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Sample records for relative electrolyte leakage

  1. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

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    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  2. Using electrolyte leakage tests to determine lifting windows and detect tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Tinus

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing is rapidly coming into use as a means to determine the condition of nursery stock and predict how it will respond to treatment or use. One such test, the electrolyte leakage test, can be used to measure cold hardiness and detect tissue damage. The principle of this test is that when cell membranes are damaged, electrolytes leak out into the water...

  3. Evaluation of Winter Hardiness in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. by Electrolyte Leakage Indicator

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    A. Nezami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peppermint or Mentha is an aromatic, medicinal and perennial herb from Lamiaceae family which has been used for healing a variety of diseases such as common cold, bronchitis, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea, vomiting, indigestion, stomach cramps, menstrual cramps and parasitoids. Peppermint is largely cultivated in Indiana, Mexican and California for the production of peppermint oil. Mentha reveals suitable winter hardiness in warm and temperate regions, But in cold areas, it confronts with winter stresses particularly freezing stress. So recognizing the freeze tolerance of peppermint for successful planting and using of this plant in cold regions such as Mashhad, Iran where peppermint is cultivated now is important. Among the many laboratory methods which have been developed to evaluate freez ing tolerance of plants, electrolyte leakage (EL test is widely used. This test is based on this principle that any damage to the cell membranes results in enhanced leakage of solutes into the apoplastic water, hence measuring the amount of leakage after stress treatments provides an estimation of tissue injury. Often, the 50% level of relative EL, or index of injury, is simply equaled to 50% sample mortality. This study was done to evaluate the freeze tolerance of peppermint organs by electrolyte leakage test and also to determine the winter survival ability of this plant by lethal temperature at which 50% of electrolytes leaked from the cell (LT50el. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the cold tolerance of peppermint, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was carried out under controlled conditions. For this aim samples from stolon and rhizome of peppermint were selected monthly (December 2010 to April 2011 from Research Field, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and were exposed to low temperatures (from 0 to -20°C with 4°C intervals in a thermo gradient freezer at

  4. Leakages and pressure relation: an experimental research

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    F. De Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in water systems are presently a frequent and increasing event that involves cost increase and poor service, not compliant to quality standards and modern management criteria. The most recent data available in Italy, resumed into the report issued by Control Committee for Water Resources Use (CONVIRI, shows leakages with an average value of 37%. It is therefore important, for maintenance perspective, to investigate occurrence and evolution of water leaks and the analytical link between leaks Qp and network pressure P, for a reliable calibration of water networks quali-quantitative simulation models. The present work reports the first results of an experimental campaign started at Laboratory of Hydraulics of Department of Hydraulics, Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering of University of Naples Federico II in order to analyze the features of Qp(P relation, which are compared with other results issued in literature.

  5. Highly conducting leakage-free electrolyte for SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory device

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    Katase, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical switching of SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory with a thin-film-transistor structure was examined by using liquid-leakage-free electrolytes with different conductivities (σ) as the gate insulator. We first examined leakage-free water, which is incorporated in the amorphous (a-) 12CaO.7Al2O3 film with a nanoporous structure (Calcium Aluminate with Nanopore), but the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of the SrCoOx layer required the application of a high gate voltage (Vg) up to 20 V for a very long current-flowing-time (t) ˜40 min, primarily due to the low σ [2.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 at room temperature (RT)] of leakage-free water. We then controlled the σ of the leakage-free electrolyte, infiltrated in the a-NaxTaO3 film with a nanopillar array structure, from 8.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 to 2.5 × 10-6 S cm-1 at RT by changing the x = 0.01-1.0. As the result, the t, required for the metallization of the SrCoOx layer under small Vg = -3 V, becomes two orders of magnitude shorter with increase of the σ of the a-NaxTaO3 leakage-free electrolyte. These results indicate that the ion migration in the leakage-free electrolyte is the rate-determining step for the electrochemical switching, compared to the other electrochemical process, and the high σ of the leakage-free electrolyte is the key factor for the development of the non-volatile SrCoOx-based electro-magnetic phase switching device.

  6. Application of Buckmaster Electrolyte Ion Leakage Test to Woody Biofuel Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Thomas F [Forest Concepts, LLC; Dooley, James H [Forest Concepts, LLC

    2014-08-28

    In an earlier ASABE paper, Buckmaster reported that ion conductivity of biomass leachate in aqueous solution was directly correlated with activity access to plant nutrients within the biomass materials for subsequent biological or chemical processing. The Buckmaster test involves placing a sample of the particles in a beaker of constant-temperature deionized water and monitoring the change in electrical conductivity over time. We adapted the Buckmaster method to a range of woody biomass and other cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks. Our experimental results suggest differences of electrolyte leakage between differently processed woody biomass particles may be an indicator of their utility for conversion in bioenergy processes. This simple assay appears to be particularly useful to compare different biomass comminution techniques and particle sizes for biochemical preprocessing.

  7. Effect of drought stress on water status, electrolyte leakage and enzymatic antioxidants of kochia (kochia scoparia) under saline condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, A.; Kafi, M.; Khazaei, Z.; Davari, K.

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is considered as the main factor of yield limitations in arid and semi-arid areas, where drought and salinity stresses are usually combined. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characters. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station (36 deg. 15'N, 59 deg. 28' E) of Ferdowsi University, ashhad, Iran in 2008, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of drought stress (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage (recovery treatment) and no irrigation at reproductive stage for one month (stress treatment)), and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd) were allocated as main and sub-plots, respectively. Relative water content (RWC), membrane permeability and antioxidant enzymes were assayed at the beginning of anthesis. Stress treatment caused a significant decrease in the leaf RWC and increase in electrolyte leakage compared with control and recovered conditions. Furthermore, stress treatment caused a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activities except of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX). The Birjand ecotype was significantly more tolerant to drought than Borujerd ecotype. According to the results, there were no difference between recovered plants and control treatment, therefore, Kochia can recover quickly after removing drought stress. Kochia showed high tolerance against drought and salinity stresses and different antioxidant enzymes had different behavior under stress conditions. (author)

  8. The Effect of Freezing Stress on Percentage of Electrolytes Leakage and Survival of Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. Seedlings

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    E Izadi-Darbandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. is a medicinal plant from Brassicaceae family which also known as a weed for winter cereals and oil seed rape. Low temperatures are one of the most important abiotic stresses that threat Flixweed growth and productivity. Therefore it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of Flixweed for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran’s north. east. Among many laboratory methods which have been developed to estimate and to evaluate plants response or their tolerance to freez ing temperatures, electrolyte leakage (EL test is widely used. This test is based on this principle that damage to the cell membranes results in enhanced leakage of solutes into the apoplastic water, hence recording the amount of leakage after stress treatments provides an estimation of tissue injury. Indeed continuing integration of plasma membrane is one important factor for survival of plants under freezing stress and any disturbance in membrane structure can lead to damage and death. So determination of LT50 point or critical temperature for electrolytes leakage and survival of plant is the most reliable, quantitative and simple methods for evaluating the cold tolerance of plants. The aim of this trial was to determine the LT50 according to the EL and SU% for Flixweed ecotypes. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance in Flixweed, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Experimental factors included five ecotypes of Flixweed (Eghlid, Sabzewar, Hamedan, Torbat-e-Jam and Neyshabour and 10 freezing temperature levels (0, -2,-4, -6, -8,-10,-12,-14,-16 and -18°C. Flixweed seeds were cultivated in pots in autumn of 2008 and were grown until 5-7 leaf stage under natural weather conditions for acclimation. Then to apply freezing

  9. Factors related to ostomy leakage in the community setting.

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    Ratliff, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe demographic and clinical variables related to ostomy pouch leakage from those discharged from a major medical center during a 2-year period. A convenience sample of 198 persons with an ostomy was obtained using the ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) codes for colostomy, ileostomy, and ileal conduit for patients who were discharged from the medical center within the time frame of July 2009 to July 2011. One hundred seven participants (55%) returned a completed survey. Respondents included 57 men (53%) and 50 women (47%). The mean age was 60 years with age range from 23 to 91 years. Fecal ostomies made up the majority of the stomas representing 71 patients (66%). A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used to describe clinical variables related to ostomy pouch leakage for those discharged from a major academic medical center over a 2-year period of time. Participants were mailed an introductory letter from the principal investigator, a self-administered questionnaire, and a prepaid return envelope. Ninety-three patients (87%) reported leakage; however, 48 patients (45%) stated that they did not leak often. A logistic regression was estimated to determine which variables were significant predictors of the dependent variable of leaking status (no/seldom leaking vs more frequent leaking). Two variables were individually significant predictors, sex (P = .021) and 2-piece pouch (P = .015). Women were 4 times more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group than were men. Those who were wearing 2-piece pouches were 78% less likely to be in the more frequent leaking group. Participants with ileostomies or urostomies were more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group and those with peristomal skin irritation were more likely to be in the more frequent leaking group. Findings from this study reveal that women were more likely to experience leakage than men and that wearing a 2-piece

  10. Effect of storage temperature and duration on cold hardiness and dormancy of northern red oak seedlings: use of the electrolyte leakage procedure

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    Barrett C. Wilson; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    Electrolyte leakage (EL) has successfully predicted cold hardiness of conifer seedlings in both research and commercial settings. EL has also been performed experimentally on European hardwood species. The objective of our study was to determine if further refinement and adjustment of EL methodology to account for the unique characteristics of hardwood seedlings (e.g...

  11. Pathogen toxin-indiced electrolyte leakage and phytoalexin accumulation as indices of red-rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went resistance in sugarcane

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    D. Mohanraj

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A phytotoxin produced by the sugarcane red-rot fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified. The phytotoxin caused increased electrolyte leakage in susceptible sugarcane varieties and higher levels of phytoalexins (3-deoxyanthocyanidins in resistant sugarcane varieties. This relationship between phytotoxin induced changes and disease reaction could possibly be used as an additional index to rapidly identify red-rot resistant varieties.

  12. Effect of Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Electrolyte Leakage, Photosynthesis Parameters and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Two Kochia Ecotypes (Kochia scoparia Irrigated With Saline Water

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    A Masoumi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall deficiency and the development of salinity in Iran are the most important factors for using new salt and drought-resistant plants instead of conventional crops. Kochia species have recently attracted the attention of researchers as a forage and fodder crop in marginal lands worldwide due to its drought and salt tolerant characteristics. This field experiment was performed at the Salinity Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. Drought stress, including four levels (control, no irrigation in vegetative stage, no irrigation at reproductive stage and no irrigation at maturity stage for four weeks, and two Kochia ecotypes (Birjand and Borujerd were allocated as main and sub plots, respectively. Relative water content, electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence were assayed every two week from late vegetative stage. Results showed that drought stress decreased significantly measured parameters in plants under stress, in all stages. Plants completely recovered after eliminating stress and rewatering and recovered plants did not show significant difference with control. Electrolyte leaking and chlorophyll fluorescence showed the lowest change among the measured parameters. It can emphasize that resistant to stress conditions in this plant and cell wall is not damaged at this level of stress situation. Birjand ecotype from the arid region, revealed a better response than Borujerd ecotype to drought stress. Probably it returns to initial adaptation of Birjand. In general this plant can recover after severe drought stress well. It is possible to introduce this plant as a new fodder in arid and saline conditions.

  13. In situ electron holography of electric potentials inside a solid-state electrolyte: Effect of electric-field leakage

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    Aizawa, Yuka; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sato, Takeshi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Murata, Hidekazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryuji; Fisher, Craig A.J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Hirayama, Tsukasa, E-mail: t-hirayama@jfcc.or.jp [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    In situ electron holography is used to observe changes of electric-potential distributions in an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state electrolyte when different voltages are applied. 2D phase images are simulated by integrating the 3D potential distribution along the electron trajectory through a thin Cu/LiPON/Cu region. Good agreement between experimental and simulated phase distributions is obtained when the influence of the external electric field is taken into account using the 3D boundary-charge method. Based on the precise potential changes, the lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON layer and electric double layers (EDLs) are inferred. The gradients of the phase drops at the interfaces in relation to EDL widths are discussed. - Highlights: • Solid-state electrolyte LiPON has been observed by in situ electron holography. • Observed phase distributions are compared with those simulated numerically. • 3D electric fields around the specimen are taken into account in the simulation. • Electric-potential distributions inside LiPON have been obtained. • The lithium-ion and lithium-vacancy distributions inside the LiPON are inferred.

  14. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

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    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  15. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  16. Relating Maxwell’s demon and quantitative analysis of information leakage for practical imperative programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaria, Kushal; Mishra, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Shannon observed the relation between information entropy and Maxwell demon experiment to come up with information entropy formula. After that, Shannon’s entropy formula is widely used to measure information leakage in imperative programs. But in the present work, our aim is to go in a reverse direction and try to find possible Maxwell’s demon experimental setup for contemporary practical imperative programs in which variations of Shannon’s entropy formula has been applied to measure the information leakage. To establish the relation between the second principle of thermodynamics and quantitative analysis of information leakage, present work models contemporary variations of imperative programs in terms of Maxwell’s demon experimental setup. In the present work five contemporary variations of imperative program related to information quantification are identified. They are: (i) information leakage in imperative program, (ii) imperative multithreaded program, (iii) point to point leakage in the imperative program, (iv) imperative program with infinite observation, and (v) imperative program in the SOA-based environment. For these variations, minimal work required by an attacker to gain the secret is also calculated using historical Maxwell’s demon experiment. To model the experimental setup of Maxwell’s demon, non-interference security policy is used. In the present work, imperative programs with one-bit secret information have been considered to avoid the complexity. The findings of the present work from the history of physics can be utilized in many areas related to information flow of physical computing, nano-computing, quantum computing, biological computing, energy dissipation in computing, and computing power analysis. (paper)

  17. Effect of Relative Movement between the Shroud and Blade on Tip Leakage Flow Characteristics

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    Xiaochun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical investigation into the tip leakage flow of a turbine rotor is carried out using a particle image velocimetry (PIV system and the commercial software ANSYS CFX 14.0. The specimen used in this work is a typical GE-E3 model with a new squealer tip design. The experimental data are used to create a turbulence model and numerical strategy. Through the validated turbulence model and numerical strategy, simulations are carried out to compare the characteristics of the tip leakage flow in three cases: (1 the blade is rotating, but the shroud is stationary, which is the real status of turbine rotor operation; (2 the blade is stationary, but the shroud moves, to simulate their relative movement; (3 the blade is stationary, and the shroud is also stationary, this is a simplified case, but has been widely used in the experiments on rotor tip leakage flow. Detailed analysis of the flow phenomena shows that the second case is a reasonable alternative approach to simulate the real state. However, the flow patterns in the third case exhibit some evident differences from the real status. These differences are caused by the inaccurate viscous force arising from the stationary blade and shroud. In this work, a modification method for the experiments conducted in the third case is firstly proposed, which is realized through adding an imaginary roughness at the shroud wall to be close to the real viscous effect, and to thereby reduce the deviation of the experiment from the real case. According to the results calculated by ANSYS CFX, the flow structure in the modification case is very close to the real status. Besides, this modification case is an easy and cheap way to simulate the real tip leakage flow.

  18. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  19. Investigation of surface related leakage current in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, J.K., E-mail: janeshkaushik@sspl.drdo.in [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 110054 (India); Balakrishnan, V.R.; Mongia, D.; Kumar, U.; Dayal, S. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 110054 (India); Panwar, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Muralidharan, R. [Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560012 (India)

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the study of surface-related mechanisms to explain the high reverse leakage current observed in the in-house fabricated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors. We propose that the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface in the un-gated regions provides an additional leakage path between the gate and source/drain and may constitute a large component of reverse current. This surface related leakage component of current exhibits both temperature and electric field dependence and its Arrhenius behavior has been experimentally verified using Conductance Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and temperature dependent reverse leakage current measurements. A thin interfacial amorphous semiconductor layer formed due to inter diffusion at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface has been presumed as the source for this surface related leakage. We, therefore, conclude that optimum Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposition conditions and careful surface preparation prior to passivation can limit the extent of surface leakage and can thus vastly improve the device performance. - Highlights: • Enhanced leakage in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors after passivation • Experimental evidence of the presence of extrinsic traps at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface • Electron hopping in shallower extended defects and band tail traps at the interface. • Reduction in current collapse due to the virtual gate inhibition by this conduction • However, limitation on the operating voltages due to decrease in breakdown voltage.

  20. Analytical scaling relations to evaluate leakage and intrusion in intermittent water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Alexander H.; Whittle, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS) deliver piped water to one billion people; this water is often microbially contaminated. Contaminants that accumulate while IWS are depressurized are flushed into customers’ homes when these systems become pressurized. In addition, during the steady-state phase of IWS, contaminants from higher-pressure sources (e.g., sewers) may continue to intrude where pipe pressure is low. To guide the operation and improvement of IWS, this paper proposes an analytic model relating supply pressure, supply duration, leakage, and the volume of intruded, potentially-contaminated, fluids present during flushing and steady-state. The proposed model suggests that increasing the supply duration may improve water quality during the flushing phase, but decrease the subsequent steady-state water quality. As such, regulators and academics should take more care in reporting if water quality samples are taken during flushing or steady-state operational conditions. Pipe leakage increases with increased supply pressure and/or duration. We propose using an equivalent orifice area (EOA) to quantify pipe quality. This provides a more stable metric for regulators and utilities tracking pipe repairs. Finally, we show that the volume of intruded fluid decreases in proportion to reductions in EOA. The proposed relationships are applied to self-reported performance indicators for IWS serving 108 million people described in the IBNET database and in the Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India. This application shows that current high-pressure, continuous water supply targets will require extensive EOA reductions. For example, in order to achieve national targets, utilities in India will need to reduce their EOA by a median of at least 90%. PMID:29775462

  1. Analytical scaling relations to evaluate leakage and intrusion in intermittent water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David D J; Slocum, Alexander H; Whittle, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS) deliver piped water to one billion people; this water is often microbially contaminated. Contaminants that accumulate while IWS are depressurized are flushed into customers' homes when these systems become pressurized. In addition, during the steady-state phase of IWS, contaminants from higher-pressure sources (e.g., sewers) may continue to intrude where pipe pressure is low. To guide the operation and improvement of IWS, this paper proposes an analytic model relating supply pressure, supply duration, leakage, and the volume of intruded, potentially-contaminated, fluids present during flushing and steady-state. The proposed model suggests that increasing the supply duration may improve water quality during the flushing phase, but decrease the subsequent steady-state water quality. As such, regulators and academics should take more care in reporting if water quality samples are taken during flushing or steady-state operational conditions. Pipe leakage increases with increased supply pressure and/or duration. We propose using an equivalent orifice area (EOA) to quantify pipe quality. This provides a more stable metric for regulators and utilities tracking pipe repairs. Finally, we show that the volume of intruded fluid decreases in proportion to reductions in EOA. The proposed relationships are applied to self-reported performance indicators for IWS serving 108 million people described in the IBNET database and in the Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India. This application shows that current high-pressure, continuous water supply targets will require extensive EOA reductions. For example, in order to achieve national targets, utilities in India will need to reduce their EOA by a median of at least 90%.

  2. Hydrogenation of gold-related levels in silicon by electrolytic doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, S.J.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Kahn, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The deep gold-related donor and acceptor levels in silicon have been neutralized to several μm depth by introducing atomic hydrogen using an electrolytic method. Using phosphoric or sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, it is possible to dope the crystalline silicon with hydrogen at elevated temperatures (200--280 0 C) allowing direct comparison with other means of introduction, such as hydrogen plasma exposure. We find the electrolytic method is not as efficient as plasma treatment for the same conditions, possibly due to oxide formation during the immersion in the acid

  3. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2018-02-20

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.

  4. Application of a diffusion model to measure ion leakage of resurrection plant leaves undergoing desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailova, Gergana; Kocheva, Konstantina; Goltsev, Vasilij; Kalaji, Hazem M; Georgieva, Katya

    2018-04-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, which can survive desiccation to air dry state under both low light and sunny environments. Maintaining the integrity of the membrane during dehydration of resurrection plants is extremely important. In the present study, the diffusion model was improved and used for a first time to evaluate the changes in ion leakage through different cellular compartments upon desiccation of H. rhodopensis and to clarify the reasons for significant increase of electrolyte leakage from dry leaves. The applied diffusion approach allowed us to distinguish the performance of plants subjected to dehydration and subsequent rehydration under different light intensities. Well-hydrated (control) shade plants had lower and slower electrolyte leakage compared to control sun plants as revealed by lower values of phase amplitudes, lower rate constants and ion concentration. In well-hydrated and moderately dehydrated plants (50% relative water content, RWC) ion efflux was mainly due to leakage from apoplast. The electrolyte leakage sharply increased in severely desiccated leaves (8% RWC) from both sun and shade plants mainly due to ion efflux from symplast. After 1 day of rehydration the electrolyte leakage was close to control values, indicating fast recovery of plants. We suggest that the enhanced leakage in air-dried leaves should not be considered as damage but rather as a survival mechanism based on a reversible modification in the structure of cell wall, plasma membrane and alterations in vacuolar system of the cells. However, further studies should be conducted to investigate the changes in cell wall/plasma membrane to support this conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Coolant leakage detecting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Katsunori; Ishihara, Yoshinao.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention judges an amount of leakage of primary coolants of a PWR power plant at high speed. Namely, a mass of coolants contained in a pressurizer, a volume controlling tank and loop regions is obtained based on a preset relational formula and signals of each of process amount, summed up to determine the total mass of coolants for every period of time. The amount of leakage for every period of time is calculated by a formula of Karman's filter based on the total mass of the primary coolants for every predetermined period of time, and displays it on CRT. The Karman's filter is formed on every formula for several kinds of states formed based on the preset amount of the leakage, to calculate forecasting values for every mass of coolants. An adaptable probability for every preset leakage amount is determined based on the difference between the forecast value and the observed value and the scattering thereof. The adaptable probability is compared with a predetermined threshold value, which is displayed on the CRT. This device enables earlier detection of leakage and identification of minute leakage amount as compared with the prior device. (I.S.)

  6. Onsager’s reciprocal relations in electrolyte solutions. I. Sedimentation and electroacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdin-Bertin, S.; Bernard, O.; Jardat, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, Case 51, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Chassagne, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, Case 51, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-08-14

    In the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, we show that the sedimentation current in electrolyte solutions is mathematically equivalent to the low frequency limit of the ionic vibration current, appearing in the presence of an acoustic wave. This non-trivial result is obtained thanks to a careful choice of the reference frame used to express the mass fluxes in the context of electroacoustics. Coupled transport phenomena in electrolyte solutions can also be investigated in a mechanical framework, with a set of Newtonian equations for the dynamics of charged solutes. Both in the context of sedimentation and of electroacoustics, we show that the results obtained in the mechanical framework, in the ideal case (i.e., without interactions between ions), do satisfy the Onsager’s reciprocal relations. We also derive the general relation between corrective forces accounting for ionic interactions which must be fulfilled so that the Onsager’s reciprocal relations are verified. Finally, we show that no additional diffusion term needs to be taken into account in the flux of solutes (far from the walls), even if local concentration gradients exist, contrarily to what was done previously in the literature.

  7. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi2(PO4)3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO3 and Li2SO4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm-2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm-2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi2(PO4)3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li2SO4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi2(PO4)3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above.

  8. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO 3 and Li 2SO 4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm -2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO 3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm -2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li 2SO 4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g -1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing Agulhas leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, E.

    2009-01-01

    Agulhas leakage, the water that flows from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean, plays an important role in the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. The magnitude of this flux of warm and saline Indian Ocean water into the much colder and fresher Atlantic Ocean can be related to the strength of the

  10. On Probability Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The probability leakage of model M with respect to evidence E is defined. Probability leakage is a kind of model error. It occurs when M implies that events $y$, which are impossible given E, have positive probability. Leakage does not imply model falsification. Models with probability leakage cannot be calibrated empirically. Regression models, which are ubiquitous in statistical practice, often evince probability leakage.

  11. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  12. Roxby Downs water leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Environment, Resource and development Committee has been asked by Parliament to examine 'a massive leakage of water at Roxby Downs' and to make recommendations 'as to further action'. It has also been specifically asked to comment on 'the desirability of the Department of Mines and Energy having prime responsibility for environmental matters in relation to mining operations'. This report begins with a description of the Olympic Dam operations near Roxby Downs and with a brief overview of the regulations controlling those operations. The site of the leakage the Olympic Dam tailings retention system is then described in greater detail. Part 3 describes how the system was originally designed, modified and approved. It ends with a series of findings about the adequacy of the original design (including the monitoring systems built into it) and of the approvals process. Recommendations are then made about how future approvals should be handled. Part 4 of the report outlines how the tailings retention system was built and operated and how the massive leakage from it was detected and reported. Findings about the adequacy of the management of the system and about the initial reactions to the leakage are then made, together with recommendations designed to improve future management of the system. 25 refs., 15 figs

  13. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage and leak-related mortality after colonic cancer surgery in a nationwide audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Grossmann, I.; Henneman, D.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    Background: Surgical resection with restoration of bowel continuity is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with colonic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) and subsequent death after colonic cancer surgery. Methods: Data were retrieved from

  14. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage and leak-related mortality after colonic cancer surgery in a nationwide audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, I S; Grossmann, I; Henneman, D; Havenga, K; Wiggers, T

    2014-03-01

    Surgical resection with restoration of bowel continuity is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with colonic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) and subsequent death after colonic cancer surgery. Data were retrieved from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colonic cancer resection with creation of an anastomosis between January 2009 to December 2011 were included. Outcomes were AL requiring reintervention and postoperative mortality following AL. AL occurred in 7·5 per cent of 15 667 patients. Multivariable analyses identified male sex, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) fitness grade, extensive tumour resection, emergency surgery, and surgical resection types such as transverse resection, left colectomy and subtotal colectomy as independent risk factors for AL. A defunctioning stoma was created in a small group of patients, leading to a lower risk of leakage. The mortality rate was 4·1 per cent overall, and was significantly higher in patients with AL than in those without leakage (16·4 versus 3·1 per cent; P risk factors for death after AL. The adjusted risk of death after AL was twice as high following right compared with left colectomy. The elderly and patients with co-morbidity have a higher risk of death after AL. Accurate preoperative patient selection, intensive postoperative surveillance for AL, and early and aggressive treatment of suspected leakage is important, especially in patients undergoing right colectomy. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Leakage monitoring device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji; Fujimori, Haruo.

    1995-01-01

    In a water leakage monitor for a steam generator, output signals from an acoustic sensor disposed in the vicinity of a region to be monitored is subjected to phasing calculation (beam forming calculation) to determine the distribution of a sound source intensity distribution. A peak is retrieved based on the distribution of the sound source intensity distribution. A correction coefficient depending on the position of the peak is multiplied to the sound source intensity. The presence or absence of leakage is determined based on the degree of the sound source intensity after the completion of correction. Namely, a relative value of sound source intensity for each of the portions in the region to be monitored is determined, and the point of the greatest sound source intensity is assumed as a leaking point, to determine the position of the leakage. An absolute value of the sound source intensity at the leaking point is determined by such a constitution that a correction coefficient depending on the position is multiplied to the intensity of the position of the peak in the distribution of the sound intensity. A threshold value for the determination of the presence or absence of the leakage can be set if a relation between an amount of the leakage previously determined experimentally and the intensity of the sound source. Then, a countermeasure can easily be taken after the detection of the leakage and a restoring operation can be carried out rapidly after the occurrence of leakage while avoiding unnecessary shutdown. (N.H.)

  16. Susceptibility to Heat-Related Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Heidari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993–2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.

  17. Conductivity-Relaxation Relations in Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes Containing Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaatalhosseini, Mansoureh; Elamin, Khalid; Swenson, Jan

    2017-10-19

    In this study, we have used nanocomposite polymer electrolytes, consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), δ-Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt (with 4 wt % δ-Al 2 O 3 and PEO:Li ratios of 16:1 and 8:1), and added different amounts of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (BMITFSI). The aim was to elucidate whether the ionic liquid is able to dissociate the Li-ions from the ether oxygens and thereby decouple the ionic conductivity from the segmental polymer dynamics. The results from DSC and dielectric spectroscopy show that the ionic liquid speeds up both the segmental polymer dynamics and the motion of the Li + ions. However, a close comparison between the structural (α) relaxation process, given by the segmental polymer dynamics, and the ionic conductivity shows that the motion of the Li + ions decouples from the segmental polymer dynamics at higher concentrations of the ionic liquid (≥20 wt %) and instead becomes more related to the viscosity of the ionic liquid. This decoupling increases with decreasing temperature. In addition to the structural α-relaxation, two more local relaxation processes, denoted β and γ, are observed. The β-relaxation becomes slightly faster at the highest concentration of the ionic liquid (at least for the lower salt concentration), whereas the γ-relaxation is unaffected by the ionic liquid, over the whole concentration range 0-40 wt %.

  18. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  19. Impact of arachidonic versus eicosapentaenoic acid on exotonin-induced lung vascular leakage: relation to 4-series versus 5-series leukotriene generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, F; Wahn, H; Mayer, K; Kiss, L; Walmrath, D; Seeger, W

    1997-02-01

    Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) is a proteinaceous pore-forming exotoxin that is implicated as a significant pathogenicity factor in extraintestinal E. coli infections including sepsis. In perfused rabbit lungs, subcytolytic concentrations of the toxin evoke thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction and prostanoid-independent protracted vascular permeability increase (11). In the present study, the influence of submicromolar concentrations of free arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the HlyA-induced leakage response was investigated. HlyA at concentration from 0.02 to 0.06 hemolytic units/ml provoked a dose-dependent, severalfold increase in the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), accompanied by the release of leukotriene(LT)B4, LTC4, and LTE4 into the recirculating buffer fluid. Simultaneous application of 100 nmol/L AA markedly augmented the HlyA-elicited leakage response, concomitant with an amplification of LTB4 release and a change in the kinetics of cysteinyl-LT generation. In contrast, 50 to 200 nmol/L EPA suppressed in a dose-dependent manner the HlyA-induced increase in Kfc values. This was accompanied by a blockage of 4-series LT generation and a dose-dependent appearance of LTB5, LTC5, and LTE5. In addition, EPA fully antagonized the AA-induced amplification of the HlyA-provoked Kfc increase, again accompanied by a shift from 4-series to 5-series LT generation. We conclude that the vascular leakage provoked by HlyA in rabbit lungs is differentially influenced by free AA versus free EPA, related to the generation of 4- versus 5-series leukotrienes. The composition of lipid emulsions used for parenteral nutrition may thus influence inflammatory capillary leakage.

  20. Relation between water adsorption in polymer-electrolyte fuel cell and its electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi; Ohba, Kazuto; Nomura, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The amount of H 2 O adsorbed on a Nafion® 117 membrane under electricity generation is correlated as a function of its vapor pressure and temperature. • The amount of H 2 O adsorbed on the membrane is correlated whether the membrane is under a compression state or not. • The adsorption amount behaves differently under the condition where the membrane is compressed by an outside frame. • The difference in H 2 O adsorption amount between mounted and unmounted states is explained based on force acting on the membrane. • Relation between electric conductivity and adsorption amount of membrane is clarified. - Abstract: The amount of H 2 O adsorbed on a Nafion® 117 membrane mounted inside a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system is determined as a function of temperature and H 2 O vapor pressure. Its experimental values are related with a product of electric current and terminal voltage when the anode and cathode compartments are supplied with partially moist (0% to 90% in relative humidity) H 2 and O 2 gases at atmospheric pressure, respectively. Under conditions of H 2 O vapor pressure lower than 2 × 10 4 Pa, the amount of H 2 O adsorbed on the membrane mounted inside the PEFC module is near to its original one that was determined under an unfixed force-free condition, where it is not mounted in cell. However, under conditions of H 2 O vapor pressure higher than 2 × 10 4 Pa, the adsorption amount under the mounted state becomes smaller than its original value determined under the unfixed force-free state. At the higher vapor pressure, the electric power generated under the mounted state also becomes lower than its value expected from the adsorption amount under the unfixed state. Thus, it is experimentally clarified that the FC power is deeply related with the amount of H 2 O adsorbed on the membrane. The H 2 O adsorption amount depends on whether it is compressed in a FC by an outside mold or not

  1. High-performance electrolyte in the presence of dextrose and its derivatives for aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Liao; Lu, Yi-Fang; Do, Jing-Shan

    Dextrose and its derivatives (e.g. glucose, gluconic acid and gluconic lactone) are added to modify the characteristics of electrolytes used in aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The results show that the conductivity and sparking voltage of the electrolytes are severely affected by the concentration of dextrose gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. In addition, the pH of the electrolyte is only slightly affected by the quantity of gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. The capacitance, dissipation factor, and leakage current of capacitors impregnated with the electrolytes prepared in this work are periodically measured under storage conditions and loading at 105 °C.

  2. Dose related anxiolytic effects of diazepam: relation with serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (sbp) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, R.; Haleem, D.J.; Haleem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Diazepam is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug that also induces hypnosis. Changes in serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are often associated with stress-induced anxiety. Administration of diazepam has been show to decrease stress-induced enhancement of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. The present is designed to monitor the anxiolytic effects of different doses of diazepam (1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and its association with changes of serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and SBP in rats. Administration of diazepam at doses of 1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg elicited anxiolytic effects monitored in light-dark transition test and increased serum concentration of electrolytes and plasma osmolality. Serum levels of magnesium as well as SBP decreased. The results are discussed in context of anxiolytic effects of diazepam to be mediated via a modulation of stress-induced increase in the activity of HPA-axis arid electrolytes balance. (author)

  3. Why the CDM can reduce carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, S.

    2006-04-01

    Carbon leakage is an important concern because it can reduce the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms allowed under the protocol, has the potential to reduce carbon leakage significantly because it reduces the relative competitive disadvantage to Annex B countries of restricting greenhouse gas emissions. The economic intuition behind this mechanism is explored in a theoretical analysis. It is then analyzed numerically using a CGE model. The results indicate that, assuming appropriate accounting for leakage and under realistic assumptions on CDM activity, the CDM has the potential to reduce the magnitude of carbon leakage by around three fifths

  4. Land-use Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  5. Data leakage quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavilis, S.; Petkovic, M.; Zannone, N.; Atluri, V.; Pernul, G.

