS method using a derivatization agent was developed to enhance signal intensity of propofol. Routine analysis with the novel method provided accurate results and enhanced the detection levels of plasma and blood concentrations of propofol to better characterize the in vivo biodisposition of propofol.

  12. Determination of eugenol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry using a simple off-line dansyl chloride derivatization reaction to enhance signal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Guénette, Sarah Annie; Vachon, Pascal

    2006-11-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive method was developed for the determination of eugenol concentration using an off-line dansyl chloride derivatization step to enhance signal intensity. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by derivatization with dansyl chloride and analysis by full scan liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QIT). The separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(8) analytical column combined with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 75:25 acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid in water set at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Signal intensity of the eugenol-dansyl chloride derivative was increased up to 100-fold as compared with the underivatized eugenol in positive electrospray mode. An analytical range of 100-20,000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve of plasma and blood samples. The LOD observed was 0.5 pg injected on column. The novel method met all requirements of specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability. In conclusion, a rapid and sensitive LC-ESI/MS/MS method using a derivatization agent was developed to enhance signal intensity of eugenol. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with ammonia-oxidation, nitrate reduction, and biomass decomposition in mineral soil are altered by intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinski, R. M.; Zhou, Y.; Gentry, T. J.; Boutton, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are substantially altered by anthropogenic disturbances such as timber harvest and land conversion, with effects being observed in carbon and nutrient pools as well as biogeochemical processes. Furthermore, the desire to develop renewable energy sources in the form of biomass extraction from logging residues may result in alterations in soil community structure and function. While the impact of forest management on soil physicochemical properties of the region has been studied, its' long-term effect on soil bacterial community composition and metagenomic potential is relatively unknown, especially at deeper soil depths. This study investigates how intensive organic matter removal intensities associated with timber harvest influence decadal-scale alterations in bacterial community structure and functional potential in the upper 1-m of the soil profile, 18 years post-harvest in a Pinus taeda L. forest of eastern Texas. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used in conjunction with soil chemical analyses to evaluate treatment-induced differences in community composition and potential environmental drivers of associated change. Furthermore, functional potential was assessed by using amplicon data to make metagenomic predictions. Results indicate that increasing organic matter removal intensity leads to altered community composition and the relative abundance of dominant OTUs annotated to Burkholderia and Aciditerrimonas. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification were highest in the most intensively harvested treatment while genes involved in nitrification were significantly lower in the most intensively harvested treatment. Furthermore, genes associated with glycosyltransferases were significantly reduced with increasing harvest intensity while polysaccharide lyases increased. These results imply that intensive organic matter removal may create

  14. Modulation of LINE-1 and Alu/SVA Retrotransposition by Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome-Related SAMHD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Long interspersed elements 1 (LINE-1 occupy at least 17% of the human genome and are its only active autonomous retrotransposons. However, the host factors that regulate LINE-1 retrotransposition are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome gene product SAMHD1, recently revealed to be an inhibitor of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infectivity and neutralized by the viral Vpx protein, is also a potent regulator of LINE-1 and LINE-1-mediated Alu/SVA retrotransposition. We also found that mutant SAMHD1s of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome patients are defective in LINE-1 inhibition. Several domains of SAMHD1 are critical for LINE-1 regulation. SAMHD1 inhibits LINE-1 retrotransposition in dividing cells. An enzymatic active site mutant SAMHD1 maintained substantial anti-LINE-1 activity. SAMHD1 inhibits ORF2p-mediated LINE-1 reverse transcription in isolated LINE-1 ribonucleoproteins by reducing ORF2p level. Thus, SAMHD1 may be a cellular regulator of LINE-1 activity that is conserved in mammals.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy for heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococcal central-line-associated bloodstream infections in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, A C; Fortin, E; Laferrière, C; Goyer, I; Moussa, A; Autmizguine, J; Quach, C

    2017-06-01

    Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy. CLABSI duration, early and late recurrence and in-hospital mortality were compared using propensity score-adjusted proportional hazards and logistic regression models. Of 89 infants with hVICoNS CLABSI, 33 (37.1%) treated with linezolid were compared with 56 (62.9%) treated with vancomycin. The median duration of CLABSI was 5 (range 1-12) versus 4 days (range 0-14) ( P  =   0.11), early recurrences were 3.0% versus 7.1% ( P  =   0.42), late recurrences 0% versus 14.3% ( P  =   0.02) and mortality 27.3% versus 28.6% ( P  =   0.90), when treated with linezolid versus vancomycin, respectively. When adjusting using a continuous propensity score, linezolid had an HR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27) for CLABSI duration, an OR of 0.23 (95% CI 0.02-2.56) for early recurrence and an OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.3-2.67) for mortality, relative to vancomycin. There was no statistically significant difference between linezolid and vancomycin when used as definitive treatment for hVICoNS CLABSI in NICU patients, in terms of CLABSI duration, recurrence or all-cause mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate...... if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. METHODS: We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register...... of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. RESULTS: We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular...

  17. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (? 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI...

  18. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  19. The influence of a high intensity physical activity intervention on a selection of health related outcomes: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Non E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of mortality throughout the world. With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, it is unsurprising that research into obesity prevalence within school aged youth is burgeoning. Within this study our primary objective will be to examine whether high intensity interval training (HIT improves the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents. Our secondary objective will be to identify the prevalence of CVD risk factors and examine factors associated with these in adolescents aged 15 - 18 years. Method/Design A South Lanarkshire school of low socioeconomic status (SES was selected to participate in the study intervention. Participants from secondary 5 (15 - 17 years and 6 (16 - 18 years will be recruited for this study. Participants from secondary 6 will be randomly assigned to Group A (HIT or Group B (moderate-vigorous and will perform each protocol three times weekly. The secondary 5 participants will act as the control group. Data collection will take place during the Physical Education (PE lessons and on school premises and will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at two sites, physiological responses (blood pressure, aerobic fitness, heart rate (HR response, vertical jump performance, 10-metre (m sprint, 50-m sprint and 505-agility test, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen (Fg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (high molecular weight, triglyceride and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. An environmental audit of the secondary school and the health related quality of life (HRQOL of the participants will also be measured. Finally, all exercise

