WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative cost efficiency

  1. The Relative Efficiency of Charter Schools: A Cost Frontier Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Timothy J.; Jansen, Dennis W.; Taylor, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    Charters represent an expansion of public school choice, offering free, publicly funded educational alternatives to traditional public schools. One relatively unexplored research question concerning charter schools asks whether charter schools are more efficient suppliers of educational services than are traditional public schools. The potential…

  2. Efficiency and abatement costs of energy-related CO2 emissions in China: A slacks-based efficiency measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yongrok; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We employ a slacks-based DEA model to estimate the energy efficiency and shadow prices of CO 2 emissions in China. ► The empirical study shows that China was not performing CO 2 -efficiently. ► The average of estimated shadow prices of CO 2 emissions is about $7.2. -- Abstract: This paper uses nonparametric efficiency analysis technique to estimate the energy efficiency, potential emission reductions and marginal abatement costs of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China. We employ a non-radial slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) model for estimating the potential reductions and efficiency of CO 2 emissions for China. The dual model of the slacks-based DEA model is then used to estimate the marginal abatement costs of CO 2 emissions. An empirical study based on China’s panel data (2001–2010) is carried out and some policy implications are also discussed.

  3. The efficiency of life insurance and family Takaful in Malaysia: Relative efficiency using the stochastic cost frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Roziana; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the Stochastic cost Frontier Analysis (SFA) approach, in an attempt to measure the relationship between efficiency and organizational structure for Takaful and insurance operators in Malaysia's dual financial system. This study applied a flexible cost functional form i.e., Fourier Flexible Functional Form, for a sample consisting of 19 firms, chosen between 2002 and 2010, by employing the Battese and Coelli invariant efficiency model. The findings show that on average, there is a significant difference in cost efficiency between the Takaful industry and the insurance industry. It was found that Takaful has lower cost efficiency than conventional insurance, which shows that the organization form has an influence on efficiency. Overall, it was observed that the level of efficiency scores for both life insurance and family Takaful do not vary across time.

  4. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  5. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  6. Relation between efficiency and energy cost with coordination in aquatic locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Toussaint, Huub M; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the intracycle velocity variation (IVV) and Froude efficiency (η(T)), energy cost (C), and index of coordination (IdC) throughout a 200-m freestyle race. Ten male international level swimmers performed a maximum 200 m front crawl swim. Performance was recorded with four below- and two above-water synchronized cameras. Oxygen consumption was measured continuously during the effort, and blood samples were collected before and after the test. IdC, body center of mass' IVV (x, y and z), and η(T) were also calculated. For assessing C swimmers performed also 50, 100 and 150 m at the same pace as in the 200-m splits to capture blood lactate samples after each 50-m lap of the 200-m effort. Swimmers attained a stable IVV (x, y, and z), as fatigue development along the 200-m effort induced a decrease in velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, η(T), and an increase of IdC. Direct relationships between C and IdC for the second and fourth lap were found: R = 0.63 and R = 0.69 (P < 0.05), respectively. Computing partial correlation, also IdC and η(T) in the first lap were significantly correlated (R = -0.63, P < 0.05). IdC and η(T) showed to be significant for the within-subjects correlation (R = -0.45, P = 0.01), and IdC and C for the between-subjects correlation (R = 0.66, P = 0.04). Patterns of coordination modified during the 200-m event in response to the task constraints, observed by the changes in the other studied parameters, and allowing the IVV stability along the effort.

  7. Attitude Determination Algorithm based on Relative Quaternion Geometry of Velocity Incremental Vectors for Cost Efficient AHRS Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byungjin; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2018-05-01

    A novel attitude determination method is investigated that is computationally efficient and implementable in low cost sensor and embedded platform. Recent result on attitude reference system design is adapted to further develop a three-dimensional attitude determination algorithm through the relative velocity incremental measurements. For this, velocity incremental vectors, computed respectively from INS and GPS with different update rate, are compared to generate filter measurement for attitude estimation. In the quaternion-based Kalman filter configuration, an Euler-like attitude perturbation angle is uniquely introduced for reducing filter states and simplifying propagation processes. Furthermore, assuming a small angle approximation between attitude update periods, it is shown that the reduced order filter greatly simplifies the propagation processes. For performance verification, both simulation and experimental studies are completed. A low cost MEMS IMU and GPS receiver are employed for system integration, and comparison with the true trajectory or a high-grade navigation system demonstrates the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  9. Cost Efficiency in Public Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    This study used the frontier cost function framework to examine cost efficiency in public higher education. The frontier cost function estimates the minimum predicted cost for producing a given amount of output. Data from the annual Almanac issues of the "Chronicle of Higher Education" were used to calculate state level enrollments at two-year and…

  10. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  12. Cost effectiveness and efficiency in assistive technology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C G

    1993-01-01

    In order to develop and maintain a viable service delivery program, the realities of cost effectiveness and cost efficiency in providing assistive technology must be addressed. Cost effectiveness relates to value of the outcome compared to the expenditures. Cost efficiency analyzes how a provider uses available resources to supply goods and services. This paper describes how basic business principles of benefit/cost analysis can be used to determine cost effectiveness. In addition, basic accounting principles are used to illustrate methods of evaluating a program's cost efficiency. Service providers are encouraged to measure their own program's effectiveness and efficiency (and potential viability) in light of current trends. This paper is meant to serve as a catalyst for continued dialogue on this topic.

  13. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6% and (50.3% and 60.8% respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  14. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background : The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods : The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results : Average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions : The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  15. Pragmatic and cost efficient D and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A great deal of effort is expended by remediation professionals in the pursuit of new technologies to assist them in performing their tasks more efficiently. These individuals understand the cost savings associated with volume reduction and waste minimization and routinely incorporate these practices into their planning. However, the largest cost component on many D and D projects is labor. Increasing the efficiency of work force utilization is frequently the most overlooked technique that can be instituted and which can easily offer major cost savings. Granted, some D and D jobs require highly specialized tools and equipment which are quite expensive. Decreasing these costs is often not an option or will yield minimal results. Conversely, the increase in worker efficiency can usually decrease costs dramatically. During the performance of the Safe Shutdown Project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (the Fernald site), a process improvement initiative was instituted in support of the development of the Ten Year Plan. Costs associated with the removal of hundreds of thousands of pounds of nuclear material from formerly utilized equipment piping, and ductwork in nuclear facilities at the Fernald site were analyzed. This analysis indicated that the labor component was large enough to merit further inspection. A new approach to the activities was instituted and the results were significant. A macroscopic overview of all work activities utilized work evolution control (sequencing), building segmentation, and efficient use of engineering controls to streamline the D and D process. Overall costs on the first facility were reduced by over 20%. The increased labor efficiency resulted in decreased Personal Protective Equipment costs for field personnel. This approach will be discussed in detail.

  16. Pragmatic and cost efficient D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1998-03-01

    A great deal of effort is expended by remediation professionals in the pursuit of new technologies to assist them in performing their tasks more efficiently. These individuals understand the cost savings associated with volume reduction and waste minimization and routinely incorporate these practices into their planning. However, the largest cost component on many D and D projects is labor. Increasing the efficiency of work force utilization is frequently the most overlooked technique that can be instituted and which can easily offer major cost savings. Granted, some D and D jobs require highly specialized tools and equipment which are quite expensive. Decreasing these costs is often not an option or will yield minimal results. Conversely, the increase in worker efficiency can usually decrease costs dramatically. During the performance of the Safe Shutdown Project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (the Fernald site), a process improvement initiative was instituted in support of the development of the Ten Year Plan. Costs associated with the removal of hundreds of thousands of pounds of nuclear material from formerly utilized equipment piping, and ductwork in nuclear facilities at the Fernald site were analyzed. This analysis indicated that the labor component was large enough to merit further inspection. A new approach to the activities was instituted and the results were significant. A macroscopic overview of all work activities utilized work evolution control (sequencing), building segmentation, and efficient use of engineering controls to streamline the D and D process. Overall costs on the first facility were reduced by over 20%. The increased labor efficiency resulted in decreased Personal Protective Equipment costs for field personnel. This approach will be discussed in detail

  17. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  18. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost

  19. Cost-efficient scheduling of FAST observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi; Zhao, Laiping; Yu, Ce; Xiao, Jian; Sun, Jizhou; Zhu, Ming; Zhong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    A cost-efficient schedule for the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) requires to maximize the number of observable proposals and the overall scientific priority, and minimize the overall slew-cost generated by telescope shifting, while taking into account the constraints including the astronomical objects visibility, user-defined observable times, avoiding Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In this contribution, first we solve the problem of maximizing the number of observable proposals and scientific priority by modeling it as a Minimum Cost Maximum Flow (MCMF) problem. The optimal schedule can be found by any MCMF solution algorithm. Then, for minimizing the slew-cost of the generated schedule, we devise a maximally-matchable edges detection-based method to reduce the problem size, and propose a backtracking algorithm to find the perfect matching with minimum slew-cost. Experiments on a real dataset from NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) show that, the proposed scheduler can increase the usage of available times with high scientific priority and reduce the slew-cost significantly in a very short time.

  20. Hospital efficiency and transaction costs: a stochastic frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martijn; Groot, Wim; Van Merode, Frits

    2009-07-01

    The make-or-buy decision of organizations is an important issue in the transaction cost theory, but is usually not analyzed from an efficiency perspective. Hospitals frequently have to decide whether to outsource or not. The main question we address is: Is the make-or-buy decision affected by the efficiency of hospitals? A one-stage stochastic cost frontier equation is estimated for Dutch hospitals. The make-or-buy decisions of ten different hospital services are used as explanatory variables to explain efficiency of hospitals. It is found that for most services the make-or-buy decision is not related to efficiency. Kitchen services are an important exception to this. Large hospitals tend to outsource less, which is supported by efficiency reasons. For most hospital services, outsourcing does not significantly affect the efficiency of hospitals. The focus on the make-or-buy decision may therefore be less important than often assumed.

  1. Joint environmental and cost efficiency analysis of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Eric; Barnum, Darold

    2009-01-01

    Fossil-fuel based electricity generation produces the largest proportion of human-related carbon pollution in the United States. Hence, fuel choices by steam plants are key determinants of the industry's impact on national and global greenhouse gas emissions, and key foci for climate change policy. Yet, little research has been done to examine the economic and environmental tradeoffs among the different types of fuels that are used by these plants. This paper applies a Data Envelopment Analysis procedure that incorporates the materials balance principle to estimate the allocations of coal, gas and oil inputs that minimize carbon emissions and costs. Using EIA 906 and FERC 423 data, the paper estimates cost/carbon tradeoffs facing two sets of plants: those that use coal and gas inputs, and those that use coal, gas and oil inputs. Findings for our three-input sample show that there would be a 79% increase in cost for moving from the cost-efficient point to the carbon efficient point, while there would be a 38% increase in carbon for moving from the carbon efficient point to the cost-efficient point. These conclusions indicate that, in general, the gap between efficient cost and efficient environmental production is wide, and would require substantial policy intervention, technological change or market adjustment before it could be narrowed. However, our examination of individual plants shows that what is true in general is often not true for specific plants. Some plants that are currently less efficient than those on the production frontier could produce the same amount of electricity with less carbon output and less fuel input. Additionally, many plants on the production frontier could improve both cost and carbon efficiency by changing their mixture of fossil-fuel inputs. (author)

  2. Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical study for the Swiss residential sector. It empirically quantifies the marginal costs of energy efficiency investments (i.e. additional insulation, improved window systems, ventilation and heating systems and architectural concepts). For the private sector, first results on the economic valuation of co-benefits such as improved comfort of living, improved indoor air quality, better protection against external noise, etc. may amount to the same order of magnitude as the energy-related benefits are given. The cost-benefit analysis includes newly developed technologies that show large variations in prices due to pioneer market pricing, add-on of learning costs and risk components of the installers. Based on new empirical data on the present cost-situation and past techno-economic progress, the potential of future cost reduction was estimated applying the experience curve concept. The paper shows, for the first time, co-benefits and cost dynamics of energy efficiency investments, of which decision makers in the real estate sector, politics and administrations are scarcely aware

  3. CENET: Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, Jan E.; Lund, Bjoernar; Bos, Christian F.M.; Stokka, Sigmund

    1997-12-31

    This report relates to the CENET (Cost Efficiency in a New Era with new Technology) project the oil and gas in Europe. Key objectives of the CENET project are to determine the role of RTD (Research and Technology Development) in European oil and gas industry towards improved value and cost reduction with a particular focus on the means of developing offshore European marginal fields commercially, to identify RTD areas with the largest potential for improved value and cost reduction and technological developments and advances which are likely to increase European competitiveness internationally, and to provide guidance to European governments when deciding RTD priorities. A new era with new technology concerns increased oil and gas potential during the next century, a new era with clean, safe and cost efficient energy production, a new era with a new business structure, and globalization of the industry. 44 tabs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Transaction costs of energy efficiency policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis [International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    This paper identifies the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) under different policy instruments aimed to increase energy efficiency. It analyses three cases: a) GHG-driven initiatives, b) tradable 'White Certificate' (TWC) schemes -taking the Energy Efficiency Commitment in Great Britain as a case study-, and c) energy efficiency audits given by grid companies in Denmark. The analysis focuses on TCs borne by project developers or obliged parties under these initiatives. Several sources of TCs are considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification (M and V) activities. Information has been obtained through a literature review, interviews with stakeholders and questionnaires. Some similarities were found as far as the nature of TCs is concerned. Relevant sources of TCs appear to be the search for information (for both potential measures and beneficiaries), negotiation and contract agreements with third parties, follow-up of measures, M and V activities and due accreditation of savings. The scale of TCs differs to a large extent, ranging from 5 % to 36 % of total audit/project costs. Figures must be taken with caution due to a number of specific factors driving their order of magnitude, including levels of uncertainty and the TCs accounting problem. Indications of economies of scale were only found for the case of GHG policy initiatives. In all, estimations are very case-specific and cannot be comparable. It is concluded that a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants affect the nature and scale of TCs for the analysed cases.

  5. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  6. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  7. Toward cost-efficient sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng; Li, Yongli; Wu, Chong; Zhang, Guijie

    2015-09-01

    The sampling method has been paid much attention in the field of complex network in general and statistical physics in particular. This paper proposes two new sampling methods based on the idea that a small part of vertices with high node degree could possess the most structure information of a complex network. The two proposed sampling methods are efficient in sampling high degree nodes so that they would be useful even if the sampling rate is low, which means cost-efficient. The first new sampling method is developed on the basis of the widely used stratified random sampling (SRS) method and the second one improves the famous snowball sampling (SBS) method. In order to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of two new sampling methods, we compare them with the existing sampling methods in three commonly used simulation networks that are scale-free network, random network, small-world network, and also in two real networks. The experimental results illustrate that the two proposed sampling methods perform much better than the existing sampling methods in terms of achieving the true network structure characteristics reflected by clustering coefficient, Bonacich centrality and average path length, especially when the sampling rate is low.

  8. Cost/CYP: a bottom line that helps keep CSM projects cost-efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In contraceptive social marketing (CSM), the objective is social good, but project managers also need to run a tight ship, trimming costs, allocating scarce funds, and monitoring their program's progress. 1 way CSM managers remain cost-conscious is through the concept of couple-years-of-protection (CYP). Devised 2 decades ago as an administrative tool to compare the effects of different contraceptive methods, CYP's uses have multiplied to include assessing program output and cost effectiveness. Some of the factors affecting cost/CYP are a project's age, sales volume, management efficiency, and product prices and line. These factors are interconnected. The cost/CYP figures given here do not include outlays for commodities. While the Agency for International Development's commodity costs alter slightly with each new purchase contrast, the agency reports that a condom costs about 4 cents (US), an oral contraceptive (OC) cycle about 12 cents, and a spermicidal tablet about 7 cents. CSM projects have relatively high start-up costs. Within a project's first 2 years, expenses must cover such marketing activities as research, packaging, warehousing, and heavy promotion. As a project ages, sales should grow, producing revenues that gradually amortize these initial costs. The Nepal CSM project provides an example of how cost/CYP can improve as a program ages. In 1978, the year sales began, the project's cost/CYP was about $84. For some time the project struggled to get its products to its target market and gradually overcome several major hurdles. The acquisition of jeeps eased distribution and, by adding another condom brand, sales were increased still more, bringing the cost/CYP down to $8.30 in 1981. With further sales increases and resulting revenues, the cost/CYP dropped to just over $7 in 1983. When the sales volume becomes large enough, CSM projects can achieve economies of scale, which greatly improves cost-efficiency. Fixed costs shrink as a proportion of total

  9. EFFICIENCY AND COST MODELLING OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bihari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper characterization of energy suppliers is one of the most important components in the modelling of the supply/demand relations of the electricity market. Power generation capacity i. e. power plants constitute the supply side of the relation in the electricity market. The supply of power stations develops as the power stations attempt to achieve the greatest profit possible with the given prices and other limitations. The cost of operation and the cost of load increment are thus the most important characteristics of their behaviour on the market. In most electricity market models, however, it is not taken into account that the efficiency of a power station also depends on the level of the load, on the type and age of the power plant, and on environmental considerations. The trade in electricity on the free market cannot rely on models where these essential parameters are omitted. Such an incomplete model could lead to a situation where a particular power station would be run either only at its full capacity or else be entirely deactivated depending on the prices prevailing on the free market. The reality is rather that the marginal cost of power generation might also be described by a function using the efficiency function. The derived marginal cost function gives the supply curve of the power station. The load level dependent efficiency function can be used not only for market modelling, but also for determining the pollutant and CO2 emissions of the power station, as well as shedding light on the conditions for successfully entering the market. Based on the measurement data our paper presents mathematical models that might be used for the determination of the load dependent efficiency functions of coal, oil, or gas fuelled power stations (steam turbine, gas turbine, combined cycle and IC engine based combined heat and power stations. These efficiency functions could also contribute to modelling market conditions and determining the

  10. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  11. Cost efficiency of waste management in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Hans; van Heezik, A.; Hollanders, D.; Felsö, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the cost efficiency of waste management of Dutch municipalities. For the first time stochastic frontier analysis is applied to Dutch data, employing recent multi-year data (2005-2008). The preliminary findings confirm earlier results on the importance for cost efficiency of

  12. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency. Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France)

    1999-05-01

    In the face of the uncertainties concerning the importance and the actual impacts of anthropogeneous climate change the extent to which measures should be adopted to avoid greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) already today and in the near future is highly controversial. More specifically, part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called 'no-regret' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be 'worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so' (Bruce et al. 1996, p. 271). The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs (Grubb et al. 1993). This paper will examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures especially in the context of energy system modelling will be shown (section 3). (orig.)

  13. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  14. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  15. Erythropoietic therapy: cost efficiency and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspan, David

    2007-08-15

    The practice of blood conservation is aimed at improving patient outcomes by avoiding allogeneic transfusions via a coordinated multidisciplinary, multipronged approach. The numerous blood conservation techniques and transfusion alternatives now available are described. Ongoing concerns exist regarding the availability of the nation's and the world's blood supply. In addition, the number of measures required to ensure blood safety has led to increases in the price of blood and blood products over the past 10-15 years. Moreover, blood transfusion carries inherent risks even under the most favorable circumstances. Investigations have established that injudicious transfusion is associated with development of ventilator-associated pneumonia, nosocomial infection, and organ dysfunction. Because most single blood-conservation techniques reduce blood usage by a mere 1-2 units, a series of integrated conservation approaches are required. These include preoperative autologous donation, use of erythropoietic agents, blood conservation techniques such as acute normovolemic hemodilution, individualized assessment of anemia tolerance, implementation of conservative transfusion thresholds, meticulous surgical techniques, and judicious use of phlebotomy and pharmacologic agents for limiting blood loss. Erythropoietic agents such as epoetin alfa have been used successfully to increase hemoglobin and decrease transfusion requirements, and are appropriate when used in advance of elective surgical procedures. Acquisition costs of erythropoietic stimulating agents versus costs of blood justify economic evaluation by hospitals to make the most cost-effective choice under current economic constraints. Initiating a blood management program requires planning and support from those who are concerned about blood usage reduction and outcomes improvement. Launching a vigorous and ongoing educational program to raise awareness about the risks and hazards associated with blood transfusion is an

  16. Cost-efficient or not cost-efficient is not the relevant question

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerup, B. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Economics and Management

    2002-02-01

    Economic efficiency tends to be an important argument when different means of environmental control are assessed and suggested. Considering that the most cost-efficient means are not the ones most frequently chosen and used, some other qualities seem to play an equally important role. I use findings from organisational theory and negotiation theory to better understand what is concealed in the black-box of decision-making and implementation. My empirical material consists of case studies of four different means of environmental control used in Sweden during the 1990s to mitigate the threat of global warming. These are an environmental tax, a licensing trial, municipal energy planning, and technology procurement. Each represents a particular discipline (economic, legal, physical planning, or technological) in which a context (planning or market) and an approach (traditional relay race or process-oriented) are combined. Although each means has its particular niche, some qualities stand out as superior. Such means need to be divisible in space as well as in time. It is then easier to get started. Since it is just as easy to deviate from, rather than adhere to, the predetermined course after a while, some incentive must be given to the person in charge of implementation. In other words, the classic proverb of using sticks and carrots is still valid although it is not always taken to heart and practised.

  17. Towards Cost-efficient Sampling Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Luo; Yongli, Li; Chong, Wu

    2014-01-01

    The sampling method has been paid much attention in the field of complex network in general and statistical physics in particular. This paper presents two new sampling methods based on the perspective that a small part of vertices with high node degree can possess the most structure information of a network. The two proposed sampling methods are efficient in sampling the nodes with high degree. The first new sampling method is improved on the basis of the stratified random sampling method and...

  18. Uncertainty in relative cost investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, D.; Viahos, K.

    1989-01-01

    One of the consequences of the privatization of the Central Electricity Generating Board has been a weakening of the economic case for nuclear generation over coal. Nuclear has higher capital, but lower operating costs than coal and is therefore favoured in capital budgeting by discounting at lower rates of return. In the Sizewell case (in 1987), discounting at the public sector rate of 5 per cent favoured nuclear. However, the private sector will require higher rates of return, thus rendering nuclear less attractive. Hence the imposition by the government of a diversity constraint on the privatized industry to ensure that contracts are made for a minimum fraction of non-fossil (essentially nuclear) energy. An electricity capacity planning model was developed to estimate the costs of imposing various non-fossil energy constraints on the planning decision of a privatized electricity supply industry, as a function of various discount rates. Using a large-scale linear programming technique, the model optimizes over a 50 year horizon the schedule of installation, and mix of generating capacity, both with and without a minimum non-fossil constraint. The conclusion is that the opportunity cost of diversity may be a complex joint substation of more than one type of plant (eg coal and gas) depending on the discount rate. (author)

  19. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  20. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  1. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of

  2. COST EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF RURAL BANKS IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mongid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rural Bank (BPR was an important part of financial service industry in Indonesia.Their pivotal role on lending to SMEs in the rural area made their existence very strategic torural development. However, due to its operational scale, rural bank charged higher interestrate than commercial bank. The study estimated the cost efficiency of rural banks usingparametric approach. The result found that rural bank efficiency was very high. The two yearcost efficiency estimated using frontier 4.1 was 95% and median was 100%. The lowest of costefficiency level was 32%. It meant cost inefficiency of the banks under investigated was around10%. The cost efficiency level in 2006 was on average 95% and the median was 100%. It meantthat 50% or more of the observation enjoyed 100% cost efficiency. The minimum was only67%. It meant they operated at very efficient level, leaving only 5% inefficiency. In 2007, adramatic change on efficiency level was going on. The average efficiency was dropped from11% to 89.9% due to increase on interest rate and price level.

  3. Estimating the impact of transport efficiency on trade costs: Evidence from Chinese agricultural traders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yinchu

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique survey data on agricultural traders in China in 2004, this study provides direct evidence on significance of interregional transport costs and their key determinants. Our major findings are as follows: (1) the trade barriers within China are dominated by transport-related costs but not artificial barriers, approximated by tolls and fines; (2) Labor and fuels costs are the most significant component of transport costs; (3) road quality is very important for transportation effici...

  4. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  5. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  6. Relational Climate and Health Care Costs: Evidence From Diabetes Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley-Bori, Marina; Stefos, Theodore; Burgess, James F; Benzer, Justin K

    2018-01-01

    Quality of care worries and rising costs have resulted in a widespread interest in enhancing the efficiency of health care delivery. One area of increasing interest is in promoting teamwork as a way of coordinating efforts to reduce costs and improve quality, and identifying the characteristics of the work environment that support teamwork. Relational climate is a measure of the work environment that captures shared employee perceptions of teamwork, conflict resolution, and diversity acceptance. Previous research has found a positive association between relational climate and quality of care, yet its relationship with costs remains unexplored. We examined the influence of primary care relational climate on health care costs incurred by diabetic patients at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs between 2008 and 2012. We found that better relational climate is significantly related to lower costs. Clinics with the strongest relational climate saved $334 in outpatient costs per patient compared with facilities with the weakest score in 2010. The total outpatient cost saving if all clinics achieved the top 5% relational climate score was $20 million. Relational climate may contribute to lower costs by enhancing diabetic treatment work processes, especially in outpatient settings.

  7. Lifting the weight of a diagnosis-related groups family change: a comparison between refined and non-refined DRG systems for top-down cost accounting and efficiency indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Cuchi, Miguel Alfaro; Pérez Pérez, Maria Carmen

    Public healthcare providers in all Spanish Regions - Autonomous Communities (ACs) use All Patients Diagnosis-Related Groups (AP-DRGs) for billing non-insured patients, cost accounting and inpatient efficiency indicators. A national migration to All Patients Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups (APR-DRGs) has been scheduled for 2016. The analysis was performed on 202,912 inpatient care episodes ranging from 2005 to 2010. All episodes were grouped using AP-DRG v25.0 and APR-DRG v24.0. Normalised DRG weight variations for an AP-DRG to APR-DRG migration scenario were calculated and compared. Major differences exist between normalised weights for inpatient episodes depending on the DRGs family used. The usage of the APR-DRG system in Spain without any adjustments, as it was developed in the United States, should be approached with care. In order to avoid reverse incentives and provider financial risks, coding practices should be reviewed and structural differences between DRG families taken into account.

  8. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriessen, R. [Holst Centre - Solliance, PO Box 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, J.M. [ECN - Solliance, Petten (Netherlands); Aernouts, T. [Imec, Solliance, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Solliance, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    This article describes how the Solliance Organic PhotoVoltaics (OPV) shared research Program addresses efficiency, lifetime and production costs for (near) future OPV applications. The balance of these three parameters depends of the envisaged application, but at the end, OPV should be able to compete somehow with Si PV in the future. Efficiency improvements are realized by developing new materials, by exploring and optimizing new device structures and novel interconnection technologies. Lifetime improvements are realized by using stabilized device stacks and materials and by applying high end flexible barriers. Production cost control is done by using a home made Cost of Ownership tool which guides towards the use of low-cost materials and processes.

  9. Long Term Cost Efficiency through Green Management Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vukania Adda, Nancy; Qin, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Title: Long term cost efficiency through green management control systems.Authors: Nancy Vukania &Xiaochen QinSupervisor: Åsa Karin-EngstrandBackground: The worldwide financial crisis of 2008 has reconfigured the economic turf leading to a more uncertain and turbulent playing field – a greater challenge for business strategy and the quest for optimization- The oil price hike of 2008 (Furlong 2010)1 caused its rippling effect to affect various cost categories including energy, labor and lo...