    2014-01-01

    The detection and handling of data leakages is becoming a critical issue for organizations. To this end, data leakage solutions are usually employed by organizations to monitor network traffic and the use of portable storage devices. These solutions often produce a large number of alerts, whose

  6. Modeling valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.R.; Rohrscheib, R.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code requires individual valve leakage testing for Category A valves. Although the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) has recognized that it is more appropriate to test containment isolation valves in groups, as allowed by 10 CFR 50, Appendix J, a utility seeking relief from these Code requirements must provide technical justification for the relief and establish a conservative alternate acceptance criteria. In order to provide technical justification for group testing of containment isolation valves, Illinois Power developed a calculation (model) for determining the size of a leakage pathway in a valve disc or seat for a given leakage rate. The model was verified experimentally by machining leakage pathways of known size and then measuring the leakage and comparing this value to the calculated value. For the range of values typical of leakage rate testing, the correlation between the experimental values and calculated values was quote good. Based upon these results, Illinois Power established a conservative acceptance criteria for all valves in the inservice testing (IST) program and was granted relief by the USNRC from the individual leakage testing requirements of the ASME Code. This paper presents the results of Illinois Power's work in the area of valve leakage rate testing

  7. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  8. Radioactivity leakage monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takuichiro; Noguchi, Noboru.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device for detecting the leakage ratio of a primary coolant by utilizing the variation in the radioactivity concentration in a reactor container when the coolant is leaked. Constitution: A measurement signal is produced from a radioactivity measuring instrument, and is continuously input to a malfunction discriminator. The discriminator inputs a measurement signal to a concentration variation discriminator when the malfunction is recognized and simultaneously inputs a measurement starting time from the inputting time to a concentration measuring instrument. On the other hand, reactor water radioactivity concentration data obtained by sampling the primary coolant is input to a concentration variation computing device. A comparator obtains the ratio of the measurement signal from the measuring instrument and the computed data signal from the computing device at the same time and hence the leakage rate, indicates the average leakage rate by averaging the leakage rate signals and also indicates the total leakage amount. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  10. Universal leakage elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions

  11. Usefulness of the 'Rendezvous' Technique in Living Related Right Liver Donors with Postoperative Biliary Leakage from Bile Duct Anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, R.; Traina, M.; Maruzzelli, L.; Caruso, S.; Di Pisa, M.; Gruttadauria, S.; Luca, A.; Gridelli, B.

    2008-01-01

    This is a report on two cases of large bile leak following right hepatectomy performed for living related liver transplantation, originating from the stump of the ligated right bile duct, and treated with the placement of large percutaneous biliary catheters through a combined percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic approach (rendezvous technique).

  12. Coolant leakage detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To surely detect the coolant leakage at a time when the leakage amount is still low in the intra-reactor inlet pipeway of FBR type reactor. Constitution: Outside of the intra-reactor inlet piping for introducing coolants at low temperature into a reactor core, an outer closure pipe is furnished. The upper end of the outer closure pipe opens above the liquid level of the coolants in the reactor, and a thermocouple is inserted to the opening of the upper end. In such a structure, if the coolants in the in-reactor piping should leak to the outer closure pipe, coolants over-flows from the opening thereof, at which the thermocouple detects the temperature of the coolants at a low temperature, thereby enabling to detect the leakage of the coolants at a time when it is still low. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Channel follower leakage restrictor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.; Smith, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    An improved means is provided to control coolant leakage between the flow channel and the lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly. The means includes an opening in the lower tie plate and a movable element adjacent thereto. The coolant pressure within the tie plate biases the movable means toward the inner surface of the surrounding flow channel to compensate for any movement of the flow channel away from the lower tie plate to thereby control the leakage of coolant flow from the fuel assemblies to the spaces among the fuel assemblies of the core. 9 figures

  14. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage remains a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. Patient and procedure related risk factors for anastomotic leakage have been identified. However, the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. Among these, ischemia and insufficient surgical technique have been suggested to play a central role. Animal models are valuable means to evaluate pathophysiological mechanisms and may be used to test preventive measures aiming at reducing the risk of anastomotic leakage, such as external anastomotic coating. The aim of this thesis was to: Clarify the best suited animal to model clinical anastomotic leakage in humans; Create animal models mimicking anastomotic leakage in humans induced by insufficient surgical technique and tissue ischemia; Determine the best suited coating materials to prevent anastomotic leakage. This study is a systematic review using the databases MEDLINE and Rex. MEDLINE was searched up to October 2010 to identify studies on experimental animal models of clinical colon anastomotic leakage. From the Rex database, textbooks on surgical aspects as well as gastrointestinal physiology and anatomy of experimental animals were identified. The results indicated that the mouse and the pig are the best suited animals to evaluate clinical anastomotic leakage. However, the pig model is less validated and more costly to use compared with the mouse. Most frequently, rats are used as models. However, extreme interventions are needed to create clinical leakage in these animals. The knowledge from this study formed the basis for selecting the animal species most suited for the models in the next studies. STUDY 2: In this experimental study, technically insufficient colonic anastomoses were performed in 110 C57BL/6 mice. The number of sutures in the intervention group was reduced to produce a suitable leakage rate. Moreover, the analgesia and suture material were changed in order to optimize the

  15. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed

  16. Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage: New perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Daams (Freek)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis provides new perspectives on colorectal anastomotic leakages. In both experimental and clinical studies, aspects of prevention, early identification, treatment and consequences of anastomotic leakage are discussed.

  17. Effects of MRI Protocol Parameters, Preload Injection Dose, Fractionation Strategies, and Leakage Correction Algorithms on the Fidelity of Dynamic-Susceptibility Contrast MRI Estimates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, K; Boxerman, J L; Ellingson, B M

    2017-03-01

    DSC perfusion MR imaging assumes that the contrast agent remains intravascular; thus, disruptions in the blood-brain barrier common in brain tumors can lead to errors in the estimation of relative CBV. Acquisition strategies, including the choice of flip angle, TE, TR, and preload dose and incubation time, along with post hoc leakage-correction algorithms, have been proposed as means for combating these leakage effects. In the current study, we used DSC-MR imaging simulations to examine the influence of these various acquisition parameters and leakage-correction strategies on the faithful estimation of CBV. DSC-MR imaging simulations were performed in 250 tumors with perfusion characteristics randomly generated from the distributions of real tumor population data, and comparison of leakage-corrected CBV was performed with a theoretic curve with no permeability. Optimal strategies were determined by protocol with the lowest mean error. The following acquisition strategies (flip angle/TE/TR and contrast dose allocation for preload and bolus) produced high CBV fidelity, as measured by the percentage difference from a hypothetic tumor with no leakage: 1) 35°/35 ms/1.5 seconds with no preload and full dose for DSC-MR imaging, 2) 35°/25 ms/1.5 seconds with ¼ dose preload and ¾ dose bolus, 3) 60°/35 ms/2.0 seconds with ½ dose preload and ½ dose bolus, and 4) 60°/35 ms/1.0 second with 1 dose preload and 1 dose bolus. Results suggest that a variety of strategies can yield similarly high fidelity in CBV estimation, namely those that balance T1- and T2*-relaxation effects due to contrast agent extravasation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Effects of an electrolytic lesion of the prelimbic area on anxiety-related and cognitive tasks in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Maaswinkel, H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the role of the prelimbic area of rats in response selection. A bilateral electrolytic lesion was made in the prelimbic area. The rats were tested in the Morris water-maze, the conditioned shock-prod burying test, the elevated plus-maze, a modified open field test,

  19. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  20. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  1. Indocyanine green staining facilitates detection of bleb leakage during trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Teruhiko; Kiuchi, Takahiro; Kawana, Keisuke; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2007-03-01

    To report a new technique to visualize bleb leakage using indocyanine green (ICG) staining during trabeculectomy. The ICG solution was widely applied over the filtering bleb including the conjunctival wound before completion of trabeculectomy. This procedure was performed in 48 eyes of 44 consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy between December 2004 and October 2005. Without staining, bleb leakage was not identified by the direct observation under the operating microscope. ICG staining clearly visualized aqueous leakage from the bleb in 5 eyes (10.4%). The bleb leakage in these eyes was easily repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures, and no eyes, including these 5 cases, showed bleb leakage after surgery. There were no intraoperative and postoperative complications related to ICG application. The application of ICG during trabeculectomy is a simple and useful technique to facilitate detection and repair of the bleb leakage.

  2. Lithium ion batteries (NMC/graphite) cycling at 80 °C: Different electrolytes and related degradation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieser, R.; Ferrari, S.; Loveridge, M.; Beattie, S. D.; Beanland, R.; Amari, H.; West, G.; Bhagat, R.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on high temperature cycling (80 °C) of industrial manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) filled with different electrolytes is introduced. Ageing processes such as capacity fade, resistance increase and gas generation are reduced by the choice of appropriate electrolyte formulations. However, even by using additive formulations designed for elevated temperatures a large resistance increase is observed after 200 cycles and more (which does not happen at 55 °C). Symmetrical EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) shows that the cathodic charge transfer resistance is the main reason for this behaviour. Nonetheless most of the active Li is still available when cycling with suitable additives. No change of the cathode crystalline structure or a growth of the cathodic surface reconstruction layer is observed post cycling at 80 °C. Therefore a disintegration of NMC secondary particles is believed to be the main reason of the cell failure. A separation of single grains is leading to new decomposition and reconstruction layers between primary particles and an increased charge transfer resistance. Further approaches to improve the high temperature cycle stability of NMC based materials should therefore be aimed at the cathode particles morphology in combination with similar electrolyte formulations as used in this study.

  3. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the 13 N content in the containment atmosphere. 13 N is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/ 13 N+ 4 He. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium 13 N concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  4. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/Nl3+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  5. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1979-08-01

    The present paper deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process H1+016 → N13+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m -3 and 7 kBq m -3 for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge (Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. (Auth.)

  6. Particle and radiation leakage importance: definition, analysis, and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Wagschal, J.J.; Yaari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of leakage importance function has been introduced and analyzed for physical systems governed by the Boltzmann transport equation. This leakage importance function represents a measure of the relative importance of source particles located at every point in phase space in contributing to the leakage and provides insight regarding the specific physical process that leads to leakage. The equation satisfied by the leakage importance function has been derived by using adjoint operators. It has been shown that procedures that are customarily used to derive an equation obeyed by an importance function suitable for an integral parameter such as a detector response or an eigenvalue lead to difficulties when directly applied to derive an equation obeyed by the leakage importance function. This is because, although leakage is also an integral parameter (i.e., a functional of the forward flux density), leakage is expressed in terms of a surface integral rather than in terms of volume integrals such as those appearing in expressions of detector responses or eigenvalues. Therefore, a procedure that departs from the customary course has been devised to derive the equation satisfied by the leakage importance function

  7. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  9. Inner volume leakage during integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    During an integrated leak rate test (ILRT), the containment structure is maintained at test pressure with most penetrations isolated. Since penetrations typically employ dual isolation, the possibility exists for the inner isolation to leak while the outer holds. In this case, the ILRT instrumentation system would indicate containment out-leakage when, in fact, only the inner volume between closures is being pressurized. The problem is compounded because this false leakage is not readily observable outside of containment by standard leak inspection techniques. The inner volume leakage eventually subsides after the affected volumes reach test pressure. Depending on the magnitude of leakage and the size of the volumes, equalization could occur prior to the end of the pretest stabilization period, or significant false leakages may persist throughout the entire test. Two simple analyses were performed to quantify the effects of inside volume leakages. First, a lower bound for the equalization time was found. A second analysis was performed to find an approximate upper bound for the stabilization time. The results of both analyses are shown

  10. Nonlinear empirical model of gas humidity-related voltage dynamics of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiler, M.; Andre, D.; Schmid, O.; Hofer, E. P.

    Intelligent energy management is a cost-effective key path to realize efficient automotive drive trains [R. O'Hayre, S.W. Cha, W. Colella, F.B. Prinz. Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006]. To develop operating strategy in fuel cell drive trains, precise and computational efficient models of all system components, especially the fuel cell stack, are needed. Should these models further be used in diagnostic or control applications, then some major requirements must be fulfilled. First, the model must predict the mean fuel cell voltage very precisely in all possible operating conditions, even during transients. The model output should be as smooth as possible to support best efficient optimization strategies of the complete system. At least, the model must be computational efficient. For most applications, a difference between real fuel cell voltage and model output of less than 10 mV and 1000 calculations per second will be sufficient. In general, empirical models based on system identification offer a better accuracy and consume less calculation resources than detailed models derived from theoretical considerations [J. Larminie, A. Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2003]. In this contribution, the dynamic behaviour of the mean cell voltage of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack due to variations in humidity of cell's reactant gases is investigated. The validity of the overall model structure, a so-called general Hammerstein model (or Uryson model), was introduced recently in [M. Meiler, O. Schmid, M. Schudy, E.P. Hofer. Dynamic fuel cell stack model for real-time simulation based on system identification, J. Power Sources 176 (2007) 523-528]. Fuel cell mean voltage is calculated as the sum of a stationary and a dynamic voltage component. The stationary component of cell voltage is represented by a lookup-table and the dynamic voltage by a parallel placed, nonlinear transfer function. A

  11. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  12. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  13. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking plenty of water, and adding fiber. Fiber is found in plant foods. It passes relatively unchanged through your digestive system. It can help prevent constipation by adding bulk to the stool, making it ...

  14. Time reversal technique for gas leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A O; Polovinka, Yu A

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage traditionally uses sonars as active acoustic sensors and hydrophones picking up the sound generated by a leak as passive sensors. When gas leaks occur underwater, bubbles are produced and emit sound at frequencies intimately related to their sizes. The experimental implementation of an acoustic time-reversal mirror (TRM) is now well established in underwater acoustics. In the basic TRM experiment, a probe source emits a pulse that is received on an array of sensors, time reversed, and re-emitted. After time reversal, the resulting field focuses back at the probe position. In this study, a method for enhancing operation of the passive receiving system has been proposed by using it in the regime of TRM. Two factors, the local character of the acoustic emission signal caused by the leakage and a resonant nature of the bubble radiation at their birth, make particularly effective scattering with the conjugate wave (CW). Analytical calculations are performed for the scattering of CW wave on a single bubble when CW is formed by bubble birthing wail received on an array, time reversed, and re-emitted. The quality of leakage detection depends on the spatio-temporal distribution of ambient noise.

  15. Uranium manufacturing process employing the electrolytic reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshio; Kazuhare, Manabu; Morimoto, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention related to a uranium manufacturing process that employs the electrolytic reduction method, but particularly to a uranium manufacturing process that employs an electrolytic reduction method requiring low voltage. The process, in which uranium is obtained by means of the electrolytic method and with uranyl acid as the raw material, is prior art

  16. Practical Leakage-Resilient Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Schipper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount of arbitr......Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount...

  17. Leakage localization with an acoustic array that covers a wide area for pipeline leakage monitoring in a closed space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Su [Center for Safety Measurements, Division of Metrology for Quality of Life, Korea Research institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jong Hoon [Hyundai Heavy Industry Co.,Ltd., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomiv Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is of great importance to localize leakages in complex pipelines for assuring their safety. A sensor array that can detect where leakages occur enables us to monitor a wide area with a relatively low cost. Beam forming is a fast and efficient algorithm to estimate where sources are, but it is generally made use of in free field condition. In practice, however, many pipelines are placed in a closed space for the purpose of safety and maintenance. This leads us to take reflected waves into account to the beam forming for interior leakage localization. Beam power distribution of reflected waves in a closed space is formulated, and spatial average is introduced to suppress the effect of reflected waves. Computer simulations and experiments ensure how the proposed method is effective to localize leakage in a closed space for structural health monitoring.

  18. Analysis of Gas Leakage and Current Loss of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Screen Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Chuan; Han, Minfang; Chen, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Two types of anode supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) NiO-YSZ/YSZ/GDC/LSCF with the same structure and different manufacturing process were tested. Gas leakage was suspected for cells manufactured with screen printing technique. Effective leak current densities for both types of cells were...... calculated. Their performances of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were compared and distribution function of relaxation times (DRT) technique was also used to find the clue of gas leakage. Finally, thinning and penetrating holes were observed in electrolyte layer, which confirmed the occurrence...

  19. Automation of unit for leakage test

    OpenAIRE

    LYCHKOVSKAYA V.S.; TSYGANKOV A.S.; GRINBERG G.M.; STANOVOVA O.A.

    2015-01-01

    Federal state educational standard requirements for training of university students have been considered. Leakage test procedures for components of aerospace vehicles have been described. Automation procedures of existing laboratory leakage test units have been outlined.

  20. Issues behind Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report explores the vulnerability of heavy industry to carbon leakage and competitiveness loss. It reviews the existing literature on competitiveness and carbon leakage under uneven climate policies. It also suggests a statistical method to track carbon leakage, and applies this methodology to Phase I of the EU emissions trading scheme, for various industrial activities: iron and steel, cement, aluminium and refineries. Finally, it reviews measures to mitigate carbon leakage, as discussed in Australia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and the US.

  1. Subsea Hydraulic Leakage Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is reduction of hydraulic emissions, minimizing of process emergency shutdowns, exploitation of intervention capacity, and reduction of costs. Today, monitoring of hydraulic leakages is scarce and the main way to detect leakage is the constant need for filling of hydraulic fluid to the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU). Leakage detection and diagnosis has potential, which would be adressed in this thesis. A strategy towards leakage detection and diagnosis is given....

  2. Simulation of leakage through mechanical sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomorov, V. P.; Gorlenko, O. A.; Izmerov, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The procedure of mathematical modeling of leakage through the mechanical seal taking into account waviness and roughness is considered. The percolation process is represented as the sum of leakages through a gap between wavy surfaces and percolation through gaps formed by fractal roughness, i.e. the total leakage is determined by the slot model and filtration leakage. Dependences of leaks on the contact pressure of corrugated and rough surfaces of the mechanical seal elements are presented.

  3. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  4. Effects of clamping force on the water transport and performance of a PEM (proton electrolyte membrane) fuel cell with relative humidity and current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Dowon; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    The clamping force should be applied to a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell due to its structural characteristics. The clamping force affects the ohmic and mass transport resistances in the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the effects of the clamping force on the water transport and performance characteristics of a PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated with variations in the relative humidity and current density. The water transport characteristics were analyzed by calculating the net drag coefficient. The ohmic resistance decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to the reduced contact resistance and more even membrane hydration. However, the mass transport resistance increased with the increase in the clamping force due to the gas diffusion layer compression. The net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to high water back-diffusion. Additionally, the relationship between the total resistance and the net drag coefficient was investigated. - Highlights: • Effects of clamping force on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are investigated. • Water transport characteristics are analyzed using net drag coefficient. • Ohmic resistance decreased with clamping force, but mass transport resistance increased. • Net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in clamping force. • Total resistance was significantly degraded for a net drag coefficient below 0.2.

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  6. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  7. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  8. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  9. Application Of The Climafor Baseline To Determine Leakage: TheCase Of Scolel Te.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, B.H.J.; Bazan, E. Esquivel; Quechulpa Montalvo, S.

    2007-06-01

    The acceptance of forestry-based project activities tomitigate greenhouse gases emissions has been subjected to a number ofmethodological questions to be answered, of which the most challengingare baseline establishment and identification of and measuring leakage.Here we pose hypotheses for and quantify leakage of the Scolel Te projectin Chiapas, Mexico. In this project small-scale farmers are implementingforestry, agroforestry, and forest conservation activities, with carbonsequestration as one of the goals. The main leakage monitoring domain isdefined as the area owned by the participating farmers or communitiesoutside the area where the specific project activities take place. Thenull-hypothesis (no leakage) is that non-project land owned by the farmeror community will experience the same carbon stock changes as predictedby the regional baseline, specifically developed for the project. Firstwe assessed the most likely causes and sources of leakage that may occurin the project. From this analysis, one type of leakage seems to beimportant, i.e., activity shifting. Second we estimated the leakage of asample of participating farmers and communities. Actual land use was thencompared with expected land use derived from the baseline. The Plan Vivoof each participant, complemented with readily available tools toidentify the main sources and drivers of leakage are used to developsimple leakage assessment procedures, as demonstrated in this paper.Negative leakage was estimated to be negligible in this study.Incorporating these procedures already in the project planning stage willreduce the uncertainties related to the actual carbon mitigationpotential of any forestry project.

  10. Advanced Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han

    Research on solid electrochemical energy storage devices aims to provide high performance, low cost, and safe operation solutions for emerging applications from flexible consumer electronics to microelectronics. Polymer electrolytes, minimizing device sealing and liquid electrolyte leakage, are key enablers for these next-generation technologies. In this thesis, a novel proton-conducing polymer electrolyte system has been developed using heteropolyacids (HPAs) and polyvinyl alcohol for electrochemical capacitors. A thorough understanding of proton conduction mechanisms of HPAs together with the interactions among HPAs, additives, and polymer framework has been developed. Structure and chemical bonding of the electrolytes have been studied extensively to identify and elucidate key attributes affecting the electrolyte properties. Numerical models describing the proton conduction mechanism have been applied to differentiate those attributes. The performance optimization of the polymer electrolytes through additives, polymer structural modifications, and synthesis of alternative HPAs has achieved several important milestones, including: (a) high proton mobility and proton density; (b) good ion accessibility at electrode/electrolyte interface; (c) wide electrochemical stability window; and (d) good environmental stability. Specifically, high proton mobility has been addressed by cross-linking the polymer framework to improve the water storage capability at normal-to-high humidity conditions (e.g. 50-80% RH) as well as by incorporating nano-fillers to enhance the water retention at normal humidity levels (e.g. 30-60% RH). High proton density has been reached by utilizing additional proton donors (i.e. acidic plasticizers) and by developing different HPAs. Good ion accessibility has been achieved through addition of plasticizers. Electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte system has also been investigated and expanded by utilizing HPAs with different heteroatoms

  11. Anastomotic leak detection by electrolyte electrical resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Daniel T; Cline, Adam M; Johnson, Scott B

    2010-08-01

    To characterize a new method of postoperative gastrointestinal leak detection based on electrical resistance changes due to extravasated electrolyte contrast. Postoperative gastrointestinal leak results in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs that can be mitigated by early diagnosis. A sensitive and specific diagnostic test that could be performed at the bedside has the potential to shorten the time to diagnosis and thereby improve the quality of treatment. Anaesthetized rats underwent celiotomy and creation of a 5-mm gastrotomy. In experimental animals, electrical resistance changes were measured with a direct current ohmmeter after the introduction of 5 cc of 23.4% NaCl electrolyte solution via gavage and measured with a more sensitive alternating current ohmmeter after the gavage of 1-5 cc of 0.9% NaCl. Comparison was made to negative controls and statistical analysis was performed. Leakage from the gastrotomy induced by as little as 1 cc of gavage-delivered 0.9% NaCl contrast solution was detectable as a statistically significant drop in electrical resistance when compared to results from negative controls. Electrical resistance change associated with electrolyte-gated leak detection is highly sensitive and specific and has the potential to be rapidly translated into clinical settings.

  12. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (Pcement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are independent risk factors associated with bone cement leakage.

  13. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  14. The Impact of Strong Cathodic Polarization on SOC Electrolyte Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreka, Kosova; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising reversible energy conversion/storage technologies is that of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells (SOFC/SOEC, collectively termed SOC). Long term durability is typically required for such devises to become economically feasible, hence considerable amount of work has...... of impurities at the grain boundaries, electrode poisoning, delamination or cracks of the electrolyte etc., have been observed in cells operated at such conditions, lowering the lifetime of the cell1,2. High polarizations are observed at the electrolyte/cathode interface of an electrolysis cell operated at high...... current density. In case of a cell voltage above 1.6 V, p-type and n-type electronic conductivity are often observed at the anode and cathode respectively3. Hence, a considerable part of the current is lost as leakage through the electrolyte, thus lowering the efficiency of the cell considerably....

  15. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  16. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nuclear electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstaple, A.G.; Petrella, A.J.

    1982-05-01

    An extensive study of hydrogen supply has recently been carried out by Ontario Hydro which indicates that electrolytic hydrogen produced from nuclear electricity could offer the lowest cost option for any future large scale hydrogen supply in the Province of Ontario, Canada. This paper provides a synopsis of the Ontario Hydro study, a brief overview of the economic factors supporting the study conclusion and discussion of a number of issues concerning the supply of electrolytic hydrogen by electric power utilities

  18. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Valve packing leakage monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    A device for monitoring leakage of fluid across a seal in a component connected to a pressurized fluid system including a housing having a chamber with an inlet for receiving fluid leaking across the seal and an outlet. A positioning means is connected to an orifice plug so as to move the plug for permitting the fluid to be discharged through the orifice at the same rate at which it enters the first chamber and means for detecting the movement of the plug is provided to produce and output signal corresponding to the distance moved by the plug and thereby indicate flow rate. The positioning means compromise a piston attached to the plug by a hollow tube and springs, which at low flow rates locate the piston. When flow increases sufficiently pressure increases and urges the piston upwards. A magnetic portion of tube actuates a succession of proximity switches to indicate flow rate. (author)

  20. Exploitation of Unintentional Information Leakage from Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The information leakage of electronic devices, especially those used in cryptographic or other vital applications, represents a serious practical threat to secure systems. While physical implementation attacks have evolved rapidly over the last decade, relatively little work has been done to allow system designers to effectively counter the…

  1. Characterization of CO2 leakage into the freshwater body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Shao, H.

    2013-01-01

    urrent research into CO2 capture and storage is dominated by improving the CO2 storage capacity. In this context, risk related to CO2 leakage is an important issue which may cause environmental problems, particularly when freshwater resources nearby are intruded by the CO2 plume. In this work...

  2. Radiation-induced off-state leakage current in commercial power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, Paul Emerson; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Draper, Bruce Leroy; Felix, James Andrew; Schwank, James Ralph; Dalton, Scott Matthew

    2005-01-01

    The total dose hardness of several commercial power MOSFET technologies is examined. After exposure to 20 krad(SiO 2 ) most of the n- and p-channel devices examined in this work show substantial (2 to 6 orders of magnitude) increases in off-state leakage current. For the n-channel devices, the increase in radiation-induced leakage current follows standard behavior for moderately thick gate oxides, i.e., the increase in leakage current is dominated by large negative threshold voltage shifts, which cause the transistor to be partially on even when no bias is applied to the gate electrode. N-channel devices biased during irradiation show a significantly larger leakage current increase than grounded devices. The increase in leakage current for the p-channel devices, however, was unexpected. For the p-channel devices, it is shown using electrical characterization and simulation that the radiation-induced leakage current increase is related to an increase in the reverse bias leakage characteristics of the gated diode which is formed by the drain epitaxial layer and the body. This mechanism does not significantly contribute to radiation-induced leakage current in typical p-channel MOS transistors. The p-channel leakage current increase is nearly identical for both biased and grounded irradiations and therefore has serious implications for long duration missions since even devices which are usually powered off could show significant degradation and potentially fail.

  3. Highly Reliable Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters With Leakage Current and Pulsating Power Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a transformerless inverter topology, which is capable of simultaneously solving leakage current and pulsating power issues in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Without adding any additional components to the system, the leakage current caused by the PV-to-ground parasi......This paper presents a transformerless inverter topology, which is capable of simultaneously solving leakage current and pulsating power issues in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Without adding any additional components to the system, the leakage current caused by the PV......-to-ground parasitic capacitance can be bypassed by introducing a common-mode (CM) conducting path to the inverter. The resulting ground leakage current is therefore well controlled to be below the regulation limit. Furthermore, the proposed inverter can also eliminate the well-known double-line-frequency pulsating...... power that is inherent in single-phase PV systems. By properly injecting CM voltages to the output filter capacitors, the pulsating power can be decoupled from the dc-link. Therefore, it is possible to use long-lifetime film capacitors instead of electrolytic capacitors to improve the reliability...

  4. [Nursing Experience With a Patient With Gastrostomy Leakage Resulting in Moisture-Associated Skin Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hui; Lyu, Ji-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection. Simultaneously, the patient was required to conduct complex stoma care, which resulted in physical and psychological exhaustion. Changes in traditional tube and wound care were discussed on multiple occasions with an interdisciplinary healthcare team. Based on the evidence-based literature, we provide gastrostomy and MASD management strategies. Through team collaboration, we prevented gastric contents from contacting the patient's skin directly, improved patient comfort, controlled effluent and skin infections, maintained fluid and electrolyte balances, and acce-lerated the healing of the damaged skin. We recommend that healthcare professionals caring for patients with gastrostomy leakage be provided with early skin protection programs to learn the standard methods for identifying and correcting leakage factors, containing effluent, and adequately stabilizing the gastrostomy tube in order to reduce the impact on the patient's quality of life. In addition, patient education on tube and skin care should be provided to prevent the reoccurrence of complications.

  5. Acoustic emission generated by fluid leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The noise generated by the leaking saturated steam and subcooled water form various sizes of hole has been measured as function of leak rate and stagnation pressure. Acoustic emission (proportinal to root mean sguare voltage) is shown to be proportional to the leak rate and stagnation pressure. A transition of acoustic emission power is observed at the stagnation pressure 0.185 MPa associated with the transition to the critical flow state. Substantially higher acoustic emission power generated by the subcooled water leakage is attributed to the flashing source involving the phase transformation and volume expansion. The relative amplitude of noise spectrum becomes more spiky as the leak rate and stagnation pressure increased. (Author)

  6. The extent of on-site leakage in selected suburbs of Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated on-site leakage on 182 properties with relatively new municipal water meters in well-established suburbs of Johannesburg. A methodology was developed to estimate the on-site leakage rate from readings taken from these municipal water meters, which was then adjusted to account for metering ...

  7. Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Henders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

  8. On camera-based smoke and gas leakage detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, Hans Olav

    1999-07-01

    Gas detectors are found in almost every part of industry and in many homes as well. An offshore oil or gas platform may host several hundred gas detectors. The ability of the common point and open path gas detectors to detect leakages depends on their location relative to the location of a gas cloud. This thesis describes the development of a passive volume gas detector, that is, one than will detect a leakage anywhere in the area monitored. After the consideration of several detection techniques it was decided to use an ordinary monochrome camera as sensor. Because a gas leakage may perturb the index of refraction, parts of the background appear to be displaced from their true positions, and it is necessary to develop algorithms that can deal with small differences between images. The thesis develops two such algorithms. Many image regions can be defined and several feature values can be computed for each region. The value of the features depends on the pattern in the image regions. The classes studied in this work are: reference, gas, smoke and human activity. Test show that observation belonging to these classes can be classified fairly high accuracy. The features in the feature set were chosen and developed for this particular application. Basically, the features measure the magnitude of pixel differences, size of detected phenomena and image distortion. Interesting results from many experiments are presented. Most important, the experiments show that apparent motion caused by a gas leakage or heat convection can be detected by means of a monochrome camera. Small leakages of methane can be detected at a range of about four metres. Other gases, such as butane, where the densities differ more from the density of air than the density of methane does, can be detected further from the camera. Gas leakages large enough to cause condensation have been detected at a camera distance of 20 metres. 59 refs., 42 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. The Effect of Internal Leakages on Thermal Performance in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Kim, Doo Won; Jang, Seok Bo

    2007-01-01

    Since the Balance Of Plant (BOP, limited to a turbine cycle in this study) does not contain radioactive material, regulatory authorities did not need to have concerns on it. As the interests on safety and performance is getting more serious and extensive, controlling the level of safety and performance of a BOP have just begun or is about to begin. The performance standards or ageing management programs of the major equipment in a BOP is being developed. The regulatory requirements for tests and/or maintenance are being actively built up. There is also a probabilistic approach quantifying performance of a BOP. The study on quantifying the rate of unanticipated shutdowns caused by careless maintenance and/or tests conducted in a BOP is going on. In this study, the modeling of the entire BOP and the methodologies of thermal performance analysis should be one of the must-have items as well. This study was achieved to ensure fundamental skills related to 1) the detailed steady-state modeling of a BOP and 2) thermal performance analysis under various conditions. Particularly, the paper will focus on the effect of internal leakages inside the valves and FeedWater Heaters (FWHs). The internal leakage is regarded as the flow movement through the isolated path but remaining inside the system boundary of a BOP. For instance, the leakage from one side of a valve seat to the other side, or the leakage through the cracked tubes or tube-sheets in a heat exchanger correspond to internal leakages. We made a BOP model of OPR1000 and investigated thermal performance under the internal leakage in Turbine Bypass Condenser Dump Valves (TBCDV) and FWHs

  10. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahham, A.; Sharabati, A.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm -1 with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm -2 . Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm -2 . The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm -2 , and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 μWcm -1 recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age. (authors)

  11. Leakage-resilient cryptography from minimal assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; López-Alt, Adriana; Wee, Hoeteck

    2013-01-01

    We present new constructions of leakage-resilient cryptosystems, which remain provably secure even if the attacker learns some arbitrary partial information about their internal secret key. For any polynomial ℓ, we can instantiate these schemes so as to tolerate up to ℓ bits of leakage. While the...

  12. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Griffiths, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  13. Correlation between dislocations and leakage current of p-n diodes on a free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Shigeyoshi; Ando, Yuto; Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Deki, Manato; Kushimoto, Maki; Nitta, Shugo; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Yao, Yong-Zhao; Ishikawa, Yukari

    2018-04-01

    Dislocations that cause a reverse leakage current in vertical p-n diodes on a GaN free-standing substrate were investigated. Under a high reverse bias, dot-like leakage spots were observed using an emission microscope. Subsequent cathodoluminescence (CL) observations revealed that the leakage spots coincided with part of the CL dark spots, indicating that some types of dislocation cause reverse leakage. When etch pits were formed on the dislocations by KOH etching, three sizes of etch pits were obtained (large, medium, and small). Among these etch pits, only the medium pits coincided with leakage spots. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that pure screw dislocations are present under the leakage spots. The results revealed that 1c pure screw dislocations are related to the reverse leakage in vertical p-n diodes.

  14. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  15. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  16. Leakage of caesium braquitherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In several Venezuelan public hospitals where cervix uteri tumours are treated by intracavitary radiotherapy, that use manual after loading Fletcher method, with Caesium 137 sources, the use of improper source holders, locally manufactured from pieces of drainage plastic tubing, which deteriorated and created a corrosive environment all around the sources, omission of manufacturer's recommendations regarding corrosion information, source storage, inspection and testing, violation of International Atomic Energy Agency Radiation Protection Procedures, and lack of proper regulatory control, resulted integrity damage to about sixty special form sources (ISO2919 C 63322), leakage of Cs-137 from a supposed insoluble refractory active content (caesium silicoaluminate), and contamination of applicators, floors and bedding. When the situation was detected by means removal contamination tests, after routine inspections, the sources were removed from the hospitals, decontaminated by means of immersion in 3% EDTA solution in ultrasonic bath, subjected to leaking assessment tests, and the ones that passed were placed in low cost stainless steel source holders, designed and built by the instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) returned to the hospitals. The leaking sources were removed from use and considered radioactive waste. In order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, all the importers of such sources are now required to send them to IVIC for testing and placement in proper source holders, before they are shipped to the hospitals. (author)

  17. Climate Policy and Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report explores the effects of the EU emissions trading scheme on the aluminium sector (i.e. competitiveness loss and carbon leakage). With its very high electricity intensity, primary aluminium stands out in the heavy industry picture: a sector whose emissions are not capped in the present EU ETS, European aluminium smelters still stand to lose profit margins and, possibly, market shares, as electricity prices increase following CO2 caps on generators' emissions - the famous pass-through of CO2 prices into electricity prices. The analysis includes a method of quantification of this issue, based on two indicators: profit margins and trade flows. As the EU is at the forefront of such policy, the paper provides policy messages to all countries on how trade exposed energy-intensive industries can be 'moved' by carbon constraint. This also is a contentious topic in Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and the US, where ambitious climate policies -- including cap-and-trade systems -- are currently debated.

  18. Electrolytic decontamination of stainless steel using a basic electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, E.L.; Long, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic plutonium decontamination process or stainless steel was developed for use as the final step in a proposed radioactive waste handling and decontamination facility to be construced at the Rockwell International Rocky Flats plutonium handling facility. This paper discusses test plan, which was executed to compare the basic electrolyte with phosphoric acid and nitric acid electrolytes. 1 ref

  19. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  20. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    we initiate the study of {\\em secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage}, where on top of corrupting one of the parties the adversary obtains leakage from the content of the secret memory of the honest party. Our study involves the following contributions: \\BE \\item {\\em Security...... and returns its result. Almost independently of secure computation, the area of {\\em leakage resilient cryptography} has recently been evolving intensively, studying the question of designing cryptographic primitives that remain secure even when some information about the secret key is leaked. In this paper...