  20. First-Line Matched Related Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Compared to Immunosuppressive Therapy in Acquired Severe Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Frank; Grouven, Ulrich; Kröger, Nicolaus; Bartel, Carmen; Pittler, Max H.; Lange, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a rare and progressive disease characterized by an immune-mediated functional impairment of hematopoietic stem cells. Transplantation of these cells is a first-line treatment option if HLA-matched related donors are available. First-line immunosuppressive therapy may be offered as alternative. The aim was to compare the outcome of these patients in controlled trials. Methods A systematic search was performed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library. To show an overview of various outcomes by treatment group we conducted a meta-analysis on overall survival. We evaluated whether studies reported statistically significant factors for improved survival. Results 26 non-randomized controlled trials (7,955 patients enrolled from 1970 to 2001) were identified. We did not identify any RCTs. Risk of bias was high except in 4 studies. Young age and recent year of treatment were identified as factors for improved survival in the HSCT group. Advanced age, SAA without very severe aplastic anemia, and combination of anti-lymphocyte globulin with cyclosporine A were factors for improved survival in the IST group. In 19 studies (4,855 patients), summary statistics were sufficient to be included in meta-analysis. Considerable heterogeneity did not justify a pooled estimate. Adverse events were inconsistently reported and varied significantly across studies. Conclusions Young age and recent year of treatment were identified as factors for improved survival in the transplant group. Advanced age, SAA without very severe aplastic anemia, and combination of anti-lymphocyte globulin with cyclosporine A were factors for improved survival in the immunosuppressive group. Considerable heterogeneity of non-randomized controlled studies did not justify a pooled estimate. Adverse events were inconsistently reported and varied significantly across studies. PMID:21541024

  1. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. Patients and Methods A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

  2. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  3. Valence electronic structure of Ni in Ni Si alloys from relative K X-ray intensity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Y.; Aydinuraz, A.; Tugluoglu, B.; Mutlu, R. H.

    2007-02-01

    The Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio of Ni in Ni 3Si, Ni 2Si and NiSi has been determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. It is found that the intensity ratio of Ni decreases from pure Ni to Ni 2Si and then increases from Ni 2Si to NiSi, in good agreement with the electronic structure calculations cited in the literature. We have also performed band structure calculations for pure Ni in various atomic configurations by means of linear muffin-tin orbital method and used this data with the normalized theoretical intensity ratios cited in the literature to estimate the 3d-occupation numbers of Ni in Ni-Si alloys. It is emphasized that investigation of alloying effect in terms of X-ray intensity ratios should be carried out for the stoichiometric alloys in order to make reliable and quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment in transition metal alloys.

  4. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, psmokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:27182363

  5. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

  6. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  7. Reduced-intensity conditioning lowers treatment-related mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia : a population-matched analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreger, P; Brand, R; Milligan, D; Corradini, P; Finke, J; Deliliers, GL; Martino, R; Russell, N; van Biezen, A; Michallet, M; Niederwieser, D

    To elucidate whether reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) decreases treatment-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we retrospectively compared 73 RIC cases from a recent EBMT survey with 82 patients from the EBMT

  8. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  9. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, J.E.; Kuiper, R.; van Kan, H.J.; de Pont, A.C.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Lie-A-Huen, L.; Vroom, M.B.; Smorenburg, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an

  10. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J.; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As

  11. Screened Raman response in two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductors: Relative intensities in different symmetry channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenger, F.; Käll, M.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the Raman-scattering response in a two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductor and point out a strong suppression of relative intensity in the screened A(1g) channel compared to the B-1g channel for a generic tight-binding model. This is in contrast with the observed behavior in high...

  12. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). METHOD: Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and

  13. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional : An integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). Method Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and reference

  14. Health related quality of life is differently associated with leisure-time physical activity intensities according to gender: a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila Missaki; Teixeira, Inaian Pignatti; Smirmaul, Bruno Paula Caraça; Sebastião, Emerson; Papini, Camila Bosquiero; Gobbi, Sebastião; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2014-08-18

    Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, studies have suggested that this association depends both on the PA intensity and the domain of HRQL evaluated. This study aimed to explore the association between physical, mental and overall HRQL with recommended levels of PA. PA levels were divided into moderate and vigorous intensity leisure-time PA and total leisure-time PA. The study included 1001 adults, 582 women (46 ± 17 years) and 419 men (43 ± 16 years), residents in Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire to assess HRQL and the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to assess level and intensities of leisure-time PA. Total leisure-time PA at moderate intensity was classified as: less than 9 min/week, 10-149 min/week, 150-299 min/week and 300 min/week or more. Total leisure-time PA at vigorous intensity was classified as: less than 9 min/week, 10 to 74.9 min/week, 75-149 min/week and 150 min/week or more. Multiple linear regression was performed in STATA version 12.0. Among women, moderate intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with physical health. Among men, moderate and vigorous intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with physical health and overall HRQL. Furthermore, moderate intensity and total leisure-time PA were associated with mental health in men. However, vigorous intensity PA was not associated with mental health for this group. The different domains of HRQL were associated with different levels and intensities of PA in leisure-time according to gender of adults. These findings indicate the complexity and importance of evaluating the HRQL stratified by gender and consider the different levels and intensities of PA.

  15. Factors influencing when intensive care unit nurses go to the bedside to investigate patient related alarms: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despins, Laurel A

    2017-12-01

    This study examines what prompts the intensive care unit (ICU) nurse to go to the patient's bedside to investigate an alarm and the influences on the nurse's determination regarding how quickly this needs to occur. A qualitative descriptive design guided data collection and analysis. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis guided by the Patient Risk Detection Theoretical Framework was applied to the data. Four specialty intensive care units in an academic medical center. ICU nurses go the patient's bedside in response to an alarm to catch patient deterioration and avert harm. Their determination of the immediacy of patient risk and their desire to prioritize their bedside investigations to true alarms influences how quickly they proceed to the bedside. Ready visual access to physiological data and waveform configurations, experience, teamwork, and false alarms are important determinants in the timing of ICU nurses' bedside alarm investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Yang

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n =7) and non-smokers ( n =7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO 2max . AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p vs. 15.6±0.41, p smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected ( r =.739, smokers vs. r =.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO 2max, but not following a run at 80% VO 2max . An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO 2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  17. Mind the gap? An intensive longitudinal study of between-person and within-person intention-behavior relations

    OpenAIRE

    Inauen Jennifer; Shrout Patrick E; Bolger Niall; Stadler Gertraud; Scholz Urte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite their good intentions people often do not eat healthily. This is known as the intention behavior gap. Although the intention behavior relationship is theorized as a within person process most evidence is based on between person differences. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the within person intention behavior association for unhealthy snack consumption. METHODS: Young adults (N?=?45) participated in an intensive longitudinal study. They reported ...