  10. Cost efficiency in the Swiss gas distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo; Kuenzle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the cost structure of gas distribution utilities in Switzerland. Three stochastic frontier models are applied to a panel of 26 companies operating from 1996 to 2000. Efficiency is assumed to be constant over time. The analysis highlights the importance of output characteristics such as customer density and network size. The results suggest that the utilities could slightly reduce their operating costs by improving efficiency. There is no evidence of significant unexploited scale economies. However, our analysis indicates that the estimates of scale economies could be sensitive to the assumptions regarding the variation of output with output characteristics

  11. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  12. Cost-efficient evaluation of ambulance services for community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,674 victims were transported to different tares of hospital and referrals ... The mean cost-efficiency (technical) of Machakos ambulance transport services was 90.6% (C.I 82.7% - 98.2%). ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Cost Efficiency and Returns to Scope in Italian Investment Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Basili; Fulvio Fontini

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates cost efficiency and returns to scope of Italian investment firms during the period 1998-2002, following the stochastic frontier function approach. Results indicate a large inefficiency for Italian investment firms (with a high standard deviation across sample) and the absence of significant returns to scope

  14. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.-S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Chen, W.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  15. Marginal costs for intensified energy-efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, J.; Jochem, E.; Christen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The costs and benefits of investments in measures designed to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings (in particular investments in heat insulation) were calculated as a function of increasing energy efficiency for new and renovated buildings and for single-family homes and apartment buildings. These investments in measures to improve efficiency mostly involve with the building envelope and ventilation systems and aim to successively reduce the space-heating needs of the buildings. The measures range from present-day building and renovation methods through to the 'Minergie' and 'Passive House' ('Minergie-P' in Switzerland) standards for low and very-low energy consumption buildings. Cost-benefit ratios were determined for individual building components, individual building concepts and for the whole of Switzerland, using both the average-cost as well as the pure marginal-cost methods (energy-economics level). The collection of empirical data (especially on costs) was an integral and important part of the project. The marginal costs were then compared with the benefits arising from the costs for space heating that were avoided, and, using a few typical cases as examples, with the so-called co-benefits, which are to be implemented in part by private persons and companies. For their quantification, methods were developed and used in case studies; in addition, avoided external costs are also considered. The marginal costs were also calculated for periods of time in the future, whereby they were made dynamic, according to their share of innovation, using the learning-curve method (learning and scaling effects). As far as the findings are concerned, there can be no doubt that the potential to be opened up for increasing energy efficiency using heat insulation measures is high, both for renovations and new construction work. A large portion of this potential is already economically viable and even more so when the possible risks of energy price increases

  16. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  18. Optimizing cost-efficiency in mean exposure assessment--cost functions reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Bolin, Kristian

    2011-05-21

    Reliable exposure data is a vital concern in medical epidemiology and intervention studies. The present study addresses the needs of the medical researcher to spend monetary resources devoted to exposure assessment with an optimal cost-efficiency, i.e. obtain the best possible statistical performance at a specified budget. A few previous studies have suggested mathematical optimization procedures based on very simple cost models; this study extends the methodology to cover even non-linear cost scenarios. Statistical performance, i.e. efficiency, was assessed in terms of the precision of an exposure mean value, as determined in a hierarchical, nested measurement model with three stages. Total costs were assessed using a corresponding three-stage cost model, allowing costs at each stage to vary non-linearly with the number of measurements according to a power function. Using these models, procedures for identifying the optimally cost-efficient allocation of measurements under a constrained budget were developed, and applied on 225 scenarios combining different sizes of unit costs, cost function exponents, and exposure variance components. Explicit mathematical rules for identifying optimal allocation could be developed when cost functions were linear, while non-linear cost functions implied that parts of or the entire optimization procedure had to be carried out using numerical methods.For many of the 225 scenarios, the optimal strategy consisted in measuring on only one occasion from each of as many subjects as allowed by the budget. Significant deviations from this principle occurred if costs for recruiting subjects were large compared to costs for setting up measurement occasions, and, at the same time, the between-subjects to within-subject variance ratio was small. In these cases, non-linearities had a profound influence on the optimal allocation and on the eventual size of the exposure data set. The analysis procedures developed in the present study can be used

  19. Efficient Guiding Towards Cost-Optimality in UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    with prices on both locations and transitions. The presented algorithm is based on a symbolic semantics of UTPA, and an efficient representation and operations based on difference bound matrices. In analogy with Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm, we show that the search order of the algorithm can be chosen......In this paper we present an algorithm for efficiently computing the minimum cost of reaching a goal state in the model of Uniformly Priced Timed Automata (UPTA). This model can be seen as a submodel of the recently suggested model of linearly priced timed automata, which extends timed automata...

  20. An efficient and cost effective nuclear medicine image network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampathkumaran, K.S.; Miller, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    An image network that is in use in a large nuclear medicine department is described. This network was designed to efficiently handle a large volume of clinical data at reasonable cost. Small, limited function computers are attached to each scintillation camera for data acquisition. The images are transferred by cable network or floppy disc to a large, powerful central computer for processing and display. Cost is minimized by use of small acquisition computers not equipped with expensive video display systems or elaborate analysis software. Thus, financial expenditure can be concentrated in a powerful central computer providing a centralized data base, rapid processing, and an efficient environment for program development. Clinical work is greatly facilitated because the physicians can process and display all studies without leaving the main reading area. (orig.)

  1. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  2. Cost and technical efficiency of physician practices: a stochastic frontier approach using panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimeshoff, Mareike; Schreyögg, Jonas; Kwietniewski, Lukas

    2014-06-01

    This is the first study to use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate both the technical and cost efficiency of physician practices. The analysis is based on panel data from 3,126 physician practices for the years 2006 through 2008. We specified the technical and cost frontiers as translog function, using the one-step approach of Battese and Coelli to detect factors that influence the efficiency of general practitioners and specialists. Variables that were not analyzed previously in this context (e.g., the degree of practice specialization) and a range of control variables such as a patients' case-mix were included in the estimation. Our results suggest that it is important to investigate both technical and cost efficiency, as results may depend on the type of efficiency analyzed. For example, the technical efficiency of group practices was significantly higher than that of solo practices, whereas the results for cost efficiency differed. This may be due to indivisibilities in expensive technical equipment, which can lead to different types of health care services being provided by different practice types (i.e., with group practices using more expensive inputs, leading to higher costs per case despite these practices being technically more efficient). Other practice characteristics such as participation in disease management programs show the same impact throughout both cost and technical efficiency: participation in disease management programs led to an increase in both, technical and cost efficiency, and may also have had positive effects on the quality of care. Future studies should take quality-related issues into account.

  3. Renewable portfolio standards and cost-effective energy-efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahone, A.; Woo, C.K.; Williams, J.; Horowitz, I.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency (EE) are increasingly popular policy tools to combat climate change and dependence on fossil fuels. These supply-side and demand-side policies, however, are often uncoordinated. Using California as a case in point, this paper demonstrates that states could improve resource allocation if these two policies were coordinated by incorporating renewable-energy procurement cost into the cost-effectiveness determination for EE investment. In particular, if renewable energy is relatively expensive when compared to conventional energy, increasing the RPS target raises the cost-effective level of EE investment

  4. Can academic radiology departments become more efficient and cost less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S E; Saini, S; Bramson, R T; Kelly, P; Levine, L; Chiango, B F; Jordan, P; Seth, A; Elton, J; Elrick, J; Rosenthal, D; Holman, B L; Thrall, J H

    1998-11-01

    To determine how successful two large academic radiology departments have been in responding to market-driven pressures to reduce costs and improve productivity by downsizing their technical and support staffs while maintaining or increasing volume. A longitudinal study was performed in which benchmarking techniques were used to assess the changes in cost and productivity of the two departments for 5 years (fiscal years 1992-1996). Cost per relative value unit and relative value units per full-time equivalent employee were tracked. Substantial cost reduction and productivity enhancement were realized as linear improvements in two key metrics, namely, cost per relative value unit (decline of 19.0% [decline of $7.60 on a base year cost of $40.00] to 28.8% [$12.18 of $42.21]; P employee (increase of 46.0% [increase of 759.55 units over a base year productivity of 1,651.45 units] to 55.8% [968.28 of 1,733.97 units]; P < .001), during the 5 years of study. Academic radiology departments have proved that they can "do more with less" over a sustained period.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  6. Measurement of cost efficiency in the European banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Tuškan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analysed and compared efficiency results in the banking industry using two different approaches: financial indicators and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA methodology. In the indicator-based approach, we used chosen accounting ratios (Return on Assets - ROA, Return on Equity – ROE and Cost to Income Ratio - CIR and the descriptive statistics methodology to conduct analysis. In the case of DEA, a nonparametric linear programming methodology approach, expenses as input data and income as output data are used for measuring efficiency using the CCR DEA model, BCC DEA model and window analysis DEA technique. The objective of this research is ascertain whether a correlation exists between the results of the different ways of measuring efficiency. In that sense, the main purpose of this research is to draw a more precise conclusion about the efficiency of the banking industry, as tested for the period 2008–2012 on a sample of 28 European banking systems. The main difference in the obtained results is a lag of values of average accounting ratios in comparison to the results of the DEA methodology. Such a finding suggests that the DEA methodology can be useful in detecting early signs of inadequate business strategies, which can lead to the slowdown of business activity or poorer efficiency results. This can be especially important in times of an unstable financial or macroeconomic environment, as it can assist in detecting early signs of a crisis. In general, the results of both approaches suggest that banking systems in post-transition countries have a higher cost efficiency. Such systems continue to be dominantly financed through long-term deposits and are also exposed to a specific risk. They do business in a specific competitive, financial and macroeconomic environment that significantly influences the prices of financial services (i.e. higher margins, and as a consequence, leads to potentially higher banking sector earnings.

  7. Determination of turbine relative efficiency in SHPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the fulfillment of contract conditions for the equipment delivery, determining the properties and capabilities of a generating unit or some part of it, the measurements carried out under real operating conditions were necessary. In this paper, the results of the test that was carried out in a small hydropower plant (SHPP, aimed at determining the relative efficiency of the hydraulic turbine and its comparison with the guaranteed values, are presented. The dependence of the turbine efficiency on the turbine discharge was determined based on the test results, using the index method. The test was performed at one net head.

  8. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  9. Cost-efficient enactment of stream processing topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hochreiner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of unbound streaming data poses several challenges to established data stream processing engines. One of the most important challenges is the cost-efficient enactment of stream processing topologies under changing data volume. These data volume pose different loads to stream processing systems whose resource provisioning needs to be continuously updated at runtime. First approaches already allow for resource provisioning on the level of virtual machines (VMs, but this only allows for coarse resource provisioning strategies. Based on current advances and benefits for containerized software systems, we have designed a cost-efficient resource provisioning approach and integrated it into the runtime of the Vienna ecosystem for elastic stream processing. Our resource provisioning approach aims to maximize the resource usage for VMs obtained from cloud providers. This strategy only releases processing capabilities at the end of the VMs minimal leasing duration instead of releasing them eagerly as soon as possible as it is the case for threshold-based approaches. This strategy allows us to improve the service level agreement compliance by up to 25% and a reduction for the operational cost of up to 36%.

  10. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  11. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Galagan, Y.O.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Grossiord, N.; Blom, P.W.M.; Kroon, J.; Veenstra, S.; Verhees, W.; Slooff, L.; Pex, P.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of a transparent conductive electrode such as indium tin oxide (ITO) limits the reliability and cost price of organic photovoltaic devices as it is brittle and expensive. Moreover, the relative high sheet resistance of an ITO electrode on flexible substrates limits the maximum width of

  12. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Wang, L.; Wood, E.; Lopp, S.; Ramroth, L.

    2015-05-04

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high-level advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and simple approach to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery batches of real-world drive cycles. FASTSim’s calculation framework and balance among detail, accuracy, and speed enable it to simulate thousands of driven miles in minutes. The key components and vehicle outputs have been validated by comparing the model outputs to test data for many different vehicles to provide confidence in the results. A graphical user interface makes FASTSim easy and efficient to use. FASTSim is freely available for download from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s website (see www.nrel.gov/fastsim).

  13. Case Studies in the Field of Marketing Education: Learner Impact, Case Performance, and Cost Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.

    2005-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to identify a methodology that will help educators in marketing to efficiently manage the design, impact, and cost of case studies. It is my intention is to examine the impact of case study characteristics in relation to the degree of learner involvement in the learning process. The author proposes that…

  14. Efficiency, Costs, Rankings and Heterogeneity: The Case of US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Among the major trends in the higher education (HE) sector, the development of rankings as a policy and managerial tool is of particular relevance. However, despite the diffusion of these instruments, it is still not clear how they relate with traditional performance measures, like unit costs and efficiency scores. In this paper, we estimate a…

  15. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  16. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarsa, Eric [Cree, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  17. Cost-efficient foundation structures for large offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.; Gormsen, C.; Lyngesen, S.; Rasmussen, J. L.; Juhl, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the development of a cost-efficient foundation for large (1.5 MW) offshore wind farms at water depth of 5 to 11 m. Previously, medium sized wind turbines (500 kW) in Denmark have been installed offshore at water depths of approximately 5 m on concrete gravity foundations. The installation of larger turbines at greater depth does, however, hold great promise in terms of wind environment and environmental considerations. The costs of a traditional gravity foundation at these increased water depths is expected to be prohibitive, and the aim of the project has been to reduce the foundations costs in general. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the geotechnical and structural design of three alternative concepts and presents an optimised layout of each based on a research and development project. The basis has been a wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The R and D project has been undertaken by the consulting engineers Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S (Gravity foundation), LICengineering A/S (Mono pile) and Ramboell (Tripod) in co-operation with the Danish utility engineering companies Elkraft and Elsamprojekt A/S. The project was partly financed by the participants and by the Danish Energy Agency through their 1996 Energy Research Programme (EFP-96). (au) 18 refs

  18. The cost of preventing undernutrition: cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of three cash-based interventions on nutrition outcomes in Dadu, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, Lani; Colbourn, Timothy; Fenn, Bridget; Pietzsch, Silke; Myatt, Mark; Puett, Chloe

    2018-07-01

    Cash-based interventions (CBIs) increasingly are being used to deliver humanitarian assistance and there is growing interest in the cost-effectiveness of cash transfers for preventing undernutrition in emergency contexts. The objectives of this study were to assess the costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness in achieving nutrition outcomes of three CBIs in southern Pakistan: a 'double cash' (DC) transfer, a 'standard cash' (SC) transfer and a 'fresh food voucher' (FFV) transfer. Cash and FFVs were provided to poor households with children aged 6-48 months for 6 months in 2015. The SC and FFV interventions provided $14 monthly and the DC provided $28 monthly. Cost data were collected via institutional accounting records, interviews, programme observation, document review and household survey. Cost-effectiveness was assessed as cost per case of wasting, stunting and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Beneficiary costs were higher for the cash groups than the voucher group. Net total cost transfer ratios (TCTRs) were estimated as 1.82 for DC, 2.82 for SC and 2.73 for FFV. Yet, despite the higher operational costs, the FFV TCTR was lower than the SC TCTR when incorporating the participation cost to households, demonstrating the relevance of including beneficiary costs in cost-efficiency estimations. The DC intervention achieved a reduction in wasting, at $4865 per case averted; neither the SC nor the FFV interventions reduced wasting. The cost per case of stunting averted was $1290 for DC, $882 for SC and $883 for FFV. The cost per DALY averted was $641 for DC, $434 for SC and $563 for FFV without discounting or age weighting. These interventions are highly cost-effective by international thresholds. While it is debatable whether these resource requirements represent a feasible or sustainable investment given low health expenditures in Pakistan, these findings may provide justification for continuing Pakistan's investment in national social safety

  19. Market failures, consumer preferences, and transaction costs inenergy efficiency purchase decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott

    2004-11-23

    Several factors limit the energy savings potential and increase the costs of energy-efficient technologies to consumers. These factors may usefully be placed into two categories; one category is what economists would define as market failures and the other is related to consumer preferences. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the roles of these factors, and develops a methodology to quantify their effects on costs and potentials of two energy efficient end uses - residential lighting and clothes washers. It notes the significant roles played by the high implicit cost of obtaining information about the benefits of the two technologies and the apparent inability to process and utilize information. For compact fluorescent lamps, this report finds a conservative estimate of the cost of conserved energy of 3.1 cents per kWh. For clothes washers, including water savings reduces the cost of conserved energy from 13.6 cents to 4.3 cents per equivalent kWh. Despite these benefits, market share remains low. About 18 million tons of CO2 could be saved cost effectively from 2005 sales of these two technologies alone. The paper also notes that trading of carbon emissions will incur transaction costs that will range from less than 10 cents per metric ton of CO2 for larger size projects and programs to a few dollars per metric ton of carbon for the smaller ones.

  20. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  1. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  2. Managerial performance and cost efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals: a latent class stochastic frontier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstremyannaya, Galina

    2011-09-01

    The paper explores the link between managerial performance and cost efficiency of 617 Japanese general local public hospitals in 1999-2007. Treating managerial performance as unobservable heterogeneity, the paper employs a panel data stochastic cost frontier model with latent classes. Financial parameters associated with better managerial performance are found to be positively significant in explaining the probability of belonging to the more efficient latent class. The analysis of latent class membership was consistent with the conjecture that unobservable technological heterogeneity reflected in the existence of the latent classes is related to managerial performance. The findings may support the cause for raising efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals by enhancing the quality of management. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Renewables vs. energy efficiency: The cost of carbon emissions reduction in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Peña, Álvaro; Pérez-Arriaga, Ignacio; Linares, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    While support instruments have succeeded to largely deploy renewables during the 1996–2008 period, little attention has been paid to energy efficiency measures, resulting in a high energy intensity and large growth of energy demand. Energy-related CO 2 emissions have increased significantly. At the same time, important investments in combined cycle gas turbines have taken place. This paper analyses whether, from a cost minimization viewpoint, renewable support has been the best policy for reducing emissions, when compared to the promotion of energy efficiency in sectors such as transportation or buildings. We use a model of the Spanish energy sector to examine its evolution in the time period considered under different policies. It is a bottom-up, static, partial equilibrium, linear programming model of the complete Spanish energy system. We conclude that demand side management (DSM) clearly dominates renewable energy (RE) support if the reduction of emissions at minimum cost is the only concern. We also quantify the savings that could have been achieved: a total of €5 billion per year, mainly in RE subsidies and in smaller costs of meeting the reduced demand (net of DSM implementation cost). - Highlights: ► Energy efficiency is cheaper than renewables for reducing carbon emissions. ► Energy efficiency measures could have saved more than €5 billion per year in Spain. ► Savings could have been bigger without overcapacity in gas combined cycles.

  4. 42 CFR 423.6 - Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. 423.6 Section 423.6 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... BENEFIT General Provisions § 423.6 Cost-sharing in beneficiary education and enrollment-related costs. The...

  5. Unpaid ecological costs related to emissions in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Nauroy, Frederic; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey; David, Michel; Greffet, Pierre; Mordant, Guillaume; Moreau, Sylvain; Nirascou, Francoise; Le Moullec, Aurelie; Berthier, Jean-Pierre; Hassan, Marie-Elizabeth; Curri-Lemaitre, Elen; Lagarenne, Christine; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Puydarrieux, Philippe; Vanoli, Andre; Schucht, Simone

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an analysis of unpaid ecological terms based on the use of new economic indicators related to sustainable development (going beyond the GDP, adjusted accounting aggregates, accounting unpaid ecological costs), an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to climate change (context, used results and data, definitions of trajectories associated with greenhouse gas emissions, cost to be applied to emissions to get rid of, assessment of unpaid ecological costs), and an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to air pollution (objectives, standard to be adopted, towards more ambitious emission reduction and re-assessed costs, unpaid ecological costs in 2010)

  6. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  7. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  8. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili; Ersin Erçin; Cemal Kural; Altuğ Duramaz; Cevdet Avkan; Gökhan Peker; Serdar Hakan Başaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system ...

  9. 165 renal carcinomas: Accuracy of imaging for diagnosis and spread - cost efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plainfosse, M.C.; Delecoeullerie, G.; Vital, J.L.; Paty, E.; Merran, S.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a study of 165 cases of renal carcinoma, we compare the relative diagnosis efficiency of different methods: intravenous urography (IVU), ultrasound (U.S.), arteriography and computed tomography (C.T.). Our evidence enables us to assert the excellent diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and the superiority of computed tomography for good staging of renal carcinoma. The cost efficient methods for the evaluation of this tumour are intravenous urography (to show and localize the renal mass), ultrasound (to assert the echogenic structure) and computed tomography (to establish the diagnosis of carcinoma and judge its spread). (orig.)

  10. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  11. The efficiency cost of protective measures in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Garcia-Muros, Xaquin; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Arto, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent achievements towards a global climate agreement, climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions remains quite heterogeneous across countries. Energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries in industrialized countries are concerned on stringent domestic emission pricing that puts them at a competitive disadvantage against producers of similar goods in other countries with more lenient emission regulation. This paper focuses on climate policy design in the United States of America (US) and compares the economic implications of four alternative protective measures for US EITE industries: (i) output-based rebates, (ii) exemptions from emission pricing, (iii) energy intensity standards, and (iv) carbon intensity standards. Using a large-scale computable general equilibrium model we quantify how these protective measures affect competitiveness of US EITE industries. We find that protective measures can improve common trade-related competitiveness indicators such as revealed comparative advantage or relative world trade shares but at the same time may lead to a decline in the output value for EITE industries because of negative income effects. The economy-wide cost of emission abatement under protective measures increase as compared to uniform emission pricing stand-alone such that the gains of protective measures for EITE exports may be more than compensated through losses in domestic EITE demand. - Highlights: • We assess impacts for US emission-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries. • EITE impacts are quantified via competitiveness metrics and production output. • Protective measures reduce adverse competitiveness impacts but can depress output. • Output losses are due to negative income effects that reduce domestic EITE demand. • Protective measures run the risk of making US climate policy much more costly.

  12. Search costs and efficiency : Do unemployed workers search enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Moraga González, José; Wolthoff, Ronald P.

    Many labor market policies affect the marginal benefits and costs of job search. The impact and desirability of such policies depend on the distribution of search costs. In this paper, we provide an equilibrium framework for identifying the distribution of search costs and we apply it to the Dutch

  13. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  14. [Analysis of cost and efficiency of a medical nursing unit using time-driven activity-based costing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi

    2011-08-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing was applied to analyze the nursing activity cost and efficiency of a medical unit. Data were collected at a medical unit of a general hospital. Nursing activities were measured using a nursing activities inventory and classified as 6 domains using Easley-Storfjell Instrument. Descriptive statistics were used to identify general characteristics of the unit, nursing activities and activity time, and stochastic frontier model was adopted to estimate true activity time. The average efficiency of the medical unit using theoretical resource capacity was 77%, however the efficiency using practical resource capacity was 96%. According to these results, the portion of non-added value time was estimated 23% and 4% each. The sums of total nursing activity costs were estimated 109,860,977 won in traditional activity-based costing and 84,427,126 won in time-driven activity-based costing. The difference in the two cost calculating methods was 25,433,851 won. These results indicate that the time-driven activity-based costing provides useful and more realistic information about the efficiency of unit operation compared to traditional activity-based costing. So time-driven activity-based costing is recommended as a performance evaluation framework for nursing departments based on cost management.

  15. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Kočišová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature analysing efficiency of financial institutions has enveloped rapidly over the last years. Most studies have focused on the input side analysing input technical and cost efficiency. Only few studies have examined the output side evaluating output technical and revenue efficiency. We know that both sides are relevant when evaluating efficiency of financial institutions. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to review a number of approaches for efficiency measurement. In particular, the concepts of cost, revenue and profit functions are discussed. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to a sample of Slovak and Czech commercial banks during years 2009–2013 comparing the efficiencies by either minimizing cost or maximizing revenue and profit. The results showed that the level of average revenue efficiency was the highest and the average profit efficiency was the lowest one. As can be seen the Czech banks were more cost, revenue and profit efficient than Slovak ones during the whole analysed period.

  16. Cost and efficiency of public sector sexually transmitted infection clinics in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh YK

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is an important part of the effort to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS. STI clinics in the government hospitals in India provide services predominantly to the poor. Data on the cost and efficiency of providing STI services in India are not available to help guide efficient use of public resources for these services. Methods Standardised methods were used to obtain detailed cost and output data for the 2003–2004 fiscal year from written records and interviews in 14 government STI clinics in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The economic cost per patient receiving STI treatment was calculated, and the variations of total and unit costs across the STI clinics analysed. Multivariate regression technique was used to estimate incremental unit costs. The optimal number of STIs that could be handled by the clinics was estimated. Results 18807 STIs were diagnosed and treated at the 14 STI clinics in fiscal year 2003–2004 (range 323–2784, median 1199. The economic cost of treating each STI varied 5-fold from Indian Rupees (INR 225.5 (US$ 4.91 to INR 1201.5 (US$ 26.15 between 13 clinics, with one other clinic having a very high cost of INR 2478.5 (US$ 53.94. The average cost per STI treated for all 14 clinics combined was INR 729.5 (US$ 15.88. Personnel salaries made up 76.2% of the total cost. The number of STIs treated per doctor full-time equivalent and cost-efficiency for each STI treated had a significant direct non-linear relation (p 2 = 0.81; power function. With a multiple regression model, apart from the fixed costs, the incremental cost for each STI detected and cost of treatment was INR 55.57 (US$ 1.21 and for each follow-up visit was INR 3.75 (US$ 0.08. Based on estimates of optimal STI cases that could be handled without compromising quality by each doctor full-time equivalent available, it was projected that at 8 of the 14 clinics substantially more STI cases could be

  17. The costs and cost-efficiency of providing food through schools in areas of high food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality

  18. Logistics costs evaluation as a way of company’s efficiency improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Galina VOLOSCENCO; Natalia SESTENCO-DIACEK

    2015-01-01

    In Logistic systems, besides the usual costs for work forces, material and supplies, there are specific costs which are not always identified with the term classic meaning. These are transaction costs which influence on financial indicators of the company and on its efficiency and competitiveness accordingly. These costs classification, factors influencing on their amount, allows to find ways for their reduction methods and so that to improve the efficiency of the company.

  19. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    development of the cardiovascular calcification. Economic studies show higher costs for Sevelamer and Lanthanum compared to calcium-containing phosphate binders. Discussion: Only a few well documented primary studies on the effectiveness of phosphate binders are available. Particularly long-term studies with a robust study design and transparent documentation are lacking. Ten of the eleven primary studies included in this report were conducted in only 539 patients from five patient collectives. Conclusions: From a medical point of view, Sevelamer shows some superiority over calcium-containing phosphate binders based on the current data, at least for special indications. The validity of the present Health Technology Assessment (HTA report is significantly limited due to the limited number of available publications, the low sample size of treated patients, as well as the fact that the majority of studies are based on the same patient collectives. Prospective long-term studies not funded by the industry with adequate sample sizes and comparable study designs are called for to make authoritative statements regarding the medical effectiveness and safety of Sevelamer and Lanthanum, as well as regarding their economic efficiency.

  20. [Relating costs to activities in hospitals. Use of internal cost accounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavem, K

    1995-01-10

    During the last few years hospital cost accounting has become widespread in many countries, in parallel with increasing cost pressure, greater competition and new financing schemes. Cost accounting has been used in the manufacturing industry for many years. Costs can be related to activities and production, e.g. by the costing of procedures, episodes of care and other internally defined cost objectives. Norwegian hospitals have lagged behind in the adoption of cost accounting. They ought to act quickly if they want to be prepared for possible changes in health care financing. The benefits can be considerable to a hospital operating in a rapidly changing health care environment.

  1. Low-Cost, High Efficiency, Silicon Based Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    for photovoltaic applications. Figure 14: (a) Absorption and scattering efficiencies versus sizes of Au nanoparticle at 550 nm, (b) scattering...efficiency as a function of wavelength for different Au nanoparticles sizes . 32 Review of plasmonics light trapping for photovoltaic application...ensure that the irradiation variation was within 3%. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) system used a 300W Xenon light source with a spot size of 1mm

  2. Cost-benefit and cost-efficiency analysis of the water footprint in Spain; Analisis coste-beneficio y coste-eficiencia de la Huella Hidrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo Navalpotro, J. A.; Sotelo Perez, M.; Garcia Quiroca, F.

    2011-07-01

    We are increasingly needing ways to secure patterns of development that be sustainable, that is, environmentally, socially and economically appropriate for us and for future generations. Sustainability indicators are a promising tool that would allow us to land the concept, supporting the way in which decisions are made. In Spain there are few experiences on the subject. This paper presents the work carried out to develop sustainability indicators. Throughout the present study shows the importance of analysis of cost-benefit and cost efficiency in the assessment of the water footprint of Spain. (Author)

  3. Water use efficiency of coriander produced in a low-cost hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Santos Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increase of water use efficiency in crop production is a clear need in areas with restricted access to this resource and, in these cases, the adoption of forms of cultivation contextualized to local conditions are essential. Thus, the implications of the variation in the amount of seeds per cell (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g and spacing between cells (7.0, 10.0 and 15.0 cm on variables related to consumption and water use efficiency for the production of coriander (cv. Tabocas in a low-cost hydroponic system, an alternative for semiarid regions, were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design, analysed in 4 x 3 factorial scheme with three replicates, was adopted, and the data were subjected to analysis of variance at 0.05 probability level. It was found that the reduction in the spacing between cells has a better cost-benefit ratio with respect to water consumption, biomass produced and cost of seeds. Therefore, it is recommended the adoption of a spacing of 7.0 cm between cells and the use of 1.0 g seeds per cell; this configuration promoted efficiency of 81.59 g L-1 in shoot green mass production and total mass of 62.4 g coriander bunches.