  1. Method to detect steam generator tube leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Kiyomi

    1994-01-01

    It is important for plant operation to detect minor leakages from the steam generator tube at an early stage, thus, leakage detection has been performed using a condenser air ejector gas monitor and a steam generator blow down monitor, etc. In this study highly-sensitive main steam line monitors have been developed in order to identify leakages in the steam generator more quickly and accurately. The performance of the monitors was verified and the demonstration test at the actual plant was conducted for their intended application to the plants. (author)

  2. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  3. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  4. Leakage current analysis of single-phase transformer-less grid-connected PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Lin; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Transformer-less string PV inverter is getting more and more widely utilized due to its higher efficiency, smaller volume and weight. However, without the galvanic isolation, the leakage current limitation and operation safety became the key issues of transformer-less inverters. This paper...... simplifies the leakage current generation circuit model and presents a leakage current estimation method both in real time and frequency domain. It shows that the leakage current is related to the circuit stray parameters, output filter and common mode voltage. Furthermore, with the proposed analysis method......, the leakage current generation of H-bridge with different modulation methods and HERIC inverter are discussed individually. At last, the presented method has been verified via simulation....

  5. Method for electrolytic decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Horita, Masami; Onuma, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrolytic decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals. The contaminated sections are eluted by electrolysis after the surface of a piece of equipment used with radioactive substances has been immersed in an electrolyte. Metal contaminated by radioactive substances acts as the anode

  6. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Signal attenuation due to cavity leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M.H.; Modera, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of sound waves in fluids requires information about three properties of the system: capacitance (compressibility), resistance (friction), and inductance (inertia). Acoustical design techniques to date have tended to ignore the frictional effects associated with airflow across the envelope of the acoustic cavity (e.g., resistive vents). Since such leakage through the cavity envelope is best expressed with a power law dependence on the pressure, standard Fourier techniques that rely on linearity cannot be used. In this article, the theory relevant to nonlinear leakage is developed and equations presented. Potential applications of the theory to techniques for quantifying the leakage of buildings are presented. Experimental results from pressure decays in a full-scale test structure are presented and the leakage so measured is compared with independent measurements to demonstrate the technique

  8. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  9. Electroplating eliminates gas leakage in brazed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Electroplating method seals brazed or welded joints against gas leakage under high pressure. Any conventional electroplating process with many different metal anodes can be used, as well as the build up of layers of different metals to any required thickness.

  10. Analysis of ONKALO water leakage mapping results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J; Turku, J.

    2014-04-01

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, an analysis has been compiled of water leakage mapping performed in ONKALO. Leakage mapping is part of the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO) and the field work has been carried out by Posiva Oy. The main objective of the study is to analyse differences detected between mapping campaigns carried out typically twice a year in 2005-2012. Differences were estimated to be caused by the differences in groundwater conditions caused by seasonal effects or by differences between the years. The effect of technical changes like shotcreting, postgrouting, ventilation etc. on the results was also studied. The development of the visualisation of mapping results was also an objective of this work. Leakage mapping results have been reported yearly in the monitoring reports of Hydrology with some brief comments on the detected differences. In this study, the development of the total area and the number of different leakages as well as the correlation of changes with shotcreting and grouting operations were studied. In addition, traces of fractures on tunnel surfaces, and the location of rock bolts and drain pipes were illustrated together with leakage mapping. In water leakage mapping, the tunnel surfaces are visually mapped to five categories: dry, damp, wet, dripping and flowing. Major changes were detected in the total area of damp leakages. It is likely that the increase has been caused by the condensation of warm ventilation air on the tunnel surfaces and the corresponding decrease by the evaporation of moisture into the dry ventilation air. Shotcreting deep in ONKALO may also have decreased the total area of damp leakages. Changes in the total area and number of wet leakages correlate at least near the surface with differences in yearly precipitation. It is possible that strong rains have also caused a temporary increase in wet leakages. Dripping and wet leakages have been observed on average more

  11. Analysis of ONKALO water leakage mapping results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J; Turku, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, an analysis has been compiled of water leakage mapping performed in ONKALO. Leakage mapping is part of the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO) and the field work has been carried out by Posiva Oy. The main objective of the study is to analyse differences detected between mapping campaigns carried out typically twice a year in 2005-2012. Differences were estimated to be caused by the differences in groundwater conditions caused by seasonal effects or by differences between the years. The effect of technical changes like shotcreting, postgrouting, ventilation etc. on the results was also studied. The development of the visualisation of mapping results was also an objective of this work. Leakage mapping results have been reported yearly in the monitoring reports of Hydrology with some brief comments on the detected differences. In this study, the development of the total area and the number of different leakages as well as the correlation of changes with shotcreting and grouting operations were studied. In addition, traces of fractures on tunnel surfaces, and the location of rock bolts and drain pipes were illustrated together with leakage mapping. In water leakage mapping, the tunnel surfaces are visually mapped to five categories: dry, damp, wet, dripping and flowing. Major changes were detected in the total area of damp leakages. It is likely that the increase has been caused by the condensation of warm ventilation air on the tunnel surfaces and the corresponding decrease by the evaporation of moisture into the dry ventilation air. Shotcreting deep in ONKALO may also have decreased the total area of damp leakages. Changes in the total area and number of wet leakages correlate at least near the surface with differences in yearly precipitation. It is possible that strong rains have also caused a temporary increase in wet leakages. Dripping and wet leakages have been observed on average more

  12. A self-standing hydrogel neutral electrolyte for high voltage and safe flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, N.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2017-04-01

    The development of safe flexible supercapacitors implies the use of new non-liquid electrolytes for avoiding device leakage which combine mechanical properties and electrochemical performance. In this sense, hydrogel electrolytes composed of a solid non-conductive matrix holding an aqueous electrolytic phase are a reliable solution. In this work, we propose a green physical route for producing self-standing hydrogel films from a PVA polymer based on the freezing/thawing method without using chemical cross-linking agents. Moreover, a neutral electrolytic phase as Na2SO4 is used for reaching higher cell voltages than in an acidic or basic electrolyte. Such new PVA-Na2SO4 hydrogel electrolyte, which also acts as separator, allows reaching voltages windows as high as 1.8 V in a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor with optimal capacitance retention through thousands of cycles. Additionally, in reason of the fast mobility of the ions inside of the polymeric matrix, the hydrogel electrolyte based supercapacitor keeps the power density of the liquid electrolyte device.

  13. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  15. The Diagnosis of Internal Leakage of Control Valve Based on the Grey Correlation Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng DING

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The valve plays an important part in the industrial automation system. Whether it operates normally or not relates with the quality of the products directly while its faults are relatively common because of bad working conditions. And the internal leakage is one of the common faults. Consequently, this paper sets up the experimental platform to make the valve in different working condition and collect relevant data online. Then, diagnose the internal leakage of the valve by using the grey correlation analysis method. The results show that this method can not only diagnose the internal leakage of valve accurately, but also distinguish fault degree quantitatively.

  16. Carbon leakage from a Nordic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess-Schmidt, S.; Hansen, Martin Bo; Sand Kirk, J. [Copenhagen Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon pricing is generally considered a highly effective tool in reducing carbon emissions. Putting a price on carbon provides incentives for users and producers of fossil fuels to reduce consumption and develop low carbon products and processes. However, pursuing an ambitious climate policy can lead to carbon leakage, which refers to a situation where unilateral or regional climate change policy drives the relocation of industry investments and installations, and associated emissions, to third countries. This report by Copenhagen Economics has been commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers to give an overview of the industries at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic countries, and estimate the expected extent of carbon leakage from unilateral climate policies in the Nordic countries. The report also assesses available policy options that may reduce the risk of carbon leakage, such as exemptions from energy tax and exemptions from quota obligations under green certificate schemes. The key drivers of carbon leakage are identified, which include energy intensity, product differentiation, transportation costs and capital intensity. The analysis suggests that industries such as paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and fertilizers are most at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic manufacturing sector. (Author)

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes as an Electrolyte for Medium Temperature and Low Relative Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreni Mahreni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The weakness of the Nafion membrane as electrolyte of PEMFC associated with physical properties that is easy to shrink at temperatures above 80°C due to dehydration. Shrinkage will decrease the conductivity and membrane damage. Nafion-SiO2 composite membranes can improve membrane stability. The role of SiO2 in the Nafion clusters is as water absorbent cause the membrane remains wet at high temperatures and low humidity and conductivity remains high. The results showed the content of 2.8 wt% of SiO2 in the Nafion membrane, the conductivity of composite membrane is higher than the pure Nafion membrane that are 0.127 S cm-1 in dry conditions and 0.778 S cm-1 in wet conditions at room temperature. Compared with the pure Nafion membrane conductivity are 0.0661 S cm-1 and 0.448 S cm-1 respectively in dry and wet conditions.

  18. Toward Understanding Tip Leakage Flows in Small Compressor Cores Including Stator Leakage Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    trajectory of the tip leakage flow through the rotor passage. Further, these data extend previous measurements identifying a modulation of the tip leakage flow due to upstream stator wake propagation. Finally, a novel instrumentation technique has been implemented to measure pressures in the shrouded stator cavities. These data provide boundary conditions relating to the flow across the shrouded stator knife seal teeth. Moreover, the utilization of fast-response pressure sensors provides a new look at the time-resolved pressure field, leading to instantaneous differential pressures across the seal teeth. Ultimately, the data collected for this project represent a unique data set which contributes to build a better understanding of the tip leakage flow field and its associated loss mechanisms. These data will facilitate future engine design goals leading to small blade heights in the rear stages of high pressure compressors and aid in the development of new blade designs which are desensitized to the performance penalties attributed to rotor tip leakage flows.

  19. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Electrolytic process for upgrading heavy water (Preprint No. PD-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammohan, K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1989-04-01

    In the reactor system the heavy water gets depleted in concentration due to leakages, intermixing and vapour collection in boiler vault system etc. Electrolysis of water was used as a secondary plant to enrich the dilute heavy water produced in the primery plant by hydrogen-sulfide-water exchange process. The studies made in the development of this process for the upgrading of downgra ded heavy water by setting up a full size Electrolyser Test Assembly are discussed a nd complete design of a heavy water upgrading plant based on electrolytic process for MAPS and NAPP is described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  2. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Investigations of the Electrochemical Stability of Aqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The electrolytic stability windows of several aqueous electrolytes were investigated by a constant current method. The electrode potential range depended upon the value of the imposed current. The magnitude of this behavior varied with the salt solution, its concentration, and pH of the electrolyte. At a leakage current density of 50 μA/cm2, a 5 M solution of LiNO3 had an electrolytic window of 2.3 V, spanning from -0.55 to 1.75 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. These results demonstrate the feasibility of operating lithium batteries at voltages appreciably above the theoretical decomposition voltage of water. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  4. Electrolytic plasma processing of steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, M.A; Araya, R.N; Baeza, B

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatments of steels with plasma is normally carried out in low-pressure ionized gaseous atmospheres. Among the treatments used most often are: nitruration, carburization and boronized. A plasma can also generate at atmospheric pressure. One way to produce it is with an electrochemical cell that works at a relatively high inter-electrode voltage and under conditions of heavy gas generation. This type of plasma is known as electrolytic plasma. This work studies the feasibility of using electrolytic plasma for the surface processing of steels. Two processes were selected: boronized and nitruration., for the hardening of two types of steel: one with low carbon (1020) and one with low alloy (4140). In the case of the nitruration, the 1020 steel was first aluminized. The electrolytes were aqueous solutions of borax for the boronizing and urea for the nitruration. The electrolytic plasmas were classified qualitatively, in relation with their luminosity by low, medium and high intensity. The boronizing was carried out with low intensity plasmas for a period of one hour. The nitruration was performed with plasmas of different intensities and for period of a few minutes to half an hour. The test pieces processed by electrolytic plasma were characterized by micro-hardness tests and X-ray diffraction. The maximum surface hardnesses obtained for the 1020 and 4140 steels were the following: 300 and 700 HV for the boronizing, and 1650 and 1200 HV for the nitruration, respectively. The utilization of an electrolytic plasma permits the surface processing of steels, noticeably increasing their hardness. With this type of plasma some thermo-chemical surface treatments can be done very rapidly as well (CW)

  5. Conductometry of electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Lyubov P.; Kolker, Arkadii M.

    1992-09-01

    A review is given of the theories of the electrical conductance of electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths and concentrations, and of the models of ion association. An analysis is made of the methods for mathematical processing of experimental conductometric data. An account is provided of various theories describing the dependence of the limiting value of the ionic electrical conductance on the properties of the solute and solvent. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  6. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  7. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  8. Pickering unit 1 containment leakage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the design pressure test carried out on Pickering Reactor Building number 1 during late 1992 showed that the leakage rate of the building was close to the safety analysis value of 2.7% contained mass per hour at the design pressure of 41.4 kPa(g) and was significantly higher than that reported after the previous test conducted in the spring of 1987. This unexpected finding initiated the longest and the most comprehensive containment leakage investigation ever undertaken by Ontario Hydro. A thorough investigation of leakage behaviour by repeated testing, inspections, leak search and analysis was launched. The extensive leak search effort included items such as: leak source detection by soap solution application, use of ultrasonic detectors, fogging and tracer gas techniques, systematic systems isolation, thermal imaging of the exterior, and quantification of leak sites by flowmeter and bagging. Using a specially designed volumetric technique, the root cause of the problem was finally confirmed as being due to 'pressure dependent laminar leakage' through the hairline cracks in the dome concrete. Structural analysis indicated that the thermal gradients and pressure loading combined to cause the cracking early in the structure's operating history and that overall structural integrity has not been compromised. Leakage rate analysis using a new fluid mechanics model augmented by the effect of thermal strains indicated that the leakage could be significantly less under certain transient temperature gradient conditions. Several options for repairing the dome were considered by a multidisciplinary team and it was finally decided to apply a specially engineered multilayer elastomeric coating to the exterior concrete surface. When the unit was re-tested in October 1993, a dramatic ten-fold improvement in leakage rate (down to 0.25%/h at design pressure) was observed. This is lower than even the commissioning results and comparable to the performance of newer units

  9. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes

  10. How to attribute market leakage to CDM projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vöhringer, F.; Kuosmanen, T.K.; Dellink, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Economic studies suggest that market leakage rates of greenhouse gas abatement can reach the two-digit percentage range. Although the Marrakesh Accords require Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects to account for leakage, most projects neglect market leakage. Insufficient leakage accounting is

  11. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  12. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  13. Ionic liquids in a poly ethylene oxide cross-linked gel polymer as an electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoy, V.; Tran Van, F.; Deschamps, M.; Ghamouss, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we developed a gel polymer electrolyte via the incorporation of a room temperature ionic liquid into a cross-linked polymer matrix. The cross-linked gel electrolyte was prepared using a free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate oligomers dissolved in 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide. Combining the advantages of the ionic liquids and of conventional polymers, the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte was used both as a separator and as an electrolyte for a leakage-free and non-flammable EDLC supercapacitor. The quasi-all solid-state supercapacitors showed rather good capacitance, power and energy densities by comparison to a liquid electrolyte-based EDLC.

  14. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, E.

    1997-01-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack

  15. Sustainable management of leakage from wastewater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, D; Burn, S; Tjandraatmadja, G; Moglia, M; Davis, P; Wolf, L; Held, I; Vollertsen, J; Williams, W; Hafskjold, L

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater pipeline leakage is an emerging concern in Europe, especially with regards to the potential effect of leaking effluent on groundwater contamination and the effects infiltration has on the management of sewer reticulation systems. This paper describes efforts by Australia, in association with several European partners, towards the development of decision support tools to prioritize proactive rehabilitation of wastewater pipe networks to account for leakage. In the fundamental models for the decision support system, leakage is viewed as a function of pipeline system deterioration. The models rely on soil type identification across the service area to determine the aggressiveness of the pipe environment and for division of the area into zones based on pipe properties and operational conditions. By understanding the interaction between pipe materials, operating conditions, and the pipe environment in the mechanisms leading to pipe deterioration, the models allow the prediction of leakage rates in different zones across a network. The decision support system utilizes these models to predict the condition of pipes in individual zones, and to optimize the utilization of rehabilitation resources by targeting the areas with the highest leakage rates.

  16. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, E. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  17. Air leakage test of reactor hall using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanqiu; Yang Liang; Yang Tongzai

    2011-01-01

    The leakage ratios of three related reactor halls were tested by sulfur hexafluoride gaseous tracer technique. Moreover, the accumulation intensities of leak gas and its retention time in some important working rooms, the crossroads of corridors and anteroom of the building were detected. The results show that the air leakage ratios of the three reactor halls are (7.30±0.16) x 10 -4 , (1.88±0.12) x 10 -4 and (2.07±0.07) x 10 -4 h -1 . The leak gas accumulates in all the detected working rooms fast, and the retention time to various rooms is about 5 h. The heaviest intensities are in the clothes change rooms on the first floor. However, the retention time to the crossroads and the anteroom is about 10 h, and the accumulation intensities are much small. (authors)

  18. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  19. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  20. Leakage limits for inflatable seals of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • All possible types/modes of gas escape covered. • Limits include simultaneous contributions from bypass and permeation leakage modes. • Leakage of radioactive cover gas with fission products assumed. • Possibility of sodium frost deposition in sealed gap considered. • Cover gas activity decay during fuel handling and relative importance of types/modes of leakage considered for realistic results and simpler seal design. -- Abstract: Estimation and stipulation of allowable leakage for inflatable seals of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is depicted. Leakage limits are specified using a conservative approach, which assumes escape of radioactive cover gas with fission products across the seals in bypass and permeation modes and possibility of sodium frost deposition in sealed gaps because of permeation leakage of inflation gas. Procedures to arrive at the allowable leakages of argon cover gas (normal-operation/fuel-handling: 10{sup −3}/10{sup −2} scc/s/m length of seal) and argon inflation gas (10{sup −3} scc/s/m length of seal) is described.

  1. Impact of leakage delay on bifurcation in high-order fractional BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde

    2018-02-01

    The effects of leakage delay on the dynamics of neural networks with integer-order have lately been received considerable attention. It has been confirmed that fractional neural networks more appropriately uncover the dynamical properties of neural networks, but the results of fractional neural networks with leakage delay are relatively few. This paper primarily concentrates on the issue of bifurcation for high-order fractional bidirectional associative memory(BAM) neural networks involving leakage delay. The first attempt is made to tackle the stability and bifurcation of high-order fractional BAM neural networks with time delay in leakage terms in this paper. The conditions for the appearance of bifurcation for the proposed systems with leakage delay are firstly established by adopting time delay as a bifurcation parameter. Then, the bifurcation criteria of such system without leakage delay are successfully acquired. Comparative analysis wondrously detects that the stability performance of the proposed high-order fractional neural networks is critically weakened by leakage delay, they cannot be overlooked. Numerical examples are ultimately exhibited to attest the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  3. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  4. Leakage-Resilient Circuits without Computational Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan; Faust, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Physical cryptographic devices inadvertently leak information through numerous side-channels. Such leakage is exploited by so-called side-channel attacks, which often allow for a complete security breache. A recent trend in cryptography is to propose formal models to incorporate leakage...... on computational assumptions, our results are purely information-theoretic. In particular, we do not make use of public key encryption, which was required in all previous works...... into the model and to construct schemes that are provably secure within them. We design a general compiler that transforms any cryptographic scheme, e.g., a block-cipher, into a functionally equivalent scheme which is resilient to any continual leakage provided that the following three requirements are satisfied...

  5. Markovian Processes for Quantitative Information Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio

    Quantification of information leakage is a successful approach for evaluating the security of a system. It models the system to be analyzed as a channel with the secret as the input and an output as observable by the attacker as the output, and applies information theory to quantify the amount...... and randomized processes with Markovian models and to compute their information leakage for a very general model of attacker. We present the QUAIL tool that automates such analysis and is able to compute the information leakage of an imperative WHILE language. Finally, we show how to use QUAIL to analyze some...... of information transmitted through such channel, thus effectively quantifying how many bits of the secret can be inferred by the attacker by analyzing the system’s output. Channels are usually encoded as matrices of conditional probabilities, known as channel matrices. Such matrices grow exponentially...

  6. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  7. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  8. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  9. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  10. Quantifying information leakage of randomized protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Malacaria, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model deterministic and probabilistic systems. By using a methodology generalizing the lattice of information approach we model refined attackers...... capable to observe the internal behavior of the system, and quantify the information leakage of such systems. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed and non-timed attacks...

  11. Quantifying Information Leakage of Randomized Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Legay, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of information leakage provides a quantitative evaluation of the security of a system. We propose the usage of Markovian processes to model and analyze the information leakage of deterministic and probabilistic systems. We show that this method generalizes the lattice...... of information approach and is a natural framework for modeling refined attackers capable to observe the internal behavior of the system. We also use our method to obtain an algorithm for the computation of channel capacity from our Markovian models. Finally, we show how to use the method to analyze timed...

  12. Experimental evaluation of clinical colon anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    , whereas the eight-suture control anastomoses had a 0% leakage rate. Furthermore, the use of absorbable suture together with voluntarily ingested Temgesic in chocolate spread as analgesic regimen were feasible. This model may be used to test the leakage reducing potential of coating materials. STUDY 3...... experimental, in which designs were not comparable and many results were contradictory. In a clinical study, a non-significant benefit of fibrin sealant was found. Based on the available clinical and experimental data it was concluded that the fibrin-based sealants, such as Tisseel and Tachosil...

  13. The Leakage determination on corrosion fretting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyono; Satmoko, Ari; Hafid, Abdul; Febrianto; Prasetio, Joko; Abtokhi; Sumarno, Edy; Handoyo, Ismu; Hidayati, Nur Rahmah; Histori

    1998-01-01

    Fretting machine is an experimental loop to learn fretting corrosion phenomena wich is caused by loading and vibration. On the steam generator, one of the corrosion process that's occurred, it can be caused by vibration between tubes and bending material. Because of high flow rate inside the tube, the high frequency vibration will appeared so it can make the corrosion on bending material more faster. This process can be simulate by fretting machine. This machine has already damage because of leakage. So it will be repaired by dismantling, radiography testing and redrawing. from the result of radiography, the leakage is caused by cracking on bellows seals of the dynamic main support

  14. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Alberta, CA; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  15. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  16. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  17. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  18. Integral leakage rate tests of containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, M.; Siefart, E.; Walter, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the integral leakage rate tests of containments. This method, used in conjunction with statistical methods, provides reliable information on the tightness of the containment. This method forms the basis of DIN 25436/KTA 3405. (orig.) [de

  19. Poloidal field leakage optimization in ETE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Carlos Shinya; Montes, Antonio

    1996-12-01

    A very simple but efficient numerical algorithm is used to minimize the Ohmic coil field leakage into the plasma region of the tokamak ETE. After few interactions the code provides the positions and the current required for two pairs of compensation coils. Resulting optimum field intensity distribution is presented and commented. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The concept of leakage in threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Leakage in the context of threat assessment is the communication to a third party of an intent to do harm to a target. Third parties are usually other people, but the means of communication vary, and include letters, diaries, journals, blogs, videos on the internet, emails, voice mails, and other social media forms of transmission. Leakage is a type of warning behavior that typically infers a preoccupation with the target, and may signal the research, planning, and implementation of an attack. Nomothetic data suggest that leakage occurs in a majority of cases of attacks on and assassinations of public figures, adult mass murders, adolescent mass murders, and school or campus shootings: very low-frequency, but catastrophic acts of intended and targeted violence. Idiographic or case data illustrate the various permutations of leakage. We discuss the operational importance of the concept, place it in the context of other warning behaviors, emphasize the need for further research, and outline risk management strategies for the mitigation of such acts of violence in both law enforcement and clinical mental health settings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Secret rate - Privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ahlswede and Csiszár [1993] introduced the concept of secret sharing. In their source model two terminals observe two correlated sequences. It is the objective of the terminals to form a common secret by interchanging a public message (helper data) in such a way that the secrecy leakage is

  2. Radiation leakage in nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Associated with the radiation leakage in MUTSU occurred in September 1974, this report reviews the shielding design for MUTSU, radiation measurement and inspection activities by a survey group, and 2 dimensional analysis on the behavior of fast neutrons to shielding based on Ssub(N) codes. In the first part, the purpose and the structure of the primary and the secondary shields of MUTSU are briefly illustrated. In the second part, the progress of the series of affairs is explained, starting from zero power criticality experiment, through discovery of radiation leakage in output-increasing test, sending of a survey group for various measurement and inspection, and finally to the conclusion drawn by the survey group. In the third part, various numerical analyses performed to investigate into the leakage are illustrated with their results. The transport codes used were ANISN, TWOTRAN, SPAN, and PALLAS-2DCY. As a result of those inspection and calculation, it was found that the radiation leakage was due to fast neutrons coming through the gap between the reactor vessel and the primary shield. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Solving the problem of valve stem leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering solutions to valve stem leakage, in systems carrying expensive heavy water under pressure, have progressed from changing packing brands (failure) to leak collection (partial success) to elimination of small packed valves and an improved valve packing strategy involving stable packing materials, live Belleville spring-loading of packing, and issuance of a detailed stuffing box specification (success). (E.C.B.)

  4. Poloidal field leakage optimization in ETE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Carlos Shinya; Montes, Antonio.

    1996-01-01

    A very simple but efficient numerical algorithm is used to minimize the Ohmic coil field leakage into the plasma region of the tokamak ETE. After few interactions the code provides the positions and the current required for two pairs of compensation coils. Resulting optimum field intensity distribution is presented and commented. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Zero leakage quantization scheme for biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics gain increasing interest as a solution for many security issues, but privacy risks exist in case we do not protect the stored templates well. This paper presents a new verification scheme, which protects the secrets of the enrolled users. We will show that zero leakage is achieved if

  6. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Acoustic control of sodium leakage in valve gates of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trykov, E.L.; Kovtun, S.N.; Anan'ev, A.A.; Yugov, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    Short description of sodium bench and acoustic investigation results on leakage monitoring of valves DN10 and DN40 are given. It is shown that acoustic method can be used successfully to control the leakages of sodium valves. Leakages on both type of valves increase the acoustic signal dispersion by 2-3 orders. For each type of valve acoustic system of leakage determination allows to conduct the preliminary graduation of signal dispersion on the sodium discharge rate. It make possible not only to record the leakage presence but also to determine the sodium discharge rate through the valve during the leakage [ru

  8. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  9. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  10. Lung protein leakage in feline septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützer, K M; Larsson, A; Risberg, B; Falk, A

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore lung microvascular leakage of protein and water in a feline model of septic shock, using a double isotope technique with external gamma camera detection and gravimetric lung water measurements. The experiments were performed on artificially ventilated cats. One group of cats (n = 8) was given an infusion of live Escherichia coli bacteria, and another group (n = 5) served as a control group receiving saline. Plasma transferrin was radiolabeled in vivo with indium-113m-chloride, and erythrocytes were labeled with technetium-99m. The distribution of these isotopes in the lungs was continuously measured with a gamma camera. A normalized slope index (NSI) was calculated, indicative of the transferrin accumulation corrected for changes in local blood volume that reflect protein leakage. In the septic group there was a protein leakage after bacterial infusion, with a NSI of 39 x 10(-4) +/- 5 x 10(-4) min-1 (mean +/- SEM), and the PaO2 diminished from 21 +/- 1 to 9.5 +/- 1 kPa. In control cats a slight protein leakage with a NSI of 9 +/- 10(-4) +/- 2 x 10(-4) min-1 was detected, probably caused by the operative procedure, but PaO2 did not change. Wet-to-dry-weight ratios of postmortem lungs were not significantly different between the groups. It was concluded that an intravenous infusion of live E. coli bacteria induces a lung capillary protein leakage without increased lung water and a concomitantly disturbed gas exchange.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A study on the measurement of effective energy of leakage X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fijimoto, Nobuhisa; Oogama, Noboru; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    It is important to correct for the energy response of the X-ray detector in measuring X-ray leakage from the protective barrier of the examination room. However, measurement of effective energy of leakage X-rays is very difficult in the clinical setting. In this paper, we discuss a method for estimating the effective energy of both primary and scattered X-rays. This method is based on the measurement of leakage X-ray spectra using a semiconductor-fitted X-ray detector and analyzing the relationship between X-ray tube voltage and effective energy. In this study. we found that the effective energy of leakage X-rays was not dependent on the thickness of shielding materials like concrete and lead. With the concrete barrier, it was possible to express the relation-ship between X-ray tube voltage and the effective energy of leakage X-rays with a simple approximate equation. With the lead-lined barrier, the absorption of the K-edge of lead needs to be considered in estimating the effective energy of leakage X-rays at relatively high tube voltages. (author)

  12. Pancreatic anastomosis leakage management following pancreaticoduodenectomy how could be manage the anastomosis leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Tabatabei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancreatic anastomosis leakage and fistula formation following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple′s procedure is a common complication. Delay in timely diagnosis and proper management is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To report our experience with management of pancreatic fistula following Whipple′s procedure. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of 90 patients who underwent Whipple′s procedure from 2009 to 2013 at our medical center were reviewed for documents about pancreatic anastomosis leakage and fistula formation. Results: There were 15 patients who developed pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis leakage. In 6 patients (3 males and 3 females the leakage was mild (conservative therapy was administered, but in 9 patients (6 males and 3 females, there was severe leakage. For the latter group, surgical intervention was done (2 cases underwent re-anastomosis and for 7 cases pancreatico-jejunal stump ligation was done along with drainage of the location. Conclusion: In severe pancreatic anastomotic leakage, it is better to intervene surgically as soon as possible by debridement of the distal part of the pancreas and ligation of the stump with nonabsorbable suture. Furthermore, debridement of the jejunum should be done, and the stump should be ligated thoroughly along with drainage.

  13. Impedance Spectroscopy and FTIR Studies of PEG - Based Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anji Reddy Polu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG - ammonium chloride (NH4Cl based polymer electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating ceramic filler TiO2 into PEG-NH4Cl matrix. The electrolyte samples were prepared by solution casting technique. FTIR studies indicates that the complex formation between the polymer, salt and ceramic filler. The ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy technique. It was observed that the conductivity of the electrolyte varies with TiO2 concentration and temperature. The highest room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte of 7.72×10−6 S cm-1 was obtained at 15% by weight of TiO2 and that without TiO2 filler was found to be 9.58×10−7 S cm−1. The conductivity has been improved by 8 times when the TiO2 filler was introduced into the PEG–NH4Cl electrolyte system. The conductance spectra shows two distinct regions: a dc plateau and a dispersive region. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer electrolytes seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values of the polymer electrolytes were reported and the results were discussed. The imaginary part of dielectric constant (εi decreases with increase in frequency in the low frequency region whereas frequency independent behavior is observed in the high frequency region.

  14. Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on properties of supercapacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on electrochemical properties of organic supercapacitor was investigated. The results show that specific surface area and mesoporosity of activated carbon influence specific capacitance. If specific surface area is larger and mesoporosity is higher, the specific capacitance will become bigger. Specific surface area influences resistance of carbon electrode and consequently influences power property and pore size distribution. If specific surface area is smaller and mesoporosity is higher, the power property will become better. Ash influences leakage current and electrochemical cycling stability. If ash content is lower, the performance will become better. The properties of supercapacitor highly depend on the electrolyte. The compatibility of electrolyte and activated carbon is a determining factor of supercapacitor's working voltage. LiPF6/(EC+EMC+DMC) is inappropriate for double layer capacitor. MeEt3NPF4/PC has higher specific capacitance than EtnNPFn/PC because methyl's electronegativity value is lower than ethyl and MeEt3N+ has more positive charges and stronger polarizability than Et4N+ when an ethyl is substituted by methyl.

  15. Incidence and management of pancreatic leakage after pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Optimal management of severe pancreatic leakage after pancreatoduodenectomy can reduce morbidity and mortality. Completion pancreatectomy may be adequate but leads to endocrine insufficiency. This study evaluated an alternative management strategy for pancreatic leakage. Methods: Outcome

  16. Multiple leakage localization and leak size estimation in water networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, N.; Habibi, H.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Klabbers, M.D.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Water distribution networks experience considerable losses due to leakage, often at multiple locations simultaneously. Leakage detection and localization based on sensor placement and online pressure monitoring could be fast and economical. Using the difference between estimated and measured

  17. Detection method of internal leakage from valve using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Akira; Suzuki, Akio.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of the acoustic method for the internal leakage from the valves in power plants. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic method for the monitoring of leakage was feasible. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signals from leakage, we can detect the leakage analyzing the spectrum of the remainders which take the background noise from the acoustic signals. (author)

  18. Failure/leakage predictions of concrete structures containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.C.; Marchertas, A.H.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    An approach is presented for studying the cracking and radioactive release of a reactor containment during severe accidents and extreme environments. The cracking of concrete is modeled as the blunt crack. The initiation and propagation of a crack are determined by using the maximum strength and the J-integral criteria. Furthermore, the extent of cracking is related to the leakage calculation by using a model developed by Rizkalla, Lau and Simmonds. Numerical examples are given for a three-point bending problem and a hypothetical case of a concrete containment structure subjected to high internal pressure during an accident

  19. Electrolytic preconcentration in instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioda, R E; Batley, G E; Lund, W; Wang, J; Leach, S C

    1986-05-01

    The use of electrolytic deposition as a separation and preconcentration step in trace metal analysis is reviewed. Both the principles and applications of the technique are dealt with in some detail. Electrolytic preconcentration can be combined with a variety of instrumental techniques. Special attention is given to stripping voltammetry, potentiometric stripping analysis, different combinations with atomic-absorption spectrometry, and the use of flow-through porous electrodes. It is pointed out that the electrolytic preconcentration technique deserves more extensive use as well as fundamental investigation.

  20. Performance-based containment leakage testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reviewing regulatory requirements in an effort to revise those that are marginal to safety but impose significant burdens on licensees. Identification of requirements marginal to safety and development and evaluation of alternatives utilize the NRC safety goals and insights from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Since earlier studies found design-basis containment leakage to be a minor contributor to reactor accident risk, containment leakage testing has been selected as a candidate for change in regulations. This paper summarizes the technical analyses supporting the NRC proposal to amend Appendix J of 10 CFR Part 50 as its first effort to decrease unnecessary regulatory burdens on licensees

  1. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  2. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  3. Numerical investigation of tip leakage vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    The Kaplan turbine has a small clearance gap between the blade tip and casing to allow the blades to rotate freely. This clearance gap is the cause of an undesirable Tip Leakage Vortex (TLV). A TLV might reduce the turbine efficiency, erode the turbine blades or cause instabilities for the power output. A literature study indicated that the tip clearance gap was a critical parameter affecting the behavior of the TLV. A research gap was observed for an operating Kaplan turbine where the ...