  18. [An fMRI Study of the Brain Activation Related to Intensive Positive Emotions During Viweing Erotic Pictures in 49-74 Old Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, O; Portnova, G; Orlov, I

    2016-01-01

    According to psychological research erotic images are evaluated in the context of positive emotions as the most intense, most associated with emotional arousal, among the variety of pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. However it is difficult to separate areas of the brain that are related to the general emotional process from the activity of the brain areas involved in neuronal representations of reward system. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male subjects in evaluating an intensity of pleasant images, including erotic, or unpleasant and neutral pictures. When comparing the condition with evaluation of the pleasant erotic images with conditions containing neutral or unpleasant stimuli, a significant activation was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex; the prefrontal cortex and the right globus pallidus. An increased activity of the right anterior central gyrus was observed in the conditions related to evaluation of pleasant and neutral stimuli. Thus, in the process of evaluating the intensity of emotional images of an erotic nature the active brain areas were related not only to neuronal representations of emotions, but also to motivations and control system of emotional arousal, which should be taken into account while using erotic pictures as intensive positive emotional stimuli.

  19. Effect of Light Intensity on the Relative Dominance of Toxigenic and Nontoxigenic Strains of Microcystis aeruginosa ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc Renaud, Susan; Pick, Frances R.; Fortin, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, the factors that regulate the dominance of toxin-producing cyanobacteria over non-toxin-producing strains of the same species are largely unknown. One possible hypothesis is that limiting resources lead to the dominance of the latter because of the metabolic costs associated with toxin production. In this study, we tested the effect of light intensity on the performance of a microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (UTCC 300) when grown in mixed cultures with non-microcystin-producing strains with similar intrinsic growth rates (UTCC 632 and UTCC 633). The endpoints measured included culture growth rates, microcystin concentrations and composition, and mcyD gene copy numbers determined using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). In contrast to the predicted results, under conditions of low light intensity (20 μmol·m−2·s−1), the toxigenic strain became dominant in both of the mixed cultures based on gene copy numbers and microcystin concentrations. When grown under conditions of high light intensity (80 μmol·m−2·s−1), the toxigenic strain still appeared to dominate over nontoxigenic strain UTCC 632 but less so over strain UTCC 633. Microcystins may not be so costly to produce that toxigenic cyanobacteria are at a disadvantage in competition for limiting resources. PMID:21841026

  20. Changing Mental Representations Using Related Physical Models: The Effects of Analyzing Number Lines on Learner Internal Scale of Numerical Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the linear relationship of numbers is essential for doing practical and abstract mathematics throughout education and everyday life. There is evidence that number line activities increase learners' number sense, improving the linearity of mental number line representations (Siegler & Ramani, 2009). Mental representations of…

  1. Prevention of prescription errors by computerized, on-line, individual patient related surveillance of drug order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliven, A; Zalman, D; Shilankov, Y; Yeshurun, D; Odeh, M

    2002-01-01

    Computerized prescription of drugs is expected to reduce the number of many preventable drug ordering errors. In the present study we evaluated the usefullness of a computerized drug order entry (CDOE) system in reducing prescription errors. A department of internal medicine using a comprehensive CDOE, which included also patient-related drug-laboratory, drug-disease and drug-allergy on-line surveillance was compared to a similar department in which drug orders were handwritten. CDOE reduced prescription errors to 25-35%. The causes of errors remained similar, and most errors, on both departments, were associated with abnormal renal function and electrolyte balance. Residual errors remaining on the CDOE-using department were due to handwriting on the typed order, failure to feed patients' diseases, and system failures. The use of CDOE was associated with a significant reduction in mean hospital stay and in the number of changes performed in the prescription. The findings of this study both quantity the impact of comprehensive CDOE on prescription errors and delineate the causes for remaining errors.

  2. Life span prediction from the rate of age-related DNA demethylation in normal and cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1995-01-01

    A method has been proposed for the Hayflick Limit prediction by the analysis of the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA at earlier and later cell passages. The following facts were used as the basis of the method: (i) the rate of m5C loss from DNA remains approximately constant during cell divisions and it does not depend on the cell donor age; (ii) this rate is inversely proportional to the Hayflick Limit as well as to the life span of cell donor species; (iii) the period corresponded to loss of all m5C residues from the genome coincides with or somewhat exceeds the Hayflick Limit of normal cells. The prognosis of the Hayflick Limit has usually been found in good agreement with the experimental evidences for various human, hamster, and mouse cell lines. The method proposed may be used for early detection of precrisis and cancer cells. The age-related m5C loss may result from accumulation of the m5C-->T+C transitions occurring with DNA methylation in every cell division.

  3. Nutrition therapy with high intensity interval training to improve prostate cancer-related fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael D; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-01-03

    Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent, prolonged and distressing side effects of prostate cancer treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests natural therapies such as nutrition therapy and structured exercise prescription can reduce symptoms of cancer-related fatigue. Men appear to change their habitual dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis, yet prostate-specific dietary guidelines provide limited support for managing adverse side effects of treatment. The exercise literature has shown high intensity interval training can improve various aspects of health that are typically impaired with androgen deprivation therapy; however exercise at this intensity is yet to be conducted in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nutrition therapy beyond the current healthy eating guidelines with high intensity interval training for managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. This is a two-arm randomized control trial of 116 men with prostate cancer and survivors treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group i.e. nutrition therapy and high intensity interval training, or usual care. The intervention group will receive 20 weeks of individualized nutrition therapy from an Accredited Practising Dietitian, and high intensity interval training (from weeks 12-20 of the intervention) from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist. The usual care group will maintain their standard treatment regimen over the 20 weeks. Both groups will undertake primary and secondary outcome testing at baseline, week 8, 12, and 20; testing includes questionnaires of fatigue and quality of life, objective measures of body composition, muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers for disease progression, as well as dietary analysis. The primary outcomes for this trial are measures of

  4. Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mengshan; Keller, Arturo A.; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Den, Walter; Wang, Hongtao; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This study quantifies the nexus as energy intensity and greenhouse gas potential. •Baseline water stress and return flow ratio are identified as water risks. •Source water accessibility significantly contributes to variations in the nexus. •Water risks have little impact on the nexus of wastewater systems. •Study on the nexus is suggested to be conducted at regional levels. -- Abstract: The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great

  5. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki; Naganuma, Kaori; Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.

  6. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki, E-mail: hatta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp [Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan); Naganuma, Kaori [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan); Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun [Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-12-04

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.

  7. Economic analysis of three interventions of different intensity in improving school implementation of a government healthy canteen policy in Australia: costs, incremental and relative cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathryn L; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Wiggers, John

    2018-03-20

    No evaluations of the cost or cost effectiveness of interventions to increase school implementation of food availability policies have been reported. Government and non-government agency decisions regarding the extent of investment required to enhance school implementation of such policies are unsupported by such evidence. This study sought to i) Determine cost and cost-effectiveness of three interventions in improving school implementation of an Australian government healthy canteen policy and; ii) Determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions in improving school implementation of such a policy. An analysis of the cost and cost-effectiveness of three implementation interventions of varying support intensity, relative to usual implementation support conducted during 2013-2015 was undertaken. Secondly, an indirect comparison of the trials was undertaken to determine the most cost-effective of the three strategies. The economic analysis was based on the cost of delivering the interventions by health service delivery staff to increase the proportion of schools 'adherent' with the policy. The total costs per school were $166,971, $70,926 and $75,682 for the high, medium and low intensity interventions respectively. Compared to usual support, the cost effectiveness ratios for each of the three interventions were: A$2982 (high intensity), A$2627 (medium intensity) and A$4730 (low intensity) per percent increase in proportion of schools reporting 'adherence'). Indirect comparison between the 'high' and 'medium intensity' interventions showed no statistically significant difference in cost-effectiveness. The results indicate that while the cost profiles of the interventions varied substantially, the cost-effectiveness did not. This result is valuable to policy makers seeking cost-effective solutions that can be delivered within budget.