  4. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  5. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  6. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Nitrogen efficiency of Dutch dairy farms : A shadow cost system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Thijssen, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the cost efficiency and nitrogen efficiency of an unbalanced panel of Dutch dairy farms. Nitrogen efficiency is defined as the ratio of minimal to observed use of nitrogen (N-containing inputs), conditional on output and quasi-fixed inputs. Nitrogen efficiency is computed in

  8. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    tanning, metallurgical operation and manufacturing have led to the release ... pulmonary fibrosis and inhibit many enzymatic functions. (Liphadzi ... sector is a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal but has ... as its economic value is less. The aim ...

  9. Production Cost Efficiency and Profitability of Abakaliki Rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... positive and significant effect on the total cost of rice production. They were all significant ... failure is experienced due to the flooded rice field. In addition ... for random effects on production beyond the control .... Standard error.

  10. Complementary effect of patient volume and quality of care on hospital cost efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Park, Imsu; Jung, Ilyoung; Dey, Asoke

    2017-06-01

    This study explores the direct effect of an increase in patient volume in a hospital and the complementary effect of quality of care on the cost efficiency of U.S. hospitals in terms of patient volume. The simultaneous equation model with three-stage least squares is used to measure the direct effect of patient volume and the complementary effect of quality of care and volume. Cost efficiency is measured with a data envelopment analysis method. Patient volume has a U-shaped relationship with hospital cost efficiency and an inverted U-shaped relationship with quality of care. Quality of care functions as a moderator for the relationship between patient volume and efficiency. This paper addresses the economically important question of the relationship of volume with quality of care and hospital cost efficiency. The three-stage least square simultaneous equation model captures the simultaneous effects of patient volume on hospital quality of care and cost efficiency.

  11. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B G; Vieira Filho, X [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H J; Alvarenga Filho, S [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Measuring the relative efficiency of Ilam hospitals using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Fazeli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency is one of the most important issues among hospitals in today's economy. These days, we hear that cost reduction is a necessity for survival of business owners and one primary to reduce the expenditures is to increase relative efficiency. The proposed study of this paper first uses output oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA to measure the relative efficiencies of nine hospitals. The proposed model uses four types of employee namely specialists, physicians, technicians and other staffs as input parameters. The model also uses the number of surgeries, hospitalized and radiography as the outputs of the proposed model. Since the implementation of DEA leads us to have more than one single efficient unit, we implement supper efficiency technique to measure the relative efficiency of efficient units.

  13. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central Kenya: A Stochastic-Translog Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanja, A.M.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Work reported in this paper analyses the cost efficiency levels of small-holder coffee farmers in four districts in Central Province, Kenya. The level of efficiency is analysed using a stochastic cost frontier model based on household cross-sectional data collected in 1999 and 2000. The 200 surveyed

  14. Routes to increasing efficiency and reducing the cost of thin-film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Barink, M.; Klerk, L.; Voorthuijzen, P.; Hovestad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Most development work in the laboratory is dedicated to efficiency enhancements at the cell level; improvements in efficiency can lead to higher cost-competitiveness of PV. However, the cost of panel manufacturing is an important aspect as well. For CIGS panels the deposition of the active layer is

  15. SOEC efficiency and cost improvement Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Chang, K.-C.; Meyers, D. J.; You, H.; Carter, J.D.; Elam, J.W.; Honegger, D.A.; Libera, J.A.; Pellin, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Part I: Electrochemical and X-ray Characterization of Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Cell Oxygen Electrodes on Electrolyte Substrates--The governing reaction mechanisms, and the electrode and electrolyte material compositions and structures, that controls the efficiency and durability of the solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) need to be identified and well-understood for a significant improvement in nuclear hydrogen production using high temperature steam electrolysis. ANL conducted experimental analysis of SOEC electrolyte and electrodes to progress in this objective. Our study on the oxygen electrode focused on specifically the effect of electrode crystal structure on its electrochemical performance, and the evolution of the electronic and structural properties of the electrodes while under electrochemical conditions and high temperature. We found through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments that, while different crystal orientations in La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3+d (LSM) show different initial performance and different electrochemical activation under SOEC conditions, a good mixed ionic electronic conductor La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3+d (LSC) does not seem to exhibit similar variations. Our in-situ x-ray and electrochemical measurements at the Advanced Photon Source of ANL have identified the chemical states of the A-site elements of the doped lanthanum manganite electrodes. We found that the changes in the concentration and in the electronic state of the La and Sr (the A-site elements of the perovskite) occurring only at the top airelectrode film interface can be responsible from the electrochemical improvement of the SOEC anode under DC current. Our observation related to the La chemical state change is unexpected and probably unique to the electrochemical current-conditioning. Part II: Progress Towards the Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Manganate--Lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM) is the most commonly used cathode material for solid oxide fuel

  16. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  17. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  18. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  19. Cost Efficiency In U.S. Corn, Soybean, Wheat, and Cotton Production

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Stephen C.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1983, intertemporal cost efficiency for u.s. field crops increased about 1.4 to 1.2% percent for corn, soybeans, and wheat and .2% per year for cotton. competitive advantage in 1983 was held by central Illinois and north central Iowa in corn, central Illinois in soybeans, the Washington Palouse and central North Dakota in wheat, and southern California in cotton relative to the other selected regions in the study. Scale economies exist in corn, soybean and wheat but not in co...

  20. Are Public Master's Institutions Cost Efficient? A Stochastic Frontier and Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Vamosiu, Adriana; McClure, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines costs, measured by educational and general (E&G) spending, and cost efficiency at 252 public master's institutions in the United States over a nine-year (2004-2012) period. We use a multi-product quadratic cost function and results from a random-effects model with a first-order autoregressive (AR1) disturbance term…

  1. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  2. Evidence on the relation between public capital and Government efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the relation between public capital stock and government efficiency. We present some objective indicators fo government efficiency and explore the mentioned relation. we find a positive and significant relation between both variables that survives the introduction of controls and robustness checking.

  3. Comparisons of hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C Daniel; Sikirica, Mirko; Seneviratne, Viran; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Akhras, Kasem S

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and compares the individual cost components of hospital and ambulatory services that manage the care of hypertensive patients in eight countries: the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia. Hypertension-related costs are classified according to four major cardiovascular events: (i) acute myocardial infarction; (ii) congestive heart failure; (iii) stroke; and (iv) renal failure, which was subdivided into renal failure treated by dialysis and renal failure treated by kidney transplantation. To make cross-country costs comparisons, we used the DRG codes used in the US and DRG-like codes from each country. US cost information was obtained from hypertension data available from the literature and health economics researchers. For costs in other countries, we consulted with national health economics experts in each country, used analyses by the Research Triangle Institute, and performed Medline and international literature searches. When available, we obtained information from the countries' public and private nationally representative data sources. For cross-country currency adjustments, all currencies were converted using the Purchasing Power Parities from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and then converted into inflation-adjusted year 2000 US dollars. There exists considerable variation in hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies. This study documents that costs are generally higher in the US than in other countries; however, this is not always true. In particular, costs of treating heart failure in France and the costs of renal failure without transplantation in Germany and the UK are relatively high. While analysing multinational hypertensive cost data, this study also addresses the impact of cross-country cost variations on cost analyses. During the last decade, drug-development researchers have drawn extensively upon multinational trials to resolve enrollment problems and

  4. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  5. Efficient Allocation of Reserve Costs in RTO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2006-10-15

    RTOs' make-whole payments for generation commitment are needed partly because of flaws in the design of reserve markets. Markets might be made more efficient with greater locational differentiation in reserve prices and incorporation of make-whole payments into reserve prices. (author)

  6. Economic Reforms and Cost Efficiency of Coffee Farmers in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, conclude that small-holder-based agricultural development policy is still relevant and an efficient mode of organising production in Kenya, even after the major institutional and economic changes brought about market liberalisation. The pursuit of small-holder-based agricultural development, however, calls ...

  7. Efficient Guiding Towards Cost-Optimality in Uppaal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    with prices on both locations and transitions. The presented algorithm is based on a symbolic semantics of UTPA, and an efficient representation and operations based on difference bound matrices. In analogy with Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm, we show that the search order of the algorithm can be chosen...

  8. Thermodynamics and Adsorption Efficiencies of Low Cost Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamics and sorption efficiencies for the remediation of Cr, Ni and Cd from their ... using Maize Cob (MC) and Sawdust (SD) in a batch system are reported. ... to study concentration differences before and after the adsorption process. ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  9. Efficient power generating portfolio in Brazil: Conciliating cost, emissions and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losekann, Luciano; Marrero, Gustavo A.; Ramos-Real, Francisco J.; Fagundes de Almeida, Edmar Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess efficiency of the Brazilian electricity generation mix proposed in the 2020 Decennial Plan for Energy Expansion (DPEE 2020). It evaluates estimated costs, risks and CO 2 emissions following the mean–variance portfolio theory. The efficiency frontier is estimated for three CO 2 prices scenarios: no CO 2 prices, low CO 2 price and high CO 2 price. The planned portfolio in Brazil presented in the DPEE 2020 is relatively close to the efficient frontier, however there is still room for risk mitigation by diversifying the energy portfolio. As there is currently no CO 2 price in Brazil, the tendency is that diversification increases fossil fuel share in the energy mix, but the introduction of a CO 2 price can be an option to promote renewables. This type of large general market framework can contribute to reduce market uncertainties by reducing the level of government′s discretionary activism. -- Highlights: •We use portfolio theory to evaluate Brazilian generation mix expansion. •The Brazilian expansion plan is evaluated in three CO 2 price scenarios. •It is room to efficiency gains through portfolio diversification. •When CO 2 is not priced, fossil fuel increases it shares in the efficient portfolio. •High CO 2 prices increase the share of wind and biomass in the mix

  10. Flexible and Cost Efficient Power Consumption using Economic MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F.S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2011-01-01

    the formulation of a new cost function for our proposed power management. Hereby the refrigeration system is enabled to contribute with ancillary services to the balancing power market. Since significant amounts of regulating power is needed for a higher penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources...... such as wind turbines this feature is in high demand in a future intelligent power grid (Smart Grid). Our perspective is seen from the refrigeration system but as it is demonstrated the involvement in the balancing market can be economically beneficial for the system itself while delivering crucial services...... that reduces operation costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. In the study we specifically address advantages coming from daily variations in outdoor temperature and electricity prices but other aims such as peak load reduction are also considered. An important contribution of this paper is also...

  11. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  12. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the proportion of the base used by the same product in the conventional costing systems. The difference arises because the conventional costing systems ignore the existence of batch-related and product-related costs. The model predicts a positive association between volume and size diversity with product cost distortions. When interaction between volume and size diversity exists, the distortion is either mitigated or exacerbated. The magnitude of the distortion is jointly determined by the size of the differences and the size of the total indirect costs.

  13. Transaction costs of Tradable White Certificate schemes: The Energy Efficiency Commitment as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics at Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    This paper analyses the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) borne by obliged parties under a ''Tradable White Certificate'' (TWC) scheme. Taking the first phase of the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC1) in Great Britain as a case study, several sources of TCs were considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification activities. Information was obtained through interviews and a questionnaire distributed to obliged parties. Results show that the most significant sources of TCs were related to search for information, persuading customers and negotiating with managing agents/contractors to implement energy efficiency measures. Perceived high TCs related to contract negotiation and liability risks slightly reduced the low trading level. The scale of TCs was estimated to be around 10% and 30% of total investments costs for the lighting and insulation segments, respectively. The results indicate that, despite the presence and scale of TCs, the EEC1 scheme generated energy savings that yielded net societal benefits. Estimated financial benefits range from 0.6 to 6 p/kWh for insulation and lighting savings, respectively. When avoided external costs due to electricity savings are included, estimated economic benefits range from 3 to 8 p/kWh. Several lessons from the EEC1 can be drawn for TWC schemes. Among others, it is found that informative policy instruments to raise awareness among end-users are critical if a TWC scheme is to deliver cost-effective energy savings. In all, the nature and scale of TCs under TWC schemes will differ because of a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants. (author)

  14. Transaction costs of Tradable White Certificate schemes: The Energy Efficiency Commitment as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca, Luis

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) borne by obliged parties under a 'Tradable White Certificate' (TWC) scheme. Taking the first phase of the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC1) in Great Britain as a case study, several sources of TCs were considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification activities. Information was obtained through interviews and a questionnaire distributed to obliged parties. Results show that the most significant sources of TCs were related to search for information, persuading customers and negotiating with managing agents/contractors to implement energy efficiency measures. Perceived high TCs related to contract negotiation and liability risks slightly reduced the low trading level. The scale of TCs was estimated to be around 10% and 30% of total investments costs for the lighting and insulation segments, respectively. The results indicate that, despite the presence and scale of TCs, the EEC1 scheme generated energy savings that yielded net societal benefits. Estimated financial benefits range from 0.6 to 6 p/kWh for insulation and lighting savings, respectively. When avoided external costs due to electricity savings are included, estimated economic benefits range from 3 to 8 p/kWh. Several lessons from the EEC1 can be drawn for TWC schemes. Among others, it is found that informative policy instruments to raise awareness among end-users are critical if a TWC scheme is to deliver cost-effective energy savings. In all, the nature and scale of TCs under TWC schemes will differ because of a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants

  15. Efficient running of steam generator trims fuel cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.; Eltouny, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    E scaling energy prices have led to drastic changes in the operating philosophy of the worldwide industry. About 50% of the thermal energy in industry is being consumed in steam boilers. The new energy reduction programs that have been adopted in egypt draw attention to the boilers, not only to trim energy consumption and improve the production of steam but also to save as much money as possible in doing it. Organization for energy planning (OEP) has started a program for 'Boiler efficiency improvement' in industry since 2 years. The program aimed at performing energy audits in a selective number of industries in both public and private sectors using fire tube boilers produced locally by El Nasr company. As a result of audits an evaluation of performance of this type of boilers was,performed. The energy profiles and the common problems affecting the efficiency of boilers were determined. Energy conservation opportunities (ECO) were identified. 9 figs

  16. Relative fault and efficient negligence: Comparative negligence explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Hendriks, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that the rule of comparative negligence with relative fault - a sharing of the loss proportional to the parties’ relative departures from due care - induces the parties to an accident to be efficiently negligent. Comparative negligence is more efficient than simple or contributory

  17. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  18. Effect of Dead Volume on the Efficiency and the Cost to Deliver Medications in Cystic Fibrosis with Four Disposable Nebulizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Ho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the factors that affect nebulizer efficiency and to compare the relative cost effectiveness of nebulized medications used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF, delivered by four types of disposable jet nebulizers that are widely used in hospitals.

  19. Using the UKROC dataset to make the case for resources to improve cost-efficiency in neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Poppleton, Rob; Williams, Heather; Schoewenaars, Katie; Badwan, Derar

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge for providers and commissioners of rehabilitation services is to find optimal balance between service costs and outcomes. This article presents a "real-life" application of the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) dataset. We undertook a comparative cohort analysis of case-episode data (n = 173) from two specialist neurological rehabilitation units (A and B), to compare the cost-efficiency of two service models. (i) Demographics, casemix and levels of functional dependency on admission and discharge were broadly similar for the two units. (ii) The mean length of stay for Unit A was 1.5 times longer than Unit B, which had 85% higher levels of therapy staffing in relation to occupied bed days so despite higher bed-day costs, Unit B was 20% more cost-efficient overall, for similar gain. (iii) Following analysis, engagement with service commissioners led to successful negotiation of a business plan for service reconfiguration with increased staffing levels for Unit A and further development of local community rehabilitation services. (i) Lower front-end service costs do not always signify optimal cost-efficiency. (ii) Analysis of routinely collected clinical data can be used to engage commissioners and to make the case for resources to maximise efficiency and improve patient care.

  20. Global CO2 efficiency: Country-wise estimates using a stochastic cost frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrala, Risto; Goel, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) efficiency by employing a stochastic cost frontier analysis of about 170 countries in 1997 and 2007. The main contribution lies in providing a new approach to environmental efficiency estimation, in which the efficiency estimates quantify the distance from the policy objective of minimum emissions. We are able to examine a very large pool of nations and provide country-wise efficiency estimates. We estimate three econometric models, corresponding with alternative interpretations of the Cancun vision (Conference of the Parties 2011). The models reveal progress in global environmental efficiency during a preceding decade. The estimates indicate vast differences in efficiency levels, and efficiency changes across countries. The highest efficiency levels are observed in Africa and Europe, while the lowest are clustered around China. The largest efficiency gains were observed in central and eastern Europe. CO 2 efficiency also improved in the US and China, the two largest emitters, but their ranking in terms of CO 2 efficiency deteriorated. Policy implications are discussed. - Highlights: ► We estimate global environmental efficiency in line with the Cancun vision, using a stochastic cost frontier. ► The study covers 170 countries during a 10 year period, ending in 2007. ► The biggest improvements occurred in Europe, and efficiency falls in South America. ► The efficiency ranking of US and China, the largest emitters, deteriorated. ► In 2007, highest efficiency was observed in Africa and Europe, and the lowest around China.

  1. Co-emergence of multi-scale cortical activities of irregular firing, oscillations and avalanches achieves cost-efficient information capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance. Their co-emergence achieves minimal energy cost as well as maximal energy efficiency on information capacity, when neuronal firing are coordinated and shaped by moderate synchrony to reduce otherwise redundant spikes, and the dynamical clusterings are maintained in the form of neuronal avalanches. Such cost-efficient neural dynamics can be employed as a foundation for further efficient information processing under energy constraint.

  2. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added

  3. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  4. The influence of increased distal loading on metabolic cost, efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Bessone, Veronica; Federolf, Peter; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively. At 12% incline, there was a significant increase in metabolic rate and a decrease in gross efficiency with added weight (P0.05). No changes in cycle characteristics were observed between the different ski loadings at either incline, although the lateral and vertical displacements of the foot/skis were slightly altered at 12% incline with added weight. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increased loading of the ski increases the metabolic cost and reduces gross efficiency during steep uphill roller skiing in G2 skating, whereas no significant effect was revealed when skating on relatively flat terrain in G3. Cycle characteristics remained unchanged across conditions at both inclines, whereas small adjustments in the displacement of the foot coincided with the efficiency changes in uphill terrain. The increased RPE values with added ski-weight at both inclines indicates that other factors than those measured here could have influenced effort and/or fatigue when lifting a heavier ski.

  5. Cost efficient CFD simulations: Proper selection of domain partitioning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Bahram; Jordan, Christian; Harasek, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most powerful simulation methods, which is used for temporally and spatially resolved solutions of fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, etc. One of the challenges of Computational Fluid Dynamics is the extreme hardware demand. Nowadays super-computers (e.g. High Performance Computing, HPC) featuring multiple CPU cores are applied for solving-the simulation domain is split into partitions for each core. Some of the different methods for partitioning are investigated in this paper. As a practical example, a new open source based solver was utilized for simulating packed bed adsorption, a common separation method within the field of thermal process engineering. Adsorption can for example be applied for removal of trace gases from a gas stream or pure gases production like Hydrogen. For comparing the performance of the partitioning methods, a 60 million cell mesh for a packed bed of spherical adsorbents was created; one second of the adsorption process was simulated. Different partitioning methods available in OpenFOAM® (Scotch, Simple, and Hierarchical) have been used with different numbers of sub-domains. The effect of the different methods and number of processor cores on the simulation speedup and also energy consumption were investigated for two different hardware infrastructures (Vienna Scientific Clusters VSC 2 and VSC 3). As a general recommendation an optimum number of cells per processor core was calculated. Optimized simulation speed, lower energy consumption and consequently the cost effects are reported here.

  6. Extending the cost efficiency of rigid reel pipelaying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubli, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Investment in new assets and technology related to reeling of pipelines, will extend the capacities beyond the current situation. The capacities is related to increased size of pipe laying vessel such as: main storage reels (2 off), overboarding ramps and chutes, product tensioners, deck and ramp handling equipment, etc. Sizes of pipelines able to handle is increasing from 16-inches to typical 20-inches, in addition to deep water capacities down to approximately 3000m. Aim is to be able to prepare dual spool / load-out operations in addition to be able to handle larger and heavier pipe sizes. The purpose by co-ordination between 2 or several projects or clients would be to reduce number of intermediate load-outs and transit time between onshore pipestalk site(s) and offshore field location(s). The presentation will also describe the positive consequences for future subsea field developments related to flowlines / pipelines. (Author)

  7. Appraising the Cost Efficiency of Higher Technological and Vocational Education Institutions in Taiwan Using the Metafrontier Cost-Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ku-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at appraising the cost efficiency and technology of institutions of higher technological and vocational education. Differing from conventional literature, it considers the potential influence of inherent discrepancies in output quality and characteristics of school systems for institutes of technology (ITs) and universities of…

  8. Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness of Recruitment Methods for Male Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L.; Lopez-Class, Maria; Mueller, Noel T.; Mota, Guadalupe; Mandelblatt, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the most effective strategies to recruit male Latino smokers to cessation research studies. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and cost-effective research recruitment strategies for this priority population. (Contains 4 tables.)

  9. Cost efficiency and optimal scale of electricity distribution firms in Taiwan: An application of metafrontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-J.; Chen, K.-H.; Yang, C.-H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost efficiency and optimal scale of Taiwan's electricity distribution industry. Due to the substantial difference in network density, firms may differ widely in production technology. We employ the stochastic metafrontier approach to estimate the cost efficiency of 24 distribution units during the period 1997-2002. Empirical results find that the average cost efficiency is overestimated using the traditional stochastic frontier model, especially for low density regions. The average cost efficiency of the high density group is significantly higher than that of the low density group as it benefits from network economies. This study also calculates both short-term and long-term optimal scales of electricity distribution firms, lending policy implications for the deregulation of the electricity distribution industry.

  10. Feasibility and cost efficiency of a diagnostic guideline for chronic polyneuropathy : a prospective implementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.F.J.E.; Kalmijn, S.; Buskens, E.; Franssen, H.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Notermans, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Extensive investigations are often performed to reveal the cause of chronic polyneuropathy. It is not known whether a restrictive diagnostic guideline improves cost efficiency without loss of diagnostic reliability. Methods: In a prospective multicentre study, a comparison was made

  11. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetzel, M. [Institut de Chimie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  12. High Efficiency of Two Efficient QSDC with Authentication Is at the Cost of Their Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su-Juan, Qin; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Luo-Ming, Meng; Fu-Chen, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Two efficient protocols of quantum secure direct communication with authentication [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 2354] were recently proposed by Liu et al. to improve the efficiency of two protocols presented in [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301] by four Pauli operations. We show that the high efficiency of the two protocols is at the expense of their security. The authenticator Trent can reach half the secret by a particular attack strategy in the first protocol. In the second protocol, not only Trent but also an eavesdropper outside can elicit half-information about the secret from the public declaration

  13. COST TYPE INFORMATION - EFFICIENCY RESULT OF INFORMATION PROVIDED BY MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MICULESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Any economic activity is mainly aimed at obtaining the highest possible efficiency. However, the level of profitability of an organization is influenced by a number of factors and being aware of these factors is particularly important for the efficient targeting of the organizational activities. As the prerequisites to achieve a high return are primarily the low production cost, our focus should be directed towards multilateral knowledge of the cost.

  14. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  15. Logistics: An integral part of cost efficient space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann D.

    1996-01-01

    The logistics of space programs and its history within NASA are discussed, with emphasis on manned space flight and the Space Shuttle program. The lessons learned and the experience gained during these programs are reported on. Key elements of logistics are highlighted, and the problems and issues that can be expected to arise in relation to the support of long-term space operations and future space programs, are discussed. Such missions include the International Space Station program and the reusable launch vehicle. Possible solutions to the problems identified are outlined.

  16. Efficient Solutions and Cost-Optimal Analysis for Existing School Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recast of the energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD describes a comparative methodological framework to promote energy efficiency and establish minimum energy performance requirements in buildings at the lowest costs. The aim of the cost-optimal methodology is to foster the achievement of nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs, the new target for all new buildings by 2020, characterized by a high performance with a low energy requirement almost covered by renewable sources. The paper presents the results of the application of the cost-optimal methodology in two existing buildings located in the Mediterranean area. These buildings are a kindergarten and a nursery school that differ in construction period, materials and systems. Several combinations of measures have been applied to derive cost-effective efficient solutions for retrofitting. The cost-optimal level has been identified for each building and the best performing solutions have been selected considering both a financial and a macroeconomic analysis. The results illustrate the suitability of the methodology to assess cost-optimality and energy efficiency in school building refurbishment. The research shows the variants providing the most cost-effective balance between costs and energy saving. The cost-optimal solution reduces primary energy consumption by 85% and gas emissions by 82%–83% in each reference building.

  17. The productivity and cost-efficiency of models for involving nurse practitioners in primary care: a perspective from queueing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; D'Aunno, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    To develop simple stylized models for evaluating the productivity and cost-efficiencies of different practice models to involve nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care, and in particular to generate insights on what affects the performance of these models and how. The productivity of a practice model is defined as the maximum number of patients that can be accounted for by the model under a given timeliness-to-care requirement; cost-efficiency is measured by the corresponding annual cost per patient in that model. Appropriate queueing analysis is conducted to generate formulas and values for these two performance measures. Model parameters for the analysis are extracted from the previous literature and survey reports. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the model performance under different scenarios and to verify the robustness of findings. Employing an NP, whose salary is usually lower than a primary care physician, may not be cost-efficient, in particular when the NP's capacity is underutilized. Besides provider service rates, workload allocation among providers is one of the most important determinants for the cost-efficiency of a practice model involving NPs. Capacity pooling among providers could be a helpful strategy to improve efficiency in care delivery. The productivity and cost-efficiency of a practice model depend heavily on how providers organize their work and a variety of other factors related to the practice environment. Queueing theory provides useful tools to take into account these factors in making strategic decisions on staffing and panel size selection for a practice model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  19. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  1. The health-related social costs of alcohol in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Nick; Lievens, Delfine; Annemans, Lieven; Vander Laenen, Freya; Putman, Koen

    2017-12-16

    Alcohol is associated with adverse health effects causing a considerable economic impact to society. A reliable estimate of this economic impact for Belgium is lacking. This is the aim of the study. A prevalence-based approach estimating the direct, indirect and intangible costs for the year 2012 was used. Attributional fractions for a series of health effects were derived from literature. The human capital approach was used to estimate indirect costs, while the concept of disability-adjusted life years was used to estimate intangible costs. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were conducted to assess the uncertainty around cost estimates and to evaluate the impact of alternative modelling assumptions. In 2012, total alcohol-attributable direct costs were estimated at €906.1 million, of which the majority were due to hospitalization (€743.7 million, 82%). The indirect costs amounted to €642.6 million, of which 62% was caused by premature mortality. Alcohol was responsible for 157,500 disability-adjusted life years representing €6.3 billion intangible costs. Despite a number of limitations intrinsic to this kind of research, the study can be considered as the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the health-related social costs of alcohol in Belgium.

  2. Innovative manufacturing technologies for low-cost, high efficiency PERC-based PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The goal this project was to accelerate the deployment of innovative solar cell and module technologies that reduce the cost of PERC-based modules to best-in-class. New module integration technology was to be used to reduce the cost and reliance on conventional silver bus bar pastes and enhance cell efficiency. On the cell manufacturing front, the cost of PERC solar cells was to be reduced by introducing advanced metallization approaches to increase cell efficiency. These advancements will be combined with process optimization to target cell efficiencies in the range of 21 to 21.5%. This project will also explore the viability of a bifacial PERC solar cell design to enable cost savings through the use of thin silicon wafers. This project was terminated on 4/30/17 after four months of activity due financial challenges facing the recipient.

  3. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, C.; Caldon, R.; Lorenzoni, A.

    1999-01-01

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them [it

  4. Investment utilisation, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for adjustment costs and investment utilisation that illustrates their causes and types and shows in which phases of an investment they occur. Furthermore, we develop an empirical framework for analysing the size and the timing of adjustment costs...... that investments have a negative effect on farm efficiency in the year of the investment and the year after accruing from adjustment costs. There is a large positive effect on efficiency two and three years after the investment. The farmer’s age and the farm size significantly influence technical efficiency......, as well as the effect of investments on adjustment costs and investment utilisation. These results are robust to different ways of measuring capital....