  4. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  5. The impact of transmission constraints on the emissions leakage under cap-and-trade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauma, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    Several regional cap-and-trade (C and T) programs are considered or implemented in the United States to control greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector. One concern is the possibility of emissions leakage due to a lack of coherence in the geographic scope of the regional electricity market and the C and T program. Leakage in the context of regulating CO 2 emissions is defined as the short-run displacement of CO 2 emissions from the capped region to other uncapped regions due to the imposition of a regional C and T scheme. However, the presence of transmission congestion could interact with regulations in an unanticipated way to determining whether leakage would occur and its magnitude if happens. In this paper, we use a two-node network to study the conditions under which the CO 2 leakage would happen in a radial network under a C and T program. These conditions are related to transmission capacity, merit order change, and relative production cost between capped and uncapped regions. Since CO 2 leakage would likely occur in a radial network during the time when there is surplus transmission capacity, if regional CO 2 policies could influence power grid management and operations decisions, then there might be space for a better multi-objective coordination. - Highlights: ► We study conditions under which the CO 2 leakage would happen under a C and T program. ► Conditions relate to transmission capacity, merit order change and production cost. ► Transmission congestion interacts with environmental regulations. ► CO 2 leakage would likely occur when there is surplus transmission capacity. ► Power grid management and operations decisions should be carefully scrutinized.

  6. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  7. Ion leakage from mixed beds in condensate polishing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venderbosch, H.W.; Overman, L.J.; Snel, A.

    1977-01-01

    In view to the interest for theoretical and practical factors, which influence the ion slip of mixed bed filters, these facts were studied in detail. It proved to be necessary that the slip shall be subdivided into kinetic - and elution slip. The kinetic slip is depending e.g. on the electrolyte concentration of the influenct condensate, as well as on the period of contact, however it does not depend on the regeneration condition; the elution slip however depends clearly on the regeneration condition. Incomplete regeneration of the exchangers, a too low excess of regenerant, incomplete separation of cation - and anion exchanger, and the contact of an exchanger layer with the wrong regenerant in the separation zone, during the internal regeneration are raising the slip. With tests on mixed bed filters, which have been well regenerated, (less than 0.1% Na in the cation exchanger) and by using filters with normal regenerated exchangers, (approx. 10% Na in the cation exchanger) the quality of the effluent was compared with values, which were expected from calculations. In order to decrease the elution leakage, the contamination of the exchangers, especially at NH 4 OH - mixed bed filters, must be limited to a very low percentage. Several possibilities to obtain this, will be discussed in the lecture. Special attention will be paid to the internal regeneration procedure. KEMA has developed a method, the so-called partial regeneration method, in order to operate internal regenerated mixed bed filters, which have been designed for the HOH cycle, also in the ammonia form, without the occurence of an undue slip of sodium or chloride. Not only extended running periods and lower operating- and regeneration costs are of advantage, but also the reducing of salt- and ammonia containing sewage were achieved. (orig.) [de

  8. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  9. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-01-23

    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  10. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  11. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Westmont, IL

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  12. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  13. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  14. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Leakage in High-Temperature Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyoon Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs utilize a phosphoric acid- (PA- doped polybenzimidazole (PBI membrane as a polymer electrolyte. The PA concentration in the membrane can affect fuel cell performance, as a significant amount of PA can leak from the membrane electrode assembly (MEA by dissolution in discharged water, which is a byproduct of cell operation. Spectrophotometric analysis of PA leakage in PA-doped polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells is described here. This spectrophotometric analysis is based on measurement of absorption of an ion pair formed by phosphomolybdic anions and the cationoid color reagent. Different color reagents were tested based on PA detection sensitivity, stability of the formed color, and accuracy with respect to the amount of PA measured. This method allows for nondestructive analysis and monitoring of PA leakage during HT-PEMFCs operation.

  15. Radiation induced leakage current and stress induced leakage current in ultra-thin gate oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Cester, A.; Scarpa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Low-field leakage current has been measured in thin oxides after exposure to ionizing radiation. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) can be described as an inelastic tunneling process mediated by neutral traps in the oxide, with an energy loss of about 1 eV. The neutral trap distribution is influenced by the oxide field applied during irradiation, thus indicating that the precursors of the neutral defects are charged, likely being defects associated to trapped holes. The maximum leakage current is found under zero-field condition during irradiation, and it rapidly decreases as the field is enhanced, due to a displacement of the defect distribution across the oxide towards the cathodic interface. The RILC kinetics are linear with the cumulative dose, in contrast with the power law found on electrically stressed devices

  16. Numerical investigation of the leakage behaviour of reinforced concrete walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoph Niklasch; Laurent Coudert; Gregory Heinfling; Chantal Hervouet; Benoit Masson; Nico Herrmann; Lothar Stempniewski

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: For the verification of nuclear power plant safety, the leakage behaviour of the containment walls is of decisive importance. Extreme temperatures well over the water boiling temperature accompanied by high internal pressures can occur during an severe accident. In case of cracks through the entire thickness of the containment wall, an air-steam-water mixture may be released. In order to improve the knowledge of the leakage behaviour through cracks during such abnormal occurrences an experimental setup was developed at IfMB and several tests with different parameters were performed. The details of the experimental facility and the performed tests will be described in a separate paper. To improve the understanding of the behaviour of the tested wall elements during the tests numerical simulations of the performed leakage experiments are necessary. Reliable numerical tools provide a basis for the transfer of the leakage behaviour from the tested specimens to the behaviour of whole containment structures. To address the task of developing tools for the numerical simulation of the leakage behaviour of reinforced containment structures, EDF and IfMB decided to cooperate. During this cooperation two different numerical approaches had been made basing on existing tools and models of EDF and IfMB. In the following sections a short overview about the two different models will be given. For the numerical investigation of the leakage phenomena IfMB used the commercial Finite-Element- Program ADINA with ADINA's capability to solve coupled fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) problems. For the investigation of the moving of the specimen and the change of the crack profiles during the tests, it is important to take into account the heating of the specimen by the fluid flowing through the cracks. This is done by an iterative calculation of the fluid model and the structural model of the specimen. The thermo-dynamic boundary conditions representing

  17. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  18. The White test: a new dye test for intraoperative detection of bile leakage during major liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalin, Silvio; Li, Jun; Lang, Hauke; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Schaffer, Randolph; Radtke, Arnold; Saner, Fuat; Broelsch, Christoph E; Malagó, Massimo

    2008-04-01

    To describe a new intraoperative bile leakage test in patients undergoing a major liver resection aimed to combine the advantages of each of the other standard bile leakage tests (accurate visualization of leaks, reproducibility, and ease of use) without their disadvantages. At the end of the major hepatic resection, 10 to 30 mL of sterile fat emulsion, 5%, is injected via an olive-tip cannula through the cystic duct while manually occluding the distal common bile duct. As the biliary tree fills with fat emulsion solution, leakage of the white fluid is visualized on the raw surface of the liver resection margin. The detected leakages are closed by means of single stitches. Afterwards, the residual fat emulsion on the resection surface is washed off with saline and the White test is repeated to detect and/or exclude additional bile leakages. At the end, residual fat emulsion is washed out from the biliary tract by a low-pressure infusion of saline solution. Intraoperatively, additional potential bile leakages (not seen using a conventional saline bile leakage test) were identified in 74% of our patients. Postoperative bile leakages (within 30 days) occurred in only 5.1% of patients when the White test was used. No adverse effects related to this technique were observed. The White test has clear advantages in comparison with other bile leakage tests: it precisely detects bile leakages, regardless of size; it does not stain the resection surface, allowing it to be washed off and repeated ad infinitum; and it is safe, quick, and inexpensive.

  19. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short.

  20. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti 3 O 5 , and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti 2 O 5 and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short

  1. Effect of Reverse Bias Stress on Leakage Currents and Breakdown Voltages of Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of solid tantalum capacitors are produced by high-temperature sintering of a fine tantalum powder around a tantalum wire followed by electrolytic anodization that forms a thin amorphous Ta2O5 dielectric layer and pyrolysis of manganese nitrite on the oxide to create a conductive manganese dioxide electrode. A contact to tantalum wire is used as anode terminal and to the manganese layer as a cathode terminal of the device. This process results in formation of an asymmetric Ta -- Ta2O5 -- MnO2 capacitor that has different characteristics at forward (positive bias applied to tantalum) and reverse (positive bias applied to manganese cathode) voltages. Reverse bias currents might be several orders of magnitude larger than forward leakage currents so I-V characteristics of tantalum capacitors resemble characteristics of semiconductor rectifiers. Asymmetric I-V characteristics of Ta -- anodic Ta2O5 systems have been observed at different top electrode materials including metals, electrolytes, conductive polymers, and manganese oxide thus indicating that this phenomenon is likely related to the specifics of the Ta -- Ta2O5 interface. There have been multiple attempts to explain rectifying characteristics of capacitors employing anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. A brief review of works related to reverse bias (RB) behavior of tantalum capacitors shows that the mechanism of conduction in Ta -- Ta2O5 systems is still not clear and more testing and analysis is necessary to understand the processes involved. If tantalum capacitors behave just as rectifiers, then the assessment of the safe reverse bias operating conditions would be a relatively simple task. Unfortunately, these parts can degrade with time under reverse bias significantly, and this further complicates analysis of the I-V characteristics and establishing safe operating areas of the parts. On other hand, time dependence of reverse currents might provide additional information for investigation of

  2. Intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goense, L; van Rossum, P S N; Tromp, M; Joore, H C; van Dijk, D; Kroese, A C; Ruurda, J P; van Hillegersberg, R

    2017-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality after esophagectomy are often related to anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. This study aimed to assess the relationship of intraoperative and postoperative vital parameters with anastomotic leakage and pneumonia after esophagectomy. Consecutive patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis for esophageal cancer from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine potential associations of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters with anastomotic leakage or pneumonia. From a total of 82 included patients, 19 (23%) developed anastomotic leakage and 31 (38%) experienced pneumonia. The single independent factor associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage in multivariable analysis included a lower minimum intraoperative pH (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). An increased risk of pneumonia was associated with a lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the first 12 hours after surgery (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.99) and a higher maximum intraoperative pH (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). Interestingly, no differences were noted for the MAP and inotrope requirement between patients with and without anastomotic leakage. A lower minimum intraoperative pH (below 7.25) is associated with an increased risk of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy, whereas a lower postoperative average MAP (below 83 mmHg) and a higher intraoperative pH (above 7.34) increase the risk of postoperative pneumonia. These parameters indicate the importance of setting strict perioperative goals to be protected intensively. © International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prevalence of extravertebral cement leakage after vertebroplasty: procedural documentation versus CT detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Douglas J; Rad, Arash Ehteshami; Kallmes, David F

    2012-06-01

    Reported incidence of extravertebral cement leakage after vertebroplasty varies widely across studies. To retrospectively compare the relative detection rates of extravertebral leakage noted under intra-procedural fluoroscopic surveillance, postprocedure plain radiographs, and postprocedure computed tomography (CT) in a cohort of patients undergoing vertebroplasty. With IRB approval, we retrospectively identified 181 patients with 277 levels treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty among a total of 1255 patients undergoing vertebroplasty between 1999 and 2010 who had subsequently undergone a CT examination that included the treated level(s). Categories of leakage were paravertebral, end plate, epidural, and prevertebral venous leakage. CT-detected leak rates were then compared to those noted on the vertebroplasty procedure reports and the archived fluoroscopic images for this same cohort using Pearson's χ(2) test. One hundred and forty-nine (82%, 95% CI 76-87%) of 181 patients demonstrated evidence of some type of leakage on CT at one or more treated levels. Sixty-two (34%, 95% CI 28-42%) and seventy-seven (50%, 95% CI 43-57%) of 149 CT-detected leaks were reported in the procedural dictation or detected on plain radiography (P = 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). The most common type of leakage noted on CT was end plate (n = 81, 45%, 95% CI 38-52%), followed by paravertebral (n = 64, 35%, 95% CI 29-43%), epidural (n = 36, 20%, 95% CI 15-26%), and prevertebral venous (n = 32, 18%, 95% CI 13-24%). Cement leakage after vertebroplasty is common and is often not reported by operators in procedural dictations. CT detects substantially more leaks than plain radiography.

  4. Prevalence of extravertebral cement leakage after vertebroplasty: procedural documentation versus CT detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Douglas J.; Rad, Arash Ehteshami; Kallmes, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reported incidence of extravertebral cement leakage after vertebroplasty varies widely across studies. Purpose: To retrospectively compare the relative detection rates of extravertebral leakage noted under intra-procedural fluoroscopic surveillance, post procedure plain radiographs, and post procedure computed tomography (CT) in a cohort of patients undergoing vertebroplasty. Material and Methods: With IRB approval, we retrospectively identified 181 patients with 277 levels treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty among a total of 1255 patients undergoing vertebroplasty between 1999 and 2010 who had subsequently undergone a CT examination that included the treated level(s). Categories of leakage were paravertebral, end plate, epidural, and pre vertebral venous leakage. CT-detected leak rates were then compared to those noted on the vertebroplasty procedure reports and the archived fluoroscopic images for this same cohort using Pearson's χ 2 test. Results: One hundred and forty-nine (82%, 95% CI 76-87%) of 181 patients demonstrated evidence of some type of leakage on CT at one or more treated levels. Sixty-two (34 %, 95 % CI 28-42 %) and seventy-seven (50%, 95% CI 43-57%) of 149 CT-detected leaks were reported in the procedural dictation or detected on plain radiography (P 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). The most common type of leakage noted on CT was end plate (n = 81, 45%, 95% CI 38-52%), followed by paravertebral (n 64, 35%, 95% CI 29-43%), epidural (n = 36, 20%, 95% CI 15-26%), and pre vertebral venous (n = 32, 18%, 95% CI 13-24%). Conclusion: Cement leakage after vertebroplasty is common and is often not reported by operators in procedural dictations. CT detects substantially more leaks than plain radiography

  5. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...

  6. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  7. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  8. Valve leakage inspection testing and maintenance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Reinwald, J.W.; Kittmer, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    In valve maintenance, packing rings that prevent leakage along the valve stem must periodically be replaced, either during routine maintenance or to correct a leak or valve malfunction. Tools and procedures currently in use for valve packing removal and inspection are generally of limited value due to various access and application problems. A process has been developed by AECL Research that addresses these problems. The process, using incompressible fluid pressure, quickly and efficiently confirms the integrity of the valve backseat, extracts hard-to-remove valve packing sets, and verifies the leak tightness of the repacked valve

  9. Unusual dialysate leakage complicating peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Yu, Fu-Chiu; Chen, Chiou-An; Wang, Yuh-Feng

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old female who had end-stage renal disease on 2-month continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with perineal pain 4 days before admission. The physical examination revealed bilateral labial edema. Peritoneal scintigraphy was requested after infusing 2 L peritoneal dialysate with direct administration of 370 MBq (10mCi) technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentra-acetic acid into peritoneal cavity via Tenckhoff catheter. Radioactive uptake from right inguinal to labial region was clearly demonstrated, and this indicated the site of peritoneal leakage. After surgical intervention unilaterally, she continued CAPD without any recurrence (au)

  10. [Research on soil bacteria under the impact of sealed CO2 leakage by high-throughput sequencing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Ma, Xin; Li, Yu-E; Zha, Liang-Song; Wu, Yang; Zou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic CO2 emission with its unique advantages. However, there is a risk of the sealed CO2 leakage, bringing a serious threat to the ecology system. It is widely known that soil microorganisms are closely related to soil health, while the study on the impact of sequestered CO2 leakage on soil microorganisms is quite deficient. In this study, the leakage scenarios of sealed CO2 were constructed and the 16S rRNA genes of soil bacteria were sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology on Miseq platform, and related biological analysis was conducted to explore the changes of soil bacterial abundance, diversity and structure. There were 486,645 reads for 43,017 OTUs of 15 soil samples and the results of biological analysis showed that there were differences in the abundance, diversity and community structure of soil bacterial community under different CO, leakage scenarios while the abundance and diversity of the bacterial community declined with the amplification of CO2 leakage quantity and leakage time, and some bacteria species became the dominant bacteria species in the bacteria community, therefore the increase of Acidobacteria species would be a biological indicator for the impact of sealed CO2 leakage on soil ecology system.

  11. Properties of electrolytes in the micropores of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastening, Bertel; Heins, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of the composition of aqueous electrolytes in the pore system of activated carbon on the potential has been determined by monitoring the amount of ions exchanged with the external electrolyte upon immersion and upon changing the electrode potential. From the investigation with KF solutions, a quantity δ/√ε = 4 x 10 -10 m is evaluated where δ is half the width of the micropores, and ε the (relative) permittivity. This is in accordance with δ ∼ 1 nm and ε ∼ 7 applying to essentially immobilized water and fits into the results with the other electrolytes. Anions are adsorbed in the cases of sodium perchlorate and potassium hydroxide, while protons are adsorbed in the case of acids (HCl, H 2 SO 4 ). The adsorption of ClO 4 - seems to result from electrostatic interaction with the solid, while H + and OH - are strongly chemisorbed, probably at surface groups like >CO. Ionic mobilities of ions in the micropores have been determined from conductance measurements concerning the pore electrolyte of a single spherical particle of activated carbon. Mobilities are more than one order of magnitude lower than those in bulk electrolyte, probably due to an increased viscosity of the liquid in the narrow pores and/or to the coulombic interaction with charged domains of the solid. The rate of charging of the capacitor (solid/micropore electrolyte) is assisted by macropores distributing ions throughout the carbon material

  12. Plasma membrane damage detected by nucleic acid leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, E.; Bianchi, V.

    1989-01-01

    Among the indicators of membrane damage, the leakage of intracellular components into the medium is the most directly related to the perturbations of the membrane molecular organization. The extent of the damage can be evaluated from the size of the released components. We have designed a protocol for the detection of membrane leakage based on the preincubation of cells with tritiated adenine for 24 h, followed by a 24-h chase in nonradioactive medium. The treatment takes place when the distribution of the precursor among its end products has reached the plateau, and thus the differences of radioactivity in the fractions obtained from the control and treated cultures (medium, nucleotide pool, RNA, DNA) correspond to actual quantitative variations induced by the test chemical. Aliquots of the medium are processed to determine which percentage of the released material is macromolecular, in order to distinguish between mild and severe membrane damage. The origin of the extracellular radioactivity can be recognized from the variations of RNA counts in the treated cells. DNA radioactivity is used to evaluate the number of cells that remain attached to the plates in the different conditions of treatment. By this means, generalized permeabilization of membranes to macromolecules is distinguished from complete solubilization of only a subpopulation of cells. We present some examples of application of the protocol with detergents (LAS, SDS, Triton X-100) and with Cr(VI), which damages cell membranes by a different mechanism of action

  13. Multivalent weak electrolytes - risky background electrolytes for capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2002), s. 1942-1946 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolytes * capillary zone electrophoresis * multivalent electrolytes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  14. Biomembrane Permeabilization: Statistics of Individual Leakage Events Harmonize the Interpretation of Vesicle Leakage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braun, S.; Pokorná, Šárka; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Heerklotz, H.; Hoernke, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2018), s. 813-819 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03160S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : leakage * dye release * pore Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  15. Leakage in the Juelich research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On August 17, 1978, a leakage occurred in the DIDO research reactor. Early in the afternoon of this day, the valves of the coolant loop had been checked with the reactor shut off. When the mechanics wanted to oil a tight valve and drilled a hole in the valve cover for this, heavy water started to leak (leakage in the valve membrane). The mechanics left the shielded valve space at once; directly after having a shower, they underwent a radiation protection examination. It was found that none of the mechanics had been exposed to an excessive dose. When other mechanics in protective suits had closed the leak in the valve, a total of 150 liters had leaked into the sump pump at the valve entrance. They were pumped back into the cooling system. About 5 liters of water were evaporated and, via the stack, escaped into the environment. The activity released was about 40 curie; this is less than the permissible amount of 60 curie per week during normal operation. Neither the KFA personnel nor the inhabitants of Juelich and its surroundings were in danger at any moment. Calculations so far yield a maximum radiation exposure below 1mrem at the point of maximum exposure. The cooling circuit could be entered again only one day after the incident. The present shut-off phase of the reactor is not unduly prolonged by this accident. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Leakage detection device for weld portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinkawa, Toshio; Setokuchi, Sadayuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns leakage detection device for weld portions, for example, in a nuclear reactor cavity, which can rapidly detect by remote control. That is, a detection device capable of self running and stopping on a guide rail along a weld line is disposed. The detection device comprises a coating mechanism for automatically coating soap water to the weld portion, a vacuum box capable of evacuating the coated surface and a camera for detecting the presence or absence of the soap bubbles generated under the evacuation. Such a device can conduct, by remote control, self running/stopping along with the weld line, coating of the soap water, settling of the vacuum box and confirmation and recording of foaming by using a television monitor. Accordingly, leakage in the weld portion in the reactor cavity or the like can be inspected. As a result, it greatly contributes to improvement of danger upon worker's operation at high place, detection accuracy and reliability of detection and shortening of operation period. (I.S.)

  17. Leakage detection system in nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masahiko.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention comprises an injection means for adding radioactive materials to coolants in a container cooler, a gamma ray amplitude analyzer connected to coolant pipelines and a means for recording/transferring the data of the result of the measurement, a gamma ray amplitude analyzer connected to a drain water sump and a means for recording/transferring the data of the result of the measurement, a gamma ray amplitude analyzer connected to various kinds of pipelines and a means for recording/transferring the data of the result of the measurement, and a data processing means for comparing and analyzing the measured data of each of the gamma ray amplitude analyzers inputted from each of date recording/transferring means. The gamma ray amplitude analysis for each of the pipelines and drain water sump are conducted at an appropriate frequency, and the measured data are compared and analyzed, to improve the detection accuracy for a trace amount of leakage from each of the pressure pipelines and the container cooler coolant pipelines, thereby enabling to specify the pipeline having leakage. Maintenance efficiency is improved, and severe rupture accident in each of pressure pipelines is prevented previously. (N.H.)

  18. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  19. Safe transport of radioactive materials - Leakage testing on packages. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for relating permissible activity release rates of the radioactive contents carried within a containment system to equivalent gas leakage rates under specified test conditions. This approach is called gas leakage test methodology. However, in this International Standard it is recognized that other methodologies might be acceptable. When other methodologies are to be used, it shall be shown that the methodology demonstrates that any release of the radioactive contents will not exceed the regulatory requirements. The use of any alternative methodology shall be by agreement with the competent authority. This International Standard provides both overall and detailed guidance on the complex relationships between an equivalent gas leakage test and a permissible activity release rate. Whereas the overall guidance is universally agreed upon, the use of the detailed guidance shall be agreed upon with the competent authority during the Type B package certification process. It should be noted that, for a given package, demonstration of compliance is not limited to a single methodology. While this International Standard does not require particular gas leakage test procedures, it does present minimum requirements for any test that is to be used. It is the responsibility of the package designer or consignor to estimate or determine the maximum permissible release rate of radioactivity to the environment and to select appropriate leakage test procedures that have adequate sensitivity. This International Standard pertains specifically to Type B packages for which the regulatory containment requirements are specified explicitly

  20. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  1. Calculation of transformers leakage reactance using electromagnetic energy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiz, J.; Mohseni, H.; Sabet Marzooghi, S.; Naderian Jahromi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of transformer leakage reactance using magnetic cores has long been an area of interest to engineers involved in the design of power and distribution transformers. This is required for predicting the performance of transformers before actual assembly of the transformers. In this paper a closed form solution technique applicable to the leakage reactance calculations for transformers is presented. An emphasis is on the development of a simple method to calculate the leakage reactance of the distribution transformers and smaller transformers. Energy technique procedure for computing the leakage reactances in distribution transformers is presented. This method is very efficient compared with the use of flux element and image technique and is also remarkably accurate. Examples of calculated leakage inductances and the short circuit impedance are given for illustration. For validation, the results are compared with the results obtained using test. This paper presents a novel technique for calculation of the leakage inductance in different parts of the transformer using the electromagnetic stored energy

  2. Device for preventing leakage of coolant in nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yukio; Sekiguchi, Mamoru; Yoshida, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent leakage of coolant from between lower tie plate and channel box without causing deformation of the channel box and also without the possibility of disturbing the installation and removal of the box by the provision of a thin plate provided with leakage holes for the lower tie plate. Structure: Static water pressure within the lower tie plate is adapted to act upon the bear side of a flat plate for leakage prevention through leakage holes formed in the tie plate, thus urging the flat plate against the channel box inner surface. Meanwhile, static water pressure having been led through the leakage holes in the flat plate is adapted to press the flat plate in the vertical direction, thus urging the flat plate against the channel box inner surface and thereby preventing leakage of the coolant through a gap between the channel box and lower tie plate. (Yoshino, Y.)

  3. Serial measurement of radiation leakage dose rates in safekeeping at the Gammaknife room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Sadaaki; Nozaki, Kenichi; Toyoda, Tatsuya; Wakamatsu, Osamu; Machida, Toru

    2006-01-01

    We report the serial measurement of leakage dose rates in safekeeping at the Gammaknife room during the past 4 years and 9 months by scintillation survey meter. The leakage dose rates at the radiation boundaries were the same as the natural background levels. Leakage dose rates at each shield calculation point from two 90 Sr calibration sources contained in the storehouse were negligible compared with those from 60 Co sources of the Gammaknife. 60 Co sources of the Gammaknife are arranged in 201 pieces at 10 degree interval on the circumference and in five lines within an arc of 35 degrees. Its shield container is made of iron at least 43 cm thick. We got leakage dose rates less than 40% of the calculated values. We think it is caused by the difference of each actual distance and shield thickness because 60 Co sources are usually considered as a point source in the shield calculation. There are shutters opening up and down when patients go in and out to the direction of the couch. The leakage values to this direction were about twice as much as the calculated value. So, we knew the thickness of those shutters was thinner than 43 cm. The half life time of 60 Co source calculated from the serial measurements of leakage dose rates was 4.93 years on average. It is 94% of the physical half life value of 5.27 years. We judged it was acceptable considering the difficulty of measuring low dose rate level with the radiation survey meter. Very strong correlation was observed between the decrease of 60 Co dose rate acquired from one minute measurement at the center of 18 cm diameter polysterene phantom gotten from December 2000 to August 2005 and that of computation based on the physical half life time. Likewise there was strong and more correlation with leakage dose rate in the Gammaknife room. From this, we deduce the leakage dose rate decreases according to the theory of the disintegration of radioactivity with passage of time. Revised radiation related laws took effect

  4. Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Fischbach, Michael A; Chu, Frances; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-01-06

    We report a previously undescribed quorum-sensing mechanism for triggering multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis forms communities of cells known as biofilms in response to an unknown signal. We discovered that biofilm formation is stimulated by a variety of small molecules produced by bacteria--including the B. subtilis nonribosomal peptide surfactin--that share the ability to induce potassium leakage. Natural products that do not cause potassium leakage failed to induce multicellularity. Small-molecule-induced multicellularity was prevented by the addition of potassium, but not sodium or lithium. Evidence is presented that potassium leakage stimulates the activity of a membrane protein kinase, KinC, which governs the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation. We propose that KinC responds to lowered intracellular potassium concentration and that this is a quorum-sensing mechanism that enables B. subtilis to respond to related and unrelated bacteria.

  5. Brine reuse in ion-exchange softening: salt discharge, hardness leakage, and capacity tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodman, Hunter R; Dvorak, Bruce I

    2012-06-01

    Ion-exchange water softening results in the discharge of excess sodium chloride to the aquatic environment during the regeneration cycle. In order to reduce sodium chloride use and subsequent discharge from ion-exchange processes, either brine reclaim operations can be implemented or salt application during regeneration can be reduced. Both result in tradeoffs related to loss of bed volumes treated per cycle and increased hardness leakage. An experimentally validated model was used to compare concurrent water softening operations at various salt application quantities with and without the direct reuse of waste brine for treated tap water of typical midwestern water quality. Both approaches were able to reduce salt use and subsequent discharge. Reducing salt use and discharge by lowering the salt application rate during regeneration consequently increased hardness leakage and decreased treatment capacity. Single or two tank brine recycling systems are capable of reducing salt use and discharge without increasing hardness leakage, although treatment capacity is reduced.

  6. Emissions leakage and subsidies for pollution abatement. Pay the polluter or the supplier of the remedy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric regulation of a global pollutant between countries can alter the competitiveness of industries and lead to emissions leakage. For most types of pollution, abatement technologies are available for firms to produce with lower emissions. However, the suppliers of those technologies tend to be less than perfectly competitive, particularly when both emissions regulations and advanced technologies are new. In this context of twin market failures, we consider the relative effects and desirability of subsidies for abatement technology. We find a more robust recommendation for upstream subsidies than for downstream subsidies. Downstream subsidies tend to increase global abatement technology prices, reduce pollution abatement abroad and increase emission leakage. On the contrary, upstream subsidies reduce abatement technology prices, and hence also emissions leakage.(Author)

  7. The availability of the detection method of internal valve leakage using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Akio

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic method to the internal leakage of the valves at power plants. The acoustic method was applied to the valves at the site, and the background noise was measured for the abnormal plantcondition. From the comparison of the background noise date with the experimental results as to relation between leakage flow and acoust signal, the minimum leakage flow rates that can be detected by the acoust signal was suggested. When the background levels are higher than the acoust signal, the method described below was considered that the analysis the remainder among the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum become a very useful leak detection method. A few experimental examples of the spectrum analysis that varied the background noise characteristic were given. (author)

  8. Prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for the circumferential-groove pump seal using CFD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ha, Tae Woong [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The circumferential-groove seal is commonly used in various turbopumps to reduce leakage. The main goal of this paper is to develop the method of three-dimensional CFD analysis for determining leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of the circumferential-groovepump seal. A relative coordinate system was defined for steady-state simulation to calculate the velocity and pressure distributions of the seal clearance at each rotor whirl speed. Instead of setting the inlet and outlet pressures as the boundary conditions in the three dimensional CFD analysis, as it is more commonly done, we used the inlet velocity and outlet pressure obtained from a preliminary two dimensional CFD analysis. For prediction leakage, the presented analysis shows improvement from the bulk-flow model analysis. For the prediction of rotordynamic coefficients of K, k and C, the presented analysis provides results in closer agreement with the experimental values than those of the bulk-flow model analysis at several rotor speeds.

  9. Examination of leakage aspects through concrete - steel interfaces at and around containment penetration assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Sai, A.S.R.; Basu, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Penetration assemblies are parts required to be provided in the containment wall/dome to permit piping, mechanical devices, equipments, electrical cables, personnel movements etc. Integrity of arrangements with respect to leak tightness at or around these penetration assemblies, is of utmost importance for achieving safe functioning of containment. Considering the feasibilities in controlling leakages along different possible paths, it has been found necessary to examine in detail the leakage possibilities at concrete - steel interfaces at and around penetration assemblies. The present paper addresses this issue with respect to the important related aspects like constructional details, testing conditions, normal operating conditions, and the accidental situation associated with containment structures. (author)

  10. EMISSIONS FROM INDIRECT LAND USE CHANGE: DO THEY MATTER WITH FUEL MARKET LEAKAGES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drabik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect land use change, an agricultural market leakage, has been a major controversy over the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA requirement for corn-ethanol to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 20 percent relative to gasoline it is assumed to replace. This paper shows that corn-ethanol policies generate far greater carbon leakage in the fuel market itself. Hence, corn-ethanol does not meet EPA’s threshold, regardless of ethanol policy and whether one includes emissions from land use change.

  11. Radiologic assessment of spinal CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Jin; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Jang Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Suh, Jung Ho

    1999-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of imaging modalities in the detection of spinal CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Fifteen patients who complained of postural headache without any preceding cause showed typical brain MR findings of intracranial hypotension, including radiologically confirmed CSF leakage. All fifteen underwent brain MRI and radionuclide cisternography. CT myelography was performed in eight patients and spinal MRI in six. Medical records, imaging findings and the incidence of spinal CSF leakage during each modality were retrospectively reviewed. CSF leakage was most common at the cervicothoracic junction, where in seven of 15 cases it was seen on radionuclide cisternography as increased focal paraspinal activity. Leakage was noted at the mid-tho-racic level in three patients, at the upper thoracic level in two, and at the cervical and lumbar levels in the remaining two. In two patients multiple CSF leaks were noted, and in all, early radioactive accumulation in the bladder was visualized. CT myelography revealed extrathecal and paraspinal contrast leakage in three of eight patients, and among those who underwent spinal MRI, dural enhancement was observed at the site of CSF leakage in all six, abnormal CSF signal in the neural foramen in one, and epidural CSF collection in one. Radionuclide cisternography is a useful method for the detection of CSF leakage in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. CT myelography and spinal MRI help determine the precise location of leakage

  12. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran [Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan [NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  13. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  14. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction between Mainstream and Tip Shroud Leakage Flow in a 2-Stage Low Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Liu, Huoxing

    2014-06-01

    The pressing demand for future advanced gas turbine requires to identify the losses in a turbine and to understand the physical mechanisms producing them. In low pressure turbines with shrouded blades, a large portion of these losses is generated by tip shroud leakage flow and associated interaction. For this reason, shroud leakage losses are generally grouped into the losses of leakage flow itself and the losses caused by the interaction between leakage flow and mainstream. In order to evaluate the influence of shroud leakage flow and related losses on turbine performance, computational investigations for a 2-stage low pressure turbine is presented and discussed in this paper. Three dimensional steady multistage calculations using mixing plane approach were performed including detailed tip shroud geometry. Results showed that turbines with shrouded blades have an obvious advantage over unshrouded ones in terms of aerodynamic performance. A loss mechanism breakdown analysis demonstrated that the leakage loss is the main contributor in the first stage while mixing loss dominates in the second stage. Due to the blade-to-blade pressure gradient, both inlet and exit cavity present non-uniform leakage injection and extraction. The flow in the exit cavity is filled with cavity vortex, leakage jet attached to the cavity wall and recirculation zone induced by main flow ingestion. Furthermore, radial gap and exit cavity size of tip shroud have a major effect on the yaw angle near the tip region in the main flow. Therefore, a full calculation of shroud leakage flow is necessary in turbine performance analysis and the shroud geometric features need to be considered during turbine design process.

  15. Radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Sturm, J.A.; Schober, O.; Nerlich, M.L.; Kant, C.J.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extra-vasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  16. Fluid leakage near the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Müser, Martin H.

    2016-02-01

    Percolation is a concept widely used in many fields of research and refers to the propagation of substances through porous media (e.g., coffee filtering), or the behaviour of complex networks (e.g., spreading of diseases). Percolation theory asserts that most percolative processes are universal, that is, the emergent powerlaws only depend on the general, statistical features of the macroscopic system, but not on specific details of the random realisation. In contrast, our computer simulations of the leakage through a seal—applying common assumptions of elasticity, contact mechanics, and fluid dynamics—show that the critical behaviour (how the flow ceases near the sealing point) solely depends on the microscopic details of the last constriction. It appears fundamentally impossible to accurately predict from statistical properties of the surfaces alone how strongly we have to tighten a water tap to make it stop dripping and also how it starts dripping once we loosen it again.