  8. Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Line Intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- Collisional Broadening Coefficients of N2O in the  3 Band Near 4.5  m

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2016-04-19

    This study deals with precise measurements of absolute line intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- collisional broadening coefficients of N2O in the P-branch of the ν3 vibrational band near 4.5 μm. Collisional broadening coefficients of N2O-air are derived from the N2- and O2- broadening contributions by considering an ideal atmospheric composition. Studies are performed at room temperature for 10 rotational transitions over 2190-2202 cm-1 spectral range using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. To retrieve spectroscopic parameters for each individual transition, measured absorption line shape is simulated within Voigt and Galatry profiles. The obtained results compare well with previous experimental data available in the literature: the discrepancies being less than 4% for most of the probed transitions. The spectroscopic data reported here are very useful for the design of sensors used to monitor the abundance of N2O in earth\\'s atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Line Intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- Collisional Broadening Coefficients of N2O in the  3 Band Near 4.5  m

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Deli, Meriem; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with precise measurements of absolute line intensities, N2-, O2- and Ar- collisional broadening coefficients of N2O in the P-branch of the ν3 vibrational band near 4.5 μm. Collisional broadening coefficients of N2O-air are derived from the N2- and O2- broadening contributions by considering an ideal atmospheric composition. Studies are performed at room temperature for 10 rotational transitions over 2190-2202 cm-1 spectral range using a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser. To retrieve spectroscopic parameters for each individual transition, measured absorption line shape is simulated within Voigt and Galatry profiles. The obtained results compare well with previous experimental data available in the literature: the discrepancies being less than 4% for most of the probed transitions. The spectroscopic data reported here are very useful for the design of sensors used to monitor the abundance of N2O in earth's atmosphere. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. A Cross-cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eSoon Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one’s experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105, South Korea (n = 113, and China (n = 87. The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts’ profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users’ profiles and contact with friends’ profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts’ profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  11. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions. PMID:27148100

  13. Analysis of High-Intensity Skating in Top-Class Ice Hockey Match-Play in Relation to Training Status and Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, Erik; Fransson, Dan; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2018-05-01

    Lignell, E, Fransson, D, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. Analysis of high-intensity skating in top-class ice hockey match-play in relation to training status and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1303-1310, 2018-We examined high-intensity activities in a top-class ice-hockey game and the effect of training status. Male ice-hockey players (n = 36) from the National Hockey League participated. Match analysis was performed during a game and physical capacity was assessed by a submaximal Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Ice-hockey test, level 1 (YYIR1-IHSUB). Venous blood samples were collected 24-hour post-game to determine markers of muscle damage. Players performed 119 ± 8 and 31 ± 3 m·min of high intensity and sprint skating, respectively, during a game. Total distance covered was 4,606 ± 219 m (2,260-6,749 m), of which high-intensity distance was 2042 ± 97 m (757-3,026 m). Sprint-skating speed was 5-8% higher (p ≤ 0.05) in periods 1 and 2 vs. period 3 and overtime. Defensemen (D) covered 29% more (p ≤ 0.05) skating in total than forwards (F) and were on the ice 47% longer. However, F performed 54% more (p ≤ 0.05) high-intensity skating per minute than defensemen. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) was 338 ± 45 (78-757) U·L 24-hour post-game. Heart rate loading during YYIR1-IHSUB correlated inversely (p ≤ 0.05) to the frequency of high-intensity skating bouts (r = -0.55) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (r = -0.85) and positively to post-game CK (r = 0.49; p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, ice hockey is a multiple-sprint sport that provokes fatigue in the latter half of a game. Forwards perform more intense skating than defensemen. Moreover, high-intensity game activities during top-class ice hockey are correlated with cardiovascular loading during a submaximal skating test. Taken together, training of elite ice-hockey players should improve the ability for repeated high-intensity skating, and testing should include the YYIR1-IHSUB test as an indicator for ice

  14. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. New determinations of gamma-ray line intensities of the E{sub p}=550 and 1747 keV resonances of the {sup 13}C(p,{gamma}){sup 14}N reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiener, J. E-mail: kiener@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Gros, M.; Tatischeff, V.; Attie, D.; Bailly, I.; Bauchet, A.; Chapuis, C.; Cordier, B.; Deloncle, I.; Porquet, M.G.; Schanne, S.; Sereville, N. de; Tauzin, G

    2004-03-01

    Gamma-ray angular distributions for the resonances at E{sub p}=550 and 1747 keV of the radiative capture reaction {sup 13}C(p,{gamma}){sup 14}N have been measured, using intense proton beams on isotopically pure {sup 13}C targets. Experimental gamma-ray spectra were obtained with three HP-Germanium detectors at four angles for E{sub p}=550 keV and six angles for E{sub p}=1747 keV in the range of 0-90 deg. with respect to the proton beam. From the data, relative intensities for the strongest transitions were extracted with an accuracy of typically 5%, making these resonances new useful gamma-ray standards for efficiency calibration in the energy range from E{sub {gamma}}=1.6-9 MeV. Gamma-ray branching ratios were obtained for several levels of {sup 14}N and are compared with literature values.