  5. Costs and revenues of investment in enterprise-related schooling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Groot, W.J.N.; Oosterbeek, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a general specification of the wage equation is used to derive a marginal revenue equation for enterprise-related schooling. The optimal amount of investment in enterprise-related schooling is found by equating the marginal revenues and marginal costs. For the empirical analysis, the

  6. Relational Benefits & Costs in Social Media Brand Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimonis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Sergios

    2014-01-01

    Attracted by the rapid penetration of social media into society, firms are increasingly using them to offer interactive services to their customers, and to create or enhance their relationships with them. As the number of consumers who join brand pages on social media platforms raises, it brings to the front a new question: What relational benefits and costs arise from customer interactions with brands in social media? Thus, this study is an attempt to identify what benefits and costs users p...

  7. Costs in Swedish Public Transport : An analysis of cost drivers and cost efficiency in public transport contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vigren, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the last seven years, the total cost for Swedish public transport provision has increased by over 30 percent in real terms according to figures from the government agency Transport Analysis. A similar pattern is found if considering a longer time span. Part of the cost increase can be attributed to an increased supply, and part is due to price increases on input factors that are measured by an industry index produced by the public transport industry. The fact that about half of the cos...

  8. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Industrial cost effective n-pasha solar cells with >20% efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Van Aken, B.; Anker, J.; Barton, P.; Gutjahr, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.; Saynova, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J.; Zhang, Y. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Venema, P.R.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 MD Vaassen (Netherlands); Schmitt, C.; Kuehnlein, H.; Bay, N. [RENA GmbH, Hans-Bunte-Strasse 19, D-79108, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Koenig, M.; Stassen, A.F. [Heraeus Precious Metals GmbH and Co. KG, Heraeusstrasse 12-14, D-63450, Hanau (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The n-Pasha cell is a bifacial solar cell concept with average efficiencies between 19.8% and 20% and is optimized to enable high efficiencies with narrow distribution on wafers from the complete n-type ingots (2 to 10 {omega}-cm). This reduces the yield losses from a wafer point of view, which is important since the wafer costs make up the largest part ({approx}40%) of the total module costs for n-Pasha modules. The module fabrication itself adds up to {approx}35% of the module costs/Wp costs, which leaves {approx}25% of the costs/Wp for the cell production. We found that the costs/Wp for the 20% n-Pasha cell and module process are very similar to those of a 19% p-type cell, assuming similar wafer and module manufacturing costs. In the paper the successful implementation of a reduction of >60% in BBr{sub 3} consumption, and a reduction of >50% in Ag consumption are described, while keeping the n-Pasha cell efficiency at the same level. According to our calculations, the achieved reduction of the Ag and BBr{sub 3} consumption will lower the costs/Wp for n-Pasha modules below that of p-type. The majority of the efficiency losses in the n-Pasha cell are due to recombination in the diffused layers and below the contact regions. By tuning both the emitter and BSF profile, an efficiency gain of 0.4% absolute has been obtained. Based on the simulations and experimental results, the path towards further optimization and efficiencies approaching 21% is shown.

  10. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05 and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  11. Segmentation of low‐cost high efficiency oxide‐based thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) oxide materials have attracted great interest in advanced renewable energy research owing to the fact that they consist of abundant elements, can be manufactured by low-cost processing, sustain high temperatures, be robust and provide long lifetime. However, the low conversion...... efficiency of TE oxides has been a major drawback limiting these materials to broaden applications. In this work, theoretical calculations are used to predict how segmentation of oxide and semimetal materials, utilizing the benefits of both types of materials, can provide high efficiency, high temperature...... oxide-based segmented legs. The materials for segmentation are selected by their compatibility factors and their conversion efficiency versus material cost, i.e., “efficiency ratio”. Numerical modelling results showed that conversion efficiency could reach values of more than 10% for unicouples using...

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  13. Costs and cost-efficiency of a mobile cash transfer to prevent child undernutrition during the lean season in Burkina Faso: a mixed methods analysis from the MAM'Out randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Chloe; Salpéteur, Cécile; Houngbe, Freddy; Martínez, Karen; N'Diaye, Dieynaba S; Tonguet-Papucci, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the costs and cost-efficiency of a mobile cash transfer implemented in Tapoa Province, Burkina Faso in the MAM'Out randomized controlled trial from June 2013 to December 2014, using mixed methods and taking a societal perspective by including costs to implementing partners and beneficiary households. Data were collected via interviews with implementing staff from the humanitarian agency and the private partner delivering the mobile money, focus group discussions with beneficiaries, and review of accounting databases. Costs were analyzed by input category and activity-based cost centers. cost-efficiency was analyzed by cost-transfer ratios (CTR) and cost per beneficiary. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify themes related to implementing electronic cash transfers, and barriers to efficient implementation. The CTR was 0.82 from a societal perspective, within the same range as other humanitarian transfer programs; however the intervention did not achieve the same degree of cost-efficiency as other mobile transfer programs specifically. Challenges in coordination between humanitarian and private partners resulted in long wait times for beneficiaries, particularly in the first year of implementation. Sensitivity analyses indicated a potential 6% reduction in CTR through reducing beneficiary wait time by one-half. Actors reported that coordination challenges improved during the project, therefore inefficiencies likely would be resolved, and cost-efficiency improved, as the program passed the pilot phase. Despite the time required to establish trusting relationships among actors, and to set up a network of cash points in remote areas, this analysis showed that mobile transfers hold promise as a cost-efficient method of delivering cash in this setting. Implementation by local government would likely reduce costs greatly compared to those found in this study context, and improve cost-efficiency especially by subsidizing expansion of mobile

  14. Cost-benefit assessment of energy efficiency investments: Accounting for future resources, savings and risks in the Australian residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, J.; Meyrick, B.; Sivaraman, D.; Horne, R.E.; Berry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of the discount rate on cost-benefit assessment of investment options for residential building efficiency. An integrated thermal modeling, life cycle costing approach is applied to an extensive sample of dominant house designs for Australian conditions. The relative significance of predicted thermal performance and the applied discount rate on the Present Value of energy savings from alternative investment scenarios is investigated. Costs and benefits are also evaluated at the economy-wide scale, including carbon pricing considerations, and for a test-case household faced with alternative investment options at the point of construction. The influence of the applied discount rate on produced cost-benefit calculations is investigated, as is the interaction between critical cost-benefit input parameters. Findings support that the discounting framework is the primary driver of difference in estimates about costs and benefits of higher standards of efficiency in the residential sector. Results demonstrate that agreement on a low discount rate based on sustainability principals would prioritise those projects with significant environmental benefits. - Highlights: ► High thermal efficiency is a key strategy to limit energy use in buildings. ► Integrated thermal modeling—life-cycle costing methods are applied to dominant house designs. ► The discounting framework is the primary driver of difference in observed costs. ► The selection of optimal performance investment options depends on the discount rate. ► Application of a discount rate of 3.5% or lower favours energy saving projects

  15. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  16. Integration of quality improvement and cost-efficiency through industrial improvement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink JP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jasper P Vink,1 Maxime T Rigaudy,1,2 Karl O Elmqvist11Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, 2Hull York Medical School, York, UKIn this journal, Crema and Verbano1 discussed the importance of defining quality of health care and how quality can be improved through various industrial instruments and techniques. Quality of health care is a heavily debated topic that requires a wide scope of considerations across the many stakeholders of the health system. We acknowledge Crema and Verbano’s arguments that patient safety is a basic pillar of quality, upon which we would like to expand by highlighting the clinical effectiveness and patient-reported outcomes, which are the two further crucial components of quality. The arguments made regarding quality improvement techniques and cost efficiency in health care provision are insightful, yet appear to make a distinction between efforts to improve quality, eliminate waste from processes, and cut costs in health care provision. We would argue that in fact these achievements are all closely related and can be achieved simultaneously, if the industrial techniques of quality management are applied adequately.View the original paper by Crema and Verbano.

  17. GENDER AND COST EFFICIENCY IN MAIZE PRODUCTION IN OYO STATE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunniyi Titi Laudia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of gender in smallholder farmers in Nigeria have been widely debated in terms of marginalization in main input leaving out the efficient use of these resources. In this paper, an empirical assessment of smallholder cost efficiency and its determinants using stochastic cost frontier function was conducted. In addition, regression and paired sample t-test were used to examine the determinants of efficiency. The results indicates that labour is an important factor of production for both male and female farmers and that female are more cost inefficient than their male counterparts The study concluded that there should be a review of the agricultural policy that will address the existing gender bias in assessing agricultural inputs.

  18. An Efficient, Noniterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we also provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. An Efficient, Non-iterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we additionally provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. PMID:25926282

  20. Enhancing efficiency of production cost on seafood process with activity based management method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Tarigan, U. P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency of production costs has an important impact maintaining company presence in the business world, as well as in the face of increasingly sharp global competition. It was done by identifying and reducing non-value-added activities to decrease production costs and increase profits. The study was conducted at a company engaged in the production of squid (seafood). It has a higher product price than the market as Rp 50,000 per kg while the market price of squid is only Rp 35,000 per kg. The price of the product to be more expensive compared with market price, and thereby a lot more consumers choose the lower market price. Based on the discussions conducted, the implementation of Activity Based Management was seen in the reduction of activities that are not added value in the production process. Since each activities consumers cost, the reduction of nonvalue-added activities has effects on the decline of production cost. The production’s decline costs mainly occur in the reduction of material transfer costs. The results showed that there was an increase after the improvement of 2.60%. Increased production cost efficiency causes decreased production costs and increased profits.

  1. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  3. Activity-based costing as an information basis for an efficient strategic management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based costing (ABC provides an information basis for monitoring and controlling one of two possible sources of competitive advantage, low-cost production and lowcost distribution. On the basis of cost information about particular processes and activities, management may determine their contribution to the success of a company, and may decide to transfer certain processes and activities to another company. Accuracy of cost information is conditioned by finding an adequate relation between overhead costs and cost objects, identifying and tracing cost drivers and output measures of activities, and by monitoring cost behaviour of different levels of a product. Basic characteristics of the ABC approach, such as more accurate cost price accounting of objects, focusing on process and activity output (rather than only on resource consumption and on understanding and interpretation of cost structure (rather than on cost measurement, enable managers to estimate and control future costs more reliably. Thus the ABC methodology provides a foundation for cost tracing, analysis, and management, which entails making quality and accurate operative and strategic decisions as a basis for the longterm orientation of a company. ABC is also complementary to the widely accepted technique of strategic planning and strategy implementation known as Balanced Scorecard (BSC.

  4. Efficiency and cost analysis of cell saver auto transfusion system in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet

    2014-06-01

    Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Retrospective comparative study. Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (pblood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  5. An efficient cost function for the optimization of an n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jason V; Collins, Peter J; Coutu, Ronald A Jr

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient cost function for optimizing n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinders. Cost function efficiency is achieved by extracting the expression for the angle independent scatterer contribution of an associated Green's function. Therefore, since this cost function is not a function of angle, accounting for every bistatic angle is not necessary and thus more efficient than other cost functions. With this general and efficient cost function, isotropic cloaked cylinders can be optimized for many layers and material parameters. To demonstrate this, optimized cloaked cylinders made of 10, 20 and 30 equal thickness layers are presented for TE and TM incidence. Furthermore, we study the effect layer thickness has on optimized cloaks by optimizing a 10 layer cloaked cylinder over the material parameters and individual layer thicknesses. The optimized material parameters in this effort do not exhibit the dual nature that is evident in the ideal transformation optics design. This indicates that the inevitable field penetration and subsequent PEC boundary condition at the cylinder must be taken into account for an optimal cloaked cylinder design. Furthermore, a more effective cloaked cylinder can be designed by optimizing both layer thickness and material parameters than by additional layers alone. (paper)

  6. Indirect reciprocity provides a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity1-5 is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behavior toward other people depends not only on what they have done to us, but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works via reputation5-17. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behavior18-25. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyze all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment, while others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases, the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punish them. PMID:19122640

  7. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Crespo, Àngels; Llibre, Josep M; Cardona-Peitx, Glòria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) - with a cost of 47,139.91 € - would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.

  8. New indicators based on personnel cost for management efficiency in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-08-01

    A simple and fair benchmarking system or financial indicators for use on the clinical department level have been lacking to evaluate the management efficiency and activity of each clinical department or division of a hospital. New financial indicators have therefore been developed based on personnel costs. Indicator 1: The ratio of marginal profit after personnel cost per personnel cost (RMP). Indicator 2: The ratio of investment (=indirect cost) per personnel cost (RIP). The difference between RMP and RIP demonstrates the operation profit in US Dollars for personnel cost (OPP). A turning point in profitability similar to the break-even point (BEP) and break-even ratio (BER) could be also defined by the combination of the RMP and RIP. The merits of these two indicators are not only the ability to indicate the relationship between the medical profit and the investments in the hospital, but also the capability to demonstrate such indicators as BEP, BER and OPP on a single graph. The two indicators were applied to the hospitals in the National Hospital Organization and to the clinical department in one hospital. Using these two indicators, it was possible to evaluate the management efficiency and medical activity not only in the whole hospital but also in each department and DPC/DRG group. This will be of use to a manager of a hospital in checking the management efficiency of his/her hospital despite the variations among hospitals, departments and divisions.

  9. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Matevž Triplat; Peter Prislan; Nike Krajnc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials a...

  10. WPDD workshop on: 'safe, efficient, and cost-effective decommissioning'. Workshop Conclusions/Final Stocktaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    . - Financial mechanisms for decommissioning funding are evolving in the NEA member states to meet regulatory and project needs. Continuing challenges are uncertainties in cost estimates and the implementation of measures to assure that funds will be available when required. - Creative research on decommissioning is being carried out. Human factors and organisational issues are studied. Practical solutions are being implemented such as the use of management transition programmes. Some increased efficiency and effectiveness is needed by way of R and D on improving technology and developing innovative techniques, subject to justification of its cost and value. There is a need to consider how to design commercial contracts so that decommissioning contractors will be willing to test new, relatively unproven techniques. - Continuing emphasis on education in critical nuclear skills is needed to ensure availability of the necessary expertise for both near-term decommissioning needs and long-term energy needs. - Public acceptance is still a major challenge. Without public acceptance, decommissioning may be prolonged and difficult to implement. Hence, all actors and interested parties need to be constructively involved in the dialogue within the local communities to gather and evaluate all relevant concerns and thereby inspire confidence in the safety of decommissioning activities

  11. Cost efficiency and ressource efficiency in the waste management. Proceedings; Kosten- und Ressourceneffizienz in der Abfallwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K. [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Bergs, C.G. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Kosak, G. [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[IBK-Kosak GmbH, Neustadt/Weinstrasse (Germany); Wallamnn, R. (eds.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany)]|[IGW Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen Fricke und Turk GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Within the scope of the 68th information discussion of ANS e.V., the following lectures were held: (a) Supply of resources from the German waste management (S. Harmening); (b) Ressource management: A contribution to environment, climate and fees (R. Siechau); (c) Climate protection and protection of resources by means of export of technology and know-how (A. Jaron); (d) The future of the markets of secondary raw materials (E. Rehbock, T. Probst); (e) Potentials of increase of the contributions o the waste management to climate protection and protection of resources (G. Dehoust, U. Fritsche); (f) Evaluation of new strategic efforts to disposal of domestic wastes under consideration of resource efficiency and relevance of climate (M. Kranert, G. Hafner); (g) REACh and secondary raw materials (B. Kummer); (h) What is the effect of the regulation of chemicals (REACh) on the recycling economy? (A. Ochs, H. Kleinwege); (i) Motivation and steps of planning according to rekommunalisation (K.-H. Kellermann); (j) Chances and risks of private disposers (P. Kurth); (k) Cost advantages and boundary conditions at intercommunal cooperations of procurement (H. Gassner); (l) From BAB to budgeting - why does a new advertising of service contracts not result in an improvement of the communal efficiency? (W.P. Bauer, K. Ihmels); (m) Benchmarking as an instrument of control in the waste management (K. Gellenbeck); (n) Minimizing financial costs - the funding programs of KW in the waste management (M. von Zedlitz); (o) Innovative models of cooperation, financing and operating models for the establishment of new fermentation plants (M. Zeifang); (p) BEKON dry fermentation for production of biogas from organic waste (P. Lutz); (q) New methods for process control during composting - a component in the enhancement of efficiency of utilization of biological wastes (Frank Scholwin, Gereon Stolle); (r) Enhancement of the output of biogas by means of specific loading materials (Heinrich Josef

  12. An Efficient Cost-Sensitive Feature Selection Using Chaos Genetic Algorithm for Class Imbalance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, feature selection is an essential process in machine learning. Although the class imbalance problem has recently attracted a great deal of attention, little effort has been undertaken to develop feature selection techniques. In addition, most applications involving feature selection focus on classification accuracy but not cost, although costs are important. To cope with imbalance problems, we developed a cost-sensitive feature selection algorithm that adds the cost-based evaluation function of a filter feature selection using a chaos genetic algorithm, referred to as CSFSG. The evaluation function considers both feature-acquiring costs (test costs and misclassification costs in the field of network security, thereby weakening the influence of many instances from the majority of classes in large-scale datasets. The CSFSG algorithm reduces the total cost of feature selection and trades off both factors. The behavior of the CSFSG algorithm is tested on a large-scale dataset of network security, using two kinds of classifiers: C4.5 and k-nearest neighbor (KNN. The results of the experimental research show that the approach is efficient and able to effectively improve classification accuracy and to decrease classification time. In addition, the results of our method are more promising than the results of other cost-sensitive feature selection algorithms.

  13. Development of an economic solar heating system with cost efficient flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder-Milchgeisser, W.; Burkart, R.

    1980-10-01

    Mass produced flat plate solar collectors were worked into the design of a system for heating a swimming pool and/or providing domestic hot water. The collector characteristics, including physical and mechanical data as well as theoretical energy conversion efficiency, are presented. The collector was tested and service life efficiency was determined. The mounting of the collector, depending on roof type, is explained. Both in service and laboratory test results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the system. Further improvement of efficiency is envisaged with automatic flow control in the solar collector and hot water circuits.

  14. Comparing EU hospital efficiency using diagnosis-related groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, G.; Wiley, M.; Tomas, R.; Casas, M.; Leidl, R.

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the feasibility of comparing the differences in efficiency and price in the provision of hospital products defined on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). Two measures of resource use are compared, the length of stay and the administrative price, both independently

  15. Efficiency and cost optimization of a regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle power plant through the multi-objective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimelli, A.; Luongo, A.; Muccillo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization method for ORC design has been addressed. • Trade-off between electric efficiency and overall heat exchangers area is evaluated. • The heat exchangers area was used as objective function to minimize the plant cost. • MDM was considered as organic working fluid for the thermodynamic cycle. • Electric efficiency: 14.1–18.9%. Overall heat exchangers area: 446–1079 m 2 . - Abstract: Multi-objective optimization could be, in the industrial sector, a fundamental strategic approach for defining the target design specifications and operating parameters of new competitive products for the market, especially in renewable energy and energy savings fields. Vector optimization mostly enabled the determination of a set of optimal solutions characterized by different costs, sizes, efficiencies and other key features. The designer can subsequently select the solution with the best compromise between the objective functions for the specific application and constraints. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization problem addressing an Organic Rankine Cycle system is solved with consideration for the electric efficiency and overall heat exchangers area as quantities that should be optimized. In fact, considering that the overall capital cost of the ORC system is dominated by the cost of the heat exchangers rather than that of the pump and turbine, this area is related to the cost of the plant and so it was used to indirectly optimize the economic system performance. For this reason, although cost data have not been used, the heat exchangers area was used as a second objective function to minimize the plant cost. Pareto optimal solutions highlighted a trade-off between the two conflicting objective functions. Octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM) was considered organic working fluid, while the following input parameters were used as decision variables: minimum and maximum pressure of the thermodynamic cycle; superheating and subcooling

  16. Compressor motor for air conditioners realizing high efficiency and low cost; Kokoritsu tei cost wo jitsugenshita eakonyo asshukuki motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Imazawa, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The compressor motor accounts for most of the consumption of electric power in an air conditioner. To promote energy-saving, Toshiba has been progressively changing the compressor motors in its air conditioners to high-efficiency brushless DC motors. We have now developed a new compressor motor in order to achieve even greater energy-saving. A concentrated winding system was adopted featuring direct winding on the teeth of the stator core, for the first time in the industry. As a result, it was possible to realize a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight, and low-cost motor. Moreover, by constructing a new system for production, we were able to improve productivity and quality. The newly developed motor is expected to contribute to the further diffusion of energy-saving air conditioners. (author)

  17. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue. PMID:26594619

  18. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Joudoi, Takako; Kawatani, Junko; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tomoda, Akemi; Miike, Teruhisa; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS). We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension) and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC) and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  19. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  20. Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    , that can be printed on top of one of a variety of more traditional inorganic solar cells. Our modeling shows that an organic solar cell may be added on top of a commercial CIGS cell to improve its efficiency from 15.1% to 21.4%, thereby reducing the cost

  1. Bridge approach slabs for Missouri DOT field evaluation of alternative and cost efficient bridge approach slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Based on a recent study on cost efficient alternative bridge approach slab (BAS) designs (Thiagarajan et : al. 2010) has recommended three new BAS designs for possible implementation by MoDOT namely a) 20 feet cast-inplace : slab with sleeper slab (C...

  2. Economic rationalism and the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, C; Carey, L B

    2000-01-01

    Health care reform is also occurring in Australia and effects hospital chaplaincy programs. "Economic rationalism" is the philosophic foundation of this effort and its contrast with the values inherit in hospital chaplaincy are highlighted. Selected research results from the Australian system are described and the authors offer a perspective on the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy.

  3. Changing the way employee benefit communications are produced: outsourcing, a more efficient, less costly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, K

    1995-12-01

    Outsourcing may offer employers an efficient, cost-effective way to produce employee benefit communications. It offers a way to utilize the latest technology to produce personalized benefit statements or to target an announcement of benefit changes to a specific group of employees.

  4. Analyzing cost efficient production behavior under economies of scope : A nonparametric methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2008-01-01

    In designing a production model for firms that generate multiple outputs, we take as a starting point that such multioutput production refers to economies of scope, which in turn originate from joint input use and input externalities. We provide a nonparametric characterization of cost-efficient

  5. Analyzing Cost Efficient Production Behavior Under Economies of Scope : A Nonparametric Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    In designing a production model for firms that generate multiple outputs, we take as a starting point that such multi-output production refers to economies of scope, which in turn originate from joint input use and input externalities. We provide a nonparametric characterization of cost efficient

  6. Feasibility and cost efficiency of a diagnostic guideline for chronic polyneuropathy: a prospective implementation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A. F. J. E.; Kalmijn, S.; Buskens, E.; Franssen, H.; Vermeulen, M.; Wokke, J. H. J.; Notermans, N. C.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive investigations are often performed to reveal the cause of chronic polyneuropathy. It is not known whether a restrictive diagnostic guideline improves cost efficiency without loss of diagnostic reliability. In a prospective multicentre study, a comparison was made between the workup in

  7. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  8. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  9. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu-Crespo À

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Àngels Andreu-Crespo,1,* Josep M Llibre,2,3,* Glòria Cardona-Peitx,1 Ferran Sala-Piñol,1 Bonaventura Clotet,2,4 Xavier Bonafont-Pujol1 1Pharmacy Department, 2HIV Unit and “Lluita contra la SIDA” Foundation, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, 3Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 4Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVIC-UCC, Vic, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to the work Abstract: While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar, should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets. Keywords: antiretroviral treatment, cost efficacy, drug packaging, treatment change

  10. Towards the next generation 23% efficient n-type cells with low cost manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Suniva, Inc., in collaboration with the University Center for Excellence in Photovoltaics (UCEP) at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) proposed this comprehensive three year program to enable the development of an advanced high performance product that will help the US regain its competitive edge in PV. This project was designed to overcome cost and efficiency barriers through advances in PV science, technology innovation, low-cost manufacturing and full production of ~22.5% efficient n-type Si cells in Norcross, GA. At the heart of the project is the desire to complement the technology being developed concurrently under the Solarmat and ARPAe initiatives to develop a differentiated product superior in both performance and cost effectiveness to the competing alternatives available on the market, and push towards achieving SunShot objectives while ensuring a sustainable business model based on US manufacturing. A significant reduction of the costs in modules produced today will need to combine reductions in wafer costs, cell processing costs as well as module fabrication costs while delivering a product that is not only more efficient under test conditions but also increases the energy yield in outdoor operations. This project will result in a differentiated high performance product and technology that is consistent with sustaining PV manufacturing in the US for a longer term and further highlights the need for continued support for developing the next generation concepts that can keep US manufacturing thriving to support the growing demand for PV in the US and consistent with the US government’s mandates for energy independence.

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  12. Public and private hospital services reform using data envelopment analysis to measure technical, scale, allocative, and cost efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Yaghoub; Roudsari, Abdul V; Vahidi, Reza Gholi; Emrouznejad, Ali; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospital systems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures. This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and private hospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approach in order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards. Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33%) had a technical efficiency score of less than 50% (both private), 2 (33%) between 51 and 74% (one private and one public) and the rest (2, 33%) between 75 and 99% (one private and one public). In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it is recommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, or renting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals or other health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists, and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improve remuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural and urban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource pooling and cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health care costs, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases prevention services and facilities in the provincial level.

  13. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...

  14. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs: Best Practices, Technical Methods, and Emerging Issues for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews the issues and approaches involved in considering and adopting cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency, including discussing each perspective represented by the five standard cost-effectiveness tests and clarifying key terms.

  15. Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, >...