  17. Anomaly detection using magnetic flux leakage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Raymond G. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Alberta (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    There are many aspects to properly assessing the integrity of a pipeline. In-line-Inspection (ILI) tools, in particular those that employ the advanced use of Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technology, provide a valuable means of achieving required up-to-date knowledge of a pipeline. More prevalent use of High Resolution MFL In-Line-Inspection tools is growing the knowledge base that leads to more reliable and accurate identification of anomalies in a pipeline, thus, minimizing the need for expensive verification excavations. Accurate assessment of pipeline anomalies can improve the decision making process within an Integrity Management Program and excavation programs can then focus on required repairs instead of calibration or exploratory digs. Utilizing the information from an MFL ILI inspection is not only cost effective but, as well, can also prove to be an extremely valuable building block of a Pipeline Integrity Management Program. (author)

  18. Potential gonadal dose from leakage radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author draws attention to the potential dangers of leakage radiation from mobile image intensifier units, and points out that during interventional urological procedures, radiation from below the urologist's knees may irradiate male gonads without being intercepted by protective aprons. Results are presented for a Shimatzu WHA mobile II, phantom doses being measured with an ionization chamber. Dose rates measured in the male gonad position were compared with rates at waist level behind a 0.35 mm lead equivalent shielding and dose rates at collar level outside the lead apron. Results are also presented of a study on the effect on gonad dose of a) adding 0.7 mm lead shielding to the tube housing and b) adding 0.7 mm lead and removing the spacer cone to reduce scatter. Results show that it is possible for gonad doses to be comparable with those assumed for the eyes, rather than the body. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of inverse modeling techniques for pinpointing water leakages at building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The location and nature of the moisture leakages are sometimes difficult to detect. Moreover, the relation between observed inside surface moisture patterns and where the moisture enters the construction is often not clear. The objective of this paper is to investigate inverse modeling techniques as

  20. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  1. The installation and dismantling of electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to construction of aluminium electrolytic cells, their installation and dismantling. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  2. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-07-04

    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  3. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2005-01-01

    experimental data and to predictions from other models. All of the newly fitted models show good agreement with experimental water activity data in binary and ternary solutions. One of the models is for activities of non-electrolytes only, but the other three models show quite small deviations from measured electrolyte activities. Because there were not enough experimental data for organic and electrolyte activities, some models show bigger deviation for mutual deliquescence relative humidities of organic-electrolyte particles, but calculated growth factors for liquid droplets are quite close to the experimental data. Even in cases with somewhat bigger deviations, the results can be considered satisfactory, because they were calculated based mainly on the predictive properties of the models.

  4. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  5. Neutron leakage measurements from a medical linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Hogstrom, K.R.; Tannanonta, C.

    1984-01-01

    The McCall method has been used to measure neutron leakage from the Mevatron 77, 18- and 15-MV photon beams. Gold foil activation has been used employing a beta counting technique for the 18-MV beam and a gamma counting technique for both the 18- and 15-MV beam. The two counting techniques were used to evaluate their relative merit. The measurements were made at various locations in the patient-treatment plane for different field sizes. The results show that the thermal-neutron dose equivalent contributes only about 1%--2% of the total neutron dose equivalent. At 100 cm, the neutron dose equivalent for the 18-MV beam is approximately six times that of the 15-MV beam, slightly exceeding the 0.1% of the useful beam criteria used by some of the regulatory agencies. In light of the uncertainty in fluence to dose equivalent conversion factors, the increased dose equivalent above 0.1% is insignificant

  6. Probabilistic modeling of caprock leakage from seismic reflection data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Bergjofd-Kitterød, Ingjerd

    We illustrate a methodology which helps to perform a leakage risk analysis for a CO2 reservoir based on a consistent, probabilistic approach to geophysical and geostatistical inversion. Generally, risk assessments of storage complexes are based on geological models and simulations of CO2 movement...... within the storage complexes. The geological models are built on top of geophysical data such as seismic surveys, geological information and well logs from the reservoir or nearby regions. The risk assessment of CO2 storage requires a careful analysis which accounts for all sources of uncertainty....... However, at present, no well-defined and consistent method for mapping the true uncertainty related to the geophysical data and how that uncertainty affects the overall risk assessment for the potential storage site is available. To properly quantify the uncertainties and to avoid unrealistic...

  7. Preliminary Study of Magnetic Flux Leakage on Tube Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhazleena Azaman; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) is an advanced NDT technique which has the inspection capability in wall loss detection and measurement of sharp defects such as pitting, grooving and circumferential cracks in ferromagnetic samples. The working principle of MFL involves the induction of magnetic field in the part to be tested and the response or signal produced is analysed to determine the presence and characteristics of defects. In this paper, simulation and experimental work on wall loss detection in steel tube using MFL were carried out. The simulation was performed using Comsol software and followed by experimental work using MFL system for validation. The results from the simulation and experiment indicates that variation of the groove defect affect the magnetisation and the output of the MFL signal is related to change of flux caused by the detection of wall loss. (author)

  8. Detection method of internal leakage from valve using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Horomichi

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic method for detecting the internal leakage of valves at power plants. Experiments have been carried out on the characteristics of acoustic noise caused by the leak simulated flow. From the experimental results, the mechanism of the acoustic noisegenerated from flow, the relation between acoustic intensity and leak flow velocity, and the characteristics of the acoustic frequency spectrum were clarified. The acoustic method was applied to valves at site, and the background noises were measured in abnormal plant conditions. When the background level is higher than the acoustic signal, the difference between the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum provide a very useful leak detection method. (author)

  9. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  10. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  11. Biomembrane Permeabilization: Statistics of Individual Leakage Events Harmonize the Interpretation of Vesicle Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stefan; Pokorná, Šárka; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Heerklotz, Heiko; Hoernke, Maria

    2018-01-23

    The mode of action of membrane-active molecules, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, cell penetrating, and fusion peptides and their synthetic mimics, transfection agents, drug permeation enhancers, and biological signaling molecules (e.g., quorum sensing), involves either the general or local destabilization of the target membrane or the formation of defined, rather stable pores. Some effects aim at killing the cell, while others need to be limited in space and time to avoid serious damage. Biological tests reveal translocation of compounds and cell death but do not provide a detailed, mechanistic, and quantitative understanding of the modes of action and their molecular basis. Model membrane studies of membrane leakage have been used for decades to tackle this issue, but their interpretation in terms of biology has remained challenging and often quite limited. Here we compare two recent, powerful protocols to study model membrane leakage: the microscopic detection of dye influx into giant liposomes and time-correlated single photon counting experiments to characterize dye efflux from large unilamellar vesicles. A statistical treatment of both data sets does not only harmonize apparent discrepancies but also makes us aware of principal issues that have been confusing the interpretation of model membrane leakage data so far. Moreover, our study reveals a fundamental difference between nano- and microscale systems that needs to be taken into account when conclusions about microscale objects, such as cells, are drawn from nanoscale models.

  12. Electrolytic production of light lanthanides from molten chloride alloys on a large laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklarski, W.; Bogacz, A.; Strzyzewska, M.

    1979-01-01

    Literature data relating to electrolytic production of rare earth metals are presented. Conditions and results are given of own investigations into the electrolytic process of light lanthanide chloride solutions (LA-Nd) in molten potassium and sodium chlorides conducted on a large laboratory scale using molybdenic, iron, cobaltic and zinc cathodes. Design schemes of employed electrolysers are enclosed. (author)

  13. Electrochemical testing of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    Electrochemical performance of metal-supported plasma sprayed (PS) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was tested for three nominal electrolyte thicknesses and three electrolyte fabrication conditions to determine the effects of electrolyte thickness and microstructure on open circuit voltage (OCV) and series resistance (R s). The measured OCV values were approximately 90% of the Nernst voltages, and electrolyte area specific resistances below 0.1 Ω cm 2 were obtained at 750 °C for electrolyte thicknesses below 20 μm. Least-squares fitting was used to estimate the contributions to R s of the YSZ bulk material, its microstructure, and the contact resistance between the current collectors and the cells. It was found that the 96% dense electrolyte layers produced from high plasma gas flow rate conditions had the lowest permeation rates, the highest OCV values, and the smallest electrolyte-related voltage losses. Optimal electrolyte thicknesses were determined for each electrolyte microstructure that would result in the lowest combination of OCV loss and voltage loss due to series resistance for operating voltages of 0.8 V and 0.7 V.

  14. Molybdenum oxide nanowires based supercapacitors with enhanced capacitance and energy density in ethylammonium nitrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarfraz, Mansoor; Aboud, Mohamed F.A.; Shakir, Imran, E-mail: shakir@skku.edu

    2015-11-25

    Orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO{sub 3}) nanowires as an electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) electrolyte exhibits a high specific capacitance of 288 Fg{sup −1}, which is 8 times higher than the specific capacitance obtained from MoO{sub 3} nanowires in water based electrolyte. MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN electrolyte exhibit energy density of 46.32 Wh kg{sup −1} at a power density of 20.3 kW kg{sup −1} with outstanding cycling stability with specific capacitance retention of 96% over 3000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN based electrolyte is primarily due to its relatively low viscosity (0.28 P at 25 °C), high electrical conductivity (20 mS cm{sup −1} at 25 °C) and large working voltage window. The results clearly demonstrate that EAN as electrolyte is one of the most promising electrolyte for high performance large scale energy storage devices. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single crystalline molybdenum oxide nanowires. • Ethylammonium Nitrate as an electrolyte for high performance large scale psuedocapacitor based energy storage devices. • Molybdenum oxide nanowires based electrodes shows 8 fold enhancement in Ethylammonium Nitrate electrolyte as compared to water based electrolytes. • The devices in Ethylammonium Nitrate exhibit excellent stability, retaining 96% of its initial capacity after 3000 cycles.

  15. Leakage Inductance Calculation for Planar Transformers with a Magnetic Shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Ouyang, Ziwei; Duffy, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic shunt is generally inserted in a planar transformer to increase the leakage inductance which can be utilized as the series inductor in resonant circuits such as the LLC resonant converter. This paper presents a calculation methodology for the leakage inductance of the transformer...

  16. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  17. Theory and Practice of a Leakage Resilient Masking Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasch, Josep; Faust, Sebastian; Gierlichs, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    A recent trend in cryptography is to formally prove the leakage resilience of cryptographic implementations – that is, one formally shows that a scheme remains provably secure even in the presence of side channel leakage. Although many of the proposed schemes are secure in a surprisingly strong m...

  18. Contrast media for radiological examination in gastrointestinal tract leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Ginai (Abida)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this investigation has been to find a safe and suitable contrast medium for radiological evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in cases where leakage outside the GIT can be suspected. Leakage outside the gastro-intestinal tract lumen can occur in many ways eg.,

  19. Leakage-Resilient Cryptography from the Inner-Product Extractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan; Faust, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We present a generic method to secure various widely-used cryptosystems against arbitrary side-channel leakage, as long as the leakage adheres three restrictions: first, it is bounded per observation but in total can be arbitrary large. Second, memory parts leak independently, and, third, the ran...

  20. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the literature about anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer a review is presented of the frequency, potential risk factors and consequences of leakage. The risk factors are evaluated according to the level of scientific evidence of the individual background...

  1. On the scaling of gas leakage from static seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, T.C.; Hunt, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction between gas leakage from static seals and eight potential variables is discussed. From a consideration of the interaction of these various parameters and the mechanical design of the seal system the importance of correctly interpreting leakage data is demonstrated. Given a situation where model experiments are necessary, this document forms a basis for the definition and interpretation of a test programme. (author)

  2. A review on leakage rate tests for containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Goo; Kim, Hho Jung

    1992-01-01

    Wide experiences in operating containment isolation systems have been accumulated in Korea since 1978. Hence, it becomes necessary to review the operating data in order to confirm the integrity of containments with about 50 reactor-years of experience and to establish the future direction to the containment test program. The objectives of present work are to collect, consolidate and assess the leakage rate data, and then to find out dominant leakage paths and factors affecting integrated leakage rate test. General trends of overall leakage show that more careful surveillance during pre-operational test can reduce the containment leakage. Dominant leakage paths are found to be through air locks and large-sized valves, such as butterfly valves of purge lines, so that weighted surveillance and inspection on these dominant leakage paths can considerably reduce the containment leakage. The atmosphere stabilization are found to be the most important to obtain the reliable result. In order to get well stabilized atmosphere, temperature and flow rate of compressed air should be kept constant and it is preferable not to operate fan cooler during pressurizing the containment for test

  3. Hunting the unknown: White-box database leakage detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costante, E.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, S.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Atluri, V.; Pernul, G.

    2014-01-01

    Data leakage causes significant losses and privacy breaches worldwide. In this paper we present a white-box data leakage detection system to spot anomalies in database transactions. We argue that our approach represents a major leap forward w.r.t. previous work because: i) it significantly decreases

  4. Determination of Unidentified Leakage Using a Kalman Smoother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Soek Bo; Heo, Gyunyoung; Ra, Insik; Han, Jeonghyun; Lee, Seon Woo

    2008-01-01

    Since the safety significance of leaks from the RCS can widely vary depending on the source of the leak as well as the leak rate, the detection of the leakage is an important issue. The leakage is classified into 1) identified leakage which is defined as leakage into closed systems such as pump seal or valve packing leaks that can be captured, and 2) unidentified leakage which is all other leakage. The unidentified leakage is typically determined by the RCS inventory balance method which is based on NUREG-1107. Since the accuracy of leak rate calculation is dependent of the plant operating condition, the change in the RCS temperature, inventory, and the transient operating condition should be avoided during the measurement period. Nevertheless, the operation of the makeup of the borated water into the RCS and the diversion of the inventory to the outside of the RCS boundary makes it difficult to maintain the plant stable over an hour. Due to the large fluctuation of the calculated leak rate, it is sometimes hard to know the trend of the leakage as well as the instantaneous leak rate. Any fluctuation of operating conditions can results in unreliable leak rate. This study proposes a new way of determining the unidentified leak rate using a Kalman filter and smoother technique. The proposed algorithm enhances the accuracy of the leak rate calculation not only for the steady state operations but also for transients in a well timed manner

  5. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  6. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Nagarale, R. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Rhee, H. W.; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2011-06-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described.

  7. A chemically stable electrolyte with a novel sandwiched structure for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-11-01

    A chemically stable electrolyte structure was developed for proton-conducting SOFCs by using two layers of stable BaZr0.7Pr 0.1Y0.2O3 -δ to sandwich a highly-conductive but unstable BaCe0.8Y0.2O 3 -δ electrolyte layer. The sandwiched electrolyte structure showed good chemical stability in both CO2 and H2O atmosphere, indicating that the BZPY layers effectively protect the inner BCY electrolyte, while the BCY electrolyte alone decomposed completely under the same conditions. Fuel cell prototypes fabricated with the sandwiched electrolyte achieved a relatively high performance of 185 mW cm- 2 at 700 C, with a high electrolyte film conductivity of 4 × 10- 3 S cm- 1 at 600 C. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Failure analysis of leakage current in plastic encapsulated packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Cheang, F.T.

    1989-12-01

    Plastic encapsulated packages exhibit high leakage current after a few hundred hours steam pressure pot test. The present study investigates two possible sources of leakage current, the mold compound and the lead frame tape used for taping the lead frame fingers. The results of the study indicate that the leakage current is independent of the frame and is not caused by the mold compound. The data further indicates that it is the ionic contents and acrylic-based adhesive layer of the lead frame tapes which cause the leakage current. To eliminate the leakage current, lead frame tape with low ionic contents and non acrylic-based adhesive should be used. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 graphs

  9. An objective comparison of leakage between commonly used earplugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeremiah A; Collins, William O

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the efficacy of commonly used earplugs using an anatomically correct ear model. The total volume and rate of water that leaked past the earplug and subsequent defect in the tympanic membrane over separately measured 30, 60, 120, and 180-second intervals were recorded. Scenarios tested included a control with no earplug, custom molded earplug (Precision Laboratories, Orlando, FL), Mack's plug (Warren, MI), Doc's plug (Santa Cruz, CA), and cotton balls coated with petroleum jelly. All plugs tested resulted in less leakage at all time points when compared with no plug (P leakage when compared with the cotton ball coated with petroleum jelly (P leakage compared with the customized plug (P leakage than the cotton plug (P leakage rate (f(4,45) = 94 [P water exposure should be minimized, then use of earplugs, particularly the moldable variety, merits further consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PERFORMANCE OF LEAKAGE POWER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CMOS VLSI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharaneeswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power of CMOS VLSI Technology is a great concern. To reduce leakage power in CMOS circuits, a Leakage Power Minimiza-tion Technique (LPMT is implemented in this paper. Leakage cur-rents are monitored and compared. The Comparator kicks the charge pump to give body voltage (Vbody. Simulations of these circuits are done using TSMC 0.35µm technology with various operating temper-atures. Current steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (CSDAC is used as test core to validate the idea. The Test core (eg.8-bit CSDAC had power consumption of 347.63 mW. LPMT circuit alone consumes power of 6.3405 mW. This technique results in reduction of leakage power of 8-bit CSDAC by 5.51mW and increases the reliability of test core. Mentor Graphics ELDO and EZ-wave are used for simulations.

  11. Leakage current characteristics of the multiple metal alloy nanodot memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gae Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Yang, Hyung Jun; Song, Yun Heub; Bea, Ji Chel; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    The leakage current characteristics of a multiple metal alloy nanodot device for a nonvolatile random access memory using FePt materials are investigated. Several annealing conditions are evaluated and optimized to suppress the leakage current and to better the memory characterisctics. This work confirmed that the annealing condition of 700 .deg. C in a high vacuum ambience (under 1 x 10 -5 Pa) simultaneously provided good cell characteristics from a high dot density of over 1 x 10 13 /cm 2 and a low leakage current. In addition, a smaller nanodot diameter was found to give a lower leakage current for the multiple nanodot memory. Finally, for the proposed annealing condition, the quadruple FePt multiple nanodot memory with a 2-nm dot diameter provided good leakage current characteristics, showing a threshold voltage shift of under 5% at an initial retention stage of 1000 sec.

  12. Insulator Contamination Forecasting Based on Fractal Analysis of Leakage Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Luo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an artificial pollution test is carried out to study the leakage current of porcelain insulators. Fractal theory is adopted to extract the characteristics hidden in leakage current waveforms. Fractal dimensions of the leakage current for the security, forecast and danger zones are analyzed under four types of degrees of contamination. The mean value and the standard deviation of the fractal dimension in the forecast zone are calculated to characterize the differences. The analysis reveals large differences in the fractal dimension of leakage current under different contamination discharge stages and degrees. The experimental and calculation results suggest that the fractal dimension of a leakage current waveform can be used as a new indicator of the discharge process and contamination degree of insulators. The results provide new methods and valid indicators for forecasting contamination flashovers.

  13. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liyan

    2018-03-01

    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  14. Distributed public key schemes secure against continual leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akavia, Adi; Goldwasser, Shafi; Hazay, Carmit

    2012-01-01

    -secure against continual memory leakage. Our DPKE scheme also implies a secure storage system on leaky devices, where a value s can be secretely stored on devices that continually leak information about their internal state to an external attacker. The devices go through a periodic refresh protocol......In this work we study distributed public key schemes secure against continual memory leakage. The secret key will be shared among two computing devices communicating over a public channel, and the decryption operation will be computed by a simple 2-party protocol between the devices. Similarly...... against continual memory leakage, under the Bilinear Decisional Diffie-Hellman and $2$-linear assumptions. Our schemes have the following properties: 1. Our DPKE and DIBE schemes tolerate leakage at all times, including during refresh. During refresh the tolerated leakage is a (1/2-o (1),1)-fraction...

  15. Carboxymethyl Carrageenan Based Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Jumaah, F.N.; Ghani, M.A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlights the potential of carboxymethyl carrageenan based on iota and kappa to be utilized as host polymer. • The highest conductivity were achieved up to ∼10 −3 S cm −1 by carboxymethyl carrageenan without the addition of plasticizer. • The electrochemical stability windows of the films were electrochemically stable up to 3.0 V. - Abstract: A series of biodegradable carboxymethyl carrageenan based polymer electrolytes, which are carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan (sulphate per disaccharide) and carboxymethyl iota carrageenan (two sulphates per disaccharide), have been prepared by a solution casting technique with different ratios of lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) salts. Interestingly, the lithium ions tended to interact with the carbonyl group in the different modes of symmetry, as observed from reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. In the carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan electrolytes, as the concentration of LiNO 3 increased, the asymmetric stretching peak of the carbonyl bond became dominant because it can be observed clearly with the shifting of the peak from 1592 to 1602 cm −1 due to the interaction between the lithium ion and the carbonyl group, while the broad O-H stretching peak became sharp and intense. However, for the carboxymethyl iota carrageenan, the asymmetry stretching mode of the carbonyl group shifted from 1567 to 1599 cm −1 , as the salt concentration increased. The shifting of the C-O-C peak also occurred in the iota-based electrolytes. However, the changes in the peak that represented SO 4 2− symmetric stretching were only detected when the ion pair formation was observed. It was proposed that the peak shifting was due to the presence of the lithium ion pathway, forming a dative bond between the lithium and oxygen in the carbonyl group. Accordingly, as more peak shifting was observed, the number of the ion pathways also increased. This hypothesis was supported by the impedance

  16. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  17. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  18. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  19. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  20. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  1. Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events...... in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material...

  2. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, Mikhail; Kloo, Lars

    2008-05-28

    The potential of room-temperature molten salts (ionic liquids) as solvents for electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells has been investigated during the last decade. The non-volatility, good solvent properties and high electrochemical stability of ionic liquids make them attractive solvents in contrast to volatile organic solvents. Despite this, the relatively high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass-transport limitations. Here we review recent developments in the application of different ionic liquids as solvents or components of liquid and quasi-solid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  4. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea); Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Ahn, Kwang-Duk [Functional Polymer Lab., Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea)

    2008-01-03

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4-tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm{sup -2}). (author)

  5. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu; Ahn, Kwang-Duk

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4- tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm -2).

  6. Leakage experiences with 1 MW steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, A.; Kawara, M.; Sano, A.

    1975-01-01

    An 1 MW steam generator was tested from October, 1971 and completed with the first series of experiments by May, 1972 after 3600 hours of operation. During these tests, unextraordinary heat absorption was experienced in the downcomer region, which led to shortage of heat transfer area to attain the rated steam temperature and to one of the reasons of flow instabilities. The steam generator was disassembled to get test pieces for structure as well as material examinations and then it was reassembled to proceed the second series of tests. Before it was done, a modification was provided to insulate the downcomer region by putting a gas space around the downcomer tube. The gas space was provided by a dual tube and spacers were welded on the inner tube and an end plate was welded on upper parts between the two to seal the gap by means of fillet welding. After the modified steam generator was put into operation, water happened to leak into a sodium side two times through these additional welding spots for the gas insulation. This paper presents operating conditions and behaviors of monitors at the time of the leakages, identifications of leaked spots, an evaluation of causes and a treatment or a precaution for them

  7. Radiation leakage from linac electron applicator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The electron beam applicator system currently in use on the linear accelerator is constructed of light-weight fiberglass and aluminum. With an applicator in place on the accelerator, the photon collimator jaws are automatically set several centimeters greater than the electron field size projected at the patient's surface. To ensure that no regions of high dose levels exist outside the useful beam, ionization and film measurements were made to quantitate the amount of leakage radiation through the 10 cm x 10 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm applicators. In most regions, the ionization levels at the patient's surface were below 5% of the central axis dose. In one area for the 25 cm applicator, the percentage ionization was 8.5%, which could be reduced by the addition of a small piece of 1/8 inch thick lead. However, ionization levels on the outside surface of the applicator were found to be considerably higher at certain locations for the 25 cm applicator. Results for 6, 9, 12 and 20 MeV electrons are reported here

  8. Development of an Electrolyte CPA Equation of state for Applications in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn

    to the CPA EoS in the absence of electrolytes, making it possible to extend the applicability of the CPA EoS while retaining backwards compatibility and resuing the parameters for non-electrolyte systems . There are many challenges related to thermodynamic modeling of mixtures containing electrolytes......This thesis extends the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) to handle mixtures containing ions from fully dissociated salts. The CPA EoS has during the past 18 years been applied to thermodynamic modeling of a wide range of industrially important chemicals, mainly in relation...... rarely been applied to all types of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations relevant to electrolyte solutions. This project has aimed to determine the best recipe to deliver a complete thermodynamic model capable of handling electrolytes in mixed solvents and at a wide range of temperature and pressure...

  9. Chemical stability of {gamma}-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminium electrolytic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Masayuki [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yoko [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    {gamma}-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyl benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis. (orig.)

  10. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Dextrose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and dextrose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor...

  11. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  12. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  13. Pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic boriding as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to test borided CP-Ti, treated by a relatively new method called pulsed plasma electrolytic boriding. The results show excellent corrosion resistance for modified CP-Ti. The effect of frequency and duty cycle of pulsed current was ...

  14. Pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic boriding as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    borided CP-Ti, treated by a relatively new method called pulsed plasma electrolytic boriding. The results ... ratio, high stiffness and strength (Donachie 2000; Lutjer- ing and Albrecht ..... both direct current and a.c. techniques. Although the main ...

  15. Leakage pattern of linear accelerator treatment heads from multiple vendors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonski, P.R.; Taylor, M.L.; Franich, R.D.; Harty, P.; Clements, N.; Kron, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Patient life expectancy post-radiotherapy is becoming longer. Therefore, secondary cancers caused by radiotherapy treatment have more time to develop. Increasing attention is being given to out-of-field dose resulting from scatter and accelerator head leakage. Dose leakage from equivalent positions on Varian600C, Varian21-X, Siemens Primus and Elekta Synergy-II linacs were measured with TLD 1 00 H dosimeter chips and compared. Treatment parameters such as field size and beam energy were altered. Leakage doses are presented as a percentage of the dose to isocentre (5 Gy). Results illustrate significant variations in leakage dose between linac models where no model emits consistently lower amounts of radiation leakage for all treatment parameters. Results are shown below. Leakage through the collimator assembly in different units is varying as a function of location and unit design by more than a factor of 10. Differences are more pronounced in comparing Varian or Elekta models, which are fitted with an additional collimator separate from the MLC leaves, to the Siemens model, which uses MLC leaves as its only secondary collimator. Further measurements are currently being taken at the patient plane with a directional detector system to determine the spatial distribution of high leakage sources.

  16. Leakage characterization of a piloted power operated relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Hess, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    In Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), power operated relief valves (PORVs) are used to provide overpressure protection of the Pressurizer. The valves are fail closed globe valves which means that power is required to open the valves and, on loss of power, the valves close. There are two ways to operate the PORVs. The more common way is to directly couple the disc to an actuator via a disc-stem assembly. The type of design is not the object of this paper. The other and less common way of operating a PORV is by piloting the main valve such that the opening or closing of a pilot valve opens and closes the main valve. This is the design of interest. In most plants, the PORVs are installed with a water loop seal while in some plants no water loop seals are used. It is generally accepted that loop seal installation minimizes valve seat leakage. In non-loop seal installation, the valve seat is exposed to steam which increases the potential for seat leakage. This paper describes the results of some tests performed with nitrogen and steam to characterize the leakage potential of a pilot operated PORV. The test results were compared with seat leakage tests of check valves to provide insight on the leakage testing of pilot operated valves and check valves. The paper also compares the test data with leakage estimates using the ASME/ANSI OM Code guidance on valve leakage

  17. Developement of leakage localization technique by using acoustic signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Jeon, J. H.; Seo, D. H.; Kim, K. W. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of this research is to develop a leakage monitoring system for pipelines or valves in the secondary water system of a nuclear power plant. The system aims to detect the existence of leakage and to estimate the leak location, especially by utilizing the noise generated from the leak. It is safe, precise real-time alert system compared with the previous monitoring methods and tools such as the visual test and the thermal imaging camera. When there exists leakage in the pipeline or valves of nuclear power plant, the noise due to gas flow is radiated through leak region. That is, the secondary water system with leakage generates different noise from the system without leakage. This motivates us to measure and analyze the noise generated from the secondary water system, so as firstly to detect the existence of leakage, and secondly to estimate the leak location by using the noise source identification technique such as beamforming and acoustic holography. Especially the beamforming method models the signal from the noise source to estimate the location of source. Therefore, it is necessary to model the noise due to leakage which is dependent upon parameters. In the process of leak localization, the reflected wave due to interior walls and the measurement noise should be removed for the precise estimation. Therefore, we attempt to characterize the reflected wave and the measurement noise by modeling the interior sound field, thus to remove them and to localize the leak location with high precision

  18. Detection device for pipeway water leakage in building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Jun.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly detect pipeway leakage at predetermined areas over a wide range in a building. Constitution: If flooding should occur in a power plant building and left as it is, emergency core cooling system, as well as auxiliary equipments and electrical equipments of the system are flooded to make the safety shutdown of the plant impossible. The present invention copes with such a risk. That is, an inlet flow meter and as exit flow meter are disposed to the inlet and the exit of pipeways disposed in a predetermined region in the building and a flow rate difference detector between them is disposed. In this way, pipeway leakage is detected by detecting the flow rate difference between the inlet flow rate and the exit flow rate of the pipeway in the predetermined region. According to the present invention, if a pipeway in a predetermined region is raptured to cause water leakage, the pipeway leakage can rapidly be detected depending on the flow rate difference between the inlet flow rate and the exit flow rate. Further, the water leakage over the entire the predetermined region can be detected rapidly as compared with the conventional case of detecting the leakage at a restricted portion where the leakage detector is disposed. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Fontaine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  20. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2007-09-12

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  1. Change regularity of water quality parameters in leakage flow conditions and their relationship with iron release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Shentu, Huabin; Chen, Huanyu; Ye, Ping; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yifu; Bastani, Hamid; Peng, Hongxi; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Tuqiao

    2017-11-01

    The long-term stagnation in metal water supply pipes, usually caused by intermittent consumption patterns, will cause significant iron release and water quality deterioration, especially at the terminus of pipelines. Another common phenomenon at the terminus of pipelines is leakage, which is considered helpful by allowing seepage of low-quality drinking water resulting from long-term stagnation. In this study, the effect of laminar flow on alleviating water quality deterioration under different leakage conditions was investigated, and the potential thresholds of the flow rate, which can affect the iron release process, were discussed. Based on a galvanized pipe and ductile cast iron pipe pilot platform, which was established at the terminus of pipelines, this research was carried out by setting a series of leakage rate gradients to analyze the influence of different leakage flow rates on iron release, as well as the relationship with chemical and biological parameters. The results showed that the water quality parameters were obviously influenced by the change in flow velocity. Water quality was gradually improved with an increase in flow velocity, but its change regularity reflected a diversity under different flow rates (p water distribution system, when the bulk water was at the critical laminar flow velocity, the concentration of total iron, the quantity and rate of total iron release remain relatively in an ideal and safe situation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  3. Advancing Polymer-Supported Ionogel Electrolytes Formed via Radical Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Adam F.

    Applications ranging from consumer electronics to the electric grid have placed demands on current energy storage technologies. There is a drive for devices that store more energy for rapid consumption in the case of electric cars and the power grid, and safer, versatile design options for consumer electronics. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are an option that has garnered attention as a means to address these varied energy storage demands. EDLCs utilize charge separation in electrolytes to store energy. This energy storage mechanism allows for greater power density (W kg -1) than batteries and higher energy density (Wh kg-1) than conventional capacitors - along with a robust lifetime in the range of thousands to millions of charge-discharge cycles. Safety and working voltage windows of EDLCs currently on the market are limited by the organic solvents utilized in the electrolyte. A potential solution lies in the replacement of the organic solvents with ionic liquids, or room-temperature molten salts. Ionic liquids possess many superior properties in comparison to conventional solvents: wide electrochemical window, low volatility, nonflammability, and favorable ionic conductivity. It has been an endeavor of this work to exploit these advantages while altering the liquid form factor into a gel. An ionic liquid/solid support scaffold composite electrolyte, or ionogel, adds additional benefits: flexible device design, lower encapsulation weight, and elimination of electrolyte leakage. This work has focused on investigations of a UV-polymerizable monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, as a precursor for forming ionogels in situ. The trade-off between gaining mechanical stability at the cost of ionic conductivity has been investigated for numerous ionogel systems. While gaining a greater understanding of the interactions between the gel scaffold and ionic liquid, an ionogel with the highest known ionic conductivity to date (13.1 mS cm-1) was

  4. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...... using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations....

  5. Theory and Application of Magnetic Flux Leakage Pipeline Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Rui; Cai, Maolin; Jia, Guanwei

    2015-12-10

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection is one of the most popular methods of pipeline inspection. It is a nondestructive testing technique which uses magnetic sensitive sensors to detect the magnetic leakage field of defects on both the internal and external surfaces of pipelines. This paper introduces the main principles, measurement and processing of MFL data. As the key point of a quantitative analysis of MFL detection, the identification of the leakage magnetic signal is also discussed. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of different identification methods are analyzed. Then the paper briefly introduces the expert systems used. At the end of this paper, future developments in pipeline MFL detection are predicted.

  6. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  7. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  8. SERUM ELECTROLYTES AND OUTCOME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana VIEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients followed in our Artificial Nutrition Clinic, submitted to PEG from 2010 to 2016, having head/neck cancer or neurologic dysphagia, who died under PEG feeding. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus were evaluated immediately before the gastrostomy procedure. Survival after PEG until death was recorded in months. RESULTS: We evaluated 101 patients, 59 with electrolyte alterations at the moment of the gastrostomy. Sodium was altered in 32 (31.7%, magnesium in 21 (20.8%, chlorine in 21 (20.8%, potassium in 14 (13.8%, calcium in 11 (10.9 % and phosphorus in 11 (10.9%. The survival of patients with low sodium (<135 mmol/L was significantly lower when compared to patients with normal/high values, 2.76 months vs 7.80 months, respectively (P=0.007. CONCLUSION: Changes in serum electrolytes of patients undergoing PEG were very common. More than half showed at least one abnormality, at the time of the procedure. The most frequent was hyponatremia, which was associated with significantly shorter survival, probably reflecting severe systemic metabolic distress.

  9. Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents with Liquid Range Below -80 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Smart, Marshall; West, William

    2010-01-01

    A previous NASA Tech Brief ["Low-Temperature Supercapacitors" (NPO-44386) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No 7 (July 2008), page 32] detailed ongoing efforts to develop non-aqueous supercapacitor electrolytes capable of supporting operation at temperatures below commercially available cells (which are typically limited to charging and discharging at > or equal to -40 C). These electrolyte systems may enable energy storage and power delivery for systems operating in extreme environments, such as those encountered in the Polar regions on Earth or in the exploration of space. Supercapacitors using these electrolytes may also offer improved power delivery performance at moderately low temperatures (e.g. -40 to 0 C) relative to currently available cells, offering improved cold-cranking and cold-weather acceleration capabilities for electrical or hybrid vehicles. Supercapacitors store charge at the electrochemical double-layer, formed at the interface between a high surface area electrode material and a liquid electrolyte. The current approach to extending the low-temperature limit of the electrolyte focuses on using binary solvent systems comprising a high-dielectric-constant component (such as acetonitrile) in conjunction with a low-melting-point co-solvent (such as organic formates, esters, and ethers) to depress the freezing point of the system, while maintaining sufficient solubility of the salt. Recent efforts in this area have led to the identification of an electrolyte solvent formulation with a freezing point of -85.7 C, which is achieved by using a 1:1 by volume ratio of acetonitrile to 1,3-dioxolane

  10. Copper ion as a new leakage tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaresi, J; Baharizade, M; Shareghi, A; Ahmadi, M; Daneshkazemi, A

    2013-12-01

    Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal. Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method. The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope. The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods. Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye penetration and the copper ion diffusion methods.