  16. LINE1 CpG-DNA Hypomethylation in Granulosa Cells and Blood Leukocytes Is Associated With PCOS and Related Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagvekar, Pooja; Mangoli, Vijay; Desai, Sadhana; Patil, Anushree; Mukherjee, Srabani

    2017-04-01

    Altered global DNA methylation is indicative of epigenomic instability concerning chronic diseases. Investigating its incidence and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essential to understand the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. We assessed global DNA methylation differences in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of controls and women with PCOS; and their association with PCOS and its traits. This study included a total of 102 controls and women with PCOS. Forty-one women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and 61 women not undergoing COH were recruited from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and infertility clinics. DNA methylation was measured by ELISA for 5'-methyl-cytosine content and bisulfite sequencing of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE1/L1). Total 5'-methyl-cytosine and L1 methylation levels in PBLs and CGCs were similar between controls and women with PCOS. Methylation assessed at CpG sites of L1 5'-UTR revealed a single CpG-site (CpG-4) to be consistently hypomethylated in PBLs of both PCOS groups and CGCs of stimulated PCOS group. In unstimulated women, hypomethylation at CpG-4 was strongly associated with PCOS susceptibility, whereas in stimulated group it showed strong associations with PCOS and its hormonal traits. Furthermore, CGCs demonstrated consistent global and CpG-DNA hypomethylation relative to PBLs, irrespective of normal or disease states. Our study revealed strong association of single hypomethylated CpG-site with PCOS. Identification and characterization of more such methyl-CpG signatures in repetitive elements in larger study populations would provide valuable epigenetic insights into PCOS. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  17. High sensitivity cavity ring down spectroscopy of N_2O near 1.22 µm: (II) "1"4N_2"1"6O line intensity modeling and global fit of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkun, S.A.; Perevalov, V.I.; Karlovets, E.V.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent work (Karlovets et al., 2016 [1]), we reported the measurement and rovibrational assignments of more than 3300 transitions belonging to 64 bands of five nitrous oxide isotopologues ("1"4N_2"1"6O, "1"4N"1"5N"1"6O, "1"5N"1"4N"1"6O, "1"4N_2"1"8O and "1"4N_2"1"7O) in the high sensitivity CRDS spectrum recorded in the 7915–8334 cm"−"1 spectral range. The assignments were performed by comparison with predictions of the effective Hamiltonian models developed for each isotopologue. In the present paper, the large amount of measurements from our previous work mentioned above and literature are gathered to refine the modeling of the nitrous oxide spectrum in two ways: (i) improvement of the intensity modeling for the principal isotopologue, "1"4N_2"1"6O, near 8000 cm"−"1 from a new fit of the relevant effective dipole moment parameters, (ii) global modeling of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions from a new fit of the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian using an exhaustive input dataset collected in the literature in the 12–8231 cm"−"1 region. The fitted set of 81 parameters allowed reproducing near 5800 measured line positions with an RMS deviation of 0.0016 cm"−"1. The dimensionless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.22. As an illustration of the improvement of the predictive capabilities of the obtained effective Hamiltonian, two new "1"4N_2"1"8O bands could be assigned in the CRDS spectrum in the 7915–8334 cm"−"1 spectral range. A line list at 296 K has been generated in the 0–10,700 cm"−"1 range for "1"4N_2"1"8O in natural abundance with a 10"−"3"0 cm/molecule intensity cutoff. - Highlights: • Line parameters of two new "1"4N_2"1"8O bands centered at 7966 cm"−"1 and at 8214 cm"−"1. • Refined sets of the "1"4N_2"1"6O effective dipole moment parameters for ΔP=13,14 series. • Global modeling of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions and intensities in the 12–8231 cm"−"1 range. • 5800 observed of "1"4N_2"1"8O line positions

  18. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabran Zahid, H.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting; Conroy, Charlie; Andrews, Brett

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  19. Stellar Absorption Line Analysis of Local Star-forming Galaxies: The Relation between Stellar Mass, Metallicity, Dust Attenuation, and Star Formation Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabran Zahid, H. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Ho, I-Ting [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Andrews, Brett, E-mail: zahid@cfa.harvard.edu [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We analyze the optical continuum of star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by fitting stacked spectra with stellar population synthesis models to investigate the relation between stellar mass, stellar metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. We fit models calculated with star formation and chemical evolution histories that are derived empirically from multi-epoch observations of the stellar mass–star formation rate and the stellar mass–gas-phase metallicity relations, respectively. We also fit linear combinations of single-burst models with a range of metallicities and ages. Star formation and chemical evolution histories are unconstrained for these models. The stellar mass–stellar metallicity relations obtained from the two methods agree with the relation measured from individual supergiant stars in nearby galaxies. These relations are also consistent with the relation obtained from emission-line analysis of gas-phase metallicity after accounting for systematic offsets in the gas-phase metallicity. We measure dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and show that its dependence on stellar mass and star formation rate is consistent with previously reported results derived from nebular emission lines. However, stellar continuum attenuation is smaller than nebular emission line attenuation. The continuum-to-nebular attenuation ratio depends on stellar mass and is smaller in more massive galaxies. Our consistent analysis of stellar continuum and nebular emission lines paves the way for a comprehensive investigation of stellar metallicities of star-forming and quiescent galaxies.

  20. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  1. Quality of care in the intensive care unit from the perspective of patient's relatives: development and psychometric evaluation of the consumer quality index 'R-ICU'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Ans; van Mol, Margo M; Menheere, Ilse; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Verhoogt, Ellen; Maris, Bea; Manders, Willeke; Vloet, Lilian; Verharen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-24

    The quality standards of the Dutch Society of Intensive Care require monitoring of the satisfaction of patient's relatives with respect to care. Currently, no suitable instrument is available in the Netherlands to measure this. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire-based Consumer Quality Index 'Relatives in Intensive Care Unit' (CQI 'R-ICU'). The CQI 'R-ICU' measures the perceived quality of care from the perspective of patients' relatives, and identifies aspects of care that need improvement. The CQI 'R-ICU' was developed using a mixed method design. Items were based on quality of care aspects from earlier studies and from focus group interviews with patients' relatives. The time period for the data collection of the psychometric evaluation was from October 2011 until July 2012. Relatives of adult intensive care patients in one university hospital and five general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate. Psychometric evaluation included item analysis, inter-item analysis, and factor analysis. Twelve aspects were noted as being indicators of quality of care, and were subsequently selected for the questionnaire's vocabulary. The response rate of patients' relatives was 81% (n = 455). Quality of care was represented by two clusters, each showing a high reliability: 'Communication' (α = .80) and 'Participation' (α = .84). Relatives ranked the following aspects for quality of care as most important: no conflicting information, information from doctors and nurses is comprehensive, and health professionals take patients' relatives seriously. The least important care aspects were: need for contact with peers, nuisance, and contact with a spiritual counsellor. Aspects that needed the most urgent improvement (highest quality improvement scores) were: information about how relatives can contribute to the care of the patient, information about the use of meal-facilities in the hospital, and

  2. ULTRA-LOW INTENSITY PROTON BEAMS FOR RADIATION RESPONSE RELATED EXPERIMENTS AT THE U-120M CYCLOTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matlocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Rez is used for radiation hardness tests of electronics for high-energy physics experiments. These tests are usually carried out with proton fluxes of the order of 105–109 proton·cm−2·s−1. Some tests done for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at CERN, however, required proton beam intensities several orders of magnitude lower. This paper presents a method which has been developed to achieve the proton beam flux of the order of 1 proton · cm−2·s−1. The method is mainly based on reduction of the discharge current in the cyclotron internal Penning type ion source. Influence of this new operation mode on the lifetime of ion source cathodes is discussed.