  16. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  17. Costs and Efficiency of Online and Offline Recruitment Methods: A Web-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tina; Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Nielsen, Marie G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2017-03-01

    The Internet is widely used to conduct research studies on health issues. Many different methods are used to recruit participants for such studies, but little is known about how various recruitment methods compare in terms of efficiency and costs. The aim of our study was to compare online and offline recruitment methods for Internet-based studies in terms of efficiency (number of recruited participants) and costs per participant. We employed several online and offline recruitment methods to enroll 18- to 45-year-old women in an Internet-based Danish prospective cohort study on fertility. Offline methods included press releases, posters, and flyers. Online methods comprised advertisements placed on five different websites, including Facebook and Netdoktor.dk. We defined seven categories of mutually exclusive recruitment methods and used electronic tracking via unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and self-reported data to identify the recruitment method for each participant. For each method, we calculated the average cost per participant and efficiency, that is, the total number of recruited participants. We recruited 8252 study participants. Of these, 534 were excluded as they could not be assigned to a specific recruitment method. The final study population included 7724 participants, of whom 803 (10.4%) were recruited by offline methods, 3985 (51.6%) by online methods, 2382 (30.8%) by online methods not initiated by us, and 554 (7.2%) by other methods. Overall, the average cost per participant was €6.22 for online methods initiated by us versus €9.06 for offline methods. Costs per participant ranged from €2.74 to €105.53 for online methods and from €0 to €67.50 for offline methods. Lowest average costs per participant were for those recruited from Netdoktor.dk (€2.99) and from Facebook (€3.44). In our Internet-based cohort study, online recruitment methods were superior to offline methods in terms of efficiency (total number of participants

  18. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  19. Costs and Efficiency of Online and Offline Recruitment Methods: A Web-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anders H; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Wise, Lauren A; Nielsen, Marie G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Ellen M

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely used to conduct research studies on health issues. Many different methods are used to recruit participants for such studies, but little is known about how various recruitment methods compare in terms of efficiency and costs. Objective The aim of our study was to compare online and offline recruitment methods for Internet-based studies in terms of efficiency (number of recruited participants) and costs per participant. Methods We employed several online and offline recruitment methods to enroll 18- to 45-year-old women in an Internet-based Danish prospective cohort study on fertility. Offline methods included press releases, posters, and flyers. Online methods comprised advertisements placed on five different websites, including Facebook and Netdoktor.dk. We defined seven categories of mutually exclusive recruitment methods and used electronic tracking via unique Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and self-reported data to identify the recruitment method for each participant. For each method, we calculated the average cost per participant and efficiency, that is, the total number of recruited participants. Results We recruited 8252 study participants. Of these, 534 were excluded as they could not be assigned to a specific recruitment method. The final study population included 7724 participants, of whom 803 (10.4%) were recruited by offline methods, 3985 (51.6%) by online methods, 2382 (30.8%) by online methods not initiated by us, and 554 (7.2%) by other methods. Overall, the average cost per participant was €6.22 for online methods initiated by us versus €9.06 for offline methods. Costs per participant ranged from €2.74 to €105.53 for online methods and from €0 to €67.50 for offline methods. Lowest average costs per participant were for those recruited from Netdoktor.dk (€2.99) and from Facebook (€3.44). Conclusions In our Internet-based cohort study, online recruitment methods were superior to offline methods in terms

  20. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  1. China’s regional industrial energy efficiency and carbon emissions abatement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Major cities in eight economy-geography regions of China. - Highlights: • Industrial energy and emissions efficiency were evaluated for China’s major cities. • Shadow prices of CO 2 emissions were estimated for China’s major cities. • Efficiency increase potentials on energy utilization and CO 2 emissions are 19% and 17%. • N-shaped EKC exists between levels of CO 2 emissions efficiency and income. • Average industrial CO 2 emissions abatement cost for China’s major cities is 45 US$. - Abstract: Evaluating the energy and emissions efficiency, measuring the energy saving and emissions reduction potential, and estimating the carbon price in China at the regional level are considered a crucial way to identify the regional efficiency levels and efficiency promotion potentials, as well as to explore the marginal abatement costs of carbon emissions in China. This study applies a newly developed Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based method to evaluate the regional energy and emissions efficiencies and the energy saving and emissions reduction potentials of the industrial sector of 30 Chinese major cities during 2006–2010. In addition, the CO 2 shadow prices, i.e., the marginal abatement costs of CO 2 emissions from industrial sector of these cities are estimated during the same period. The main findings are: (i) The coast area cities have the highest total factor industrial energy and emissions efficiency, but efficiency of the west area cities are lowest, and there is statistically significant efficiency difference between these cities. (ii) Economically well-developed cities evidence higher efficiency, and there is still obviously unbalanced and inequitable growth in the nationwide industrial development of China. (iii) Fortunately, the energy utilization and CO 2 emissions efficiency gaps among different Chinese cities were decreasing since 2006, and the problem of inequitable nationwide development has started to mitigate. (iv

  2. Relative efficiency calculation of a HPGe detector using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a 60 Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate a HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a 60 Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)

  3. Estimating cost efficiency of Turkish commercial banks under unobserved heterogeneity with stochastic frontier models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Gunes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the cost efficiency of Turkish commercial banks over the restructuring period of the Turkish banking system, which coincides with the 2008 financial global crisis and the 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. To this end, within the stochastic frontier framework, we employ true fixed effects model, where the unobserved bank heterogeneity is integrated in the inefficiency distribution at a mean level. To select the cost function with the most appropriate inefficiency correlates, we first adopt a search algorithm and then utilize the model averaging approach to verify that our results are not exposed to model selection bias. Overall, our empirical results reveal that cost efficiencies of Turkish banks have improved over time, with the effects of the 2008 and 2010 crises remaining rather limited. Furthermore, not only the cost efficiency scores but also impacts of the crises on those scores appear to vary with regard to bank size and ownership structure, in accordance with much of the existing literature.

  4. Cost and primary energy efficiency of small-scale district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed minimum-cost options for small-scale DHSs under different contexts. • District heat production cost increases with reduced DHS scales. • Fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale DHSs. • Systems with combined technologies are less sensitive to changes in fuel prices. - Abstract: Efficient district heat production systems (DHSs) can contribute to achieving environmental targets and energy security for countries that have demands for space and water heating. The optimal options for a DHS vary with the environmental and social-political contexts and the scale of district heat production, which further depends on the size of the community served and the local climatic conditions. In this study, we design a small-scale, minimum-cost DHS that produces approximately 100 GWh heat per year and estimate the yearly production cost and primary energy use of this system. We consider conventional technologies, such as heat-only boilers, electric heat pumps and combined heat and power (CHP) units, as well as emerging technologies, such as biomass-based organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and solar water heating (SWH). We explore how different environmental and social-political situations influence the design of a minimum-cost DHS and consider both proven and potential technologies for small-scale applications. Our calculations are based on the real heat load duration curve for a town in southern Sweden. We find that the district heat production cost increases and that the potential for cogeneration decreases with smaller district heat production systems. Although the selection of technologies for a minimum-cost DHS depends on environmental and social-political contexts, fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale systems. Emerging technologies such as CHP-BORC and SWH improve the efficiency of primary energy use for heat production, but these technologies are more costly than conventional heat-only boilers. However, systems with

  5. Operation optimization of a distributed energy system considering energy costs and exergy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Somma, M.; Yan, B.; Bianco, N.; Graditi, G.; Luh, P.B.; Mongibello, L.; Naso, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation optimization model of a Distributed Energy System (DES). • Multi-objective strategy to optimize energy cost and exergy efficiency. • Exergy analysis in building energy supply systems. - Abstract: With the growing demand of energy on a worldwide scale, improving the efficiency of energy resource use has become one of the key challenges. Application of exergy principles in the context of building energy supply systems can achieve rational use of energy resources by taking into account the different quality levels of energy resources as well as those of building demands. This paper is on the operation optimization of a Distributed Energy System (DES). The model involves multiple energy devices that convert a set of primary energy carriers with different energy quality levels to meet given time-varying user demands at different energy quality levels. By promoting the usage of low-temperature energy sources to satisfy low-quality thermal energy demands, the waste of high-quality energy resources can be reduced, thereby improving the overall exergy efficiency. To consider the economic factor as well, a multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated. The Pareto frontier, including the best possible trade-offs between the economic and exergetic objectives, is obtained by minimizing a weighted sum of the total energy cost and total primary exergy input using branch-and-cut. The operation strategies of the DES under different weights for the two objectives are discussed. The operators of DESs can choose the operation strategy from the Pareto frontier based on costs, essential in the short run, and sustainability, crucial in the long run. The contribution of each energy device in reducing energy costs and the total exergy input is also analyzed. In addition, results show that the energy cost can be much reduced and the overall exergy efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimized operation of the DES as compared with the

  6. Study on Gait Efficiency and Energy Cost of Below Knee Amputees After Therapeutic Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier research advocated that a below knee amputee (BK with conventional trans-tibial prosthesis attains higher gait efficiency at lower energy cost with therapeutic practices of proper time and co-ordination in compare to normal subjects of similar physical parameters and quality of life. The present study focused on comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a group of below knee amputees and a control group (normal subjects without amputation to indicate the consistency of the earlier findings. The subjects were selected with similar physical parameters and quality of life. Oxygen Uptake (VO2 and Heart Rate (HR were measured by Cosmed® k4 b2 analyzer system. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0001 was found higher with lower energy cost for BK amputees after therapeutic practices than control group. The therapeutic activities contributed to efficient gait pattern for amputees ensuring proper time and co-ordination with balance in consistence to the earlier research.

  7. The German energy audit program for firms. A cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleiter, T.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Str. 48, 76139, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruber, E. [Institute for Resource Efficiency and Energy Strategies IREES GmbH, Schoenfeldstr. 8, 76131, Karlsruhe (Germany); Worrell, E. [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We evaluate the program's impact in terms of energy savings, CO2 mitigation, and cost-effectiveness. We find that firms adopt 1.7-2.9 energy efficiency measures, which they would not have adopted without the program. Taking a firm's perspective, the program shows a net present value ranging from -0.4 to 6 euro/MWh saved, which very likely implies a net benefit. For the government, each ton of CO2 mitigated costs between 1.8 and 4.1 euro. Each euro of public expenditure on audit grants led to 17-33 euro of private investment. The cost-effectiveness of the program for firms and the low share of public expenditure underline its value for the German energy efficiency policy mix and suggest that it should be expanded in Germany. Further, the good experiences with the program in Germany should encourage countries which have not yet established an audit program to do so.

  8. Cycling efficiency and energy cost of walking in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether age affects cycling efficiency and the energy cost of walking (Cw), 190 healthy adults, ages 18-81 yr, cycled on an ergometer at 50 W and walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s. Ventilation and gas exchange at rest and during exercise were used to calculate net Cw and net efficiency of cycling. Compared with the 18-40 yr age group (2.17 ± 0.33 J·kg -1 ·m -1 ), net Cw was not different in the 60-64 yr (2.20 ± 0.40 J·kg -1 ·m -1 ) and 65-69 yr (2.20 ± 0.28 J·kg -1 ·m -1 ) age groups, but was significantly ( P 60 yr, net Cw was significantly correlated with age ( R 2  = 0.123; P = 0.002). Cycling net efficiency was not different between 18-40 yr (23.5 ± 2.9%), 60-64 yr (24.5 ± 3.6%), 65-69 yr (23.3 ± 3.6%) and ≥70 yr (24.7 ± 2.7%) age groups. Repeat tests on a subset of subjects (walking, n = 43; cycling, n = 37) demonstrated high test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 0.74-0.86] for all energy outcome measures except cycling net energy expenditure (ICC = 0.54) and net efficiency (ICC = 0.50). Coefficients of variation for all variables ranged from 3.1 to 7.7%. Considerable individual variation in Cw and efficiency was evident, with a ~2-fold difference between the least and most economical/efficient subjects. We conclude that, between 18 and 81 yr, net Cw was only higher for ages ≥70 yr, and that cycling net efficiency was not different across age groups. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study illustrates that the higher energy cost of walking in older adults is only evident for ages ≥70 yr. For older adults ages 60-69 yr, the energy cost of walking is similar to that of young adults. Cycling efficiency, by contrast, is not different across age groups. Considerable individual variation (∼2-fold) in cycling efficiency and energy cost of walking is observed in young and older adults.

  9. Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that for photovoltaics to reach grid parity around the planet, they must be made with costs under $0.50 per W p and must also achieve power conversion efficiencies above 20% in order to keep installation costs down. In this work we explore a novel solar cell architecture, a hybrid tandem photovoltaic (HTPV), and show that it is capable of meeting these targets. HTPV is composed of an inexpensive and low temperature processed solar cell, such as an organic or dye-sensitized solar cell, that can be printed on top of one of a variety of more traditional inorganic solar cells. Our modeling shows that an organic solar cell may be added on top of a commercial CIGS cell to improve its efficiency from 15.1% to 21.4%, thereby reducing the cost of the modules by ∼15% to 20% and the cost of installation by up to 30%. This suggests that HTPV is a promising option for producing solar power that matches the cost of existing grid energy. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  11. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  12. A changing world. A changing industry. Session cost efficient solutions for field development. A step forward (Paper G1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranger, K.P.

    1994-01-01

    Oil companies in Norway and the oil related industry are presently in the middle of a one year long, and quite substantial, efficiency-process named NORSOK. The NORSOK has the objective of finding more cost- and time-efficient ways of exploiting oil and gas from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The paper discusses the industrial participation in the NORSOK working groups. It presents the changes to be foreseen as a result of experience gained, through previous projects as well as efficiency processes, and which will be applied to the planning and execution of two current field development projects, namely the Vigdis field in the North Sea and the Midgard field in the Haltenbanken area

  13. Prime costs and economic efficiency of deep drilling in Chechen-Ingush ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskii, L.M.

    1982-04-01

    The possibilities of reducing the prime costs of deep well drilling and improving the efficiency of drilling are considered. The dynamics of performance over the last two five-year plan (FYP) periods is analyzed and it is shown that the performance in the 10th FYP did not improve as compared to the 9th FYP. This is due to geological conditions and shortcomings in the technology and organization of drilling. It is shown that the speed and depth of drilling are decisive factors influencing costs.

  14. Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index: Responsiveness, meaningful change, and relative efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M

    2017-12-05

    To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  15. The relation between energy efficiency and other general objectives from a socioeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankarhem, Mattias; Braennlund, Runar

    2006-09-01

    An important question in the analysis of energy efficiency programs and their consequences is: How are objectives and instruments defined? E.g. if the objective is reduced carbon dioxide emissions and energy efficiency is the means to reach the objective, then it is not certain that increased energy efficiency will give the result as expected (1). Furthermore, energy efficiency measures will probably be an inefficient way of reaching the goal (2). (1) due to the rebound effects, and (2) since the measures are applied indiscriminately, energy use with only weak couplings to the objective are also affected. Energy efficiency is a partial and relative measure, and does not give much information studied in isolation. It should rather be studied from the perspective of total resource efficiency. Economic policy ought to have the goal of securing a socioeconomic exploitation of all resources (of which energy is one). An instrument working in this direction is internalizing of external effects e.g. through environmental taxes, so that the prices reflect the socioeconomic costs for using the resources. Early foreign studies indicates that a rebound effect exists, usually, however, the technological efficiency potentials can be realized. In a recent study of Swedish conditions, the rebound effect seems to be important. It totally negates the initial effect, at in the end the emissions have increased compared to the starting point. The results show the energy efficiency measures can be in direct conflict with climate and other environmental objectives.

  16. Identifying efficient dairy heifer producers using production costs and data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Gray, S M; Heinrichs, P A; Cornelisse, S A; Goodling, R C

    2013-01-01

    During November and December 2011, data were collected from 44 dairy operations in 13 Pennsylvania counties. Researchers visited each farm to collect information regarding management practices and feeding, and costs for labor, health, bedding, and reproduction for replacement heifers from birth until first calving. Costs per heifer were broken up into 4 time periods: birth until weaning, weaning until 6 mo of age, 6 mo of age until breeding age, and heifers from breeding to calving. Milk production records for each herd were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement. The average number of milking cows on farms in this study was 197.8 ± 280.1, with a range from 38 to 1,708. Total cost averaged $1,808.23 ± $338.62 from birth until freshening. Raising calves from birth to weaning cost $217.49 ± 86.21; raising heifers from weaning age through 6 mo of age cost $247.38 ± 78.89; raising heifers from 6 mo of age until breeding cost $607.02 ± 192.28; and total cost for bred heifers was $736.33 ± 162.86. Feed costs were the largest component of the cost to raise heifers from birth to calving, accounting for nearly 73% of the total. Data envelopment analysis determined that 9 of the 44 farms had no inefficiencies in inputs or outputs. These farms best combined feed and labor investments, spending, on average, $1,137.40 and $140.62/heifer for feed and labor. These heifers calved at 23.7 mo of age and produced 88.42% of the milk produced by older cows. In contrast, the 35 inefficient farms spent $227 more on feed and $78 more on labor per heifer for animals that calved 1.6 mo later and produced only 82% of the milk made by their mature herdmates. Efficiency was attained by herds with the lowest input costs, but herds with higher input costs were also able to be efficient if age at calving was low and milk production was high for heifers compared with the rest of the herd. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost Recommendation under Uncertainty in IQWiG's Efficiency Frontier Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro Ramos, Isaac; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Al, Maiwenn J

    2017-02-01

    The National Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) employs an efficiency frontier (EF) framework to facilitate setting maximum reimbursable prices for new interventions. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) is used when yes/no reimbursement decisions are sought based on a fixed threshold. In the IQWiG framework, an additional layer of complexity arises as the EF itself may vary its shape in each PSA iteration, and thus the willingness-to-pay, indicated by the EF segments, may vary. To explore the practical problems arising when, within the EF approach, maximum reimbursable prices for new interventions are sought through PSA. When the EF is varied in a PSA, cost recommendations for new interventions may be determined by the mean or the median of the distances between each intervention's point estimate and each EF. Implications of using these metrics were explored in a simulation study based on the model used by IQWiG to assess the cost-effectiveness of 4 antidepressants. Depending on the metric used, cost recommendations can be contradictory. Recommendations based on the mean can also be inconsistent. Results (median) suggested that costs of duloxetine, venlafaxine, mirtazapine, and bupropion should be decreased by €131, €29, €12, and €99, respectively. These recommendations were implemented and the analysis repeated. New results suggested keeping the costs as they were. The percentage of acceptable PSA outcomes increased 41% on average, and the uncertainty associated to the net health benefit was significantly reduced. The median of the distances between every intervention outcome and every EF is a good proxy for the cost recommendation that would be given should the EF be fixed. Adjusting costs according to the median increased the probability of acceptance and reduced the uncertainty around the net health benefit distribution, resulting in a reduced uncertainty for decision makers.

  18. Cost efficiency with triangular fuzzy number input prices: An application of DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherzadeh Valami, H.

    2009-01-01

    The cost efficiency model (CE) has been considered by researchers as a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model for evaluating the efficiency of DMUs. In this model, the possibility of producing the outputs of a target DMU is evaluated by the input prices of the DMU. This provides a criterion for evaluating the CE of DMUs. The main contribution of this paper is to provide an approach for generalizing the CE of DMUs when their input prices are triangular fuzzy numbers, where preliminary concepts of fuzzy theory and CE, are directly used.

  19. Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A. G.; Darriba, G. N.; Errico, L. A.; Munoz, E. L.; Richard, D.; Runco, J.

    2008-01-01

    A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost γ-γ TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for 181 Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

  20. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  1. Robust and Cost-Efficient Communication Based on SNMP in Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sang-Hoon; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    A main challenge in the design of this mobile network is the development of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently find routes between two communicating nodes. Multimedia streaming services are receiving considerable interest in the mobile network business. An entire mobile network may change its point of attachment to the Internet. The mobile network is operated by a basic specification to support network mobility called Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support. However, NEMO basic Support mechanism has some problem in continuous communication. In this paper, we propose robust and cost-efficient algorithm. And we simulate proposed method and conclude some remarks.

  2. Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M., E-mail: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, A. G.; Darriba, G. N.; Errico, L. A.; Munoz, E. L.; Richard, D.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost {gamma}-{gamma} TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for {sup 181}Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

  3. An Efficient Inductive Genetic Learning Algorithm for Fuzzy Relational Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy modelling research has traditionally focused on certain types of fuzzy rules. However, the use of alternative rule models could improve the ability of fuzzy systems to represent a specific problem. In this proposal, an extended fuzzy rule model, that can include relations between variables in the antecedent of rules is presented. Furthermore, a learning algorithm based on the iterative genetic approach which is able to represent the knowledge using this model is proposed as well. On the other hand, potential relations among initial variables imply an exponential growth in the feasible rule search space. Consequently, two filters for detecting relevant potential relations are added to the learning algorithm. These filters allows to decrease the search space complexity and increase the algorithm efficiency. Finally, we also present an experimental study to demonstrate the benefits of using fuzzy relational rules.

  4. Life cycle cost analysis of commercial buildings with energy efficient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima N. Kale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In any construction project, cost effectiveness plays a crucial role. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis provides a method of determining entire cost of a structure over its expected life along with operational and maintenance cost. LCC can be improved by adopting alternative modern techniques without much alteration in the building. LCC effectiveness can be calculated at various stages of entire span of the building. Moreover this provides decision makers with the financial information necessary for maintaining, improving, and constructing facilities. Financial benefits associated with energy use can also be calculated using LCC analysis. In the present work, case study of two educational buildings has been considered. The LCC of these buildings has been calculated with existing condition and with proposed energy efficient approach (EEA using net present value method. A solar panel having minimum capacity as well as solar panel with desired capacity as per the requirements of the building has been suggested. The comparison of LCC of existing structure with proposed solar panel system shows that 4% of cost can be reduced in case of minimum capacity solar panel and 54% cost can be reduced for desired capacity solar panel system, along with other added advantages of solar energy.

  5. Leveraging Cloud Heterogeneity for Cost-Efficient Execution of Parallel Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roloff, Eduardo; Diener, Matthias; Diaz Carreño, Emmanuell; Gaspary, Luciano Paschoal; Navaux, Philippe O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Public cloud providers offer a wide range of instance types, with different processing and interconnection speeds, as well as varying prices. Furthermore, the tasks of many parallel applications show different computational demands due to load imbalance. These differences can be exploited for improving the cost efficiency of parallel applications in many cloud environments by matching application requirements to instance types. In this paper, we introduce the concept of heterogeneous cloud sy...

  6. Financial Consumption and the Cost of Finance: Measuring Financial Efficiency in Europe (1950-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Bazot, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes to assess financial intermediation efficiency in Germany, France, the UK, and Europe more broadly, over the past 60 years. I rely on Philippon's (2012) methodology, which calculates the unit cost of financial intermediation through the ratio of 'financial consumption' | measured by financial income | to 'financial output' | approximated by the sum of outstanding assets intermediated. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, because financial industry VA ignores ...

  7. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  8. Determination of Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures in Buildings with the Aid of Multiple Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy refurbishments of buildings can substantially contribute to economy-wide energy efficiency improvements, leading to decarbonisation and additional sustainability benefits. Prioritising the most economically promising investments is not straightforward because apart from cost-effectiveness calculations, several real-world constraints have to be taken into account. This paper describes an approach to assess the economically viable energy efficiency potential in the building sector of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, with a combination of detailed engineering modelling, cost-effectiveness calculations and real-world considerations of budgetary, technical, behavioural and market constraints. We examine diverse cost-effectiveness indices and come up with a proposal for prioritising specific energy investments such as the installation of heat pumps, insulation of roofs, and replacement of lighting and electronic equipment—without however ignoring other measures that may be economically less favourable but can realistically be implemented in a limited number of buildings. Finally we address the governance of energy efficiency policies, focusing on weaknesses of the current regulatory environment in Cyprus, which can be generalised for many other countries facing similar dilemmas.

  9. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  10. Parameters of Dismantling Techniques Related to Costs for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon

    2012-01-01

    Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning operation. Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning planning. Alternative technologies may be evaluated and compared on their efficiency and effectiveness, and measured against a baseline cost as to the feasibility and benefit derived from the technology. This principle ensures that the cost consideration is economically sound and practical for funding. This paper provides a list with basic review of cutting and dismantling techniques, including some typical characteristics if available, as well as aspects of implementation, parameters of cutting and dismantling techniques in decommissioning costing. This paper gives an overview of the principles of the unit factor approach and its implementation in costing in relation to dismantling activities. In general, proper evaluation of decommissioning costs is important for following issues and relevant measures for achieving the listed aspects are: · Selection of a decommissioning strategy and activities: several decommissioning options should be evaluated: · Support to a cost-benefit analysis to ensure that the principle of optimization and reasonably practicable measures are applied: the extent of evaluated decommissioning options should cover all possible scenarios for dismantling activities; · Estimate of required financial resources for the selected strategy: the selected option should involve the dismantling activities in a structure and extent relevant to real procedure of dismantling activities; · Preparation of the project schedule, workforce requirements and phased funding needs: dismantling activities should be structured according to the tasks of the decommissioning schedule; · Definition of measures for proper management and maintenance of resources for safe and timely decommissioning: the time distribution and safety related parameters of dismantling activities should be known

  11. Cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector using cost and efficiency data developed as part of the regulatory process of the U.S. Department of Energy's Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. These data are presented as a case study in the development of an ‘efficiency technology database’ which can be expanded and published as a resource to other researchers and policy makers seeking scenarios that optimize efficiency policies and forecast their likely impacts on energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The use of this data to evaluate cost-effectiveness according to a variety of metrics is demonstrated using the example of one refrigerator–freezer product class. Cost-effectiveness is then evaluated in terms of cost of conserved energy for refrigerators, room air conditioners, water heaters, cooking equipment, central air conditioners and gas furnaces. The resulting potential of cost-effective improvement ranges from 1% to 53% of energy savings, with a typical potential of 15–20%. - Highlights: ► We determined the potential for cost-effective efficiency for residential appliances. ► We cover 6 appliance groups using cost of conserved energy as a metric for cost-effectiveness. ► Data are source from the DOE's Appliance and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. ► Between 15% and 20% additional cost-effective efficiency improvement is possible.

  12. Estimating the cost of saving electricity through U.S. utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Goldman, Charles A.; Rybka, Gregory; Leventis, Greg; Schwartz, Lisa; Sanstad, Alan H.; Schiller, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The program administrator and total cost of saved energy allow comparison of the cost of efficiency across utilities, states, and program types, and can identify potential performance improvements. Comparing program administrator cost with the total cost of saved energy can indicate the degree to which programs leverage investment by participants. Based on reported total costs and savings information for U.S. utility efficiency programs from 2009 to 2013, we estimate the savings-weighted average total cost of saved electricity across 20 states at $0.046 per kilowatt-hour (kW h), comparing favorably with energy supply costs and retail rates. Programs targeted on the residential market averaged $0.030 per kW h compared to $0.053 per kW h for non-residential programs. Lighting programs, with an average total cost of $0.018 per kW h, drove lower savings costs in the residential market. We provide estimates for the most common program types and find that program administrators and participants on average are splitting the costs of efficiency in half. More consistent, standardized and complete reporting on efficiency programs is needed. Differing definitions and quantification of costs, savings and savings lifetimes pose challenges for comparing program results. Reducing these uncertainties could increase confidence in efficiency as a resource among planners and policymakers. - Highlights: • The cost of saved energy allows comparisons among energy resource investments. • Findings from the most expansive collection yet of total energy efficiency program costs. • The weighted average total cost of saved electricity was $0.046 for 20 states in 2009–2013. • Averages in the residential and non-residential sectors were $0.030 and $0.053 per kW h, respectively. • Results strongly indicate need for more consistent, reliable and complete reporting on efficiency programs.

  13. The Cost-Effectiveness of High-Risk Lung Cancer Screening and Drivers of Program Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Sonya; Peacock, Stuart J; Tammemägi, Martin C; Evans, William K; Leighl, Natasha B; Goffin, John R; Tremblay, Alain; Liu, Geoffrey; Manos, Daria; MacEachern, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Puksa, Serge; Nicholas, Garth; McWilliams, Annette; Mayo, John R; Yee, John; English, John C; Pataky, Reka; McPherson, Emily; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Johnston, Michael R; Schmidt, Heidi; Shepherd, Frances A; Soghrati, Kam; Amjadi, Kayvan; Burrowes, Paul; Couture, Christian; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Goss, Glenwood; Ionescu, Diana N; Hwang, David M; Martel, Simon; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer risk prediction models have the potential to make programs more affordable; however, the economic evidence is limited. Participants in the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) were retrospectively identified with the risk prediction tool developed from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The high-risk subgroup was assessed for lung cancer incidence and demographic characteristics compared with those in the low-risk subgroup and the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study (PanCan), which is an observational study that was high-risk-selected in Canada. A comparison of high-risk screening versus standard care was made with a decision-analytic model using data from the NLST with Canadian cost data from screening and treatment in the PanCan study. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess uncertainty and identify drivers of program efficiency. Use of the risk prediction tool developed from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial with a threshold set at 2% over 6 years would have reduced the number of individuals who needed to be screened in the NLST by 81%. High-risk screening participants in the NLST had more adverse demographic characteristics than their counterparts in the PanCan study. High-risk screening would cost $20,724 (in 2015 Canadian dollars) per quality-adjusted life-year gained and would be considered cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 in Canadian dollars per quality-adjusted life-year gained with a probability of 0.62. Cost-effectiveness was driven primarily by non-lung cancer outcomes. Higher noncurative drug costs or current costs for immunotherapy and targeted therapies in the United States would render lung cancer screening a cost-saving intervention. Non-lung cancer outcomes drive screening efficiency in diverse, tobacco-exposed populations. Use of risk selection can reduce the budget impact, and

  14. The determinants of cost efficiency of hydroelectric generating plants: A random frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos P.; Peypoch, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency in the hydroelectric generating plants of a main Portuguese electricity enterprise EDP (Electricity of Portugal) between 1994 and 2004, investigating the role played by increase in competition and regulation. A random cost frontier method is adopted. A translog frontier model is used and the maximum likelihood estimation technique is employed to estimate the empirical model. We estimate the efficiency scores and decompose the exogenous variables into homogeneous and heterogeneous. It is concluded that production and capacity are heterogeneous, signifying that the hydroelectric generating plants are very distinct and therefore any energy policy should take into account this heterogeneity. It is also concluded that competition, rather than regulation, plays the key role in increasing hydroelectric plant efficiency

  15. Maximizing Efficiency and Reducing Robotic Surgery Costs Using the NASA Task Load Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Carrie; Webb, Paula J

    2017-10-01

    Perioperative leaders at our facility were struggling to meet efficiency targets for robotic surgery procedures while also maintaining the satisfaction of the surgical team. We developed a human resources time and motion study tool and used it in conjunction with the NASA Task Load Index to observe and analyze the required workload of personnel assigned to 25 robotic surgery procedures. The time and motion study identified opportunities to enlist the help of nonlicensed support personnel to ensure safe patient care and improve OR efficiency. Using the NASA Task Load Index demonstrated that high temporal, effort, and physical demands existed for personnel assisting with and performing robotic surgery. We believe that this process could be used to develop cost-effective staffing models, resulting in safe and efficient care for all surgical patients. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A generic interface to reduce the efficiency-stability-cost gap of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi; Du, Xiaoyan; Scheiner, Simon; McMeekin, David P.; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Ning; Killian, Manuela S.; Chen, Haiwei; Richter, Moses; Levchuk, Ievgen; Schrenker, Nadine; Spiecker, Erdmann; Stubhan, Tobias; Luechinger, Norman A.; Hirsch, Andreas; Schmuki, Patrik; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Fink, Rainer H.; Halik, Marcus; Snaith, Henry J.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-12-01

    A major bottleneck delaying the further commercialization of thin-film solar cells based on hybrid organohalide lead perovskites is interface loss in state-of-the-art devices. We present a generic interface architecture that combines solution-processed, reliable, and cost-efficient hole-transporting materials without compromising efficiency, stability, or scalability of perovskite solar cells. Tantalum-doped tungsten oxide (Ta-WOx)/conjugated polymer multilayers offer a surprisingly small interface barrier and form quasi-ohmic contacts universally with various scalable conjugated polymers. In a simple device with regular planar architecture and a self-assembled monolayer, Ta-WOx-doped interface-based perovskite solar cells achieve maximum efficiencies of 21.2% and offer more than 1000 hours of light stability. By eliminating additional ionic dopants, these findings open up the entire class of organics as scalable hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells.