  11. Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormak, W.D.; Trenkler, T.; Walters, M.F.; Rouse, J.K.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report

  12. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great efforts over the past decades, thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes in mixed solvents is still a challenge today. The existing modeling frameworks based on activity coefficient models are data-driven and require expert knowledge to be parameterized. It has been suggested...... using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  13. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-09-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg-1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  14. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Barzegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg−1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  15. SU-E-T-774: Use of a Scintillator-Mirror-Camera System for the Measurement of MLC Leakage Radiation with the CyberKnife M6 System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goggin, L; Kilby, W; Noll, M; Maurer, C [Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A technique using a scintillator-mirror-camera system to measure MLC leakage was developed to provide an efficient alternative to film dosimetry while maintaining high spatial resolution. This work describes the technique together with measurement uncertainties. Methods: Leakage measurements were made for the InCise™ MLC using the Logos XRV-2020A device. For each measurement approximately 170 leakage and background images were acquired using optimized camera settings. Average background was subtracted from each leakage frame before filtering the integrated leakage image to replace anomalous pixels. Pixel value to dose conversion was performed using a calibration image. Mean leakage was calculated within an ROI corresponding to the primary beam, and maximum leakage was determined by binning the image into overlapping 1mm x 1mm ROIs. 48 measurements were performed using 3 cameras and multiple MLC-linac combinations in varying beam orientations, with each compared to film dosimetry. Optical and environmental influences were also investigated. Results: Measurement time with the XRV-2020A was 8 minutes vs. 50 minutes using radiochromic film, and results were available immediately. Camera radiation exposure degraded measurement accuracy. With a relatively undamaged camera, mean leakage agreed with film measurement to ≤0.02% in 92% cases, ≤0.03% in 100% (for maximum leakage the values were 88% and 96%) relative to reference open field dose. The estimated camera lifetime over which this agreement is maintained is at least 150 measurements, and can be monitored using reference field exposures. A dependency on camera temperature was identified and a reduction in sensitivity with distance from image center due to optical distortion was characterized. Conclusion: With periodic monitoring of the degree of camera radiation damage, the XRV-2020A system can be used to measure MLC leakage. This represents a significant time saving when compared to the traditional

  16. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  17. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  18. Differences in Ostomy Pouch Seal Leakage Occurrences Between North American and European Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Jane; Forest Lalande, Louise; Martins, Lina; Steen, Anne; Størling, Zenia M

    The purpose of this study was to compare experiences and concerns about pouch seal leakage between persons with ostomies residing in North America (Canada and the United States) and Europe (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, France, and Italy). Differences in reported pouch wear time and accessories used between the 2 groups were also examined. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study (Ostomy Life Study). Responses from persons residing in European countries (n = 1939) were compared with responses of 1387 individuals residing in North American countries. Persons with an ostomy completed a questionnaire that focused on 4 topics related to the daily use of an ostomy pouching system (pouch seal leakage, ballooning, appearance of pouching system such as color and size of the pouch and whether it is discrete under clothing, and coupling failure of 2-piece pouching systems). Pouch seal leakage was defined as stomal effluent seeping between the skin and the wafer of the ostomy pouching system. Statistical analysis was performed using a proportional odds model including various variable effects. Special attention was given to frequency of pouch seal leakage occurrences. All tests were 2-sided; P values ≤.05 were deemed statistically significant. Participants living in the North American countries indicated they were more likely to experience leakage from the ostomy (odds ratio = 2.610, 95% CI 2.187-3.115; P < .0001). Findings also indicated they were more likely to worry about pouch seal leakage than those in the European countries' data set (odds ratio = 2.722, 95% CI 2.283-3.246; P < .0001). Participants residing in the North American countries had significantly longer wear times than those participants in the European countries (P < .0001, χ test). The use of accessories was associated with a longer pouching system wear time. Study results suggest that participants from the North American countries indicated significantly more

  19. Double-membrane triple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushan, Yan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2018-03-13

    A redox flow battery is provided having a double-membrane (one cation exchange membrane and one anion exchange membrane), triple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and one electrolyte positioned between and in contact with the two membranes). The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte. This design physically isolates, but ionically connects, the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte. The physical isolation offers great freedom in choosing redox pairs in the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte, making high voltage of redox flow batteries possible. The ionic conduction drastically reduces the overall ionic crossover between negative electrolyte and positive one, leading to high columbic efficiency.

  20. Leakage potential through mechanical penetrations in a severe accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the findings of an ongoing program, Integrity of Containment Penetrations Under Severe Accident Loads. The program is concerned with the leakage modes as well as the magnitude of leakage through mechanical penetrations in a containment building subject to a severe accident. Seal and gasket tests are used to evaluate the effect of radiation aging, thermal aging, seal geometry, and seal squeeze on seals and gaskets subjected to a hypothesized severe accident. The effects on leakage of the structural response of equipment hatches, personnel airlocks, and drywell heads subjected to severe accident pressures are studied by experiments and analyses. The data gathered during this program will be used to develop methodologies for predicting leakage

  1. N13 - based reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Marbaeck, L.; Sandell, S.; Svansson, L.

    1980-05-01

    A system for the monitoring of leakage of coolant from the reactor coolant pressure boundary and auxiliary systems to the reactor containment, based on the detection of the N13 content in the atmosphere, has been tested. N13 is produced from the oxyegen of the reactor water via the recoil photon nuclear process H1 + 016 + He4. The generation of N13 is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. In the US AEC regulatory guide 1.45 has a leakage increase of 4 liter/ min been suggested as the response limit. The experiments carried out in Ringhals indicate, that with the accomplishment of minor improvements in the installation, a 4 liter/min leakage to the containment will give rise to a signal with a random error range of +- 0.25 liter/min, 99.7 % confidence level. (author)

  2. Transformerless photovoltaic inverters with leakage current and pulsating power elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Yao, Wenli; Wang, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transformerless inverter topology, which is capable of simultaneously solving leakage current and pulsating power issues in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Without adding any additional components to the system, the leakage current caused by the PV......-to-ground parasitic capacitance can be bypassed by introducing a common mode (CM) conducting path to the inverter. The resulting ground leakage current is therefore well controlled to be below the regulation limit. Moreover, the proposed inverter can also eliminate the well-known double line frequency pulsating power....... The mechanism of leakage current suppression and the closed-loop control of pulsating power decoupling are discussed in the paper in details. A 500 W prototype was also built and tested in the laboratory, and both simulation and experimental results are finally presented to show the excellent performance...

  3. Competitiveness and carbon leakages in industry under asymmetric climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demailly, D.

    2008-02-01

    This research aims at studying how to predict competitiveness loss for an industry submitted to an asymmetric carbon constraint, and carbon leakages, whether high losses and important leakages might be feared, and which policies can be used to mitigate these losses and escapes. The author analyses and comments the content of four articles dealing with: the impact on competitiveness, revenue distribution and economic efficiency of a change in the allocation rules for EU greenhouse gas allowances; the relationship between allocation of CO 2 allowances and competitiveness in the case of the European iron and steel industry; CO 2 abatement, competitiveness and leakage in the European cement industry under EU ETS; and leakage from climate policies and border tax adjustment (lessons from a geographic model of the cement industry). Then, the author combines several approaches to study the cement and steel industries

  4. Fractal modeling of fluidic leakage through metal sealing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Yong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the fluidic leak rate through metal sealing surfaces by developing fractal models for the contact process and leakage process. An improved model is established to describe the seal-contact interface of two metal rough surface. The contact model divides the deformed regions by classifying the asperities of different characteristic lengths into the elastic, elastic-plastic and plastic regimes. Using the improved contact model, the leakage channel under the contact surface is mathematically modeled based on the fractal theory. The leakage model obtains the leak rate using the fluid transport theory in porous media, considering that the pores-forming percolation channels can be treated as a combination of filled tortuous capillaries. The effects of fractal structure, surface material and gasket size on the contact process and leakage process are analyzed through numerical simulations for sealed ring gaskets.

  5. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS...... completion of the operation the patients were randomized in two groups with and without a transanal stent. RESULTS: A clinically significant leakage was diagnosed in 25 patients (13%). No significant difference was found 17 of 98 patients with a stent and 8 of 96 without (P = 0.09), or in 9 of 44 ileostomy...... patients with a stent and in 3 of 45 without (P = 0.07). Several leaks over a short time led to an interim analysis after inclusion of 194 of 448 planned patients. The analysis showed no significant protective effect of the stent, and more leakages in the stent group, although not statistically significant...

  6. Prediction of leakage in the fixed mechanical seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asheichik Anatoly A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of influence of the shape of contact surfaces on leakages through rubber seals in fixed connection of subassemblies are considered in the article. It is known from practice of operation of seals of various designs that the shape of contact surfaces and consequently also the shape of diagram of stresses in a contact zone considerably influences on value of leaks Linking leakage magnitude and distribution of contact stresses enables, firstly, more precisely calculate the amount of leakage for existing seals, and, secondly, to optimize the shape of the seals in their design in each case. As the result of experimental studies on the introduction of the rubber gasket ring fixed indenters different profiles found that by optimizing the shape of the indenter magnitude of leakage can be reduced by 10 times.

  7. Magnetic leakage shield of septum magnet for SPring-8 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes magnetic field measurements of the prototype septum magnet and countermeasure for reducing the leakage magnetic fields in the incidence and the extraction parts of the SPring-8 synchrotron. We studied and developed 'leakage magnetic shield' on the basis of the tests data got in these measurements. Consequentially, it succeeded in reducing effects of the leakage field to about 50% by installing the shield board in the magnet main body. Then, it was possible to manufacture the magnet which sufficiently held the effect of the leakage field for the electron and positron beam. In this examination, we confirmed the reproduction with the magnetic field distribution of the magnet measured in the manufacturer. We developed and produced of the septum magnets which were carried out determination of the shapes of the magnetic shielding. (author)

  8. Leakage Testing for Different Adhesive Systems and Composites to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-16

    Nov 16, 2015 ... resin composite, the fifth group – two‑stage SE adhesive applied and cavities filled with ... KEYWORDS: Adhesives, composite, evaluation, leakage ... the glass ionomers. ... systems are realized in one or two clinical step(s).[5].

  9. Evaluation method of gas leakage rate from transportation casks of radioactive materials (gas leakage rates from scratches on O-ring surface)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Li Ninghua; Asano, Ryoji; Kawa, Tsunemichi

    2004-01-01

    A sealing function is essential for transportation and/or storage casks of radioactive materials under both normal and accidental operating conditions in order to prevent radioactive materials from being released into the environment. In the safety analysis report, the release rate of radioactive materials into the environment is evaluated using the correlations specified in the ANSI N14.5, 1987. The purposes of the work are to reveal the underlying problems on the correlations specified in the ANSI N14.5 related to gas leakage rates from a scratch on O-ring surface and from multi-leak paths, to offer a data base to study the evaluation method of the leakage rate and to propose the evaluation method. In this paper, the following insights were obtained and clarified: 1. If a characteristic value of a leak path is defined as D 4 /a ('D' is the diameter and 'a' is the length), a scratch on the O-ring surface can be evaluated as a circular tube. 2. It is proper to use the width of O-ring groove on the flange as the leak path length for elastomer O-rings. 3. Gas leakage rates from multi leak paths of the transportation cask can be evaluated in the same manner as a single leak path if an effective D4/a is introduced. (author)

  10. [Effect of carbamide peroxide bleaching agents on micro-leakage of composite resin interface in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-ling; Xu, Juan; Zhao, Xin-yi; He, Hui-ming

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agents at different concentrations and with different carriers on the micro-leakage of composite resin interface. Class V cavity (2 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth) preparations were made at the enamelo-cemental junction on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 35 extracted human premolars. The cavities were filled with hybrid composite resin. The teeth were stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37 degrees celsius; before thermocyling for 500 times between 5 and 55 degrees celsius;. The teeth were then randomly assigned into 7 groups, and in groups 1-6, the bleaching gels containing 10% or 20% of CP were applied on the buccal and lingual surface of the teeth for two weeks (6-8 h/day, 37 degrees celsius;, 100% relative humidity) using Carbopol, PVP or Poloxamer as the thickening carriers, respectively. The seventh group served as the control without bleaching treatment. Nail polish was applied to the surface of the tooth, and all the teeth were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution followed by developing solution. The teeth were finally sectioned through the midline of the restoration and observed under stereomicroscope. SEM micrographs were also made to observe the interface. With the same bleaching agent, the micro-leakage in the gingival wall was slightly greater than in the occlusive wall, but the difference was not significant. Only 20% CP with Poloxamer as the thickening agent significantly increased the leakage of dentine-resin composite interface, and 10% and 20% CP with Carbopol or PVP as the thickening agents and 10% CP with Poloxamer produced minimal effects on filling the micro-leakage. Thickening carriers and the concentration of CP (20% or below) have no significant effect on micro-leakage of composite resin.

  11. A harmonic pulse testing method for leakage detection in deep subsurface storage formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Lu, Jiemin; Hovorka, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Detection of leakage in deep geologic storage formations (e.g., carbon sequestration sites) is a challenging problem. This study investigates an easy-to-implement frequency domain leakage detection technology based on harmonic pulse testing (HPT). Unlike conventional constant-rate pressure interference tests, HPT stimulates a reservoir using periodic injection rates. The fundamental principle underlying HPT-based leakage detection is that leakage modifies a storage system's frequency response function, thus providing clues of system malfunction. During operations, routine HPTs can be conducted at multiple pulsing frequencies to obtain experimental frequency response functions, using which the possible time-lapse changes are examined. In this work, a set of analytical frequency response solutions is derived for predicting system responses with and without leaks for single-phase flow systems. Sensitivity studies show that HPT can effectively reveal the presence of leaks. A search procedure is then prescribed for locating the actual leaks using amplitude and phase information obtained from HPT, and the resulting optimization problem is solved using the genetic algorithm. For multiphase flows, the applicability of HPT-based leakage detection procedure is exemplified numerically using a carbon sequestration problem. Results show that the detection procedure is applicable if the average reservoir conditions in the testing zone stay relatively constant during the tests, which is a working assumption under many other interpretation methods for pressure interference tests. HPT is a cost-effective tool that only requires periodic modification of the nominal injection rate. Thus it can be incorporated into existing monitoring plans with little additional investment.

  12. Systematic review of methods to predict and detect anastomotic leakage in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, N A; Tiernan, J P; Millner, P A; Jayne, D G

    2014-02-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a serious complication of gastrointestinal surgery resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, poor function and predisposing to cancer recurrence. Earlier diagnosis and intervention can minimize systemic complications but is hindered by current diagnostic methods that are non-specific and often uninformative. The purpose of this paper is to review current developments in the field and to identify strategies for early detection and treatment of anastomotic leakage. A systematic literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included 'anastomosis' and 'leak' and 'diagnosis' or 'detection' and 'gastrointestinal' or 'colorectal'. Papers concentrating on the diagnosis of gastrointestinal anastomotic leak were identified and further searches were performed by cross-referencing. Computerized tomography CT scanning and water-soluble contrast studies are the current preferred techniques for diagnosing anastomotic leakage but suffer from variable sensitivity and specificity, have logistical constraints and may delay timely intervention. Intra-operative endoscopy and imaging may offer certain advantages, but the ability to predict anastomotic leakage is unproven. Newer techniques involve measurement of biomarkers for anastomotic leakage and have the potential advantage of providing cheap real-time monitoring for postoperative complications. Current diagnostic tests often fail to diagnose anastomotic leak at an early stage that enables timely intervention and minimizes serious morbidity and mortality. Emerging technologies, based on detection of local biomarkers, have achieved proof of concept status but require further evaluation to determine whether they translate into improved patient outcomes. Further research is needed to address this important, yet relatively unrecognized, area of unmet clinical need. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain

  13. A collimated detection system for assessing leakage dose from medical linear accelerators at the patient plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonski, P; Taylor, M L; Franich, R D; Kron, T

    2014-03-01

    Leakage radiation from linear accelerators can make a significant contribution to healthy tissue dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD chips) were used in a focused lead cone loaded with TLD chips for the purpose of evaluating leakage dose at the patient plane. By placing the TLDs at one end of a stereotactic cone, a focused measurement device is created; this was tested both in and out of the primary beam of a Varian 21-iX linac using 6 MV photons. Acrylic build up material of 1.2 cm thickness was used inside the cone and measurements made with either one or three TLD chips at a given distance from the target. Comparing the readings of three dosimeters in one plane inside the cone offered information regarding the orientation of the cone relative to a radiation source. Measurements in the patient plane with the linac gantry at various angles demonstrated that leakage dose was approximately 0.01% of the primary beam out of field when the cone was pointed directly towards the target and 0.0025% elsewhere (due to scatter within the gantry). No specific 'hot spots' (e.g., insufficient shielding or gaps at abutments) were observed. Focused cone measurements facilitate leakage dose measurements from the linac head directly at the patient plane and allow one to infer the fraction of leakage due to 'direct' photons (along the ray-path from the bremsstrahlung target) and that due to scattered photons.

  14. A collimated detection system for assessing leakage dose from medical linear accelerators at the patient plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonski, P.; Kron, T.; Taylor, M.L.; Franich, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Leakage radiation from linear accelerators can make a significant contribution to healthy tissue dose in patients undergoing radiotherapy. In this work thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD chips) were used in a focused lead cone loaded with TLD chips for the purpose of evaluating leakage dose at the patient plane. By placing the TLDs at one end of a stereotactic cone, a focused measurement device is created; this was tested both in and out of the primary beam of a Varian 21-iX linac using 6 MV photons. Acrylic build up material of 1.2 cm thickness was used inside the cone and measurements made with either one or three TLD chips at a given distance from the target. Comparing the readings of three dosimeters in one plane inside the cone offered information regarding the orientation of the cone relative to a radiation source. Measurements in the patient plane with the linac gantry at various angles demonstrated that leakage dose was approximately 0.01 % of the primary beam out of field when the cone was pointed directly towards the target and 0.0025 % elsewhere (due to scatter within the gantry). No specific ‘hot spots’ (e.g., insufficient shielding or gaps at abutments) were observed. Focused cone measurements facilitate leakage dose measurements from the linac head directly at the patient plane and allow one to infer the fraction of leakage due to ‘direct’ photons (along the ray-path from the bremsstrahlung target) and that due to scattered photons.

  15. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  16. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  17. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  18. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  19. Electrolyte chemistry control in electrodialysis processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas D.; Severin, Blaine F.

    2017-12-26

    Methods for controlling electrolyte chemistry in electrodialysis units having an anode and a cathode each in an electrolyte of a selected concentration and a membrane stack disposed therebetween. The membrane stack includes pairs of cationic selective and anionic membranes to segregate increasingly dilute salts streams from concentrated salts stream. Electrolyte chemistry control is via use of at least one of following techniques: a single calcium exclusionary cationic selective membrane at a cathode cell boundary, an exclusionary membrane configured as a hydraulically isolated scavenger cell, a multivalent scavenger co-electrolyte and combinations thereof.

  20. Detecting the leakage source of a reservoir using isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peng; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yongdong; Mugwanezal, Vincent de Paul; Chen, Li; Aldahan, Ala

    2018-07-01

    A good monitoring method is vital for understanding the sources of a water reservoir leakage and planning for effective restoring. Here we present a combination of several tracers ( 222 Rn, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, anions and temperature) for identification of water leakage sources in the Pushihe pumped storage power station which is in the Liaoning province, China. The results show an average 222 Rn activity of 6843 Bq/m 3 in the leakage water, 3034 Bq/m 3 in the reservoir water, and 41,759 Bq/m 3 in the groundwater. Considering that 222 Rn activity in surface water is typically less than 5000 Bq/m 3 , the low level average 222 Rn activity in the leakage water suggests the reservoir water as the main source of water. Results of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes show comparable ranges and values in the reservoir and the leakage water samples. However, important contribution of the groundwater (up to 36%) was present in some samples from the bottom and upper parts of the underground powerhouse, while the leakage water from some other parts indicate the reservoir water as the dominant source. The isotopic finding suggests that the reservoir water is the main source of the leakage water which is confirmed by the analysis of anions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) in the water samples. The combination of these tracer methods for studying dam water leakage improves the accuracy of identifying the source of leaks and provide a scientific reference for engineering solutions to ensure the dam safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method of detecting leakage in nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, Akitoshi; Goto, Seiichiro.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To permit accurate and prompt detection of leakage of a radioactive substance. Structure: The rate of change of such factors as radiation dose, temperature and pressure in the containment vessel, and each detected rate of change is compared with a reference value. The running cycle of the condensed drain exhausting pump in a drain collecting tank within a predetermined period is detected, and it is also compared with a reference value. These comparisons determine the absence or presence of leakage. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. LMFBR technology. FFTF cover-gas leakage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deboi, H.

    1974-01-01

    The FFTF LMFBR is intended to have a near zero release of radioactive gases during normal reactor operation with 1% failed fuel. This report presents calculations which provide an approximation of these cover gas leakages. Data from ongoing static and dynamic seal leak tests at AI are utilized. Leakage through both elastomeric and metallic seals in all sub-assemblies and penetrations comprising the reactor cover gas containment during reactor operation system are included

  3. An alternative treatment for anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Hoffmann, J.

    1988-01-01

    An alternative non-operative method for treatment for anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection is presented. A mediastinal abscess cavity was drained by an ordinary nasogastric tube introduced via the nose through the anastomotic defect and into the cavity.......An alternative non-operative method for treatment for anastomotic leakage after oesophageal resection is presented. A mediastinal abscess cavity was drained by an ordinary nasogastric tube introduced via the nose through the anastomotic defect and into the cavity....

  4. Management and prevention of chylous leakage after laparoscopic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L-P; Zhang, H-M; Abha, H-D; Liu, T; Zhang, X-P

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the development and management of chylous leakage after laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. From July 2006 to September 2013, 13 cases of chylous leakage after the laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (6 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 4 cases of gastric cancer, 2 cases of ovarian cancer, 1 case of endometrial cancer) were studied to analyze the occurrence, development and management of chylous leakage. In 3 cases (2 cases of renal cell carcinoma, 1 case of gastric cancer) massive amount of milky fluid drainage was be seen after the first two days post operation. Dietary intervention, TPN (total parenteral nutrition), somatostatin therapy, maintenance of continuous drainage helped to successfully manage the condition in about 1 month duration. In the remaining 10 cases, chylous leakage appeared after restoring normal diet. Managed with changes in diet and maintenance of unobstructed drainage, they were cured in about 2 weeks after treatment. There was significant reduction in drain output, ultrasonography did not reveal presence of free fluid collection in abdomen, and the patients were in good condition without signs and symptoms of infections. Chylous leakage is a rare complication of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Surgeons should be familiar with laparoscopic techniques, relevant anatomy and be aware of the fact that the effect of CO2 pressure and use of ultrasonic knife to occlude the lymphatic vessel can transiently block the leakage making the surgeon overlook them. Routine placement of indwelling drainage tube, immediate diagnosis, dietary modification, TPN, somatostatin and drainage are the modalities of conservative management.

  5. Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Bezin, Jérémi; De Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies. (paper)

  6. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  7. An investigation of rotor tip leakage flows in the rear-block of a multistage compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossman, John Richard

    An effective method to improve gas turbine propulsive efficiency is to increase the bypass ratio. With fan diameter reaching a practical limit, increases in bypass ratio can be obtained from reduced core engine size. Decreasing the engine core, results in small, high pressure compressor blading, and large relative tip clearances. At general rule of 1% reduction in compressor efficiency with a 1% increase in tip clearance, a 0.66% change in SFC indicates the entire engine is sensitive to high pressure compressor tip leakage flows. Therefore, further investigations and understanding of the rotor tip leakage flows can help to improve gas turbine engine efficiency. The objectives of this research were to investigate tip leakage flows through computational modeling, examine the baseline experimental steady-stage performance, and acquire unsteady static pressure, over-the rotor to observe the tip leakage flow structure. While tip leakage flows have been investigated in the past, there have been no facilities capable of matching engine representative Reynolds number and Mach number while maintaining blade row interactions, presenting a unique and original flow field to investigate at the Purdue 3-stage axial compressor facility. To aid the design of experimental hardware and determine the influence of clearance geometry on compressor performance, a computational model of the Purdue 3-stage compressor was investigated using a steady RANS CFD analysis. A cropped rotor and casing recess design was investigated to increase the rotor tip clearance. While there were small performance differences between the geometries, the tip leakage flow field was found independent of the design therefore designing future experimental hardware around a casing recess is valid. The largest clearance with flow margin past the design point was 4% tip clearance based on the computational model. The Purdue 3-stage axial compressor facility was rebuilt and setup for high quality, detailed flow

  8. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    The use of renewable energy sources is on the rise, as new energy generating technologies continue to become more efficient and economical. Furthermore, the advantages of an energy infrastructure which relies more on sustainable and renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly apparent. The most readily available of these renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy in particular, are naturally intermittent. Thus, to enable the continued expansion and widespread adoption of renewable energy generating technology, a cost-effective energy storage system is essential. Additionally, the market for electric/hybrid electric vehicles, which both require efficient energy storage, continues to grow as more consumers seek to reduce their consumption of gasoline. These vehicles, however, remain quite expensive, due primarily to costs associated with storing the electrical energy. High-voltage and thermally stable Li-ion battery technology is a promising solution for both grid-level and electric vehicle energy storage. Current limitations in materials, however, limit the energy density and safe operating temperature window of the battery. Specifically, the state-of-the-art electrolyte used in Li-ion batteries is not compatible with recently developed high-voltage positive electrodes, which are one of the most effectual ways of increasing the energy density. The electrolyte is also thermally unstable above 50 °C, and prone to thermal runaway reaction if exposed to prolonged heating. The lithium salt used in such electrolytes, LiPF6, is a primary contributor to both of these issues. Unfortunately, an improved lithium salt which meets the myriad property requirements for Li-ion battery electrolytes has eluded researchers for decades. In this study, a renewed effort to find such a lithium salt was begun, using a recently developed methodology to rapidly screen for desirable properties. Four new lithium salts and one relatively new but uncharacterized lithium salt were

  9. Hybrid capacitors utilizing halogen-based redox reactions at interface between carbon positive electrode and aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shigeaki; Ito, Tatsuya; Murakumo, Yuka; Naitou, Masashi; Shimooka, Toshiharu; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    We propose novel hybrid capacitors (HCs) with electrolyte-involved redox reactions of bromide or iodide species by pretreatment of an activated carbon positive electrode. The treatment is simple; impregnation of pores at an activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) as a positive electrode with bromine- or iodine-containing water before cell assembly. The treated positive electrode is applied to a HC cell with a non-treated negative electrode of ACFC and its electrochemical performance is investigated by galvanostatic cycling and leakage current tests. Few studies on such "electrolytic" charge storage systems have provided acceptable capacitor performance because of inevitable self-discharge caused by diffusion of charged species form an electrode to the other one through an electrolyte. Nevertheless, our electrolyte-redox-based HCs show excellent performance without undesirable diffusion of charged species. Moreover, the present HC utilizing a bromide redox system fulfills a practical cell voltage of 1.8 V in spite of an aqueous electrolyte system. This high voltage provides excellent energy density, which is 5 times higher than that in a conventional aqueous electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), and 1.2 times higher even than that in a 2.7 V-class non-aqueous EDLC, while keeping high charge-discharge rate capability.

  10. A leakage-free resonance sparse decomposition technique for bearing fault detection in gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Shazali; Wang, Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Most of rotating machinery deficiencies are related to defects in rolling element bearings. Reliable bearing fault detection still remains a challenging task, especially for bearings in gearboxes as bearing-defect-related features are nonstationary and modulated by gear mesh vibration. A new leakage-free resonance sparse decomposition (LRSD) technique is proposed in this paper for early bearing fault detection of gearboxes. In the proposed LRSD technique, a leakage-free filter is suggested to remove strong gear mesh and shaft running signatures. A kurtosis and cosine distance measure is suggested to select appropriate redundancy r and quality factor Q. The signal residual is processed by signal sparse decomposition for highpass and lowpass resonance analysis to extract representative features for bearing fault detection. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by a succession of experimental tests corresponding to different gearbox and bearing conditions.

  11. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinović Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture results of the investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process on some metals (aluminum, titanium, tantalum, magnesium, and zirconium were presented. Whole process involves anodizing metals above the dielectric breakdown voltage where numerous micro-discharges are generated continuously over the coating surface. For the characterization of PEO process optical emission spectroscopy and real-time imaging were used. These investigations enabled the determination of electron temperature, electron number density, spatial density of micro-discharges, the active surface covered by micro-discharges, and dimensional distribution of micro-discharges at various stages of PEO process. Special attention was focused on the results of the study of the morphology, chemical, and phase composition of oxide layers obtained by PEO process on aluminum, tantalum, and titanium in electrolytes containing tungsten. Physicochemical methodes: atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy served as tools for examining obtained oxide coatings. Also, the application of the obtained oxide coatings, especially the application of TiO2/WO3 coatings in photocatalysis, were discussed.

  12. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs) consisting of high-strength alloys and ceramic reinforcement phases exhibit a high potential for security relevant lightweight components due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, their application as tribologically stressed components is limited because of their susceptibility against fatigue wear and delamination wear. Oxide ceramic protective coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can solve these problems and extend the possible applications of AMCs. The substrate material was powder metallurgically processed using alloy EN AW 2017 and SiC or Al2O3 particles. The influence of material properties like particle type, size and volume fraction on coating characteristics is clarified within this work. An alkaline silicate electrolyte was used to produce PEO coatings with technically relevant thicknesses under bipolar-pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The particle type proved to have the most significant effect on the coating properties. Whereas compactness and thickness are not deteriorated by the incorporation of thermodynamically stable alumina particles, the decomposition of silica particles during the PEO processes causes an increase of the porosity. The higher silica particle content decreases also the coating thickness and hardness, which leads in particular to reduction of the wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Finally, different approaches for the reduction of the coating porosity of silica reinforced AMCs are discussed.

  13. High power density thin film SOFCs with YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungmee; Kim, YoungNam; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Manthiram, Arumugam; Wang Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: . A: Cross-sectional TEM images show a GDC single layer and YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte structures. As clearly observed from TEM images, the YSZ interlayer thickness varies from ∼330 nm to ∼1 μm. B: The cell with the bilayer electrolyte (YSZ ∼330 nm) doubles the overall power output at 750 deg. C compared to that achieved in the GDC single layer cell. Display Omitted Highlights: → YSZ/ GDC bilayer thin film electrolytes were deposited by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. → Thin YSZ film as a blocking layer effectively suppresses the cell voltage drop without reducing the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte layer. → The YSZ/ GDC bilayer structure presents a feasible architecture for enhancing the overall power density and enabling chemical, mechanical, and structural stability in the cells. - Abstract: Bilayer electrolytes composed of a gadolinium-doped CeO 2 (GDC) layer (∼6 μm thickness) and an yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) layer with various thicknesses (∼330 nm, ∼440 nm, and ∼1 μm) were deposited by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique for thin film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs). The bilayer electrolytes were prepared between a NiO-YSZ (60:40 wt.% with 7.5 wt.% carbon) anode and La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 -Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 (50:50 wt.%) composite cathode for anode-supported single cells. Significantly enhanced maximum power density was achieved, i.e., a maximum power density of 188, 430, and 587 mW cm -2 was measured in a bilayer electrolyte single cell with ∼330 nm thin YSZ at 650, 700, and 750 deg. C, respectively. The cell with the bilayer electrolyte (YSZ ∼330 nm) doubles the overall power output at 750 deg. C compared to that achieved in the GDC single layer cell. This signifies that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer for preventing electrical current leakage in the GDC layer and also provides chemical, mechanical, and structural integrity in the cell, which leads to the overall enhanced

  14. [Bile leakage after liver resection: A retrospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menclová, K; Bělina, F; Pudil, J; Langer, D; Ryska, M

    2015-12-01

    Many previous reports have focused on bile leakage after liver resection. Despite the improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care the incidence of this complication rather keeps increasing. A number of predictive factors have been analyzed. There is still no consensus regarding their influence on the formation of bile leakage. The objective of our analysis was to evaluate the incidence of bile leakage, its impact on mortality and duration of hospitalization at our department. At the same time, we conducted an analysis of known predictive factors. The authors present a retrospective review of the set of 146 patients who underwent liver resection at the Department of Surgery of the 2nd Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University and Central Military Hospital Prague, performed between 20102013. We used the current ISGLS (International Study Group of Liver Surgery) classification to evaluate the bile leakage. The severity of this complication was determined according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Statistical significance of the predictive factors was determined using Fishers exact test and Students t-test. The incidence of bile leakage was 21%. According to ISGLS classification the A, B, and C rates were 6.5%, 61.2%, and 32.3%, respectively. The severity of bile leakage according to the Clavien-Dindo classification system - I-II, IIIa, IIIb, IV and V rates were 19.3%, 42%, 9.7%, 9.7%, and 19.3%, respectively. We determined the following predictive factors as statistically significant: surgery for malignancy (pBile leakage significantly prolonged hospitalization time (pbile leakage the perioperative mortality was 23 times higher (pBile leakage is one of the most serious complications of liver surgery. Most of the risk factors are not easily controllable and there is no clear consensus on their influence. Intraoperative leak tests could probably reduce the incidence of bile leakage. In the future, further studies will be required to improve

  15. WWER steam generator tube structural and leakage integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Krhounek, Vl.; Otruba, J.; Ruscak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the lifetime of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirements are to assure very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evaluation and heat exchange tubes plugging. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damages of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through wall cracks, oriented preferentially in the axial direction. The paper presents the leakage and plugging limits for WWER steam generators, which have been determined from leak tests and burst tests. The tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects have been used. The permissible value of primary to secondary leak rate was evaluated with respect to permissible axial through-wall defect size of WWER 440 and 1000 steam generator tubes. Blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other compounds reduces the primary to secondary leak rate. The plugging limits involve the following factors: permissible tube wall thickness which determine further operation of the tubes with defects and assures their integrity under operating conditions and permissible size of a through-wall crack which is sufficiently stable under normal and accident conditions in relation to the critical crack length. For the evaluation of burst test of heat exchange tubes with longitudinal through-wall defects the instability criterion has been used and the dependence of the normalised burst pressure on the normalised length of an axial through-wall defect has been determined. The validity of the criterion of instability for WWER tubes with through

  16. Excessive leakage measurement using pressure decay method in containment building local leakage rate test at nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Kyu; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Wang Bae [KHNP, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    There are two methods for conducting the containment local leakage rate test (LLRT) in nuclear power plants: the make-up flow rate method and the pressure decay method. The make-up flow rate method is applied first in most power plants. In this method, the leakage rate is measured by checking the flow rate of the make-up flow. However, when it is difficult to maintain the test pressure because of excessive leakage, the pressure decay method can be used as a complementary method, as the leakage rates at pressures lower than normal can be measured using this method. We studied the method of measuring over leakage using the pressure decay method for conducting the LLRT for the containment building at a nuclear power plant. We performed experiments under conditions similar to those during an LLRT conducted on-site. We measured the characteristics of the leakage rate under varies pressure decay conditions, and calculated the compensation ratio based on these data.

  17. Introduction. Aluminium production on electrolytic cells with calcined anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter presents the monograph content, which includes the description of physicochemical processes in aluminium electrolytic cells, and mechanism of electrolytic aluminium obtaining. The short description of aluminium electrolytic cells construction is presented in this book as well.