  3. Changes in intensity of precipitation extremes in Romania on very hight temporal scale and implications on the validity of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Breza, Traian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Stoica, Cerasela; Baghina, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Many observational, theoretical and based on climate model simulation studies suggested that warmer climates lead to more intense precipitation events, even when the total annual precipitation is slightly reduced. In this way, it was suggested that extreme precipitation events may increase at Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate under global warming and constraint of constant relative humidity. However, recent studies show that the relationship between extreme rainfall intensity and atmospheric temperature is much more complex than would be suggested by the CC relationship and is mainly dependent on precipitation temporal resolution, region, storm type and whether the analysis is conducted on storm events rather than fixed data. The present study presents the dependence between the very hight temporal scale extreme rainfall intensity and daily temperatures, with respect to the verification of the CC relation. To solve this objective, the analysis is conducted on rainfall event rather than fixed interval using the rainfall data based on graphic records including intensities (mm/min.) calculated over each interval with permanent intensity per minute. The annual interval with available a such data (April to October) is considered at 5 stations over the interval 1950-2007. For Bucuresti-Filaret station the analysis is extended over the longer interval (1898-2007). For each rainfall event, the maximum intensity (mm/min.) is retained and these time series are considered for the further analysis (abbreviated in the following as IMAX). The IMAX data were divided based on the daily mean temperature into bins 2oC - wide. The bins with less than 100 values were excluded. The 90th, 99th and 99.9th percentiles were computed from the binned data using the empirical distribution and their variability has been compared to the CC scaling (e.g. exponential relation given by a 7% increase per temperature degree rise). The results show a dependence close to double the CC relation for

  4. On-line Processing of German Number-marked Relative Clauses in the Visual-world Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Adelt

    2014-04-01

    (3 Filler: Wo ist das Schwein mit dem Ballon? (Where is the pig with the balloon? All sentences are randomized and presented auditorily. Simultaneously, colored illustrations of animals performing an action are shown on a computer screen (see Figure 1. Participants have to identify via button press (left/right the target animal to which the question refers. During this task, eye movements are collected as an on-line measure of sentence processing. Off-line comprehension is measured in terms of accuracy of target identification. Ten IWAs with sentence comprehension deficits and 30 healthy controls are tested. Discussion Following Burchert et al. (2003, we expect the IWA’s off-line comprehension of SRCs and ORCs to be at chance level, while controls make hardly any errors. In the on-line data, the number of fixations to the target picture are supposed to increase only at the verb or shortly after the sentence offset, since disambiguation occurs sentence finally at the verb. Controls are expected to show faster or longer fixations to the target in SRCs compared to ORCs (Caplan et al., 2007. In line with Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011, IWA’s fixations to the target should not differ qualitatively from those of controls, at least for correct responses, but eye gaze patterns may be delayed. Data collection and analysis is still ongoing. Results will be ready by October and presented and discussed at the Academy of Aphasia conference.

  5. Flux quanta, magnetic field lines, merging – some sub-microscale relations of interest in space plasma physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We clarify the notion of magnetic field lines in plasma by referring to sub-microscale (quantum mechanical particle dynamics. It is demonstrated that magnetic field lines in a field of strength B carry single magnetic flux quanta Φ0=h/e. The radius of a field line in the given magnetic field B is calculated. It is shown that such field lines can merge and annihilate only over the length ℓ∥ of their strictly anti-parallel sections, for which case we estimate the power generated. The length ℓ∥ becomes a function of the inclination angle θ of the two merging magnetic flux tubes (field lines. Merging is possible only in the interval 12πθ≤π. This provides a sub-microscopic basis for "component reconnection" in classical macro-scale reconnection. We also find that the magnetic diffusion coefficient in plasma appears in quanta D0m=eΦ0/me=h/me. This lets us conclude that the bulk perpendicular plasma resistivity is limited and cannot be less than η0⊥=μ0eΦ0/me=μ0h/me~10−9 Ohm m. This resistance is an invariant.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Severe Obesity after Intensive Lifestyle Treatment and at 1-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeke Hoedjes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine changes in generic and weight-related, health-related quality of life (HRQoL in children and adolescents with severe obesity participating in intensive lifestyle treatment, and to examine whether changes in SDS-BMI were associated with changes in HRQoL. Methods: In this prospective observational study, a referred sample of 120 children and adolescents (8-19 years with severe obesity (SDS-BMI ≥ 3.0, or ≥ 2.3 in combination with obesity-related comorbidity received an intensive 1-year lifestyle treatment with an inpatient period in a specialized childhood obesity center. A weight-related (IWQOL-Kids and three generic (KIDSCREEN-52, PedsQL 4.0, and EuroQol HRQoL questionnaires were administered at baseline (T0, after treatment (T1, and 1 year later (T2. Generalized Linear Mixed Models and partial correlations were used to analyze changes in HRQoL and associations with changes in SDS-BMI. Results: Statistically significant improvements in generic and weight-related HRQoL overall and domain scores were observed at T1and at T2 in comparison with T0, despite partial weight regain from T1 to T2. Larger weight loss at T2 was correlated with larger improvements in physical HRQoL domains. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with severe obesity experienced long-term improvements in generic and weight-related HRQoL after participating in intensive lifestyle treatment, despite partial weight regain.

  7. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Langner, Soenke; Kirsch, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Ittermann, Till [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Weitschies, Werner [University Greifswald, Institute of Biopharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (1.5 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. (orig.)

  8. Intravenous injection of gadobutrol in an epidemiological study group did not lead to a difference in relative signal intensities of certain brain structures after 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromrey, Marie-Luise; Liedtke, Kim Rouven; Ittermann, Till; Langner, Sönke; Kirsch, Michael; Weitschies, Werner; Kühn, Jens-Peter

    2017-02-01

    To investigate if application of macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents in volunteers is associated with neuronal deposition detected by magnetic resonance imaging in a 5-year longitudinal survey. Three hundred eighty-seven volunteers who participated in a population-based study were enrolled. Subjects underwent plain T1-weighted brain MRI at baseline and 5 years later with identical sequence parameters. At baseline, 271 participants additionally received intravenous injection of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadobutrol (0.15 mmol/kg). A control group including 116 subjects received no contrast agent. Relative signal intensities of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus were compared at baseline and follow-up. No difference in relative signal intensities was observed between contrast group (thalamus, p = 0.865; pallidum, p = 0.263; pons, p = 0.533; dentate nucleus, p = 0.396) and control group (thalamus, p = 0.683; pallidum; p = 0.970; pons, p = 0.773; dentate nucleus, p = 0.232) at both times. Comparison between both groups revealed no significant differences in relative signal intensities (thalamus, p = 0.413; pallidum, p = 0.653; pons, p = 0.460; dentate nucleus, p = 0.751). The study showed no significant change in globus pallidus-to-thalamus or dentate nucleus-to-pons ratios. Five years after administration of a 1.5-fold dose gadobutrol to normal subjects, signal intensity of thalamus, pallidum, pons and dentate nucleus did not differ from participants who had not received gadobutrol. • Gadobutrol does not lead to neuronal signal alterations after 5 years. • Neuronal deposition of macrocyclic contrast agent could not be confirmed. • Macrocyclic contrast agents in a proven dosage are safe.