  17. Measuring cost efficiency in the Nordic hospitals--a cross-sectional comparison of public hospitals in 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linna, Miika; Häkkinen, Unto; Peltola, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hospital care in four Nordic countries: Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Using national discharge registries and cost data from hospitals, cost efficiency in the production of somatic hospital care was calculated for public hospitals. Data......, average efficiency was markedly higher in Finland compared to Norway and Sweden. This study found differences in cost efficiency that cannot be explained by input prices or differences in coding practices. More analysis is needed to reveal the causes of large efficiency disparities between Nordic...

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity

  19. Radical perineal prostatectomy: cost efficient, outcome effective, minimally invasive prostate cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael J

    2003-09-01

    invasive nature of this procedure contribute to a short recovery and low overall cost of therapy. The anatomic radical perineal prostatectomy is a cost-efficient, outcome effective minimally invasive method of treating men with localized prostate cancer.

  20. O aumento da rentabilidade do milho no Minho: eficiência do uso da água e redução dos custos associados à rega e à fertilização Yield increase in maize production in the Minho region: water use efficiency and cost reduction related to irrigation and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manuel Ferreira da Silva Agostinho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No Minho, a rega e a fertilização têm um peso importante (44 a 57% nos custos da actividade milho. A simulação do balanço hídrico do solo e da equação simplificada do balanço de N aumentaram a rentabilidade do milho (menos 36% de N de fertilização e minimizaram os fluxos de lixiviação. A rega gota-a-gota aumentou a eficiência média do uso da água (66% para a rega tradicional e 43% para a aspersão. A fita gotejadora sem bombagem obteve uma uniformidade de rega de 87% e 45% de área molhada. Até 0,75 hectares, o sistema de rega mais rentável é a fita gotejadora sem bombagem (por gravidade. A partir de 0,75 hectares é mais rentável a aspersão com "canhão" amovível. A máquina-enroladora só é mais rentável que a fita gotejadora sem bombagem a partir de 1,8 hectares. A partir de 3,5 hectares é indiferente a adopção da máquina-enroladora e do "canhão" amovível.In the Minho region, the irrigation and the fertilization are the most important production factors (44 to 57% of the total cost in the maize. Soil water balance simulation and the simplified equation of the N balance have increased maize profitability (less 36% of N fertilization and minimized the leaching flows. The use of drip irrigation increased the average efficiency of water use (66% for traditional irrigation and 43% for the aspersion methods. The drip tape without pumping led to a uniformity of irrigation of 87% and 45% of wet area. Up to 0,75 hectares, the most cost efficient irrigation system is the drip tape without pumping (by gravity. From 0,75 hectares, the aspersion with portable rain-gun is more cost efficient . From 1,8 hectares, the hose-reel machine alone is more cost efficient than the drip tape without pumping. From 3,5 hectares, the adoption of the hose-reel machine and the portable rain-gun is indifferent.

  1. Improving Efficiency Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibor, Laura C; Schultz, Stacy R; Menaker, Ronald; Weber, Bradley D; Ness, Jay; Smith, Paula; Young, Phillip M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to increase efficiency in MR enterography using a time-driven activity-based costing methodology. In February 2015, a multidisciplinary team was formed to identify the personnel, equipment, space, and supply costs of providing outpatient MR enterography. The team mapped the current state, completed observations, performed timings, and calculated costs associated with each element of the process. The team used Pareto charts to understand the highest cost and most time-consuming activities, brainstormed opportunities, and assessed impact. Plan-do-study-act cycles were developed to test the changes, and run charts were used to monitor progress. The process changes consisted of revising the workflow associated with the preparation and administration of glucagon, with completed implementation in November 2015. The time-driven activity-based costing methodology allowed the radiology department to develop a process to more accurately identify the costs of providing MR enterography. The primary process modification was reassigning responsibility for the administration of glucagon from nurses to technologists. After implementation, the improvements demonstrated success by reducing non-value-added steps and cost by 13%, staff time by 16%, and patient process time by 17%. The saved process time was used to augment existing examination time slots to more accurately accommodate the entire enterographic examination. Anecdotal comments were captured to validate improved staff satisfaction within the multidisciplinary team. This process provided a successful outcome to address daily workflow frustrations that could not previously be improved. A multidisciplinary team was necessary to achieve success, in addition to the use of a structured problem-solving approach. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the global warming prevention related investigations in cooperative fundamental project of investigating improvement in international energy consumption efficiency. Analysis and comparison centering on cost effectiveness in relation with greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction in Japan; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka chosanado kyoryoku kiso jigyo chikyu ondanka boshi kanren chosa hokokusho. Kokunai deno GHG sakyugen ni kansuru hiyo tai koka wo chushin to shita bunseki hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The present investigative research is intended to grasp the whole image of cost effectiveness of the energy saving and new energy technologies to suppress and reduce CO2 emission in Japan. Furthermore, the research considers the cost effectiveness and discusses the efficiency and the directionality of reducing CO2 emission from an estimation of the social introduction cost of individual technologies and quantity of CO2 emission reduction. These activities are intended to provide the fundamental items of information when discussing the measures to achieve the emission reduction target imposed on Japan. The research divides the whole aspect into energy conversion, industrial, consumer and transportation departments for discussion, and calculates the technological items that can be introduced by 2010 and the quantity of the introduction thereof, as well as the effect of reducing CO2 emission. Calculations are also performed on 27 elementary technologies in total and the CO2 emission reducing effect, assuming technological possibilities. Subsequently, analyses are carried out from the viewpoint of cost effectiveness by departments. It is shown that the average cost effectiveness is distributed in the range from 108,000 yen/ton to 1,129,000 yen/ton. Scenarios of reducing CO2 emission are discussed from the analyses of the cost effectiveness. (NEDO)

  3. Coping efficiently with now-relative medical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantic, Bela; Terenziani, Paolo; Sattar, Abdul

    2008-11-06

    In Medical Informatics, there is an increasing awareness that temporal information plays a crucial role, so that suitable database approaches are needed to store and support it. Specifically, most clinical data are intrinsically temporal, and a relevant part of them are now-relative (i.e., they are valid at the current time). Even if previous studies indicate that the treatment of now-relative data has a crucial impact on efficiency, current approaches have several limitations. In this paper we propose a novel approach, which is based on a new representation of now, and on query transformations. We also experimentally demonstrate that our approach outperforms its best competitors in the literature to the extent of a factor of more than ten, both in number of disk accesses and of CPU usage.

  4. Public and Private Hospital Services Reform Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Technical, Scale, Allocative, and Cost Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Emrouznejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to suggest a suitable context to develop efficient hospitalsystems while maintaining the quality of care at minimum expenditures.Methods: This research aimed to present a model of efficiency for selected public and privatehospitals of East Azerbaijani Province of Iran by making use of Data Envelopment Analysis approachin order to recognize and suggest the best practice standards.Results: Among the six inefficient hospitals, 2 (33% had a technical efficiency score of lessthan 50% (both private, 2 (33% between 51 and 74% (one private and one public and the rest(2, 33% between 75 and 99% (one private and one public.Conclusion: In general, the public hospitals are relatively more efficient than private ones; it isrecommended for inefficient hospitals to make use of the followings: transferring, selling, orrenting idle/unused beds; transferring excess doctors and nurses to the efficient hospitals orother health centers; pensioning off, early retirement clinic officers, technicians/technologists,and other technical staff. The saving obtained from the above approaches could be used to improveremuneration for remaining staff and quality of health care services of hospitals, rural andurban health centers, support communities to start or sustain systematic risk and resource poolingand cost sharing mechanisms for protecting beneficiaries against unexpected health carecosts, compensate the capital depreciation, increasing investments, and improve diseases preventionservices and facilities in the provincial level.

  5. Transfer Efficiency and Cooling Cost by Thermal Loss based on Nitrogen Evaporation Method for Superconducting MAGLEV System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y D; Kim, D W; Lee, C Y

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility of technical fusion between wireless power transfer (WPT) and superconducting technology to improve the transfer efficiency and evaluate operating costs such as refrigerant consumption. Generally, in WPT technology, the various copper wires have been adopted. From this reason, the transfer efficiency is limited since the copper wires of Q value are intrinsically critical point. On the other hand, as superconducting wires keep larger current density and relatively higher Q value, the superconducting resonance coil can be expected as a reasonable option to deliver large transfer power as well as improve the transfer ratio since it exchanges energy at a much higher rate and keeps stronger magnetic fields out. However, since superconducting wires should be cooled indispensably, the cooling cost of consumed refrigerant for resonance HTS wires should be estimated. In this study, the transmission ratios using HTS resonance receiver (Rx) coil and various cooled and noncooled copper resonance Rx coils were presented under non cooled copper antenna within input power of 200 W of 370 kHz respectively. In addition, authors evaluated cooling cost of liquid nitrogen for HTS resonance coil and various cooled copper resonance coils based on nitrogen evaporation method. (paper)

  6. Transfer Efficiency and Cooling Cost by Thermal Loss based on Nitrogen Evaporation Method for Superconducting MAGLEV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. D.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, C. Y.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the feasibility of technical fusion between wireless power transfer (WPT) and superconducting technology to improve the transfer efficiency and evaluate operating costs such as refrigerant consumption. Generally, in WPT technology, the various copper wires have been adopted. From this reason, the transfer efficiency is limited since the copper wires of Q value are intrinsically critical point. On the other hand, as superconducting wires keep larger current density and relatively higher Q value, the superconducting resonance coil can be expected as a reasonable option to deliver large transfer power as well as improve the transfer ratio since it exchanges energy at a much higher rate and keeps stronger magnetic fields out. However, since superconducting wires should be cooled indispensably, the cooling cost of consumed refrigerant for resonance HTS wires should be estimated. In this study, the transmission ratios using HTS resonance receiver (Rx) coil and various cooled and noncooled copper resonance Rx coils were presented under non cooled copper antenna within input power of 200 W of 370 kHz respectively. In addition, authors evaluated cooling cost of liquid nitrogen for HTS resonance coil and various cooled copper resonance coils based on nitrogen evaporation method.

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  8. Efficient, Low Cost Dish Concentrator for a CPV Based Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayet, Haim; Kost, Ori; Moran, Rani; Lozovsky, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    Zenith Solar Ltd has developed efficient electricity and heat co-generation system based on segmented-parabolic dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 and water cooled dense array module combined of triple junction cells. Conventional parabolic dishes are inherently inefficient in the sense that the radiant flux distribution is non uniform causing inefficient generation by the PV array. Secondary optics improves uniformity but introduces additional complexity and losses to the system. Zenith's dish is assembled of 1200 flat mirrors of approximately 100 cm2 each. Every mirror facet has a unique shape such that the geometrical projection from each mirror on the focal plane is essentially the same. When perfectly aligned, the projected radiation from all mirrors overlaps uniformly on the PV surface. The low cost construction of the dish utilizes plastic mount supported by a precise metal frame. The precision of the metal frame affects the overall optical efficiency of the mirror and hence the efficiency of the system. State of the art dish of 11 m2 active aperture results in output of 2.25 kWp (900 W/m2) electrical and 5 kWp thermal power from one dish system representing 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 71% overall system efficiency.

  9. Combined analyses of costs, market value and eco-costs in circular business models : eco-efficient value creation in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtländer, J.G.; Scheepens, A.E.; Bocken, N.M.P.; Peck, D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Eco-efficient Value Creation is a method to analyse innovative product and service design together with circular business strategies. The method is based on combined analyses of the costs, market value (perceived customer value) and eco-costs. This provides a prevention-based single indicator for

  10. Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  11. Low-cost, high-performance and efficiency computational photometer design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Sam B.; Shihadeh, Jeries; Myers, Randall; Khandhar, Jay; Ivanov, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Anchorage and University of Colorado Boulder have built a low cost high performance and efficiency drop-in-place Computational Photometer (CP) to test in field applications ranging from port security and safety monitoring to environmental compliance monitoring and surveying. The CP integrates off-the-shelf visible spectrum cameras with near to long wavelength infrared detectors and high resolution digital snapshots in a single device. The proof of concept combines three or more detectors into a single multichannel imaging system that can time correlate read-out, capture, and image process all of the channels concurrently with high performance and energy efficiency. The dual-channel continuous read-out is combined with a third high definition digital snapshot capability and has been designed using an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to capture, decimate, down-convert, re-encode, and transform images from two standard definition CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras at 30Hz. The continuous stereo vision can be time correlated to megapixel high definition snapshots. This proof of concept has been fabricated as a fourlayer PCB (Printed Circuit Board) suitable for use in education and research for low cost high efficiency field monitoring applications that need multispectral and three dimensional imaging capabilities. Initial testing is in progress and includes field testing in ports, potential test flights in un-manned aerial systems, and future planned missions to image harsh environments in the arctic including volcanic plumes, ice formation, and arctic marine life.

  12. Collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions: Efficiency costs and no learning benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-01-01

    Students are expected to learn key-term definitions across many different grade levels and academic disciplines. Thus, investigating ways to promote understanding of key-term definitions is of critical importance for applied purposes. A recent survey showed that learners report engaging in collaborative practice testing when learning key-term definitions, with outcomes also shedding light on the way in which learners report engaging in collaborative testing in real-world contexts (Wissman & Rawson, 2016, Memory, 24, 223-239). However, no research has directly explored the effectiveness of engaging in collaborative testing under representative conditions. Accordingly, the current research evaluates the costs (with respect to efficiency) and the benefits (with respect to learning) of collaborative testing for key-term definitions under representative conditions. In three experiments (ns = 94, 74, 95), learners individually studied key-term definitions and then completed retrieval practice, which occurred either individually or collaboratively (in dyads). Two days later, all learners completed a final individual test. Results from Experiments 1-2 showed a cost (with respect to efficiency) and no benefit (with respect to learning) of engaging in collaborative testing for key-term definitions. Experiment 3 evaluated a theoretical explanation for why collaborative benefits do not emerge under representative conditions. Collectively, outcomes indicate that collaborative testing versus individual testing is less effective and less efficient when learning key-term definitions under representative conditions.

  13. Spatiotemporally Representative and Cost-Efficient Sampling Design for Validation Activities in Wanglang Experimental Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporally representative Elementary Sampling Units (ESUs are required for capturing the temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity through field measurements. Since inaccessibility often coexists with heterogeneity, a cost-efficient sampling design is mandatory. We proposed a sampling strategy to generate spatiotemporally representative and cost-efficient ESUs based on the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling scheme. The proposed strategy was constrained by multi-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery, and the ESUs were limited within a sampling feasible region established based on accessibility criteria. A novel criterion based on the Overlapping Area (OA between the NDVI frequency distribution histogram from the sampled ESUs and that from the entire study area was used to assess the sampling efficiency. A case study in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in China showed that the proposed strategy improves the spatiotemporally representativeness of sampling (mean annual OA = 74.7% compared to the single-temporally constrained (OA = 68.7% and the random sampling (OA = 63.1% strategies. The introduction of the feasible region constraint significantly reduces in-situ labour-intensive characterization necessities at expenses of about 9% loss in the spatiotemporal representativeness of the sampling. Our study will support the validation activities in Wanglang experimental site providing a benchmark for locating the nodes of automatic observation systems (e.g., LAINet which need a spatially distributed and temporally fixed sampling design.

  14. Network efficiency in autism spectrum disorder and its relation to brain overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Lewis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of evidence links differences in brain size to differences in brain organization. We have hypothesized that the developmental aspect of this relation plays a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder which involves abnormalities in brain growth. Children with ASD have abnormally large brains by the second year of life, and for several years thereafter their brain size can be multiple standard deviations above the norm. The greater conduction delays and cellular costs presumably associated with the longer long-distance connections in these larger brains is thought to influence developmental processes, giving rise to an altered brain organization with less communication between spatially distant regions. This has been supported by computational models and by findings linking greater intra-cranial volume, an index of maximum brain-size during development, to reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity in individuals with ASD. In this paper, we further assess this hypothesis via a whole-brain analysis of network efficiency. We utilize diffusion tractography to estimate the strength and length of the connections between all pairs of cortical regions. We compute the efficiency of communication between each network node and all others, and within local neighborhoods; we then assess the relation of these measures to intra-cranial volume, and the differences in these measures between adults with autism and typical controls. Intra-cranial volume is shown to be inversely related to efficiency for wide-spread regions of cortex. Moreover, the spatial patterns of reductions in efficiency in autism bear a striking resemblance to the regional relationships between efficiency and intra-cranial volume, particularly for local efficiency. The results thus provide further support for the hypothesized link between brain overgrowth in children with autism and the efficiency of the organization of the brain in adults with autism.

  15. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or

  16. Avoided cost estimation and post-reform funding allocation for California's energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskette, C.; Horii, B.; Price, S.; Kollman, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the first comprehensive estimation of California's electricity avoided costs since the state reformed its electricity market. It describes avoided cost estimates that vary by time and location, thus facilitating targeted design, funding, and marketing of demand-side management (DSM) and energy efficiency (EE) programs that could not have occurred under the previous methodology of system average cost estimation. The approach, data, and results reflect two important market structure changes: (a) wholesale spot and forward markets now supply electricity commodities to load serving entities; and (b) the evolution of an emissions market that internalizes and prices some of the externalities of electricity generation. The paper also introduces the multiplier effect of a price reduction due to DSM/EE implementation on electricity bills of all consumers. It affirms that area- and time-specific avoided cost estimates can improve the allocation of the state's public funding for DSM/EE programs, a finding that could benefit other parts of North America (e.g. Ontario and New York), which have undergone electricity deregulation. (author)

  17. Does task shifting yield cost savings and improve efficiency for health systems? A systematic review of evidence from low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Gabriel; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-13

    Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. Using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database on March 22, 2016. We included any original peer-review articles that demonstrated cost impact of a task shifting program in an LMIC. We identified 794 articles, of which 34 were included in our study. We found that substantial evidence exists for achieving cost savings and efficiency improvements from task shifting activities related to tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and additional evidence exists for the potential to achieve cost savings from activities related to malaria, NCDs, NTDs, childhood illness, and other disease areas, especially at the primary health care and community levels. Task shifting presents a viable option for health system cost savings in LMICs. Going forward, program planners should carefully consider whether task shifting can improve population health and health systems efficiency in their countries, and researchers should investigate whether task shifting can also achieve cost savings for activities related to emerging global health priorities and health systems strengthening activities such as supply chain management or monitoring and evaluation.

  18. Managing the higher risks of low-cost high-efficiency advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Independent power producers operate large coal-fired installations and gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) facilities. Combined cycle units are complex and their reliability and availability is greatly influenced by mechanical, instrumentation and control weaknesses. It was suggested that these weaknesses could be avoided by tighter specifications and more rigorous functional testing before acceptance by the owner. For the present, the difficulties of developing reliable, lower installed cost/kw, more efficient GTCC designs, pressure for lower NO x emissions with 'dry' combustors continue to be the most difficult challenges for all GT manufacturers

  19. Efficiency-bonds as a means to competitive least-cost solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Hans; Rode, Hans.

    1992-01-01

    The new view on the energy system is that it delivers energy service to end-users instead of only energy. The new view calls for least-cost solutions with regard also to the use of energy-efficient equipment. These solutions are, however, not realized automatically on the market since this is arranged for delivery of energy instead of energy service. There is a need to invent new ways to organize the market. This could be done with new sets of incentives for the traditional actors, mainly the utilities. A stock-market solution seems to have such qualities. (author)

  20. An efficient heuristic method for dynamic portfolio selection problem under transaction costs and uncertain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Amir Abbas; Pourahmadi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Selecting the optimal combination of assets in a portfolio is one of the most important decisions in investment management. As investment is a long term concept, looking into a portfolio optimization problem just in a single period may cause loss of some opportunities that could be exploited in a long term view. Hence, it is tried to extend the problem from single to multi-period model. We include trading costs and uncertain conditions to this model which made it more realistic and complex. Hence, we propose an efficient heuristic method to tackle this problem. The efficiency of the method is examined and compared with the results of the rolling single-period optimization and the buy and hold method which shows the superiority of the proposed method.

  1. The impact of ownership unbundling on cost efficiency: Empirical evidence from the New Zealand electricity distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Wetzel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Several countries around the world have introduced reforms to the electric power sector. One important element of these reforms is the introduction of an unbundling process, i.e., the separation of the competitive activities of supply and production from the monopole activity of transmission and distribution of electricity. There are several forms of unbundling: functional, legal and ownership. New Zealand, for instance, adopted an ownership unbundling in 1998. As discussed in the literature, ownership unbundling produces benefits and costs. One of the benefits may be an improvement in the level of the productive efficiency of the companies due to the use of the inputs in just one activity and a greater level of transparency for the regulator. This paper analyzes the cost efficiency of 28 electricity distribution companies in New Zealand for the period between 1996 and 2011. Using a stochastic frontier panel data model, a total cost function and a variable cost function are estimated in order to evaluate the impact of ownership unbundling on the level of cost efficiency. The results indicate that ownership separation of electricity generation and retail operations from the distribution network has a positive effect on the cost efficiency of distribution companies in New Zealand. The estimated effect of ownership separation suggests a positive average one-off shift in the level of cost efficiency by 0.242 in the short-run and 0.144 in the long-run. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of ownership unbundling on the level of cost efficiency. • A variable cost frontier function and a total cost frontier function are estimated. • The results suggest a positive one-off shift in the level of cost efficiency

  2. Report on estimated nuclear energy related cost for fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report first describes major actions planned to be taken in Japan in fiscal 1991 in the field of nuclear energy utilization. Major activities to be made for comprehensive strengthening of safety assurance measures are described, focusing on improvement of nuclear energy related safety regulations, promotion of research for safety assurance, improvement and strengthening of disaster prevention measures, environmental radioactivity surveys, control of exposure of workers engaged in radioactivity related jobs, etc. The report then describes actions required for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the procurement of uranium resources, establishment of a uranium enrichment process, reprocessing of spent fuel, application of recovered uranium, etc. Other activities are required for the development of new type reactors, effective application of plutonium, development of basic techniques, international contributions, cooperation with the public. Then, the report summarizes estimated costs required for the activities to be performed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. (N.K.)

  3. Control of systems with costs related to switching: applications to air-condition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo (Deng), Honglian; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a low complexity method for controlling systems with binary inputs that have costs related to switching. The control objective for this type of systems is often a trade off between the deviation from the reference and the number of switches (weariness...... energy efficiency etc.). For such systems a steady state solution might never be attained, but rather the optimal behavior might be constituted by a limit cycle. In this paper we consider the problem of finding and controlling the system towards an optimal limit cycle. A low complexity approach giving...

  4. Cost-resources trade-off analysis for long-range efficient plutonium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Yasukawa, Shigeru

    1988-01-01

    JALTES-III, an analysis model using an optimization technique, is applied to the determination of major requirements for plutonium to serve as fuel for FRR on a paying basis and estimation of the possible reduction in natural uranium consumption. The analysis covers the period from 1970 to 2100. Optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle system is studied by using the following objective functions: overall system cost (COST), natural uranium consumption (NU) and trade-off function (COST + α·NU, where α is the premium related with the price of natural uranium). Assuming that there will be no escalation of the prices of system elements, competitive conditions for FBR are analyzed based on the effective price of natural uranium in relation with the above-mentioned premium: Po + (1 + D) t ·α, where Po is the basic price and D the discount rate. To minimize the term COST, FBR cannot be introduced and the natural uranium consumption will be 2,180,000 tons. To minimize NU, FBR should be introduced to the possible greatest degree, with the estimated natural uranium consumption being 900,000 tons. Analysis is also made of the relations of the introduction of FBRs with the effective price and total consumption of natural uranium. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Measuring cost efficiency in the Nordic hospitals--a cross-sectional comparison of public hospitals in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Miika; Häkkinen, Unto; Peltola, Mikko; Magnussen, Jon; Anthun, Kjartan S; Kittelsen, Sverre; Roed, Annette; Olsen, Kim; Medin, Emma; Rehnberg, Clas

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hospital care in four Nordic countries: Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Using national discharge registries and cost data from hospitals, cost efficiency in the production of somatic hospital care was calculated for public hospitals. Data were collected using harmonized definitions of inputs and outputs for 184 hospitals and data envelopment analysis was used to calculate Farrell efficiency estimates for the year 2002. Results suggest that there were marked differences in the average hospital efficiency between Nordic countries. In 2002, average efficiency was markedly higher in Finland compared to Norway and Sweden. This study found differences in cost efficiency that cannot be explained by input prices or differences in coding practices. More analysis is needed to reveal the causes of large efficiency disparities between Nordic hospitals.

  6. Cost-Efficient Wafer-Level Capping for MEMS and Imaging Sensors by Adhesive Wafer Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Bleiker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Device encapsulation and packaging often constitutes a substantial part of the fabrication cost of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS transducers and imaging sensor devices. In this paper, we propose a simple and cost-effective wafer-level capping method that utilizes a limited number of highly standardized process steps as well as low-cost materials. The proposed capping process is based on low-temperature adhesive wafer bonding, which ensures full complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS compatibility. All necessary fabrication steps for the wafer bonding, such as cavity formation and deposition of the adhesive, are performed on the capping substrate. The polymer adhesive is deposited by spray-coating on the capping wafer containing the cavities. Thus, no lithographic patterning of the polymer adhesive is needed, and material waste is minimized. Furthermore, this process does not require any additional fabrication steps on the device wafer, which lowers the process complexity and fabrication costs. We demonstrate the proposed capping method by packaging two different MEMS devices. The two MEMS devices include a vibration sensor and an acceleration switch, which employ two different electrical interconnection schemes. The experimental results show wafer-level capping with excellent bond quality due to the re-flow behavior of the polymer adhesive. No impediment to the functionality of the MEMS devices was observed, which indicates that the encapsulation does not introduce significant tensile nor compressive stresses. Thus, we present a highly versatile, robust, and cost-efficient capping method for components such as MEMS and imaging sensors.