  18. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  19. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  20. Hydrogel membrane electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Polymer electrolytes are known to possess excellent physicochemical properties that are very useful for electrochemical energy systems. The mobility in polymer electrolytes is understood to be mainly due to the segmental motion of polymer chains and the ion transport is generally restricted to the amorphous ...

  1. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  2. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nishiumi

    2009-01-01

    spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and NH4Cl to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte Al2O3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  3. New Fabrication Strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriver, D

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to fabricate lithium-polymer batteries by techniques that may produce a thin electrolyte and cathode films and with minimal contamination during fabrication. One such technique, ultrasonic spray was used. Another objective of this research was to test lithium cells that incorporate the new polymer electrolytes and polyelectrolytes.

  4. F4U production by electrolytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban Duque, A.; Gispert Benach, M.; Hernandez Arroyo, F.; Montes Ponce de Leon, M.; Rojas de Diego, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    As a part of the nuclear fuel cycle program developed at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission it has been studied the electrolytic reduction of U-VI to U-IV. The effect of the materials, electrolyte concentration, pH, current density, cell size and laboratory scale production is studied. The Pilot Plant and the production data are also described. (Author) 18 refs

  5. Safeguard monitoring of direct electrolytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurovitzki, Abraham L.

    Nuclear power is regaining global prominence as a sustainable energy source as the world faces the consequences of depending on limited fossil based, CO2 emitting fuels. A key component to achieving this sustainability is to implement a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Without achieving this goal, a relatively small fraction of the energy value in nuclear fuel is actually utilized. This involves recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)---separating fissile actinides from waste products and using them to fabricate fresh fuel. Pyroprocessing is a viable option being developed for this purpose with a host of benefits compared to other recycling options, such as PUREX. Notably, pyroprocessing is ill suited to separate pure plutonium from spent fuel and thus has non-proliferation benefits. Pyroprocessing involves high temperature electrochemical and chemical processing of SNF in a molten salt electrolyte. During this batch process, several intermediate and final streams are produced that contain radioactive material. While pyroprocessing is ineffective at separating pure plutonium, there are various process misuse scenarios that could result in diversion of impure plutonium into one or more of these streams. This is a proliferation risk that should be addressed with innovative safeguards technology. One approach to meeting this challenge is to develop real time monitoring techniques that can be implemented in the hot cells and coupled with the various unit operations involved with pyroprocessing. Current state of the art monitoring techniques involve external chemical assaying which requires sample removal from these unit operations. These methods do not meet International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) timeliness requirements. In this work, a number of monitoring techniques were assessed for their viability as online monitoring tools. A hypothetical diversion scenario for the direct electrolytic reduction process was experimentally verified (using Nd2O3 as a surrogate for PuO2

  6. Investigation of electrolyte leaching in the performance degradation of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane-based high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Hun; Oh, Kyeongmin; Ahn, Sungha; Kim, Na Young; Byeon, Ayeong; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Ju, Hyunchul; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-09-01

    Precise monitoring of electrolyte leaching in high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) devices during lifetime tests is helpful in making a diagnosis of their quality changes and analyzing their electrochemical performance degradation. Here, we investigate electrolyte leaching in the performance degradation of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane-based HT-PEMFCs. We first perform quantitative analyses to measure PA leakage during cell operation by spectrophotometric means, and a higher PA leakage rate is detected when the current density is elevated in the cell. Second, long-term degradation tests under various current densities of the cells and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis are performed to examine the influence of PA loss on the membrane and electrodes during cell performance degradation. The combined results indicate that PA leakage affect cell performance durability, mostly due to an increase in charge transfer resistance and a decrease in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of the electrodes. Additionally, a three-dimensional (3-D) HT-PEMFC model is applied to a real-scale experimental cell, and is successfully validated against the polarization curves measured during various long-term experiments. The simulation results highlight that the PA loss from the cathode catalyst layer (CL) is a significant contributor to overall performance degradation.

  7. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of electrolyte fill-level on electrode performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitai, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this report, we will exhibit the effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances.

  8. Leakage evaluation in the PCV (Primary Containment Vessel) using chemical and radiochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Nagasawa, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Keeping the reliability of nuclear power plant operation, the primary coolant leakage in the PCV is strictly restricted by the Technical Specifications. It is very important to detect an indication of leakage and estimate the source of leakage to provide countermeasures. Usually the indication of leakage will be detected by increase of drain flow in the PCV sump. There are some possibilities of leakage sources in the PCV, such as reactor water, main steam, condensate, feedwater and closed cooling water. The leakage source contain different chemical and radiochemical species. This means that the leakage source can be presumed and detected by using chemical information from the PCV atmosphere and sump water. To detect the leakage indication and the source quickly and exactly, the PCV Leakage Detection Expert System has been developed. This paper describes how to evaluate the leakage indication and source in the PCV by using chemical and radiochemical data. (author)

  9. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites.

  10. [Research on the spectral feature and identification of the surface vegetation stressed by stored CO2 underground leakage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hao; Jiang, Jin-Bao; Steven, Michael D; Gong, A-Du; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-07-01

    With the global climate warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions becomes a focused problem for the world. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) techniques could mitigate CO2 into atmosphere, but there is a risk in case that the CO2 leaks from underground. The objective of this paper is to study the chlorophyll contents (SPAD value), relative water contents (RWC) and leaf spectra changing features of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress through field experiment. The result shows that the chlorophyll contents and RWC of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress become lower than the control beetroot', and the leaf reflectance increases in the 550 nm region and decreases in the 680nm region. A new vegetation index (R550/R680) was designed for identifying beetroot under CO2 leakage stress, and the result indicates that the vegetation index R550/R680 could identify the beetroots after CO2 leakage for 7 days. The index has strong sensitivity, stability and identification for monitoring the beetroots under CO2 stress. The result of this paper has very important meaning and application values for selecting spots of CCS project, monitoring and evaluating land-surface ecology under CO2 stress and monitoring the leakage spots by using remote sensing.

  11. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohigashi, N. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Tsunawaki, Y. [Osaka Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Imasaki, K. [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  12. Report on the water leakage from instrumentation pipe in JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    On December 10, 2002, the leakage was found at the pressure instrumentation pipe attached to the exit pipe of No.1 charging pump of the purification system of a primary cooling system at JMTR in the Oarai Research establishment, JAERI. The Investigation Committee for Water Leakage from Instrumentation Pipe in JMTR was established and organized by specialists from inside and outside JAERI on December 16 and its meeting was held in public 3 times by 6th January, 2003. They found out the cause and countermeasures of cracks, and also investigated enhancement of safety management. As the result, it was considered that the leakage started around the 6th of December 2002 and the cause of the cracks was due to fatigue by vibration of the charging pump during operation. The committee discovered following incorrect actions in the safety management. First, operation of JMTR was continued without keeping careful watch in spite of occurrence of leakage detector alarm. Second, every time when the alarm range for the reasons other than the leakage, appropriate investigation and countermeasure were not taken. Third, the manager in charge didn't have a fair understanding of the situation and didn't give an appropriate direction. This is the report on the cause and countermeasures of cracks and enhancement of safety management. (author)

  13. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS AND METH....... On this basis it was decided to discontinue the study prematurely for ethical reasons. CONCLUSION: Decompression of the anastomosis with a transanal stent does not reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage after anterior resection.......OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: Randomized open trial of 194 patients operated in 11 hospitals during September 2000 to September 2003 with anterior resection for a mobile rectal tumour, 115 men and 79 women, median age 68 years (range 37-90 years). The surgeon decided upon the use of a protective ileostomy, and after...

  14. New Method for Leakage Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Attari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays water loss has been turned into a global concern and on the other hand the demand for water is increasing. This problem has made the demand management and consumption pattern reform necessary. One of the most important methods for managing water consumption is to decrease the water loss. In this study by using neural networks, a new method is presented to specify the location and quantity of leakages in water distribution networks.  In this method, by producing the training data and applying it to neural network, the network is able to determine approximate location and quantity of nodal leakage with receiving the nodal pressure. Production of training data is carried out by applying assumed leakage to specific nodes in the network and calculating the new nodal pressures. The results show that by minimum use of hydraulic data taken from pressures, not only this method can determine the location of nodal leakages, but also it can specify the amount of leakage on each node with reasonable accuracy.

  15. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C.E.; Dinc, O.S.; Bagepalli, B.S.; Correia, V.H.; Aksit, M.F.

    1996-04-23

    A gas-path leakage seal is described for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the ``plane`` of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member. 4 figs.

  16. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai; Ohm, Joon Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6–20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6–38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5–14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10–58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites

  17. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates

  18. Simulating CO₂ leakages from CCS to determine Zn toxicity using the marine microalgae Pleurochrysis roscoffensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Chamizo, Esther; De Orte, Manoela Romanó; DelValls, Tomás Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    Due to the current climate change and ocean acidification, a new technology for CO2 mitigation has been proposed, the Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). However, there is an ecological risk associated with potential CO2 leakages from the sub-seabed storages sites. To evaluate the effects related to CO2 leakages, laboratory-scales experiments were performed using the marine microalgae Pleurochrysis roscoffensis. Five Zn concentrations were tested at different pHs to study Zn toxicity under acidified conditions. Seawater was collected and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection and by HCl addition. Results showed differences between both acidification techniques: while microalgae growth was enhanced by CO2 supply, reaching the optimal growth at pH 6.5 and full inhibition at pH 5.5, HCl acidification growth was inhibited at pH 6.5. Although small concentrations of Zn were positive for P. roscoffensis growth, Zn toxicity increased at lower pHs, and more severely on samples acidified with HCl. The conclusions obtained in this work are useful to address the potential effects on the marine ecosystem related to changes in metal bioavailability during CO2 leakages scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 4D ERT Monitoring of Subsurface Water Pipe Leakage During a Controlled Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, C.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Meldrum, P.; Swift, R. T.; Uhlemann, S.; Gunn, D.; Dashwood, B.; Taxil, J.; Curioni, G.

    2016-12-01

    Locating and delineating leakage from subsurface pipelines is an important task for civil engineers. 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows changes in subsurface resistivity to be imaged at a high spatial and temporal resolution in a minimally invasive manner. It is therefore a promising tool to supplement conventional point-sensing techniques to monitor subsurface flow processes. To assess the efficacy of ERT for pipe leakage monitoring several controlled leak experiments were carried out at a test site in Blagdon, Bristol, UK. To simulate the leak, a plastic pipe with a hole was buried below a flat, grassed area at a depth of 0.7 m, representing a standard UK mains water pipe installation. The water table at the site lies well below the surface meaning that the experiment took entirely place in the vadose zone, where changes in resistivity are primarily sensitive to water content variations. The ERT array covered an area of 6.5m x 6.5m around the leak location. Data acquisition was carried out with the BGS PRIME (Proactive Infrastructure Monitoring and Evaluation) system, which facilitates remote scheduling and autonomous ERT data collection and transmission. To obtain the resistivity changes of the subsurface a 4D inversion was carried out using a Gauss-Newton approach with spatial and temporal smoothness constraints. We were able to reliably observe the onset, spread and cessation of the leakage. Measurements from in-situ soil sensors at several depths above and below the leak complemented the ERT data and allowed us to assess their reliability and directly relate them to hydrogeological processes. Moreover, through experimental tests with soil samples from the test area, a Waxman-Smits relation was obtained to directly convert the changes in electrical resistivity to gravimetric soil moisture content. With future experiments on the test site more work is planned towards survey optimization, automated processing and tracking of leakage plumes.

  20. Assessment of leakage dose in vivo in patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta Lonski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Accurate quantification of the relatively small radiation doses delivered to untargeted regions during breast irradiation in patients with breast cancer is of increasing clinical interest for the purpose of estimating long-term radiation-related risks. Out-of-field dose calculations from commercial planning systems however may be inaccurate which can impact estimates for long-term risks associated with treatment. This work compares calculated and measured dose out-of-field and explores the application of a correction for leakage radiation. Materials and methods: Dose calculations of a Boltzmann transport equation solver, pencil beam-type, and superposition-type algorithms from a commercial treatment planning system (TPS were compared with in vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD measurements conducted out-of-field on the contralateral chest at points corresponding to the thyroid, axilla and contralateral breast of eleven patients undergoing tangential beam radiotherapy for breast cancer. Results: Overall, the TPS was found to under-estimate doses at points distal to the radiation field edge with a modern linear Boltzmann transport equation solver providing the best estimates. Application of an additive correction for leakage (0.04% of central axis dose improved correlation between the measured and calculated doses at points greater than 15 cm from the field edge. Conclusions: Application of a correction for leakage doses within peripheral regions is feasible and could improve accuracy of TPS in estimating out-of-field doses in breast radiotherapy. Keywords: Breast radiotherapy, TLD, Leakage dose, Dose calculation algorithm

  1. Leakage current-induced effects in the silicon microstrip and gas electron multiplier readout chain and their compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, W.; Kasinski, K.

    2018-04-01

    Leakage current flowing into the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a common issue in many radiation detection systems as it can increase overall system noise, shift a DC baseline or even lead a recording channel to instability. The commonly known leakage current contributor is a detector, however other system components like wires or an input protection circuit may become a serious problem. Compensation of the leakage current resulting from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuit by properly sizing its components is possible only for a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current from external sources can be significantly larger. Many applications, especially High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, require a fast baseline restoration for high input hit rates by applying either a low-value feedback resistor or a high feedback resistance combined with a pulsed reset circuit. Leakage current flowing in the feedback in conjunction with a large feedback resistance supplied with a pulsed reset results in a significant voltage offset between the CSA input and output which can cause problems (e.g. fake hits or instability). This paper shows an issue referred to the leakage current of the ESD protection circuit flowing into the input amplifier. The following analysis and proposed solution is a result of the time and energy readout ASIC project realization for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Germany. This chip is purposed to work with microstrip and gaseous detectors, with high average input pulses frequencies (250 kHit/s per channel) and the possibility to process input charge of both polarities. We present measurements of the test structure fabricated in UMC 180 nm technology and propose a solution addressing leakage current related issues. This work combines the leakage current compensation capabilities at the CSA level with high, controllable value of the amplifier

  2. On the use of voltammetric methods to determine electrochemical stability limits for lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georén, Peter; Lindbergh, Göran

    In previous studies a novel amphiphilic co-polymer was developed for use in lithium-ion batteries. In order to evaluate the electrochemical stability of that electrolyte and compare it with others, a voltammetric method was applied on a set of electrolytes with different salts, solvents and polymers. However, initially the voltammetric methodology was studied. Platinum was found to be the most suited electrode material, experiencing no significant interfering reactions and a proper diffusion-controlled kinetic behaviour when sweep rate was varied. Furthermore, the influence on the voltammograms of adding water traces to the electrolytes was studied. It could be established that the oxidation peak around 3.8 V versus Li was related to water reactions. It was concluded that quantitative voltage values of the stability limits were difficult to assess using voltammetry. On the other hand, the method seemed well suited for comparison of electrolytes and to investigate the influences of electrolyte components on the stability. The voltammetric results varied little between the different electrolytes evaluated and the anodic and cathodic limits, as defined here, were in the range of 1 and 4.5 V vs. Li, respectively. Although the novel polymer did not affect the stability limit significantly it seemed to promote the breakdown reaction rate in all electrolytes tested. Furthermore, the use of LiTFSI salt reduced the stability window.

  3. A bifunctional electrolyte additive for separator wetting and dendrite suppression in lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Xie, Yong; Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Liang, Xin; Xu, Wu

    2018-04-01

    Reformulation of electrolyte systems and improvement of separator wettability are vital to electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries, especially for suppressing Li dendrites. In this work we report a bifunctional electrolyte additive that improves separator wettability and suppresses Li dendrite growth in LMBs. A triblock polyether (Pluronic P123) was introduced as an additive into a commonly used carbonate-based electrolyte. It was found that addition of 0.2~1% (by weight) P123 into the electrolyte could effectively enhance the wettability of polyethylene separator. More importantly, the adsorption of P123 on Li metal surface can act as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer and contribute to suppress the growth of Li dendrites. A smooth and dendritic-free morphology can be achieved in the electrolyte with 0.2% P123. The Li||Li symmetric cells with the 0.2% P123 containing electrolyte exhibit a relatively stable cycling stability at high current densities of 1.0 and 3.0 mA cm-2.

  4. Effect of membrane and through-wall bending stresses on fatigue crack growth behavior and coolant leakage velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon-Sik

    2003-11-01

    This study clarified the effect of a membrane and a through-wall bending stresses on fatigue crack growth behavior and coolant leakage velocity due to irregularity of crack surface. Each stress component relates to fatigue crack growth behavior directly in general and thus the wild-used K I solutions are anticipated to give good evaluation results on it. Meanwhile, it is necessary to notify that surface irregularity for coolant leakage assessment is made by stress history in nature. Surface irregularity is known to be largely classified into the following two aspects: surface roughness due to continuous crack opening and closure behavior and surface turnover due to cyclic bending stress dominance. Therefore, the deterministic parameters on resistance of coolant leakage by surface irregularity are considered to be not only stress history but crack opening behavior. (author)

  5. Comparison of thermally induced and naturally occurring water-borne leakages from hard rock depositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Robinson, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of thermally induced and naturally occurring flows of water as causes of leakage from hard rock depositories for radioactive wastes is assessed. Separate analyses are presented for involatile, high level waste from reprocessing of fuel and for plutonium contaminated waste from fabrication of fuel. The effects of varying the quantities of wastes, pre-burial storage and the shapes and depths of depositories are considered. It is concluded that for representative values of these variables, thermal flow will remain the major cause of leakage for long times after the burial of both types of waste. (Auth.)

  6. Risk factors, treatment and impact on outcomes of bile leakage after hemihepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Si-Ming; Li, Hong; Li, Gen-Cong; Yu, Dan-Song; Ying, Dong-Jian; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Cai-De; Zhou, Xin-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Risk factors for bile leakage after hemihepatectomy are unknown. A prospectively maintained database review identified patients undergoing hemihepatectomy between 1 January 2009 and 30 September 2014. Patients were divided into B/C and non-B/C bile leakage groups. Risk factors for bile leakage were predicted and assessments of their impact on patients were made. Bile leakage occurred in 91 of the 297 patients (30.6%); 64 cases were classified as grade B bile leakage (21.5%) and three cases as grade C bile leakage (1.0%). Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated preoperative alanine transaminase (ALT), positive bile culture during surgery, hilar bile duct plasty, bilioenteric anastomosis and laparoscopic surgery were risk factors for B/C grade bile leakage (P bile leakage (P bile leakage (P bile leakage group were higher than those in the non-B/C bile leakage group (P bile leakage group also required prolonged hospitalization (P 0.05). Patient with elevated preoperative ALT, positive bile cultures during surgery, hilar bile duct plasty, bilioenteric anastomosis and laparoscopic surgery are more likely to complicate bile leakage. We should use biliary drainage such as preoperative PTBD, ENBD or intraoperative Kehr's T-tube drainage to reduce and treat bile leakage in patients with high risk of bile leakage. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  8. Evaluation of isolation valve leakage in alternate charging piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, P.L.; Roarty, D.H.; Brice-Nash, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical and volume control system (CVCS) alternate charging flow path at an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant was determined to be susceptible to adverse stresses from isolation valve leakage. Isolation valve leakage had resulted in pipe cracks at several nuclear units worldwide, as described in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Bulletin 88-08 and its supplements. To provide for continuing assurance that cracks would not initiate over the plant life, the operators considered performing fatigue evaluation to demonstrate structural integrity of the system. This evaluation included heat transfer, stress and fatigue analysis, using methods described in Electric Power Research Institute Report ''Thermal Stratification, Cycling, and Striping (TASCS),'' March 1994. The evaluation concluded that the fatigue usage would be less than 1.0 under worst case isolation valve leakage conditions, and therefore a significant investment in permanent temperature monitoring was avoided

  9. Functions and requirements for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. A Mission Analysis has been completed, this document reflects the next step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The functions and requirements in this document apply to mitigative actions to be taken regarding below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage mitigation is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities

  10. Research on leakage detection of nuclear power station primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Shengquan; Yang Jicai; Li Jianjun; Dong Zhijuan; Ren Juyan; Zhang Pinyuan

    1993-01-01

    The sensor of leak-detection system is a special humidity-sensitive element. In this system, the collection and treatment of detected data, and the leakage alarm are controlled by a simple board computer. The three parameters A, B and C are set up in this system, and the alarm will give out when signal surpasses values of B and C at the same time. The effects of environment humidity and temperature on collection of detected data are considered, and the leakage alarm is reliable. When the leakage rate of water at 320 degree C and 12.2 MPa is 0.3 g/min, the alarm signal will sent out within 5 s

  11. Leakage of pressurized gases through unlined concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, S.H.; Simmonds, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Eight reinforced concrete specimens were fabricated and subjected to tensile membrane forces and air pressure to study the air leakage characteristics in cracked reinforced concrete members. A mathematical expression for the rate of pressurized air flowing through an idealized crack is presented. The mathematical expression is refined by using the experimental data to describe the air flow rate through any given crack pattern. Graphical charts are also presented for the calculation of the air leakage rate through concrete cracks. The concept of equivalent crack width for a given crack pattern is introduced. The mathematical expression and graphical charts are modified to include this equivalent crack width concept. The proposed technique is applicable for the prediction of the leakage from concrete containment structures or any similar structures due to high internal pressure sufficient to initiate cracking. (orig.)

  12. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out. (paper)

  13. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out.

  14. On the Connection between Leakage Tolerance and Adaptive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Venturi, Daniele; Zottarel, Angela

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the context of leakage-tolerant interactive protocols as defined by Bitanski, Canetti and Halevi (TCC 2012). Our contributions can be summarized as follows: For the purpose of secure message transmission, any encryption protocol with message space M and secret key space SK tolerating...... at the end of the protocol execution, if and only if the protocol has passive adaptive security against an adaptive corruption of one party at the end of the protocol execution. This shows that as soon as a little leakage is tolerated, one needs full adaptive security. In case more than one party can...... be corrupted, we get that leakage tolerance is equivalent to a weaker form of adaptivity, which we call semi-adaptivity. Roughly, a protocol has semi-adaptive security if there exist a simulator which can simulate the internal state of corrupted parties, however, such a state is not required...

  15. Effect of aqueous electrolytes on the electrochemical behaviors of supercapacitors based on hierarchically porous carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xianyou; Jiang, Lanlan; Wu, Hao; Wu, Chun; Su, Jingcang

    2012-10-01

    Hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) have been prepared by sol-gel self-assembly technology with nickel oxide and surfactant as the dual template. The porous carbons are further activated by nitric acid. The electrochemical behaviors of supercapacitors using HPCs as electrode material in different aqueous electrolytes, e.g., (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, H2SO4 and KOH are studied by cyclic voltametry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic life, leakage current, self-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the supercapacitors in various electrolytes perform definitely capacitive behaviors; especially in 6 M KOH electrolyte the supercapacitor represents the best electrochemical performance, the shortest relaxation time, and nearly ideal polarisability. The energy density of 8.42 Wh kg-1 and power density of 17.22 kW kg-1 are obtained at the operated voltage window of 1.0 V. Especially, the energy density of 11.54 Wh kg-1 and power density of 10.58 kW kg-1 can be achieved when the voltage is up to 1.2 V.

  16. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M. S.; Wahid, A.; Ahmad, M.; Mahboob, N.; Mehmood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Study Design: Prospective, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study. Urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels of all patients included in the study were checked and recorded in the data form with name, age and outcome. The prevalence of electrolyte disorders were ascertained and correlation with age was determined by Pearson's coefficient. Result: At total of 104 patients were included in the study. None of the patients died. Hyperchloremia was the commonest electrolyte disorder (53.8 percentage), followed by hyperkalemia (26.9 percentage) and hypernatremia (17.3 percentage). Hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were present in 10.6 percentage, 7.7 percentage, and 10.6 percentage cases, respectively. Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. Conclusion: Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration. (author)

  18. Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Wahid, Abdul; Ahmad, Mubashra; Mahboob, Nazia; Mehmood, Ramlah

    2016-05-01

    To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels. Prospective, analytical study. Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. All patients from birth to 18 years age, presenting with diarrhea and severe dehydration were included in the study. Urea, creatinine and electrolyte levels of all patients included in the study were checked and recorded in the data form with name, age and outcome. The prevalence of electrolyte disorders were ascertained and correlation with age was determined by Pearson's coefficient. At total of 104 patients were included in the study. None of the patients died. Hyperchloremia was the commonest electrolyte disorder (53.8%), followed by hyperkalemia (26.9%) and hypernatremia (17.3%). Hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were present in 10.6%, 7.7%, and 10.6% cases, respectively. Weak negative correlation was found between age and chloride and potassium levels. Different electrolyte disorders are common in children with diarrhea-related severe dehydration.

  19. Facilely solving cathode/electrolyte interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by constructing an effective solid electrolyte interface film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Xia, Qingbo; Chen, Fangyuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Cheng, Xueyuan; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The cathode/electrolyte interface stability is the key factor for the cyclic performance and the safety performance of lithium ion batteries. Suppression of consuming key elements in the electrode materials is essential in this concern. In this purpose, we investigate a facile strategy to solve interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by adding an oxidable fluorinated phosphate, Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) Phosphite (BTFEP), as a sacrificial additive in electrolyte. We demonstrate that BTFEP additive could be oxidized at slightly above 4.28 V which is a relatively lower voltage than that of solvents, and the oxidative products facilitate in-situ forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the cathode surface. The results manifest the SEI film validly restrains the generation of HF and the interfacial side reaction between high-voltage charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) and electrolyte, hence, the dissolution of Mn and Ni is effectively suppressed. Finally, the cyclic performance of LNMO after 200 cycles was remarkably improved from 68.4% in blank electrolyte to 95% in 1 wt% BTFEP-adding electrolyte.

  20. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  1. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOYBEAN SEED CULTIVARS AND ADJUSTED MODELS OF LEAKAGE CURVES ALONG THE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA RITA SALINAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the behavior of ten soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivars using the electrical conductivity (EC test by the comparison of curves of the accumulative electrolyte leakage along the time and to establish the statistical model that allow the best adjust of the curves. Ten soybean cultivars were used and they were mechanically harvested in 2004 in the EEA Oliveros, Santa Fe, Argentina. Measurements of EC were made for 100 individual seeds of each cultivar during 20 hours of immersion at intervals of 1 hour using an equipment that permit an individual seed analysis (Seed Automatic Analyzer SAD 9000S. There were proposed two statistical models to study the EC along the time of the 10 cultivars studied using SAS Statistics Program, to select the model that better allow us to understand the EC behavior along the time. Model 1 allowed to make comparisons of EC along the time between cultivars and to study the influence of the production environment on the physiological quality of soybean seeds. The time to reach the stabilization of the EC must not be lower than 19 hours for the different cultivars.

  2. Marginal Leakage of Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Introduction: Marginal leakage is one of the significant causes of restoration failure. This in-vitro study was conducted to compare cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and dye-penetration methods for determining marginal leakage at gingival surface of class V resin composite restorations.Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of nineteen caries-free extracted human molar teeth. Cavities were conditioned and filled. The teeth were immersed in a 50% w/w aqueous silver nitrate solution for 24 h and were taken out and rinsed with distilled water. Then, they were put into a developing solution. Whole specimens were first viewed with CBCT and were then sectioned and evaluated by stereomicroscope.Results: Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope revealed that 15 (78.9% teeth had score 0, 1 (5.3% tooth had score 1, and 1 (5.3% tooth had score 2 in both techniques. Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope techniques, in the detection of marginal leakage, was 89.5% (Kappa coefficient = 0.627, P = 0.00. The Wilcoxon paired rank test revealed no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin (P = 0.157.Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, there was no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin of class V composite restorations. CBCT can be used noninvasively to detect the marginal leakage of gingival wall of class V composite restorations using aqueous silver nitrate solution as a tracer.

  3. Electrolytic recovery of mercury enriched in isotopic abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of electrolytically extracting liquid mercury from HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Additionally there are disclosed two related techniques associated with the present invention, namely (1) a technique for selectively removing product from different regions of a long photochemical reactor (photoreactor) and (2) a method of accurately measuring the total quantity of mercury formed as either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

  4. Root cause evaluation of pressurizer relief valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Voll, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pressurizer relief valves at two pressurized water reactor units experienced unacceptable leakage during plant heatup. The leakage was suspected to be caused by excessive pipe loads on the valves. This paper describes how monitoring via hard-wired transducers and a digital data acquisition system was used to quantify the pipe loads on the valves, and assist in determining the root cause of the pipe loads and appropriate corrective actions. The selection of the parameters monitored, how the monitoring was accomplished and interpretation of the results is discussed. The corrective actions implemented based on the monitoring results are also discussed

  5. Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic/dielectric/metal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    side of a hemisphere fused silica prism with an index matching liquid was illuminated under normal incidence by a He-Cd 325 nm laser. Two orthogonal linear polarizations were used both parallel and perpendicular to the detection plane. Spectrally resolved leakage radiation was observed on the opposite......Leakage radiation spectroscopy of organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) molecules has been performed in the spectral range 420-675 nm which overlaps with the p-6P photoluminescence band. The p-6P was deposited on 40 nm silver (Ag) films on BK7 glass, covered with SiO2 layers. The SiO2 layer thickness...

  6. Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible

  7. Carbon leakage revisited. Unilateral climate policy under directed technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Corrado Di; Van derWerf, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of unilateral climate policy in the presence of directed technical change. We develop a dynamic two-country model in which two otherwise identical countries differ in their environmental policy: one of the countries enforces a (binding) cap on emissions while the other does not. Focusing on carbon leakage, we show how, compared with a 'traditional' endogenous growth model, directed technical change will always lead to lower emissions in the unconstrained country. When clean and dirty goods are good substitutes, it may even be induced to reduce its emissions below the optimum level when both countries are unconstrained, so leakage is negative

  8. Leakage tests of wall segments of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkalla, S.H.; Simmonds, S.H.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-10-01

    Two prestressed concrete wall segments simulating portions of containment walls were loaded by axial tensile forces to cause cracking of the concrete. At each load increment air pressure was applied in steps up to 21 psi to one side of the segment and the rate of leakage of air through the cracked concrete section was measured. A theoretical equation for the flow of air through concrete cracks is developed and the results from one leakage test are used to determine the dimensionless constant required for this equation. (author)

  9. Recent progress in electrocatalysts with mesoporous structures for application in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Zucheng; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recently mesoporous materials have drawn great attention in fuel cell related applications, such as preparation of polymer electrolyte membranes and catalysts, hydrogen storage and purification. In this mini-review, we focus on recent developments in mesoporous electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, including metallic and metal-free catalysts for use as either anode or cathode catalysts. Mesoporous Pt-based metals have been synthesized as anode catalysts with improved a...

  10. Validation of micro-CT against the section method regarding the assessment of marginal leakage of sealants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Fan, M.W.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the micro-CT and related software against the section method using the stereomicroscope for marginal leakage assessment along the sealant-enamel interface. METHODS: Pits and fissures of the occlusal surface of 10 teeth were sealed with a

  11. Functions and requirements for Hanford single-shell tank leakage detection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for leakage detection and monitoring applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. This document reflects the an initial step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The document is considered approximately 30% complete relative to the effort required to produce a final version that can be used to support demonstration and/or procurement of technologies. The functions and requirements in this document apply to detection and monitoring of below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage detection and monitoring is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities (as identified in DOE/RL-92-60 Rev. 1, Tank Waste Remediation System Functions and Requirements)

  12. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t’am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  13. Cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test identified perilymph leakage preoperatively in revision stapes surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yuko; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Yuen, Koji; Maeda, Yukihide; Sugaya, Akiko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as an abnormal leakage between perilymph from the labyrinth to the middle ear. Symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The standard mode of PLF detection is intraoperative visualization of perilymph leakage and fistula, which ostensibly confirms the existence of PLF. Other possible methods of diagnosis include confirmation of pneumolabyrinth via diagnostic imaging. Recently, a cochlin-tomoprotein (CTP) detection test has been developed that allows definitive diagnosis of PLF-related hearing loss. We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with right-sided tinnitus, hearing loss, and dizziness 30 years after stapes surgery. Middle ear lavage was performed after myringotomy. A preoperative diagnosis of PLF was reached using the CTP detection test. Intraoperative observations included a necrotic long process of the incus, displaced wire piston, and fibrous tissue in the oval window. Perilymph leakage was not evident. The oval window was closed with fascia, and vertigo disappeared within 2 weeks postoperatively. When PLF is suspected after stapes surgery, the CTP detection test can be a useful, highly sensitive, and less invasive method for preoperative diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benchmarks on neutron leakage from iron and beryllium slabs and spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, S.; Ilieva, K.; Popova, I.; Antonov, S.

    1998-01-01

    Five benchmarks, recommended by the IAEA for nuclear power engineering have been calculated for assessment of Iron and Beryllium neutron data from the recent FENDL version. The FENDL multigroup data processed in IAEA by NJOY code are in VITAMIN-J energy structure in MATXS format. These data have been converted to ANISN format by TRANSX code, ported to PC version and collected to binary library by LIBFENDL code, that we have created especially for this purpose. Neutron transport calculations have been carried out by the codes ANISN, GRTUNCL and DORT. The benchmark for neutron leakage from 25 cm radius Iron sphere with 252 Cf source posses to test FENDL Iron data for LWRs application. Other two benchmarks important for fusion application correspond to the 14 MeV neutron transmission through Iron sphere shell (Simakov S.P. et al., IPPE, Obninsk) and Iron slabs (Y. Oyama, H. Maekawa, FNS/ JAERI). The comparison of measured and calculation results demonstrates discouraged inconsistency when material thickness exceeds 20 cm. Modelling of the angular neutron leakage from 14 MeV source transmitted through Beryllium slabs (H. Maekawa and Y. Oyama at FNS/JAERI) and scalar neutron leakage spectra through sphere shell (Simakov S.P. at al in IPPE, Obninsk) is important for studding the multiplication properties of Beryllium as a fusion blanket material. The measured and calculated results are in relatively good consistency

  15. Anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for low rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Skrovina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our single centre comparative study is focused on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in patients with middle and low rectal cancer with attention to complications of double stapling coloanal anastomosis with and without protective ileostomy. Material and methods: From 1 January 2005 to 30 June 2008, 349 patients with rectal cancer underwent surgery at our centre. Of these, 114 patients (41 women and 73 men with middle and low rectal cancer ( 12 cm from the anal verge after laparoscopic resection with total mesorectal excision and primary coloanal anastomosis were included in the study. There were 64 patients with primary anastomosis without protective ileostomy in the first group, and 50 patients with primary protective ileostomy in the second one. Anastomotic leakage was defined as presence of stapler line dehiscence, presacral abscess or rectovaginal fistula.Results: Coloanal anastomotic leakage was present in 11.4% of cases (13 of 114 patients. In the no stoma group leakage was present in 17.2% of cases, in the stoma group in 4.0% of cases. Reoperation was needed in 9.4% (6 of 64 in the no stoma group and in 2.0% (1 of 50 in the stoma group. Stage of disease was found to be another factor influencing anastomotic healing. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to preoperative chemoradiotherapy, sex, body mass index, ASA score, age, time of surgery and tumour location in our study. Conclusions: Protective loop ileostomy significantly reduces the presence of symptomatic anastomotic leakage of double stapling coloanal anastomosis after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in patients with low rectal cancer.