  9. Impact of a multidimensional infection control approach on central line-associated bloodstream infections rates in adult intensive care units of 8 cities of Turkey: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABs) have long been associated with excess lengths of stay, increased hospital costs and mortality attributable to them. Different studies from developed countries have shown that practice bundles reduce the incidence of CLAB in intensive care units. However, the impact of the bundle strategy has not been systematically analyzed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) setting in developing countries, such as Turkey. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional infection control approach to reduce the rates of CLAB in 13 ICUs of 13 INICC member hospitals from 8 cities of Turkey. Methods We conducted active, prospective surveillance before-after study to determine CLAB rates in a cohort of 4,017 adults hospitalized in ICUs. We applied the definitions of the CDC/NHSN and INICC surveillance methods. The study was divided into baseline and intervention periods. During baseline, active outcome surveillance of CLAB rates was performed. During intervention, the INICC multidimensional approach for CLAB reduction was implemented and included the following measures: 1- bundle of infection control interventions, 2- education, 3- outcome surveillance, 4- process surveillance, 5- feedback of CLAB rates, and 6- performance feedback on infection control practices. CLAB rates obtained in baseline were compared with CLAB rates obtained during intervention. Results During baseline, 3,129 central line (CL) days were recorded, and during intervention, we recorded 23,463 CL-days. We used random effects Poisson regression to account for clustering of CLAB rates within hospital across time periods. The baseline CLAB rate was 22.7 per 1000 CL days, which was decreased during the intervention period to 12.0 CLABs per 1000 CL days (IRR 0.613; 95% CI 0.43 – 0.87; P 0.007). This amounted to a 39% reduction in the incidence rate of CLAB

  10. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc'h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin; Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla; Trump, Jonathan R.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  11. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc' h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla [UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Trump, Jonathan R. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dickinson, Mark, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  12. A String Number-Line Lesson Sequence to Promote Students' Relative Thinking and Understanding of Scale, Key Elements of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    This article describes part of a study in which researchers designed lesson sequences based around using a string number line to help teachers support children's development of relative thinking and understanding of linear scale. In the first year of the study, eight teachers of Years 3-5 participated in four one-day professional development…

  13. The predictive value of microRNA-126 in relation to first line treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA-126 is the only microRNA (miRNA) known to be endothelial cell-specific influencing angiogenesis in several ways. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible predictive value of miRNA-126 in relation to first line capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) in patients with metastatic...

  14. Future gender relations in global restructuring processes case study evidence from knowledge-intensive, manufacturing and service occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Nierling

    2008-01-01

    Global restructuring processes have not only strong implications for European working and living realities, but also have specific outcomes with regard to gender relations. The following contribution analyses in which way global restructuring shapes current gender relations in order to identify important trends and developments for future gender (in)equalities at the workplace. On the basis of a large qualitative study on global restructuring and impacts on different occupational groups it ar...

  15. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  16. Orofacial symptoms related to temporomandibular joint arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: smallest detectable difference in self-reported pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Kristensen, Kasper D; Verna, Carlalberta; Küseler, Annelise; Herlin, Troels; Pedersen, Thomas K

    2012-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may lead to mandibular growth disturbances and interfere with optimal joint and muscle function. Orofacial symptoms are common clinical findings in relation to TMJ arthritis in adolescence. Knowledge about their clinical manifestation is important for TMJ arthritis diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome evaluation. The aim of our prospective observational study was to evaluate and describe the frequency, the main complaints, and the localization of TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms. The smallest detectable differences (SDD) for minimal, average, and maximal pain were estimated. Thirty-three patients with JIA and arthritis-related orofacial symptoms in relation to 55 affected TMJ were included in our questionnaire study (mean age 14.11 yrs). Calculation of the SDD was based on a duplicate assessment 45 min after the first questionnaire was completed. The majority of the patients had common orofacial symptoms during mastication and maximal mouth opening procedures. Persistent orofacial symptoms were rare. The TMJ area in combination with the masseter muscle region was the orofacial region where symptoms were most common. The SDD for minimal, average, and maximal pain were between 10 and 14 mm on a visual analog scale. Our study offers new knowledge about TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms that may aid diagnosis and clinical decision-making. We suggest that TMJ arthritis-related orofacial symptoms could be understood as products of the primary TMJ inflammation in combination with secondary myogenic and functional issues.

  17. Emergency ultrasound and echocardiography in patients with infarct-related cardiogenic shock : A survey among members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, G; Hempel, D; Pfister, R; Janssens, U

    2018-04-09

    Current international and national guidelines promote the use of emergency echocardiography in patients with cardiogenic shock. We assessed whether these recommendations are followed in clinical practice of infarct-related cardiogenic shock patients. For this purpose we conducted a web-based survey among all members of the German Society of Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DGIIN); 40% of the DGIIN members completed the survey. Participants reported that in their department emergency echocardiography/ultrasound is performed on most patients in infarct-related cardiogenic shock presenting to the emergency department/chest pain unit or intensive care unit (58.6% versus 81.4%). Only 33% stated that on patients admitted directly to the catheterization laboratory emergency ultrasound/echocardiography is applied in their institution. Local availability of a standardized algorithm was lacking in the majority of departments (77.2%). A great proportion (38.3%) of participants stated that they personally had no formal training in emergency ultrasound. In order to meet the demands of the current guidelines, in addition to integration of ultrasound examinations into diagnostic algorithms, a structured training of all emergency and intensive care physicians is necessary.