  7. Fundamental cooperation project in fiscal 2000 for improving international energy consumption efficiency. Investigations in relation with prevention of global warming (analytical comparison centering around cost effectiveness related to greenhouse effect gas (GHG) reduction in overseas countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsu ka chosa nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo - chikyu ondanka boshi kanren chosa hokokusho. Kaigai deno GHG sakugen ni kansuru hiyo tai koka wo chushin to shita bunseki hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to provide discussion materials for measures to achieve the GHG emission reduction target, investigations and discussions have been made on the following subjects: cost effectiveness of reducing GHG emission by target countries and target technologies, use of maps and databases on the possible reduction quantity of GHG emission, the targeted countries and business categories. Regarding the target countries, investigations were made on the general situation of the energy consumption efficiency, difference between their energy consumption efficiency by industries and that in Japan, and the GHG emission quantities by sectors. As a result, 31 counties hopeful in reducing CO2 emission were selected. With regard to technologies to reduce CO2 emission, technologies having been practically used and proliferated in Japan were used as the base, whereas 43 technologies were systematized for such departments as industries, business operations, households, and transportation. According to a trial calculation on the effect of CO2 emission reduction, if the 43 technologies are applied to the 31 target countries, CO2 emission reduction of 698 million tons as a whole would be possible, for which the required expense was calculated as 114.4 trillion yen. In evaluating the CO2 emission reducing technologies, the cost effectiveness of each technology was evaluated by cost per GHG emission reduction of 1t-CO2. (NEDO)

  8. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, John; Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances

    2006-09-01

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-12-28

    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  10. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Diddi, Saurabh [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Bureau of Energy Efficiency; Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  11. A performance improvement and cost-efficient ACO-OFDM scheme for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Zhenshan; Qiao, Yaojun; Su, Fei; Yang, Aiying

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a performance improvement and cost-efficient discrete Hartley transform (DHT)-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) scheme for visible light communications (VLC). The simple one-dimensional modulation constellation and simplified encoding structure reduce the complexity of system considerably. The DHT-spreading technique is employed to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of ACO-OFDM signals. Moreover, the intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) technique is used to increase the accuracy of channel estimation by removing the effect of ambient noise in the VLC channel effectively. To verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, we study its performance via simulation. This scheme reduces the requirement to the resolution of DAC and increases the tolerance to the nonlinear characteristics of LED, both of which are cost-efficient. At forward error correction (FEC) limit (BER = 1 × 10-3), simulation results illustrate that compared with DHT-based ACO-OFDM without the ISFA technique, our scheme has 3.2 dB and 2.7 dB improvement of the required Eb /N0 when BPSK and 4-PAM are modulated, respectively.

  12. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif

    2017-05-04

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication. In this paper, we present low-cost 3-D nano-spikes-based ECL (NSP-ECL) chips for efficient cell lysis at low power consumption. Highly ordered High-Aspect-Ratio (HAR). NSP arrays with controllable dimensions were fabricated on commercial aluminum foils through scalable and electrochemical anodization and etching. The optimized multiple pulse protocols with minimized undesirable electrochemical reactions (gas and bubble generation), common on micro parallel-plate ECL chips. Due to the scalability of fabrication process, 3-D NSPs were fabricated on small chips as well as on 4-in wafers. Phase diagram was constructed by defining critical electric field to induce cell lysis and for cell lysis saturation Esat to define non-ECL and ECL regions for different pulse parameters. NSP-ECL chips have achieved excellent cell lysis efficiencies ηlysis (ca 100%) at low applied voltages (2 V), 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional systems. The energy consumption of NSP-ECL chips was 0.5-2 mJ/mL, 3~9 orders of magnitude lower as compared with the other methods (5J/mL-540kJ/mL). [2016-0305

  13. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  14. High efficiency and low cost preparation of size controlled starch nanoparticles through ultrasonic treatment and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yan, Xiaoxia; Wang, Qian; Ren, Lili; Tong, Jin; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop an approach to produce size controlled starch nanoparticles (SNPs), via precipitation with high efficiency and low cost. High concentration starch aqueous pastes (up to 5wt.%) were treated by ultrasound. Viscosity measurements and size exclusion chromatography characterization revealed that, after 30min ultrasonic treatment, viscosity of the starch pastes decreased two orders of magnitude and the weight average molecular weight of the starch decreased from 8.4×10 7 to 2.7×10 6 g/mol. Dynamic light scattering measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the SNPs prepared from the starch pastes with ultrasonic treatments were smaller (∼75nm) and more uniform. Moreover, SNPs could be obtained using less non-solvents. X-ray diffraction results indicated that effect of the ultrasonic treatment on crystalline structure of the SNPs was negligible. Ultrasound can be utilized to prepare smaller SNPs through nanoprecipitation with higher efficiency and lower cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  16. The Relation of Design Parameters, Plant Capacity and Processing Costs in Cobalt-60 Sterilization Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes the main features of three basic types of cobalt-60 sterilization plants which have been designed to provide a complete range of capacities for radiosterilization of medical products. The smallest plant has a capacity of up to 50 000 cubic feet of medical products a year, the intermediate size plant has a capacity of up to 500 000 cubic feet a year, and the largest plant has a capacity in excess of 1000 000 cubic feet a year. The relations between capital costs, rate of production, efficiency and unit processing costs for each type of plant are discussed. The method of selecting the best type of plant for a particular need will also be outlined. (author)

  17. Molasses as an efficient low-cost carbon source for biological Cr(VI) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailides, Michail K. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G., E-mail: atekerle@upatras.gr [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Akratos, Christos S.; Coles, Sandra [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Pavlou, Stavros [Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Vayenas, Dimitrios V. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 G. Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-01-08

    Highlights: • Suspended and attached growth reactors were examined for Cr(VI) bio-reduction. • Molasses was proved an efficient and very low cost carbon source. • Molasses was more efficient than sugar in enhancing Cr(VI) reduction. • SBR with recirculation was the most proper operating mode. - Abstract: In the present study, indigenous microorganisms from industrial sludge were used to reduce the activity of Cr(VI). Molasses, a by-product of sugar processing, was selected as the carbon source (instead of sugar used in a previous work) as it is a low-cost energy source for bioprocesses. Initially, experiments were carried out in suspended growth batch reactors for Cr(VI) concentrations of 1.5–110 mg/L. The time required for complete Cr(VI) reduction increased with initial Cr(VI) concentration. Initial molasses concentration was also found to influence the Cr(VI) reduction rate. The optimal concentration for all initial Cr(VI) concentrations tested was 0.8 gC/L. Experiments were also carried out in packed-bed reactors. Three different operating modes were used to investigate the optimal performance and efficiency of the filter, i.e. batch, continuous and SBR with recirculation. The latter mode with a recirculation rate of 0.5 L/min lead to significantly high Cr(VI) reduction rates (up to 135 g/m{sup 2} d). The results of this work were compared with those of a similar work using sugar as the carbon source and indicate that molasses could prove a feasible technological solution to a serious environmental problem.

  18. Analyzing the efficiency, stability and cost potential for fullerene-free organic photovoltaics in one Figure of Merit

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ning; McCulloch, Iain; Brabec, Christoph J

    2018-01-01

    . Most of the efficiency analyses performed previously are based on a fullerene acceptor without considering its contribution to the enhancement of photo-absorption and PCE. Moreover, the stability and cost potential of OPV devices are usually

  19. Low-Cost High-Efficiency Solar Cells with Wafer Bonding and Plasmonic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanake, Katsuaki

    We fabricated a direct-bond interconnected multijunction solar cell, a two-terminal monolithic GaAs/InGaAs dual-junction cell, to demonstrate a proof-of-principle for the viability of direct wafer bonding for solar cell applications. The bonded interface is a metal-free n+GaAs/n +InP tunnel junction with highly conductive Ohmic contact suitable for solar cell applications overcoming the 4% lattice mismatch. The quantum efficiency spectrum for the bonded cell was quite similar to that for each of unbonded GaAs and InGaAs subcells. The bonded dual-junction cell open-circuit voltage was equal to the sum of the unbonded subcell open-circuit voltages, which indicates that the bonding process does not degrade the cell material quality since any generated crystal defects that act as recombination centers would reduce the open-circuit voltage. Also, the bonded interface has no significant carrier recombination rate to reduce the open circuit voltage. Engineered substrates consisting of thin films of InP on Si handle substrates (InP/Si substrates or epitaxial templates) have the potential to significantly reduce the cost and weight of compound semiconductor solar cells relative to those fabricated on bulk InP substrates. InGaAs solar cells on InP have superior performance to Ge cells at photon energies greater than 0.7 eV and the current record efficiency cell for 1 sun illumination was achieved using an InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs triple junction cell design with an InGaAs bottom cell. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells from the InGaAsP-family of III-V materials grown epitaxially on InP substrates would also benefit from such an InP/Si substrate. Additionally, a proposed four-junction solar cell fabricated by joining subcells of InGaAs and InGaAsP grown on InP with subcells of GaAs and AlInGaP grown on GaAs through a wafer-bonded interconnect would enable the independent selection of the subcell band gaps from well developed materials grown on lattice matched substrates. Substitution of

  20. A High-Efficient Low-Cost Converter for Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Oun Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the Internet of Things (IoT spurs need for new ways of delivering power. Wireless power transfer (WPT has come into the spotlight from both academia and industry as a promising way to power the IoT devices. As one of the well-known WPT techniques, the capacitive power transfer (CPT has the merit of low electromagnetic radiation and amenability of combined power and data transfer over a capacitive interface. However, applying the CPT to the IoT devices is still challenging in reality. One of the major issues is due to the small capacitance of the capacitive interface, which results in low efficiency of the power transfer. To tackle this problem, we present a new step-up single-switch quasi-resonant (SSQR converter for the CPT system. To enhance the CPT efficiency, the proposed converter is designed to operate at low frequency and drive small current into the capacitive interfaces. In addition, by eliminating resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD snubber in the converter, we reduce the implementation cost of the CPT system. Based on intensive experimental work with a CPT system prototype that supports maximum 50 W (100 V/0.5 A power transfer, we demonstrate the functional correctness of the converter that achieves up to 93% efficiency.

  1. Cost efficiency of the non-associative flow rule simulation of an industrial component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Saenz; Mendiguren, Joseba

    2017-10-01

    In the last decade, metal forming industry is becoming more and more competitive. In this context, the FEM modeling has become a primary tool of information for the component and process design. Numerous researchers have been focused on improving the accuracy of the material models implemented on the FEM in order to improve the efficiency of the simulations. Aimed at increasing the efficiency of the anisotropic behavior modelling, in the last years the use of non-associative flow rule models (NAFR) has been presented as an alternative to the classic associative flow rule models (AFR). In this work, the cost efficiency of the used flow rule model has been numerically analyzed by simulating an industrial drawing operation with two different models of the same degree of flexibility: one AFR model and one NAFR model. From the present study, it has been concluded that the flow rule has a negligible influence on the final drawing prediction; this is mainly driven by the model parameter identification procedure. Even though the NAFR formulation is complex when compared to the AFR, the present study shows that the total simulation time while using explicit FE solvers has been reduced without loss of accuracy. Furthermore, NAFR formulations have an advantage over AFR formulations in parameter identification because the formulation decouples the yield stress and the Lankford coefficients.

  2. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency

  3. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  4. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diddi, Saurabh [Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Government of India (India); Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant,and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one-star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security, and environment

  5. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D and D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D and D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance and monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D and D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D and D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D and D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost

  6. Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurovic Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.

  7. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  8. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  9. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  10. Investing in innovation: trade-offs in the costs and cost-efficiency of school feeding using community-based kitchens in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Suwa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    School feeding programs have been a key response to the recent food and economic crises and function to some degree in nearly every country in the world. However, school feeding programs are complex and exhibit different, context-specific models or configurations. To examine the trade-offs, including the costs and cost-efficiency, of an innovative cluster kitchen implementation model in Bangladesh using a standardized framework. A supply chain framework based on international standards was used to provide benchmarks for meaningful comparisons across models. Implementation processes specific to the program in Bangladesh were mapped against this reference to provide a basis for standardized performance measures. Qualitative and quantitative data on key metrics were collected retrospectively using semistructured questionnaires following an ingredients approach, including both financial and economic costs. Costs were standardized to a 200-feeding-day year and 700 kcal daily. The cluster kitchen model had similarities with the semidecentralized model and outsourced models in the literature, the main differences involving implementation scale, scale of purchasing volumes, and frequency of purchasing. Two important features stand out in terms of implementation: the nutritional quality of meals and the level of community involvement. The standardized full cost per child per year was US$110. Despite the nutritious content of the meals, the overall cost-efficiency in cost per nutrient output was lower than the benchmark for centralized programs, due mainly to support and start-up costs. Cluster kitchens provide an example of an innovative implementation model, combining an emphasis on quality meal delivery with strong community engagement. However, the standardized costs-per child were above the average benchmarks for both low-and middle-income countries. In contrast to the existing benchmark data from mature, centralized models, the main cost drivers of the program were

  11. Costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludges; Kosten und Wirtschaftlichkeit der Klaerschlammtrocknung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Ulrich [Haarslev Industries A/S, Herlev (Denmark). Marketing and Business Development

    2013-03-01

    New methods of the thermal utilization have to be created due to the fact that agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge and the use in the reclamation due to stringent limit values and enhanced quality criteria are available restricted in future. The incineration of mechanically dewatered and dried sewage sludge is performed in mono-combustion plants as well as in coal-fired power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the costs and economic efficiency of the drying of sewage sludge. The drying of sewage sludge may perform an important and reasonable contribution to the utilization of municipal sewage sludge. The selection of a suitable drying process should ever depend on the local realities. Proved and suitable technologies are available for every application. Before the decision for a certain provider, one should examine reference plants and consider specific experiences of the operator among the decision-making.

  12. A Low-Cost Energy-Efficient Cableless Geophone Unit for Passive Surface Wave Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H Felix

    2015-09-25

    The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study. The hardware design is presented in this paper. To validate the system's functionality, both laboratory and field experiments were conducted. The unique feature of this newly-developed cableless geophone system allows for rapid field applications of the passive surface wave survey with dense array measurements.

  13. On the Path to SunShot. The Role of Advancements in Solar Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones-Albertus, Rebecca [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report examines the remaining challenges to achieving the competitive photovoltaic (PV) costs and large-scale deployment envisioned under the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. Solar-energy cost reductions can be realized through lower PV module and balance-of-system (BOS) costs as well as improved system efficiency and reliability. Numerous combinations of PV improvements could help achieve the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) goals because of the tradeoffs among key metrics like module price, efficiency, and degradation rate as well as system price and lifetime. Using LCOE modeling based on bottom-up cost analysis, two specific pathways are mapped to exemplify the many possible approaches to module cost reductions of 29%-38% between 2015 and 2020. BOS hardware and soft cost reductions, ranging from 54%-77% of total cost reductions, are also modeled. The residential sector's high supply-chain costs, labor requirements, and customer-acquisition costs give it the greatest BOS cost-reduction opportunities, followed by the commercial sector, although opportunities are available to the utility-scale sector as well. Finally, a future scenario is considered in which very high PV penetration requires additional costs to facilitate grid integration and increased power-system flexibility--which might necessitate even lower solar LCOEs. The analysis of a pathway to 3-5 cents/kWh PV systems underscores the importance of combining robust improvements in PV module and BOS costs as well as PV system efficiency and reliability if such aggressive long-term targets are to be achieved.

  14. Control Analysis Of Tobacco Raw Material Supplies Using Eoq Method Economic Order Quantity To Reach Efficiency Total Costs Of Raw Material In Pr. Sukun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sudarwati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The raw material inventory control system determines and guarantees the availability of raw material stock in the right quantity quality and timing. The problem in this research is the procurement of raw materials of tobacco. PR. Sukun still often experiences the excess. This is related to the frequency of raw material purchases and the quantity of raw material purchases which can lead to waste of working capital embedded in raw material inventory raw material ordering costs and raw material storage costs. The purpose of this research is to know how to make an efficiency level in procurement of raw material inventory between EOQ method compared with policy of PR. Sukun. The type of research used is analytic descriptive type. Data analysis begins by analyzing raw material quantity comparison total raw material inventory cost and raw material cost between PR Sukun policy with EOQ method. Based on the results of research known that by using EOQ method can be much more efficient compared to policy of PR. Sukun. The quantity and frequency of purchasing raw materials is less but still take into account the safety stock and reorder point so the production process is not disturbed. In addition the cost of purchasing ordering costs and raw materials storage costs less so as to create efficiencies on the cost of raw materials inventory. PR. Sukun in the procurement of raw material inventory should use EOQ method to be more efficient and take into account the safety stock and reorder point to avoid the inventory excess of raw materials.

  15. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Petter; Rypdal, Kristin; Torvanger, Asbjorn; Rive, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO 2 , NH 3 , VOC, CO, NO x , black carbon, organic carbon, PM 2.5 , and CH 4 . We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  16. A two-stage value chain model for vegetable marketing chain efficiency evaluation: A transaction cost approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Hualiang

    2006-01-01

    We applied a two-stage value chain model to investigate the effects of input application and occasional transaction costs on vegetable marketing chain efficiencies with a farm household-level data set. In the first stage, the production efficiencies with the combination of resource endowments, capital and managerial inputs, and production techniques were evaluated; then at the second stage, the marketing technical efficiencies were determined under the marketing value of the vegetables for th...

  17. Examining the cost efficiency of Chinese hydroelectric companies using a finite mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Chen, Zhongfei; Managi, Shunsuke; Antunes, Olinda Sequeira

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the operational activities of Chinese hydroelectric power companies over the period 2000–2010 using a finite mixture model that controls for unobserved heterogeneity. In so doing, a stochastic frontier latent class model, which allows for the existence of different technologies, is adopted to estimate cost frontiers. This procedure not only enables us to identify different groups among the hydro-power companies analysed, but also permits the analysis of their cost efficiency. The main result is that three groups are identified in the sample, each equipped with different technologies, suggesting that distinct business strategies need to be adapted to the characteristics of China's hydro-power companies. Some managerial implications are developed. - Highlights: ► This paper evaluates the operational activities of Chinese electricity hydric companies. ► This study uses data from 2000 to 2010 using a finite mixture model. ► The model procedure identifies different groups of Chinese hydric companies analysed. ► Three groups are identified in the sample, each equipped with completely different “technologies”. ► This suggests that distinct business strategies need to be adapted to the characteristics of the hydric companies

  18. Impact of mild alkali dosage on immobilized Exiguobacterium spp. mediated cost and energy efficient sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh Banu, J; Ushani, U; Rajkumar, M; Naresh Kumar, R; Parthiba Karthikeyan, O

    2017-12-01

    Approaches to (extracellular polymeric substance) EPS removal were studied with major aim to enhance the biodegradability and sludge solubilization. In this study, a novel approach of entrapment of bacterial strain was carried out to achieve long term activity of protease secreting bacteria Exiguobacterium sp. A mild treatment of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was applied to remove EPS which was followed by entrapment under the biological pretreatment. The efficiency of Exiguobacterium was predicted through dissolvable organic and suspended solids (SS) reduction. The maximum dissolvable organic matter released was 2300mg/L with the solubilization of 23% which was obtained for sludge without EPS (SWOE). For dissolvable organic release, SWOE showed higher final methane production of 232mL/g COD at the production rate of 16.2mL/g COD.d. The SWOE pretreatment was found to be cost effective and less energy intensive beneficial in terms of energy and cost (43.9KWh and -8.2USD) when compared to sludge with EPS (SWE) pretreatment (-177.6KWh and -91.23USD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF. Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles.

  20. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  1. Cutting costs by achieving energy efficiency using monitoring, targeting and teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittburner, D. [Unilever Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Unilever is a world leader of consumer goods with annual sales of $70 billion. This paper focuses on energy management projects developed at Unilever's Rexdale Plant, where 180 million pounds of edible oils and margarine are produced annually. The project is a response to corporate and market pressures to reduce costs. An overview of Unilever's relationship with Natural Resources Canada was provided. Results of the overall project were highlighted and included: $3 million in annual savings from increased efficiency in operations and equipment retrofits. An outline of the energy team at Unilever was presented, with their mission statement, rules and achievements, as well the company's overall goal of total productive manufacturing. A list of awards and financial incentives was presented, as well as details of financial savings incurred at the Rexdale Plant. Total energy reductions were presented, with a natural gas year to year comparison and utility to production ratios from 1999 to the present. A statement concerning the issue of corporate support by the vice president was provided. Seven steps to savings were presented, as well as details of the company's implementation of the steps. Details of the extended team involved in the project were provided, as well as extensive details about the employee awareness program instigated by the company, including a database of ideas achieved since 2001, as well as details of specific projects accomplished, with estimated savings for each project. An outline of the company's business model and methodology was presented, along with details of reduced costs, risk and improved management and communications. An outline of scoping studies was presented as well as a flow chart of projects and target-setting goals. Success factors were reviewed. Montage applications included energy management; performance contracting; energy forecasting; emissions and waste minimization; and cost allocation. tabs., figs.

  2. Benchmarking the cost efficiency of community care in Australian child and adolescent mental health services: implications for future benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Gareth; Brann, Peter; Skene, Clive; Allison, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to benchmark the cost efficiency of community care across six child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) drawn from different Australian states. Organizational, contact and outcome data from the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP) data-sets were used to calculate cost per "treatment hour" and cost per episode for the six participating organizations. We also explored the relationship between intake severity as measured by the Health of the Nations Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) and cost per episode. The average cost per treatment hour was $223, with cost differences across the six services ranging from a mean of $156 to $273 per treatment hour. The average cost per episode was $3349 (median $1577) and there were significant differences in the CAMHS organizational medians ranging from $388 to $7076 per episode. HoNOSCA scores explained at best 6% of the cost variance per episode. These large cost differences indicate that community CAMHS have the potential to make substantial gains in cost efficiency through collaborative benchmarking. Benchmarking forums need considerable financial and business expertise for detailed comparison of business models for service provision.

  3. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Sanjay; Edinger, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  4. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  5. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  6. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  7. A General Catalytic Method for Highly Cost- and Atom-Efficient Nucleophilic Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Peter H; Filbrich, Isabel

    2018-05-23

    A general formamide-catalyzed protocol for the efficient transformation of alcohols into alkyl chlorides, which is promoted by substoichiometric amounts (down to 34 mol %) of inexpensive trichlorotriazine (TCT), is introduced. This is the first example of a TCT-mediated dihydroxychlorination of an OH-containing substrate (e.g., alcohols and carboxylic acids) in which all three chlorine atoms of TCT are transferred to the starting material. The consequently enhanced atom economy facilitates a significantly improved waste balance (E-factors down to 4), cost efficiency, and scalability (>50 g). Furthermore, the current procedure is distinguished by high levels of functional-group compatibility and stereoselectivity, as only weakly acidic cyanuric acid is released as exclusive byproduct. Finally, a one-pot protocol for the preparation of amines, azides, ethers, and sulfides enabled the synthesis of the drug rivastigmine with twofold S N 2 inversion, which demonstrates the high practical value of the presented method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Contact engineering for efficient charge injection in organic transistors with low-cost metal electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, D.; Kumar, S.; Dhar, A.

    2017-10-01

    Controlling charge injection at the metal-semiconductor interface is very crucial for organic electronic devices in general as it can significantly influence the overall device performance. Herein, we report a facile, yet efficient contact modification approach, to enhance the hole injection efficiency through the incorporation of a high vacuum deposited TPD [N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine] interlayer between the electrodes and the active semiconducting layer. The device performance parameters such as mobility and on/off ratio improved significantly after the inclusion of the TPD buffer layer, and more interestingly, the devices with cost effective Ag and Cu electrodes were able to exhibit a superior device performance than the typically used Au source-drain devices. We have also observed that this contact modification technique can be even more effective than commonly used metal oxide interface modifying layers. Our investigations demonstrate the efficacy of the TPD interlayer in effectively reducing the interfacial contact resistance through the modification of pentacene energy levels, which consequently results in the substantial improvement in the device performances.

  9. Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N P; Janelle, C M

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.

  10. Applying operations management in client-oriented and cost-efficient provision of care, welfare and housing services

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blok, Carolien; Meijboom, Bert; Luijkx, Katrien; Schols, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Purpose In all Western countries, ageing populations cause the demand for elderly care services to increase dramatically. In addition, elderly clients are getting more demanding about the services they require to fulfil their widely varying and multiple needs. Besides, cost reductions have been the focus of governmental policies and organisational practices for many years. Health care providers increasingly see operations management as a promising approach to align both client-orientation and cost-efficiency in their day-to-day practices. Theory The paper starts from operations management literature on front office—back office design and modular production. Organisations have several options for deciding which activities need to be performed by FO, BO, or the client himself, and in deciding which employees need to perform these activities. By applying modular production, organisations can differentiate care and related services to a high degree without major cost increases. Method A literature review will be presented leading to a theoretical framework. This formed the basis for explorative case studies in the elderly care sector. Results and conclusions It will be argued how insights provided with the framework may enhance a client-orientation in integrated care delivery without major cost increases. Although case studies need to be interpreted with caution, interesting implications for organisational structures and inter-organisational cooperation can be seen. We will discuss how combined supply of care services can be made transparent to enhance choice options in service products, and what is required at the level of professionals for providing care and service packages based on client demand.

  11. Development of a prediction model for the cost saving potentials in implementing the building energy efficiency rating certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaewook; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Kim, Jimin; Lee, Minhyun; Jeong, Kwangbok; Koo, Choongwan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study evaluates the building energy efficiency rating (BEER) certification. • Prediction model was developed for cost saving potentials by the BEER certification. • Prediction model was developed using LCC analysis, ROV, and Monte Carlo simulation. • Cost saving potential was predicted to be 2.78–3.77% of the construction cost. • Cost saving potential can be used for estimating the investment value of BEER. - Abstract: Building energy efficiency rating (BEER) certification is an energy performance certificates (EPCs) in South Korea. It is critical to examine the cost saving potentials of the BEER-certification in advance. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for the cost saving potentials in implementing the BEER-certification, in which the cost saving potentials included the energy cost savings of the BEER-certification and the relevant CO_2 emissions reduction as well as the additional construction cost for the BEER-certification. The prediction model was developed by using data mining, life cycle cost analysis, real option valuation, and Monte Carlo simulation. The database were established with 437 multi-family housing complexes (MFHCs), including 116 BEER-certified MFHCs and 321 non-certified MFHCs. The case study was conducted to validate the developed prediction model using 321 non-certified MFHCs, which considered 20-year life cycle. As a result, compared to the additional construction cost, the average cost saving potentials of the 1st-BEER-certified MFHCs in Groups 1, 2, and 3 were predicted to be 3.77%, 2.78%, and 2.87%, respectively. The cost saving potentials can be used as a guideline for the additional construction cost of the BEER-certification in the early design phase.

  12. On the relation between cost and service models for general inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic overview of possible relations between cost and service models for fairly general single- and multi-stage inventory systems. In particular, we relate various types of penalty costs in pure cost models to equivalent types of service measures in service models.

  13. 48 CFR 1631.205-70 - FEHBP public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP public relations and... COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-70 FEHBP public relations and advertising costs. (a) The cost of media messages that are directed at advising current FEHBP...

  14. Econometric estimation of investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms using hyperbolic distance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Fabricius, Ole; Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical microeconomic model, we econometrically estimate investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms based on a large unbalanced panel dataset. As our theoretical model indicates that adjustment costs are caused both by increased inputs...... of investment activities by the maximum likelihood method so that we can estimate the adjustment costs that occur in the year of the investment and the three following years. Our results show that investments are associated with significant adjustment costs, especially in the year in which the investment...

  15. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER

  16. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  17. Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon.

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, Rim; Nuwayhid, Iman; Tamim, Hala; Kassak, Kassem; Khogali, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical and compensation costs of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon and to examine cost distributions by worker and injury characteristics. METHODS: A total of 3748 claims for work injuries processed in 1998 by five major insurance companies in Lebanon were reviewed. Medical costs (related to emergency room fees, physician consultations, tests, and medications) and wage and indemnity compensation costs were identified from the claims. FINDINGS: ...

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Adrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  1. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large cows (589 to 634 kg) do not maximize

  2. Marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures in residential buildings; Grenzkosten bei forcierten Energie-Effizienzmassnahmen in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Jochem, E. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Kristen, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Architektur und Baurealisation, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This detailed report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the large potential for increasing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in Switzerland. The aims of the research project are described including investigation of costs and marginal costs for thermal insulation and efficiency measures, the updating of technical parameters for cost - efficiency characteristics on an empirical basis, a transparent presentation of cost/benefit ratios for different concepts. Another aim is to obtain a more detailed overview of costs and benefits that could be of use for planners, building owners and technology companies. The methodology used for the collection of data for the study is described. The report also takes a look at the indirect advantages of improving the thermal insulation of buildings and examines the initial economic and technical situation. A detailed review of the costs and benefits is given for the various elements of a building such as walls, floors and windows and a reference development scenario for the period 2000 -2030 is presented. Marginal cost curves for various categories of buildings are presented for thermal insulation and ventilation measures.

  3. Relative Efficiency of Split-plot Design (SPD) to Randomized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.7 No. 1 June .... effects. They concluded that the proposed efficiency measures provide feasible solutions for .... Fm = d.f for the whole-plot treatment; Fb= d.f for the ...

  4. The relative efficiency of three methods of estimating herbage mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods involved were randomly placed circular quadrats; randomly placed narrow strips; and disc meter sampling. Disc meter and quadrat sampling appear to be more efficient than strip sampling. In a subsequent small plot grazing trial the estimates of herbage mass, using the disc meter, had a consistent precision ...