  16. Eddy covariance observations of surface leakage during shallow subsurface CO2 releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hilley, George E.; Fischer, Marc L.; Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Dobeck, Laura; Spangler, Lee

    2009-06-01

    We tested the ability of eddy covariance (EC) to detect, locate, and quantify surface CO2 flux leakage signals within a background ecosystem. For 10 days starting on 9 July 2007, and for 7 days starting on 3 August 2007, 0.1 (Release 1) and 0.3 (Release 2) t CO2 d-1, respectively, were released from a horizontal well ˜100 m in length and ˜2.5 m in depth located in an agricultural field in Bozeman, Montana. An EC station measured net CO2 flux (Fc) from 8 June 2006 to 4 September 2006 (mean and standard deviation = -12.4 and 28.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively) and from 28 May 2007 to 4 September 2007 (mean and standard deviation = -12.0 and 28.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively). The Release 2 leakage signal was visible in the Fc time series, whereas the Release 1 signal was difficult to detect within variability of ecosystem fluxes. To improve detection ability, we calculated residual fluxes (Fcr) by subtracting fluxes corresponding to a model for net ecosystem exchange from Fc. Fcr had reduced variability and lacked the negative bias seen in corresponding Fc distributions. Plotting the upper 90th percentile Fcr versus time enhanced the Release 2 leakage signal. However, values measured during Release 1 fell within the variability assumed to be related to unmodeled natural processes. Fcr measurements and corresponding footprint functions were inverted using a least squares approach to infer the spatial distribution of surface CO2 fluxes during Release 2. When combined with flux source area evaluation, inversion results roughly located the CO2 leak, while resolution was insufficient to quantify leakage rate.

  17. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  18. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  19. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  20. Detection of mechanical damage using the magnetic flux leakage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, L.; Babbar, V.; Byrne, J.

    2007-01-01

    Since magnetism is strongly stress dependent, Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) inspection tools have the potential to locate and characterize mechanical damage in pipelines. However, MFL application to mechanical damage detection faces hurdles which make signal interpretation problematic: 1) the MFL signal is a superposition of geometrical and stress effects; 2) the stress distribution around a mechanically damaged region is very complex, consisting of plastic deformation and residual (elastic) stresses; 3) the effect of stress on magnetic behaviour is not well understood. This paper summarizes recent results of experimental and modeling studies of MFL signals resulting from mechanical damage. In experimental studies, mechanical damage was simulated using a tool and die press to produce dents of varying depths in plate samples. MFL measurements were made before and after selective stress-relieving heat treatments. These annealing treatments enabled the stress and geometry components of the MFL signal to be separated. In general, geometry effects scale with dent depth and tend to dominate in deep dents, while stress contribution to the MFL signals is relatively constant and is more significant for shallow dents. The influence of other parameters such as flux density and topside/bottomside inspection was also quantified. In the finite element analysis work, stress was incorporated by modifying the magnetic permeability in the residual stress regions of the modeled dent. Both stress and geometry contributions to the MFL signal were examined separately. Despite using a number of simplifying assumptions, the modeled results matched the experimental results very closely, and were used to aid in interpretation of the MFL signals. (author)

  1. An Experimental Characterization of Tip Leakage Flows and Corresponding Effects on Multistage Compressor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Reid Adam

    The effect of rotor tip clearances in turbomachinery applications has been a primary research interest for nearly 80 years. Over that time, studies have shown increased tip clearance in axial flow compressors typically has a detrimental effect on overall pressure rise capability, isentropic efficiency, and stall margin. With modern engine designs trending toward decreased core sizes to increase propulsive efficiency (by increasing bypass ratio) or additional compression stages to increase thermal efficiency by increasing the overall pressure ratio, blade heights in the rear stages of the high pressure compressor are expected to decrease. These rear stages typically feature smaller blade aspect ratios, for which endwall flows are more important, and the rotor tip clearance height represents a larger fraction of blade span. As a result, data sets collected with large relative rotor tip clearance heights are necessary to facilitate these future small core design goals. This research seeks to characterize rotor tip leakage flows for three tip clearance heights in the Purdue three-stage axial compressor facility (1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.0% as a percentage of overall annulus height). The multistage environment of this compressor provides the unique opportunity to examine tip leakage flow effects due to stage matching, stator-rotor interactions, and rotor-rotor interactions. The important tip leakage flow effects which develop as a result of these interactions are absent for previous studies which have been conducted using single-stage machines or isolated rotors. A series of compressor performance maps comprise points at four corrected speeds for each of the three rotor tip clearance heights. Steady total pressure and total temperature measurements highlight the effects of tip leakage flows on radial profiles and wake shapes throughout the compressor. These data also evaluate tip clearance effects on efficiency, stall margin, and peak pressure rise capability. An emphasis of

  2. Electrolytic Preparation of High Dielectric Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hultquist, A. E; Sibert, M. E

    1966-01-01

    .... Some attention is devoted to zirconates, niobates, and tantalates. In addition to barium compounds, the comparable calcium, magnesium, strontium and potassium double oxides are evaluated by the appropriate electrolytic techniques...

  3. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  4. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2007-04-21

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.

  5. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime

  6. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the ... the modulatory responses of the autonomic nervous system ..... Concurrent hyponatremia and hypocalcemia have.

  7. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  8. EFFECT OF MULTIPARITY ON ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Serum electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) were measured using standard ... There was also no significant difference in blood pressure among the groups and between ... substances as well as exaggerated response to posture. (Korda, 1987).

  9. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  10. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  11. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappa, Frédéric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France). Cote d' Azur Observatory. GeoAzur

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  12. Redo coloanal anastomosis for anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectal cancer: an analysis of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerduin, E; Borstlap, W A A; Musters, G D; Westerterp, M; van Geloven, A A W; Tanis, P J; Wolthuis, A M; Bemelman, W A; D'Hoore, A

    2018-01-01

    The construction of a new coloanal anastomosis (CAA) following anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection (LAR) is challenging. The available literature on this topic is scarce. The aim of this two-centre study was to determine the clinical success and morbidity after redo CAA. This retrospective cohort study included all patients with anastomotic leakage after LAR for rectal cancer who underwent a redo CAA between 2010 and 2014 in two tertiary referral centres. Short- and long-term morbidity were analysed, including both anastomotic leakage and permanent stoma rates on completion of follow-up. A total of 59 patients were included, of whom 45 (76%) were men, with a mean age of 59 years (SD ± 9.4). The median interval between index and redo surgery was 14 months [interquartile range (IQR) 8-27]. The median duration of follow-up was 27 months (IQR 17-36). The most frequent complication was anastomotic leakage of the redo CAA occurring in 24 patients (41%), resulting in a median of three reinterventions (IQR 2-4) per patient. At the end of follow-up, bowel continuity was restored in 39/59 (66%) patients. Fourteen (24%) patients received a definitive colostomy and six (10%) still had a diverting ileostomy. In a multivariable model, leakage of the redo CAA was the only risk factor for permanent stoma (OR 0.022; 95% CI 0.004-0.122). Redo CAA is a viable option in selected patients with persisting leakage after LAR for rectal cancer who want their bowel continuity restored. However, patients should be fully informed about the relatively high morbidity and reintervention rates. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. An Experimental Study of Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine in Case of Cylinder Valves Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper shows the results of the laboratory tests on the relationship between throttling of both air intake duct and exhaust gas duct and a gaseous emission from the marine engine. The object of research is a laboratory, four-stroke, DI diesel engine, operated at loads from 50 kW to 250 kW at a constant speed equal to 750 rpm. During the laboratory tests over 50 parameters of the engine were measured with its technical condition recognized as a „working properly” and with simulated leakage of both air intake valve and exhaust gas valve on the second cylinder. The results of this laboratory research confirm that the leakage of cylinder valves causes no significant changes of the thermodynamic parameters of the engine. Simulated leakages through the inlet and exhaust valve caused a significant increase in fuel consumption of the engine. Valve leakages cause an increase of the exhaust gas temperature behind the cylinder with leakage and behind other cylinders. The exhaust gas temperature increase is relatively small and clearly visible only at low loads of the engine. The increase of the temperature and pressure of the charging air behind the intercooler were observed too. Charging air temperature is significantly higher during the engine operation with inlet valve leakage. The study results show significant increases of the CO, NOx and CO2 emission for all the mentioned malfunctions. The conclusion is that the results of measurements of the composition of the exhaust gas may contain valuable diagnostic information about the technical condition of the air intake duct and the exhaust gas duct of the marine engine.

  14. AC plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium with zirconia nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabal, R.; Matykina, E.; Viejo, F.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Merino, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of monoclinic zirconia nanoparticles and their subsequent transformation is examined for coatings formed on magnesium by plasma electrolytic oxidation under AC conditions in silicate electrolyte. The coatings are shown to comprise two main layers, with nanoparticles entering the coating at the coating surface and through short-circuit paths to the region of the interface between the inner and outer coating layers. Under local heating of microdischarges, the zirconia reacts with magnesium species to form Mg 2 Zr 5 O 12 in the outer coating layer. Relatively little zirconium is present in the inner coating layer. In contrast, silicon species are present in both coating layers, with reduced amounts in the inner layer

  15. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  16. Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Lim, Younhee; Roy, Basab; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seok-Soo

    2014-12-21

    Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.

  17. Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.; Propst, R.C.

    1980-04-01

    Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP

  18. 75 FR 29699 - Total Inward Leakage Requirements for Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... or other half-mask respirator inward leakage measurement, and offer any additional comments on the..., facsimile (412) 386-4089, e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Department of... order to conduct tests and prepare responses. On April 20, 2010, NIOSH responded by reopening the docket...

  19. University student's education after Fukushima nuclear leakage crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Daying; Gu Jianzhong; Zheng Jianying

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear leakage crisis after 3.11 earthquake and tsunami, the horrible INES-7 accident warns the colleagues all over the world. Own much to the experts' reports on public media, INES classification, basic knowledge of nuclear reactor, nuclear safety and protection had been discussed and brain-stormed in detail. (authors)

  20. Leakage monitoring equipment of fuel element by delayed neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    1999-01-01

    Based on monitoring results of delayed neutrons from reactor first circle water, the leakage of reactor fuel elements is monitored. A monitoring equipment consisted of an array of 3 He proportional counter tubes with 75 s delay has been developed. The neutron detection efficiency of 6.1% is obtained

  1. Benchmarking leakage from water reticulation systems in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Abstract. A project to assess the levels of leakage in 30 water utilities throughout South Africa was initiated by the Water ... average operating pressure, systems input volume and the compo- ... simple, user-friendly model that is based on an excel spreadsheet ..... One can see from the four graphs presented here that various.

  2. Development of Wireless System for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Oh, Eung-Se; Yang, Seung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    The containment system leakage rate should be estimated periodically with reliable test equipment. In light-water reactor nuclear power plants, ANSI/ANS- 56.8 is a basis for determining leakage rates. Two types of data acquisition system, centralized type and networked type, has been used. In centralized type, all sensors are connected directly from sensors in the containment to the measuring equipment outside the building. The other hand, the networked type has several branch chains which connect one group of the network-sensors together. To test leakage rate, more than 20 temperature sensors and 6 humidity sensors, which are different for each plant, should be installed on a specific level in the containment. A wireless technology gives the benefits such as reducing installation efforts, making pretest easy, so it is widely used more and more in the plant monitoring. As the containment system has many kinds of complex barriers to the radio frequency, the radio power and frequency band for better transmission rate as well as the interference by the radio frequency should be considered. The overview of the wireless sensor system for the containment leakage rate test is described here and the test results on Yonggwang unit 4 PWR plant is presented

  3. Reaction-driven casing expansion : potential for wellbore leakage mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, Timotheus K. T.; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Christopher J.

    It is generally challenging to predict the post-abandonment behaviour and integrity of wellbores. Leakage is, moreover, difficult to mitigate, particularly between the steel casing and outer cement sheath. Radially expanding the casing with some form of internal plug, thereby closing annular voids

  4. Carbon Leakage Revisited : Unilateral Climate Policy with Directed Technical Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Maria, C.; van der Werf, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in carbondioxide emissions by some countries in reaction to an emission reduction by countries with climate policy (carbon leakage) is seen as a serious threat to unilateral climate policy.Using a two-country model where only one of the countries enforces an exogenous cap on emissions,

  5. 49 CFR 192.723 - Distribution systems: Leakage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following minimum requirements: (1) A leakage survey with leak detector equipment must be conducted in business districts, including tests of the atmosphere in gas, electric, telephone, sewer, and water system... survey with leak detector equipment must be conducted outside business districts as frequently as...

  6. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Keilova, E.; Krhounek, V.; Turek, J.

    1996-01-01

    The leakage and plugging limits were derived for WWER steam generators based on leak and burst tests using tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects. The following conclusions were arrived at: (i) The permissible primary-to-secondary leak rate with respect to the permissible through-wall defect size of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generator tubes is 8 l/h. (ii) The primary-to-secondary leak rate is reduced by the blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other substances. (iii) The rate of crack penetration through the tube wall is higher than the crack widening. (iv) The validity of the criterion of instability for tubes with through-wall cracks was confirmed experimentally. For the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generators, the critical size of axial through-wall cracks, for the threshold primary-to-secondary pressure difference, is 13.8 and 12.0 mm, respectively. (v) The calculated leakage for the rupture of one tube and for the assumed extreme defects is two orders and one order of magnitude, respectively, higher than the proposed primary water leakage limit of 8 l/h. (vi) The experiments gave evidence that the use of the permissible thinning limit of 80% for the heat exchange tube plugging does not bring about uncontrollable leakage or unstable crack growth. This is consistent with experience gained at WWER-440 type nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 9 refs

  7. Superconducting coil configurations, with low flux leakage, for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Viry, O.; Mailfert, A.; Trassart, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents two original types of SMES structures for energy storage. These two groups of SMES structures proceeded from an ideal structure: the full toroid, are modeled by the use of purely surface current densities. Their main advantage is to present no flux leakage, they give then satisfactory solution to the problem of energy storage. (orig.)

  8. Optimized quantization in Zero Leakage Helper data systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanko, T.; Andini, F.N.; Skoric, B.

    2017-01-01

    Helper data systems are a cryptographic primitive that allows for the reproducible extraction of secrets from noisy measurements. Redundancy data called helper data makes it possible to do error correction while leaking little or nothing (Zero Leakage) about the extracted secret string. We study the

  9. Modelling of heterogenous neutron leakages in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohleber, X.

    1997-01-01

    The TIBERE Model is a neutron leakage method based on B 1 heterogeneous transport equation resolution. In this work, we have studied the influence of the reflection mode at the boundary of the assembly. In particular the White boundary condition has been implemented in the APOLLO2 neutron transport code. We have compared the two TIBERE kinds of boundary conditions (specular and white) with the classical B 1 homogeneous leakage method in the modelling of some reactors. We have remarked the better capability of the TIBERE Model to compute voided assemblies. The white boundary condition is also able to compute a completely voided assembly and, besides, wins a factor 10 in CPU time in comparison with the specular boundary condition. These two heterogenous leakage formalisms have been tested on a partially voided experiment and have shown that the TIBERE Model can compute this kind of situation with a greater precision than the classical B 1 homogeneous leakage method, and with a shorter computational time. (author)

  10. Visual Inspection of Water Leakage from Ground Penetrating Radar Radargram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, N. N.; Yusup, A.; Mat Amin, Z.; Ghazalli, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD) of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  11. Leakage detection in underground gas mains with radioaktive argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1975-01-01

    In the field of gas supply, radionuclide techniques are suitable for the routine monitoring of transport mains by means of highly active tracer clouds and a measuring scraper as well as for exact leakage detection in local gas distribution systems. Very good results are obtained in the case of mains lying lower than 1.5 m if the length and alignment of the pipe section allow a towing probe to be pulled through. This was investigated systematically on a model stretch under practical conditions. The attempts to detect leakages were made with the aid of the radioactive isotope 41 Ar. Under conditions close to practice concerning pipe bedding, branching, pre-pressure, and leakage diameter, a leak with leakage rates as small as approx. 1 l/min could be measured with the aid of a towing probe with a precision of +-0.5 m. This accuracy is another advantage of this method. Branching and fittings with a big dead volume do not interfere with the evaluation. The investment for this method can be compared to other physical/technical investigations on mains, e.g. weld seam tests. (orig./LN) [de

  12. VISUAL INSPECTION OF WATER LEAKAGE FROM GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RADARGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  13. Colorectal anastomotic leakage: Aspects of prevention, detection and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Daams (Freek); M. Luyer (Misha); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAll colorectal surgeons are faced from time to time with anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. This complication has been studied extensively without a significant reduction of incidence over the last 30 years. New techniques of prevention, by innovative anastomotic techniques

  14. First principle leakage current reduction technique for CMOS devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsague, HD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive study of leakage reduction techniques applicable to CMOS based devices. In the process, mathematical equations that model the power-performance trade-offs in CMOS logic circuits are presented. From those equations...

  15. Incidence and management of chyle leakage after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Omloo, Jikke M. T.; de Jong, Koen; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Obertop, Hugo; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative chyle leakage is a rare but well-recognized complication after esophageal surgery. The aim of this study was to identify its incidence and potentially predisposing factors and to assess the consequences and management. METHODS: A consecutive series of 536 patients who

  16. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  17. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  18. Modeling Electrolytically Top-Gated Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković ZL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate doping of a single-layer graphene in the presence of electrolytic top gating. The interfacial phenomenon is modeled using a modified Poisson–Boltzmann equation for an aqueous solution of simple salt. We demonstrate both the sensitivity of graphene’s doping levels to the salt concentration and the importance of quantum capacitance that arises due to the smallness of the Debye screening length in the electrolyte.

  19. Handheld Microneedle-Based Electrolyte Sensing Platform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Philip R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rivas, Rhiana [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, David [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Thayne L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, Markku [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shawa, Luay [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brener, Igal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Victor H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Ronen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories will provide technical assistance, within time and budget, to Requester on testing and analyzing a microneedle-based electrolyte sensing platform. Hollow microneedles will be fabricated at Sandia and integrated with a fluidic chip using plastic laminate prototyping technology available at Sandia. In connection with commercial ion selective electrodes the sensing platform will be tested for detection of electrolytes (sodium and/or potassium) within physiological relevant concent ration ranges.

  20. Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Zambrano-Narváez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection.

  1. Microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot project, Canada: implications for detection of wellbore leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

    2013-09-02

    A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection.

  2. Using provenance of terrigenous sediment to reconstruct the Agulhas Leakage during the Early and Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, B.; Franzese, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Agulhas Current, the strongest western boundary current in the southern hemisphere, is uniquely characterized by its strong retroflection. The current carries water southward from the Indian Ocean toward the cape of South Africa, before turning back on itself. At this point of retroflection, some of the current's flow escapes into the southern Atlantic Ocean. This transfer of water from the Indian Ocean to Atlantic Ocean makes up the Agulhas Leakage. The Leakage occurs in a series of eddies and rings located in the Cape Basin south of the African continent. Scientific literature demonstrates that relatively buoyant leakage water has been a determining factor varying strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Current (AMOC), during glacial-interglacial cycles. It has been demonstrated that radiogenic isotope, major, and trace element concentrations serve as a proxy for terrigenous sediment provenance in the Agulhas region. Current understanding is that terrigenous sediment provenance is older during warmer periods of deposition. This corresponds to more input from southeastern African end members, and thus a stronger Agulhas Current, during warming periods in the paleoclimate record. Conversely, younger terrigenous sediment deposited during colder periods, such as the Last Glacial Maximum, suggests a weaker Agulhas Current, and less Agulhas Leakage. In 2016, on the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 361, sediment cores were drilled at 6 sites in the Greater Agulhas region. A major goal of the expedition was to expand knowledge of the relation between changes in the Agulhas System and changes in paleoclimate, southern African climate, and AMOC. We analyzed sediment from Expedition 361 Site U1479 (35°03.53'S; 17°24.06'E; 2615 mbsl) located where the Agulhas Leakage occurs. We measured Argon, strontium isotope ratios, ɛNd, trace and major element concentrations on the <2 micron clay fraction. Preliminary results foretell promising findings. For

  3. An analytical longitudinal dielectric function of primitive electrolyte solutions and its application in predicting thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the longitudinal dielectric function ϵ_l(k) of primitive electrolyte solutions is discussed. Starting from a modified mean spherical approximation, an analytical dielectric function in terms of two parameters is established. These two parameters can be related to the first two decay parameters k_1_,_2 of the dielectric response modes of the bulk system, and can be determined using constraints of k_1_,_2 from statistical theories. Furthermore, a combination of this dielectric function and the molecular Debye-Hückel theory[J. Chem. Phys. 135(2011)104104] leads to a self-consistent mean filed description of electrolyte solutions. Our theory reveals a relationship between the microscopic structure parameters of electrolyte solutions and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties, which is applied to concentrated electrolyte solutions.

  4. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  5. Electrolytes for high voltage electrochemical double layer capacitors: A perspective article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development of innovative electrolyte components is nowadays considered one of the most important aspects for the realization of high energy electrochemical double capacitors (EDLCs). Consequently, in the last years many investigations have been dedicated towards new solvents, new salts and ionic liquids able to replace the current electrolytes. This perspective article aims to supply a critical analysis about the results obtained so far on the development of new electrolytes for high energy EDLCs and to outline the advantages as well as the limits related to the use of these innovative components. Furthermore, this article aims to give indications about the strategies could be used in the future for a further development of advanced electrolytes.

  6. Physics of failure based analysis of aluminium electrolytic capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satya Ranjan; Behera, S.K.; Kumar, Sachin; Varde, P.V.; Ravi Kumar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are one of the important devices in various power electronic systems, such as motor drives, uninterruptible power supply, electric vehicles and dc power supply. Electrolytic capacitors are also the integral part of many other electronic devices. One of the primary function of electrolytic capacitors is the smoothing of voltage ripple and storing electrical energy. However, the electrolytic capacitor has the shortest lifespan of components in power electronics. Past experiences show that electrolytic capacitor tends to degrade and fail faster under high electrical or thermal stress conditions during operations. The primary failure mechanism of an electrolytic capacitor is the evaporation of the electrolyte due to electrical or thermal overstress. This leads to the drift in the values of two important parameters-capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the electrolytic capacitor. An attempt has been made to age the electrolytic capacitor and validate the results. The overall goal is to derive the accurate degradation model of the electrolytic capacitor. (author)

  7. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  8. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  9. Charge regulation at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2015-07-01

    The interface between a semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution has interesting and complex electrostatic properties. Its behavior will depend on the density of mobile charge carriers that are present in both phases as well as on the surface chemistry at the interface through local charge regulation. The latter is driven by chemical equilibria involving the immobile surface groups and the potential determining ions in the electrolyte solution. All these lead to an electrostatic potential distribution that propagate such that the electrolyte and the semiconductor are dependent on each other. Hence, any variation in the charge density in one phase will lead to a response in the other. This has significant implications on the physical properties of single semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces and on the electrostatic interactions between semiconductor particles suspended in electrolyte solutions. The present paper expands on our previous publication (Fleharty et al., 2014) and offers new results on the electrostatics of single semiconductor interfaces as well as on the interaction of charged semiconductor colloids suspended in electrolyte solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding and managing leakage in forest-based greenhouse-gas-mitigation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Reimund; Niles, John O; Olander, Jacob

    2002-08-15

    A major concern about land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the potential for leakage. Leakage refers to a net increase of greenhouse-gas emissions in an area outside the project resulting from the CDM activity. This paper provides an overview of leakage, its definitions and its causes. It describes ways that LULUCF projects may suffer from leakage and attempts to assess the magnitude of leakage risks for different LULUCF project types. It also summarizes some of the approaches, both in terms of policies and project development, to address LULUCF leakage.

  11. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noted that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  12. Early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Elyamani; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Magdy, Alaa; Hammad, Enas A; Othman, Gamal; Farid, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leakage is a serious complication leading to major postoperative morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the early detection of anastomotic leakage before its clinical presentation. Fifty-six patients with rectal cancer were included prospectively in this study. All patients underwent elective low anterior resection. Peritoneal samples were collected from the abdominal drains at the first, third, and fifth days postoperatively for bacteriological study (quantitative cultures for both aerobes and anaerobes) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF) measurement. Patients were divided into two groups: those without symptomatic or clinical evidence of anastomotic leakage (AL; group 1) and those with clinical evidence of AL (group 2). Study variables included hospital stay, wound infection, operative time, blood loss, height of anastomosis, intraperitoneal cytokines, and microbiological study of peritoneal fluid. Clinically evident AL occurred in eight patients (14.3%) and diagnosed postoperatively on median day 6. Intraperitoneal bacterial colonization and cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with clinical evidence of AL. Wound infection was significantly higher in anastomotic leakage group. The hospital stay for the patients with anastomotic leakage was significantly longer than those without AL (14 ± 1.41 vs. 5.43 ± 0.89 days). A significant difference among two groups was observed regarding operative time, blood loss, blood transfusion, and height of the anastomosis. The peritoneal cytokines levels and intraperitoneal bacterial colonization might be an additional diagnostic tool that can support the decision making of surgeons for early detection of anastomotic leak in colorectal surgery.

  13. Fabrication of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoriya, Sorachon

    anodization rates are relatively slower in DEG electrolyte; as a result, the nanotube length is typically less than 10 microm. Pore size of nanotubes grown in DEG has been extended from 150 nm up to approximately 400 nm. The approach to pore widening could be achieved by using a specific condition of low HF concentration and prolonged anodization time. The study of evolution of nanotubes grown in DEG electrolytes showed that a fibrous layer was formed in the early growth stages and then was chemically and gradually removed after a long duration, leaving behind the nanotubes with large pore size. In DEG electrolyte, the closer spacing between Ti and Pt electrodes resulted in the larger nanotube morphological parameters due to the enhanced electrode kinetics facilitating the electrode reactions. Furthermore, this dissertation showed possibilities to crystallize the titania nanotube array films at room temperature via anodization in either DMSO or DEG electrolytes. The partially crystallized films could be achieved specifically in the optimum slow growth process conditions. Due to partial crystallization of the as-anodized samples, the high temperature annealing study revealed that the temperatures of phase transformation are 260 ºC and 430°C for respectively amorphous to anatase and anatase to rutile, which are accounted as the lowest phase transformation temperatures reported to date (2010). Finally, the photoelectrochemical properties of the DMSO fabricated nanotubes were investigated. The maximum photocurrent density of ~ 11 mA cm--2 was achieved by using the 46-microm long nanotube array sample with completely open pores, and photoconversion efficiencies of 5.425 % (+/- 0.087) (under UV light) and 0.197 % (+/- 0.001) (under solar spectrum AM 1.5) have been demonstrated. Biomedical applications of the DEG fabricated nanotube arrays films such as blood clotting, hemocompatibility, and drug delivery were investigated. The titania nanotube arrays showed a significant platelet

  14. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Zhu, Qianlin; Feng, Qiyan; Chen, Fu

    2017-01-01

    The technology of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO 2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO 2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO 2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m -2 day -1 to 2,000 g m -2 day -1 ) on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO 2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO 2 concentrations. Increasing CO 2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 ( p soil CO 2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria , whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% ( p soil ecosystems.

  15. Geochemical Influence on Microbial Communities at CO2-Leakage Analog Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Baknoon; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Kirk, Matthew F; Kwon, Man Jae

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms influence the chemical and physical properties of subsurface environments and thus represent an important control on the fate and environmental impact of CO 2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. How leakage will influence microbial populations over long time scales is largely unknown. This study uses natural analog sites to investigate the long-term impact of CO 2 leakage from underground storage sites on subsurface biogeochemistry. We considered two sites with elevated CO 2 levels (sample groups I and II) and one control site with low CO 2 content (group III). Samples from sites with elevated CO 2 had pH ranging from 6.2 to 4.5 and samples from the low-CO 2 control group had pH ranging from 7.3 to 6.2. Solute concentrations were relatively low for samples from the control group and group I but high for samples from group II, reflecting varying degrees of water-rock interaction. Microbial communities were analyzed through clone library and MiSeq sequencing. Each 16S rRNA analysis identified various bacteria, methane-producing archaea, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Both bacterial and archaeal diversities were low in groundwater with high CO 2 content and community compositions between the groups were also clearly different. In group II samples, sequences classified in groups capable of methanogenesis, metal reduction, and nitrate reduction had higher relative abundance in samples with relative high methane, iron, and manganese concentrations and low nitrate levels. Sequences close to Comamonadaceae were abundant in group I, while the taxa related to methanogens, Nitrospirae , and Anaerolineaceae were predominant in group II. Our findings provide insight into subsurface biogeochemical reactions that influence the carbon budget of the system including carbon fixation, carbon trapping, and CO 2 conversion to methane. The results also suggest that monitoring groundwater microbial community can be a potential tool for tracking CO 2

  16. Clinical Evaluation of a Prototype Underwear Designed to Detect Urine Leakage From Continence Pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Adele; Edwards, Julia; Worthington, Joanna; Cotterill, Nikki; Weir, Iain; Drake, Marcus J; van den Heuvel, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of prototype underwear designed to detect urine leakage from continence pads, their acceptability to users, and their effect on health-related quality of life and psychosocial factors. Prototype product evaluation. Participants were 81 women with an average age of 67 years (range, 32-98 years) recruited between October 2010 and February 2012 from outpatient clinics, general practice surgeries, community continence services, and through charities and networks. The TACT3 project developed and manufactured a prototype undergarment designed to alert the wearer to a pad leak before it reaches outer clothing or furniture. The study was conducted in 2 stages: a pilot/feasibility study to assess general performance and a larger study to measure performance, acceptability to users, health-related quality of life, and psychosocial impact. Participants were asked to wear the prototype underwear for a period of 2 weeks, keeping a daily diary of leakage events for the first 7 days. They also completed validated instruments measuring lower urinary tract symptoms, health-related quality of life, and psychosocial impact. On average, 86% of the time participants were alerted to pad leakage events. More than 90% thought the prototype underwear was "good" or "OK" and that it would or could give them more confidence. Mean scores for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form indicated no change in the level of symptoms reported before or after the intervention, and no significant changes in health-related quality of life status occurred, except improvement in for travel restrictions. Evaluation via the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale also indicated a positive impact. The prototype underwear evaluated in this study was effective and acceptable for 5 out of every 10 wearers. Findings also suggest that the prototype underwear is suitable for women of all ages, dress sizes, and continence

  17. Geochemical Influence on Microbial Communities at CO2-Leakage Analog Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baknoon Ham

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms influence the chemical and physical properties of subsurface environments and thus represent an important control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. How leakage will influence microbial populations over long time scales is largely unknown. This study uses natural analog sites to investigate the long-term impact of CO2 leakage from underground storage sites on subsurface biogeochemistry. We considered two sites with elevated CO2 levels (sample groups I and II and one control site with low CO2 content (group III. Samples from sites with elevated CO2 had pH ranging from 6.2 to 4.5 and samples from the low-CO2 control group had pH ranging from 7.3 to 6.2. Solute concentrations were relatively low for samples from the control group and group I but high for samples from group II, reflecting varying degrees of water-rock interaction. Microbial communities were analyzed through clone library and MiSeq sequencing. Each 16S rRNA analysis identified various bacteria, methane-producing archaea, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Both bacterial and archaeal diversities were low in groundwater with high CO2 content and community compositions between the groups were also clearly different. In group II samples, sequences classified in groups capable of methanogenesis, metal reduction, and nitrate reduction had higher relative abundance in samples with relative high methane, iron, and manganese concentrations and low nitrate levels. Sequences close to Comamonadaceae were abundant in group I, while the taxa related to methanogens, Nitrospirae, and Anaerolineaceae were predominant in group II. Our findings provide insight into subsurface biogeochemical reactions that influence the carbon budget of the system including carbon fixation, carbon trapping, and CO2 conversion to methane. The results also suggest that monitoring groundwater microbial community can be a potential tool for tracking

  18. Using the Bongwana natural CO2 release to understand leakage processes and develop monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Johnson, Gareth; Hicks, Nigel; Bond, Clare; Gilfillan, Stuart; Kremer, Yannick; Lister, Bob; Nkwane, Mzikayise; Maupa, Thulani; Munyangane, Portia; Robey, Kate; Saunders, Ian; Shipton, Zoe; Pearce, Jonathan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Natural CO2 leakage along the Bongwana Fault in South Africa is being studied to help understand processes of CO2 leakage and develop monitoring protocols. The Bongwana Fault crops out over approximately 80 km in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. In outcrop the fault is expressed as a broad fracture corridor in Dwyka Tillite, with fractures oriented approximately N-S. Natural emissions of CO2 occur at various points along the fault, manifest as travertine cones and terraces, bubbling in the rivers and as gas fluxes through soil. Exposed rock outcrop shows evidence for Fe-staining around fractures and is locally extensively kaolinitised. The gas has also been released through a shallow water well, and was exploited commercially in the past. Preliminary studies have been carried out to better document the surface emissions using near surface gas monitoring, understand the origin of the gas through major gas composition and stable and noble gas isotopes and improve understanding of the structural controls on gas leakage through mapping. In addition the impact of the leaking CO2 on local water sources (surface and ground) is being investigated, along with the seismic activity of the fault. The investigation will help to build technical capacity in South Africa and to develop monitoring techniques and plans for a future CO2 storage pilot there. Early results suggest that CO2 leakage is confined to a relatively small number of spatially-restricted locations along the weakly seismically active fault. Fracture permeability appears to be the main method by which the CO2 migrates to the surface. The bulk of the CO2 is of deep origin with a minor contribution from near surface biogenic processes as determined by major gas composition. Water chemistry, including pH, DO and TDS is notably different between CO2-rich and CO2-poor sites. Soil gas content and flux effectively delineates the fault trace in active leakage sites. The fault provides an effective testing ground for

  19. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  20. Radiation leakage dose from Elekta electron collimation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2016-09-08

    This study provided baseline data required for a greater project, whose objective was to design a new Elekta electron collimation system having significantly lighter electron applicators with equally low out-of field leakage dose. Specifically, off-axis dose profiles for the electron collimation system of our uniquely configured Elekta Infinity accelerator with the MLCi2 treatment head were measured and calculated for two primary purposes: 1) to evaluate and document the out-of-field leakage dose in the patient plane and 2) to validate the dose distributions calculated using a BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) model for out-of-field dose profiles. Off-axis dose profiles were measured in a water phantom at 100 cm SSD for 1 and 2 cm depths along the in-plane, cross-plane, and both diagonal axes using a cylindrical ionization chamber with the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators and 7, 13, and 20 MeV beams. Dose distributions were calculated using a previously developed BEAMnrc MC model of the Elekta Infinity accelerator for the same beam energies and applicator sizes and compared with measurements. Measured results showed that the in-field beam flatness met our acceptance criteria (± 3% on major and ±4% on diagonal axes) and that out-of-field mean and maximum percent leakage doses in the patient plane met acceptance criteria as specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Cross-plane out-of-field dose profiles showed greater leakage dose than in-plane profiles, attributed to the curved edges of the upper X-ray jaws and multileaf collimator. Mean leakage doses increased with beam energy, being 0.93% and 0.85% of maximum central axis dose for the 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators, respectively, at 20 MeV. MC calculations predicted the measured dose to within 0.1% in most profiles outside the radiation field; however, excluding model-ing of nontrimmer applicator components led to calculations exceeding measured data by as much as 0.2% for some regions