  18. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Relative Abundances of Protein Conformation in a Heterogeneous Mixture from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, A. Emre; Akcakaya, Murat; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.; Makowski, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the relative abundances of different conformations of a protein in a heterogeneous mixture from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities. To consider cases where the solution includes intermediate or unknown conformations, we develop a subset selection method based on k-means clustering and the Cramér-Rao bound on the mixture coefficient estimation error to find a sparse basis set that represents the space spanned by the measured SAXS intensities of the known conformations of a protein. Then, using the selected basis set and the assumptions on the model for the intensity measurements, we show that the MLE model can be expressed as a constrained convex optimization problem. Employing the adenylate kinase (ADK) protein and its known conformations as an example, and using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Here, although we use 45 crystallographically determined experimental structures and we could generate many more using, for instance, molecular dynamics calculations, the clustering technique indicates that the data cannot support the determination of relative abundances for more than 5 conformations. The estimation of this maximum number of conformations is intrinsic to the methodology we have used here. PMID:26924916

  19. Analyais of solar X-ray emission line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burek, A.J.; Marrus, D.M.; Blake, R.L.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the X-ray emission line profiles for the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines produced in an active region that was undergoing a radio and X-ray gradual rise and fall (GRF) in intensity. The spectra were obtained with collimated Bragg spectrometers launched on a rocket from White Sands Missile Range on 1976 March 26. Using a crystal of ammonium acid phthalate, we have fully resolved the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines, permitting an accurate determinination of the Ne X La intensity and allowing Doppler broadened profiles for lines formed from ions having greatly different atomic mass and charge to be measured. An isothermal model derived from the Ne IX/Ne X resonance line intensity ratio gives an electron temperature of 3.4 x 10 6 K. An isothermal model, however, fails to account for the intensities of all lines and continuum observed. All multitemperature models that do reproduce the observed relative line intensities require the presence of a hot plasma component with an electron temperature in excess of 5 x 10 6 K. The presence of a high temperature component is also suggested by the measured line to continuum ratio of 3.6 in the 12--15 A wavelength interval. Interpretation of the line profiles in terms of a multitemperature model requires an rms turbulence velocity of 48 +- 15 km s -1 for Fe XVII 1 P 1 and 74 +- 54 km s - 2exclamation for Ne X La at the 95% confidence level. Collimated scans across the active region show the presence of a compact source of intense X-ray emission close to the magnetic neutral line, which is very probably the GRF plasma

  20. Changes in MYCN expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines following cisplatin treatment may not be related to MYCN copy numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Pavel; Hraběta, J.; Vícha, A.; Cipro, S.; Stejskalová, E.; Musil, Z.; Vodička, Pavel; Eckschlager, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2013), s. 2415-2421 ISSN 1021-335X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0356 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : high-risk neuroblastoma cell line * multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification * fluorescent in situ hybridization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.191, year: 2013

  1. LINE-1 methylation in visceral adipose tissue of severely obese individuals is associated with metabolic syndrome status and related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcot Valérie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of genes found to be differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT of severely obese subjects with (MetS+ versus without (MetS- metabolic syndrome (MetS. Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 elements DNA methylation levels (%meth in blood, a marker of global DNA methylation, have recently been associated with fasting glucose, blood lipids, heart diseases and stroke. Aim To test whether LINE-1%meth levels in VAT are associated with MetS phenotypes and whether they can predict MetS risk in severely obese individuals. Methods DNA was extracted from VAT of 34 men (MetS-: n = 14, MetS+: n = 20 and 152 premenopausal women (MetS-: n = 84; MetS+: n = 68 undergoing biliopancreatic diversion for the treatment of obesity. LINE-1%meth levels were assessed by pyrosequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA. Results The mean LINE-1%meth in VAT was of 75.8% (SD = 3.0%. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that LINE-1%meth was negatively associated with fasting glucose levels (β = -0.04; P = 0.03, diastolic blood pressure (β =  -0.65; P = 0.03 and MetS status (β = -0.04; P = 0.004 after adjustments for the effects of age, sex, waist circumference (except for MetS status and smoking. While dividing subjects into quartiles based on their LINE-1%meth (Q1 to Q4: lower %meth to higher %meth levels, greater risk were observed in the first (Q1: odds ratio (OR = 4.37, P = 0.004 and the second (Q2: OR = 4.76, P = 0.002 quartiles compared to Q4 (1.00 when adjusting for age, sex and smoking. Conclusions These results suggest that lower global DNA methylation, assessed by LINE-1 repetitive elements methylation analysis, would be associated with a greater risk for MetS in the presence of obesity.

  2. DELIRIUM RELATED DISTRESS EXPERIENCED BY PATIENTS, CAREGIVERS AND NURSING STAFF IN A MEDICAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Kumar Jayaswal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Delirium, a common neuropsychiatric syndrome in intensive care settings is a distressing experience for the patient, caregivers and nursing staff. Research on delirium experience has been scant and unsystematic. We set out to explore the extent of recall of delirium, differential distress it had on patients, caregivers and nursing staff and the extent to which it impacted recognition across the motoric subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on all consecutively admitted patients in the medical ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients diagnosed with delirium using Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU were administered the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS for differentiating the motor subtypes (hypoactive, hyperactive, mixed. Distress was assessed using the Delirium Experience Questionnaire (DEQ. RESULTS Of the 88 patients (31.43% who developed delirium, 60.2% recalled their experience. Recall was highest in the hyperactive subtype. 76% of patients, 94.3% of caregivers and 31.8% of nursing staff reported severe levels of distress. Motoric subtypes did not impact on the distress levels experienced by the patients or their caregivers, but influenced it significantly in the nursing staff (highest in hyperactive, least in hypoactive. Identification of delirium by nursing staff (13.4% was significantly influenced by the motor subtypes (highest in hyperactive, least in hypoactive. Linear regression analysis revealed that distress of ICU staff (F=1.36, p=0.018 and not the motoric subtypes (F=1.36, p=0.262 significantly predicted recognition of delirium. CONCLUSIONS Most patients who develop delirium and their caregivers experience high levels of distress. Under-recognition is significantly influenced by the distress it causes the ICU staff than the motor subtype of delirium.

  3. Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tricia M; Moore, Steven C; Gierach, Gretchen L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of an inverse association of physical activity with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, whether a certain intensity or time of life of physical activity is most effective for lowering breast cancer risk is not known. In 118,899 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the relations of light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during four periods of life ('historical': ages 15-18, 19-29, 35-39 years; 'recent': past 10 years) to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at baseline, and 4287 incident breast cancers were identified over 6.6 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted and multivariate Cox regression models, >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (RR:0.84; 95%CI:0.76,0.93) compared with inactivity. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI (RR:0.87; 95%CI:0.78,0.96). Neither moderate-to-vigorous activity during other periods of life nor light intensity activity during any period of life was related to breast cancer risk, and associations did not vary by tumor characteristics. A high level of recent, but not historical, physical activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. More precise recall of recent physical activity than activity in the distant past is one possible explanation for our findings

  4. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  5. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  6. Microcirculation and its relation to continuous subcutaneous glucose sensor accuracy in cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, Sarah E.; Barwari, Temo; Hermanides, Jeroen; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring could be helpful for glucose regulation in critically ill patients; however, its accuracy is uncertain and might be influenced by microcirculation. We investigated the microcirculation and its relation to the accuracy of 2 continuous glucose monitoring devices in