  5. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  6. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Triplat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials and Methods: The presented decision-making tool is based on ground bearing capacities (relevant environmental parameter and nominal ground pressure (harvesting system characteristics. Soil and terrain (slope characteristics were taken into account for selection of the most suitable harvesting system. Three-step methodological approach was suggested, where soil and terrain conditions were defined in first step, while harvesting system were described using wood process charts (“functiogramms” in second step. In final step ecological and technological requirements were matched. Results: To exemplify the three-step methodology, a decision-making tool was prepared for the three selected harvesting systems. The proposed harvesting systems differ in technological, ecological and economic aspects, but each is limited by at least one of the aspect. Conclusions: The decision-making tool in combination with the presented wood process charts (“functiogramms” can simplify and facilitate forest production planning, although it can also be used in case of unforeseen event e.g. changing of soil moisture, machinery failure and insufficient current capacities. Considering the envisaged quantities and types of forest wooden assortments, it is possible to use the decision-making tool for a basic selection of most appropriate harvesting systems. The main idea behind the suggested three step methodological approach is that forest workers can prepare individual decision

  7. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  8. Chapter 4. Economic Considerations: Cost-Effective and Efficient Climate Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Auffhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter we discuss the economics of climate change. We begin with a discussion of economic considerations that are important to take into account when designing and evaluating climate policy, including cost effectiveness and efficiency. We then discuss specific policies at the state, national, and international level in light of these economic considerations.  We have several recommendations for the path forward for climate policy. First, the goal of climate policy should be to reduce the damages caused by greenhouse gases. In addition to mitigation policy to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, one can also reduce the damages causes by greenhouse gases by adaptation measures that reduce our vulnerability to climate change impacts.  Second, policy-makers should use incentive- (or market- based instruments as opposed to command and control policies (including quantity-based mandates whenever possible. Whenever unpriced emissions are the sole market failure, incentive-based instruments such as a carbon tax or cap and trade program are more likely to achieve the social optimum and maximize social net benefits [1, 2]. Lin and Prince [3] calculate that the optimal gasoline tax for the state of California is $1.37 per gallon.  Our third recommendation is to address the risk of emissions leakage, which arises when only one jurisdiction (e.g., California imposes climate policy, but not the entire world. One way to reduce emissions leakage is to use the strategic distribution of emissions allowances to local producers. This method, known as “output-based allocation” or benchmarking, effectively subsidizes local producers and at least partially offsets the increase in their costs caused by an emissions cap [4]. Importantly, only local production is eligible for an allocation of valuable allowances, providing a counterweight to the incentive for emission leakage. Our fourth recommendation is that if they are used instead

  9. Cost related to nuclear power plants: the international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report about the international costs of nuclear electricity generations is divided in two distinct parts: the first one shows the competitiveness of the main sources of electricity generation for base load operation according to studies carried on by OECD and UNIPEDE since 1983; the second one discusses the most recent OECD study about the different types of power plants to be constructed in its number states, based on the experience of each country and the technology evolution of the different fuels used. (F.E.). 4 refs, 2 figs, 27 tab

  10. Costing in Radiology and Health Care: Rationale, Relativity, Rudiments, and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Costs direct decisions that influence the effectiveness of radiology in the care of patients on a daily basis. Yet many radiologists struggle to harness the power of cost measurement and cost management as a critical path toward establishing their value in patient care. When radiologists cannot articulate their value, they risk losing control over how imaging is delivered and supported. In the United States, recent payment trends directing value-based payments for bundles of care advance the imperative for radiology providers to articulate their value. This begins with the development of an understanding of the providers' own costs, as well as the complex interrelationships and imaging-associated costs of other participants across the imaging value chain. Controlling the costs of imaging necessitates understanding them at a procedural level and quantifying the costs of delivering specific imaging services. Effective product-level costing is dependent on a bottom-up approach, which is supported through recent innovations in time-dependent activity-based costing. Once the costs are understood, they can be managed. Within the high fixed cost and high overhead cost environment of health care provider organizations, stakeholders must understand the implications of misaligned top-down cost management approaches that can both paradoxically shift effort from low-cost workers to much costlier professionals and allocate overhead costs counterproductively. Radiology's engagement across a broad spectrum of care provides an excellent opportunity for radiology providers to take a leading role within the health care organizations to enhance value and margin through principled and effective cost management. Following a discussion of the rationale for measuring costs, this review contextualizes costs from the perspectives of a variety of stakeholders (relativity), discusses core concepts in how costs are classified (rudiments), presents common and improved methods for measuring

  11. Aging infrastructure creates opportunities for cost-efficient restoration of aquatic ecosystem connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Thomas M; Moody, Allison T; O'Hanley, Jesse R; Diebel, Matthew; Doran, Patrick J; Ferris, Michael C; Colling, Timothy; McIntyre, Peter B

    2018-06-09

    A hallmark of industrialization is the construction of dams for water management and roads for transportation, leading to fragmentation of aquatic ecosystems. Many nations are striving to address both maintenance backlogs and mitigation of environmental impacts as their infrastructure ages. Here, we test whether accounting for road repair needs could offer opportunities to boost conservation efficiency by piggybacking connectivity restoration projects on infrastructure maintenance. Using optimization models to align fish passage restoration sites with likely road repair priorities, we find potential increases in conservation return-on-investment ranging from 17% to 25%. Importantly, these gains occur without compromising infrastructure or conservation priorities; simply communicating openly about objectives and candidate sites enables greater accomplishment at current funding levels. Society embraces both reliable roads and thriving fisheries, so overcoming this coordination challenge should be feasible. Given deferred maintenance crises for many types of infrastructure, there could be widespread opportunities to enhance the cost effectiveness of conservation investments by coordinating with infrastructure renewal efforts. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. EDF decommissioning programme: A global commitment to safety, environment and cost efficiency of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatry, Jean-Paul

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, decommissioning of nuclear power plants has become a key issue for nuclear industry in Europe. The phasing out of nuclear energy in Germany, Belgium and Sweden, as well as the early closure of nuclear units in applicant countries in the frame of EU enlargement, has largely contributed to consider decommissioning as the next challenge to face. The situation is slightly different in France: nuclear energy is still considered as a safe, cost-effective and environment friendly energy source and EDF is still working on the development of a new generation of reactor to replace the existing one. Nevertheless, to achieve this objective, it will be necessary to get the support of political decision-makers and the acceptance of public opinion. The increasing mobilisation of EDF for the decommissioning of its already shutdown NPPs shows its willingness to demonstrate its capacity to control the nuclear life cycle from end to end. The successful implementation of its decommissioning programme will not mean the end of nuclear energy as an efficient way to generate electricity but it will constitute a prerequisite for the erection of new nuclear power plants in France

  13. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States); Ross, Nicole [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  14. A rapid, sensitive, and cost-efficient assay to estimate viability of potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Sven; Ave, Maaike; Schoenmakers, Niels; Landeweert, Renske; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) are quarantine organisms, and they belong to the economically most relevant pathogens of potato worldwide. Methodologies to assess the viability of their cysts, which can contain 200 to 500 eggs protected by the hardened cuticle of a dead female, are either time and labor intensive or lack robustness. We present a robust and cost-efficient viability assay based on loss of membrane integrity upon death. This assay uses trehalose, a disaccharide present at a high concentration in the perivitelline fluid of PCN eggs, as a viability marker. Although this assay can detect a single viable egg, the limit of detection for regular field samples was higher, ≈10 viable eggs, due to background signals produced by other soil components. On the basis of 30 nonviable PCN samples from The Netherlands, a threshold level was defined (ΔA(trehalose) = 0.0094) below which the presence of >10 viable eggs is highly unlikely (true for ≈99.7% of the observations). This assay can easily be combined with a subsequent DNA-based species determination. The presence of trehalose is a general phenomenon among cyst nematodes; therefore, this method can probably be used for (for example) soybean, sugar beet, and cereal cyst nematodes as well.

  15. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles in the US Transportation Sector Following Optimistic Cost and Efficiency Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzmohammadian, Azadeh; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2017-06-20

    This study investigates emission impacts of introducing inexpensive and efficient electric vehicles into the US light duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Scenarios are explored using the ANSWER-MARKAL model with a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 9-region database. Modified cost and performance projections for LDV technologies are adapted from the National Research Council (2013) optimistic case. Under our optimistic scenario (OPT) we find 15% and 47% adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2030 and 2050, respectively. In contrast, gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) remain dominant through 2050 in the EPA reference case (BAU). Compared to BAU, OPT gives 16% and 36% reductions in LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for 2030 and 2050, respectively, corresponding to 5% and 9% reductions in economy-wide emissions. Total nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and SO 2 emissions are similar in the two scenarios due to intersectoral shifts. Moderate, economy-wide GHG fees have little effect on GHG emissions from the LDV sector but are more effective in the electricity sector. In the OPT scenario, estimated well-to-wheels GHG emissions from full-size BEVs with 100-mile range are 62 gCO 2 -e mi -1 in 2050, while those from full-size ICEVs are 121 gCO 2 -e mi -1 .

  16. Potential low cost, safe, high efficiency propellant for future space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.

    2005-03-01

    Mixtures of nanometer or micrometer sized carbon powder suspended in hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixtures are proposed as candidates for low cost, high efficiency propellants for future space programs. While liquid hydrogen has low weight and high heat of combustion per unit mass, because of the low mass density the heat of combustion per unit volume is low, and the liquid hydrogen storage container must be large. The proposed propellants can produce higher gross heat combustion with small volume with trade off of some weight increase. Liquid hydrogen can serve as the fluid component of the propellant in the mixtures and thus used by current rocket engine designs. For example, for the same volume a mixture of 5% methane and 95% hydrogen, can lead to an increase in the gross heat of combustion by about 10% and an increase in the Isp (specific impulse) by 21% compared to a pure liquid hydrogen propellant. At liquid hydrogen temperatures of 20.3 K, methane will be in solid state, and must be formed as fine granules (or slush) to satisfy the requirement of liquid propellant engines.

  17. ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PROJECTS WITH ENERGY-EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE COSTS INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting stage of the tender procedures in Russia with the participation of foreign suppliers dictates the feasibility of the developments for economical methods directed to comparison of technical solutions on the construction field. The article describes the example of practical Life Cycle Cost (LCC evaluations under respect of Present Value (PV determination. These create a possibility for investor to estimate long-term projects (indicated as 25 years as commercially profitable, taking into account inflation rate, interest rate, real discount rate (indicated as 5 %. For economic analysis air-blower station of WWTP was selected as a significant energy consumer. Technical variants for the comparison of blower types are: 1 - multistage without control, 2 - multistage with VFD control, 3 - single stage double vane control. The result of LCC estimation shows the last variant as most attractive or cost-effective for investments with economy of 17,2 % (variant 1 and 21,0 % (variant 2 under adopted duty conditions and evaluations of capital costs (Cic + Cin with annual expenditure related (Ce+Co+Cm. The adopted duty conditions include daily and seasonal fluctuations of air flow. This was the reason for the adopted energy consumption as, kW∙h: 2158 (variant 1,1743...2201 (variant 2, 1058...1951 (variant 3. The article refers to Europump guide tables in order to simplify sophisticated factors search (Cp /Cn, df, which can be useful for economical analyses in Russia. Example of evaluations connected with energy-efficient solutions is given, but this reference involves the use of materials for the cases with resource savings, such as all types of fuel. In conclusion follows the assent to use LCC indicator jointly with the method of determining discounted cash flows, that will satisfy the investor’s need for interest source due to technical and economical comparisons.

  18. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with the...

  19. Cost efficiency of Japanese steam power generation companies: A Bayesian comparison of random and fixed frontier models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assaf, A. George [Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, 90 Campus Center Way, Amherst 01002 (United States); Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Managi, Shunsuke [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-20 Aramaki-Aza Aoba, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    This study analyses and compares the cost efficiency of Japanese steam power generation companies using the fixed and random Bayesian frontier models. We show that it is essential to account for heterogeneity in modelling the performance of energy companies. Results from the model estimation also indicate that restricting CO{sub 2} emissions can lead to a decrease in total cost. The study finally discusses the efficiency variations between the energy companies under analysis, and elaborates on the managerial and policy implications of the results. (author)

  20. An analysis of relative costs in drilling deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.E.; Cooper, G.A.; Maurer, W.C.; Westcott, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The search for new sources of oil, and particularly gas, is leading the industry to drill ever deeper wells. A depth of 15,000 ft was first passed in 1938, 20,000 ft was reached in 1939, followed by 25,000 ft in 1958, and 30,000 ft in 1972. The current US record depth is 31,441 ft. As the total depth increases, not only does the rock to be drilled become stronger, but increasing pressure and temperature induce plasticity and chip hold-down effects that make it more difficult to remove cuttings from the workfront. In addition to the reduction in rate of the drilling process itself, other activities become more complex and time-consuming, for example, tripping, running and cementing casing, and logging and coring activities. This paper analyzes the different tasks involved in drilling deep wells, in order to identify those activities that contribute most to the overall cost. These are therefore expected to be the activities where future efforts in research and development should provide the greatest reductions in total cost

  1. Costs related to radioactive residues from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The nuclear power enterprises are responsible for proper actions for safe handling and final storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from Swedish nuclear power facilities. The most important actions are to plan, build and operate necessary plants and systems. The nuclear power enterprises have designated Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., (SKB), to perform these tasks. In this report calculations concerning costs to carry out these tasks are presented. The calculations are based upon a plan prepared by SKB. The plan is described in the report. As final storage of the long lived and highly radioactive waste is planned to take place in the 21st century continuing research and development may indicate new methods which may affect system design as well as costs in a simplifying way. Plants and systems already operational are: Transport systems for radioactive waste products; A central temporary storage for spent nuclear fuel, 'CLAB'; A final storage for radioactive waste from operating nuclear facilities, 'SFR 1'. (L.F.)

  2. Assessing the shelf life of cost-efficient conservation plans for species at risk across gradients of agricultural land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Cassandra M; Kerr, Jeremy T

    2017-08-01

    High costs of land in agricultural regions warrant spatial prioritization approaches to conservation that explicitly consider land prices to produce protected-area networks that accomplish targets efficiently. However, land-use changes in such regions and delays between plan design and implementation may render optimized plans obsolete before implementation occurs. To measure the shelf life of cost-efficient conservation plans, we simulated a land-acquisition and restoration initiative aimed at conserving species at risk in Canada's farmlands. We accounted for observed changes in land-acquisition costs and in agricultural intensity based on censuses of agriculture taken from 1986 to 2011. For each year of data, we mapped costs and areas of conservation priority designated using Marxan. We compared plans to test for changes through time in the arrangement of high-priority sites and in the total cost of each plan. For acquisition costs, we measured the savings from accounting for prices during site selection. Land-acquisition costs and land-use intensity generally rose over time independent of inflation (24-78%), although rates of change were heterogeneous through space and decreased in some areas. Accounting for spatial variation in land price lowered the cost of conservation plans by 1.73-13.9%, decreased the range of costs by 19-82%, and created unique solutions from which to choose. Despite the rise in plan costs over time, the high conservation priority of particular areas remained consistent. Delaying conservation in these critical areas may compromise what optimized conservation plans can achieve. In the case of Canadian farmland, rapid conservation action is cost-effective, even with moderate levels of uncertainty in how to implement restoration goals. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single Audit Act). The original comment...-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

  4. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... available on OMB's Web site at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_default/ . The Cost Principles for... E (Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

  5. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... further review, the Cost Principles for Hospitals at 45 CFR Part 74, Appendix E. The proposal consolidates... instructed the OMB Director to ``review and where appropriate revise guidance concerning cost principles...

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis and efficient use of the pharmaceutical budget: the key role of clinical pharmacologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard; Round, Jeff; Hulme, Claire; McCabe, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about cost-effectiveness analysis and the roles of clinical pharmacologists generally in providing efficient health care. The paper highlights the potential consequences of 'off-label prescribing' and 'indication creep' behaviour given slower growth (or potential cuts) in the NHS budget. This paper highlights the key roles of clinical pharmacologists in delivering an efficient health care system when resources are allocated using cost-effectiveness analyses. It describes what cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is and how incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) are used to identify efficient options. After outlining the theoretical framework within which using CEA can promote the efficient allocation of the health care budget, it considers the place of disinvestment within achieving efficient resource allocation. Clinical pharmacologists are argued to be critical to providing improved population health under CEA-based resource allocation processes because of their roles in implementation and disinvestment. Given that the challenges facing the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) are likely to increase, this paper sets out the stark choices facing clinical pharmacologists.

  7. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  8. Transaction-cost Expenditures and the Relative Performance of Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    John M.R. Chalmers; Roger M. Edelen; Gregory B. Kadlec

    1999-01-01

    We directly estimate annual trading costs for a sample of equity mutual funds and find that these costs are large and exhibit substantial cross sectional variation. Trading costs average 0.78% of fund assets per year and have an inter-quartile range of 0.59%. Trading costs, like expense ratios, are negatively related to fund returns and we find no evidence that on average trading costs are recovered in higher gross fund returns. We find that our direct estimates of trading costs have more exp...

  9. Development of efficient time-evolution method based on three-term recurrence relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of the real-time (RT) propagation method is a direct solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation which describes frequency properties as well as all dynamics of a molecular system composed of electrons and nuclei in quantum physics and chemistry. Its applications have been limited by computational feasibility, as the evaluation of the time-evolution operator is computationally demanding. In this article, a new efficient time-evolution method based on the three-term recurrence relation (3TRR) was proposed to reduce the time-consuming numerical procedure. The basic formula of this approach was derived by introducing a transformation of the operator using the arcsine function. Since this operator transformation causes transformation of time, we derived the relation between original and transformed time. The formula was adapted to assess the performance of the RT time-dependent Hartree-Fock (RT-TDHF) method and the time-dependent density functional theory. Compared to the commonly used fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, our new approach decreased computational time of the RT-TDHF calculation by about factor of four, showing the 3TRR formula to be an efficient time-evolution method for reducing computational cost

  10. Billing and insurance-related administrative costs in United States' health care: synthesis of micro-costing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Himmelstein, David; Woolhandler, Steffie; Kahn, James G

    2014-11-13

    The United States' multiple-payer health care system requires substantial effort and costs for administration, with billing and insurance-related (BIR) activities comprising a large but incompletely characterized proportion. A number of studies have quantified BIR costs for specific health care sectors, using micro-costing techniques. However, variation in the types of payers, providers, and BIR activities across studies complicates estimation of system-wide costs. Using a consistent and comprehensive definition of BIR (including both public and private payers, all providers, and all types of BIR activities), we synthesized and updated available micro-costing evidence in order to estimate total and added BIR costs for the U.S. health care system in 2012. We reviewed BIR micro-costing studies across healthcare sectors. For physician practices, hospitals, and insurers, we estimated the % BIR using existing research and publicly reported data, re-calculated to a standard and comprehensive definition of BIR where necessary. We found no data on % BIR in other health services or supplies settings, so extrapolated from known sectors. We calculated total BIR costs in each sector as the product of 2012 U.S. national health expenditures and the percentage of revenue used for BIR. We estimated "added" BIR costs by comparing total BIR costs in each sector to those observed in existing, simplified financing systems (Canada's single payer system for providers, and U.S. Medicare for insurers). Due to uncertainty in inputs, we performed sensitivity analyses. BIR costs in the U.S. health care system totaled approximately $471 ($330 - $597) billion in 2012. This includes $70 ($54 - $76) billion in physician practices, $74 ($58 - $94) billion in hospitals, an estimated $94 ($47 - $141) billion in settings providing other health services and supplies, $198 ($154 - $233) billion in private insurers, and $35 ($17 - $52) billion in public insurers. Compared to simplified financing, $375

  11. PR for Pennies: Low-Cost Library Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeckler, Virginia Van Wynen

    This manual is designed to demystify a number of public relations techniques for those who wish to start producing their own materials with a minimum of time and money. Chapters focus on public relations; the library stereotype; words, ideas, and pictures; offset printing; creative print distribution; exhibits and posters; public speaking; and the…

  12. Optimal Materials and Deposition Technique Lead to Cost-Effective Solar Cell with Best-Ever Conversion Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the SJ3 solar cell was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Based on NREL and Solar Junction technology, the commercial SJ3 concentrator solar cell - with 43.5% conversion efficiency at 418 suns - uses a lattice-matched multijunction architecture that has near-term potential for cells with {approx}50% efficiency. Multijunction solar cells have higher conversion efficiencies than any other type of solar cell. But developers of utility-scale and space applications crave even better efficiencies at lower costs to be both cost-effective and able to meet the demand for power. The SJ3 multijunction cell, developed by Solar Junction with assistance from foundational technological advances by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has the highest efficiency to date - almost 2% absolute more than the current industry standard multijunction cell-yet at a comparable cost. So what did it take to create this cell having 43.5% efficiency at 418-sun concentration? A combination of materials with carefully designed properties, a manufacturing technique allowing precise control, and an optimized device design.

  13. Cost Consequences of a Port-Related Supply Chain Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shan LOH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Port functionality is a significant and important aspect of cargo transportation. Previous studies have identified a list of port-related supply chain disruption threats and developed a management model that seeks to address these threats. This paper adds value to these related studies by comparing four consequences of an example of these threats: (1 avoidance of disruption, (2 mitigation of disruption, (3 deviation of transportation plan and (4 delays and deviation of transportation plan. The impact of these consequences is simulated in a case study using data from a chemical manufacturer based in Singapore. This paper quantitatively measures the impact of a port-related threat on supply chains and thus highlights the importance of port-related supply chain disruption management.

  14. Cost Consequences of a Port-Related Supply Chain Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Shan LOH; Vinh Van THAI

    2015-01-01

    Port functionality is a significant and important aspect of cargo transportation. Previous studies have identified a list of port-related supply chain disruption threats and developed a management model that seeks to address these threats. This paper adds value to these related studies by comparing four consequences of an example of these threats: (1) avoidance of disruption, (2) mitigation of disruption, (3) deviation of transportation plan and (4) delays and deviation of transportation plan...

  15. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their

  16. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery’s temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus, thermal modelling of lithium-ion...... battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits’ models have proven to be relatively accurate with low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment for parametrization. Recent research initiated...

  17. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... and discharging power capability rates of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery's temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus......, thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...

  18. Cost-related implications of retrieval: Who should pay? Who should assess the cost/benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis of three different cases when a retrieval operation could take place. For each of the cases, the analysis covers three conceivable reasons for the retrieval. This means a total of nine scenarios to be analysed. One requirement for the analysis should be observed. That requirement is that there is, in a country, a system where assets are set aside today to cover such costs in the future which are caused by the current production of nuclear power. Within this framework, the analysis focuses on the financial implications of costs in connection with retrieval. (Consequences on the total national economy of such a financing system and of a retrieval operation are not discussed.) A financing system along these lines is consistent with two generally acknowledged principles: the polluter pays principle and the principle of not imposing undue burdens on future generations. But how are these principles applicable if, in the future, spent nuclear fuel were to be retrieved? Different time-horizons for a retrieval operation might produce different answers and these answers might also differ depending on the reasons for retrieval. The three chosen approximate times for retrieval are retrieval after a 10 year demonstration period (case 1), retrieval after the repository has ended its operating period but before final sealing has been carried out (case 2) and retrieval after about 50 years from sealing (case 3). The three reasons, which could be relevant in all three cases, can briefly be summarised as ''the solution is not safe enough'', ''the solution is safe enough but a better method than the chosen one has been developed and should be applied'' and ''what was considered as nuclear waste when disposed of now represents an economic asset which should be used by man''. (author)

  19. Costs of Maternal Health-related Complications in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Koblinsky, Marge

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses both out-of-pocket payments for healthcare and losses of productivity over six months postpartum among women who gave birth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The hypothesis of the study objective is that obstetric morbidity leads women to seek care at which time out-of-pocket expenditure is incurred. Second, a woman may also take time out from employment or from doing her household chores. This loss of resources places a financial burden on the household that may lead to reduced consumption of usual but less important goods and use of other services depending on the extent to which a household copes up by using savings, taking loans, and selling assets. Women were divided into three groups based on their morbidity patterns: (a) women with a severe obstetric complication (n=92); (b) women with a less-severe obstetric complication (n=127); and (c) women with a normal delivery (n=483). Data were collected from households of these women at two time-points—at six weeks and six months after delivery. The results showed that maternal morbidity led to a considerable loss of resources up to six weeks postpartum, with the greatest financial burden of cost of healthcare among the poorest households. However, families coped up with loss of resources by taking loans and selling assets, and by the end of six months postpartum, the households had paid back more than 40% of the loans. PMID:22838162

  20. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by a low cost and high-efficient adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun-Hai [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Wang, You-Qun [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Bin, E-mail: zhangnjut@163.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Cao, Xiao-Hong; Nie, Wen-Bin; Li, Qin [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Hua, Rong [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, 344000 (China)

    2013-05-15

    In this study, a low-cost and high-efficient carbonaceous adsorbent (HTC-COOH) with carboxylic groups was developed for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution compared with the pristine hydrothermal carbon (HTC). The structure and chemical properties of resultant adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR) and acid–base titration. The key factors (solution pH, contact time, initial U(VI) concentrations and temperature) affected the adsorption of U(VI) on adsorbents were investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption of U(VI) on HTC and HTC-COOH was pH-dependent, and increased with temperature and initial ion concentration. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) on adsorbents was well defined by the Langmuir isothermal equation, and the monolayer adsorption capacity of HTC-COOH was found to be 205.8 mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption was very in accordance with the pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption processes of U(VI) on HTC and HTC-COOH were endothermic and spontaneous in nature according to the thermodynamics of adsorption. Furthermore, HTC-COOH could selectively adsorption of U(VI) in aqueous solution containing co-existing ions (Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}). From the results of the experiments, it is found that the HTC-COOH is a potential adsorbent for effective removal of U(VI) from polluted water.

  1. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by a low cost and high-efficient adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hai; Wang, You-Qun; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Nie, Wen-Bin; Li, Qin; Hua, Rong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a low-cost and high-efficient carbonaceous adsorbent (HTC-COOH) with carboxylic groups was developed for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution compared with the pristine hydrothermal carbon (HTC). The structure and chemical properties of resultant adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR) and acid-base titration. The key factors (solution pH, contact time, initial U(VI) concentrations and temperature) affected the adsorption of U(VI) on adsorbents were investigated using batch experiments. The adsorption of U(VI) on HTC and HTC-COOH was pH-dependent, and increased with temperature and initial ion concentration. The adsorption equilibrium of U(VI) on adsorbents was well defined by the Langmuir isothermal equation, and the monolayer adsorption capacity of HTC-COOH was found to be 205.8 mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption was very in accordance with the pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption processes of U(VI) on HTC and HTC-COOH were endothermic and spontaneous in nature according to the thermodynamics of adsorption. Furthermore, HTC-COOH could selectively adsorption of U(VI) in aqueous solution containing co-existing ions (Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+). From the results of the experiments, it is found that the HTC-COOH is a potential adsorbent for effective removal of U(VI) from polluted water.

  2. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  3. Costs, equity, efficiency and feasibility of identifying the poor in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: empirical analysis of various strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryeetey, G.C.N.O.; Jehu-Appiah, C.; Spaan, E.; Agyepong, I.; Baltussen, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the costs and evaluate the equity, efficiency and feasibility of four strategies to identify poor households for premium exemptions in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS): means testing (MT), proxy means testing (PMT), participatory wealth ranking (PWR) and

  4. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  5. Social cost-efficient service quality. Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation. Evidence from the case of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany); Jamasb, Tooraj [University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities. (author)

  6. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian, E-mail: c.growitsch@wik.or [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany); Jamasb, Tooraj [University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics (United Kingdom); Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias [WIK, Department Energy Markets and Energy Regulation, Rhoendorfer Str. 68, 53604 Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  7. 48 CFR 2131.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Public relations and... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. The provisions of FAR 31.205-1 shall be modified to include the following...

  8. Comparing the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic studies: a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, D.D.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Wellish, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a model to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two or more diagnostic tests. The model defines a cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) for a diagnostic test as the ratio of effective cost to base cost, only dollar costs considered. Effective cost includes base cost, cost of dealing with expected side effects, and wastage due to imperfect test performance. Test performance is measured by diagnostic utility (DU), a measure of test outcomes incorporating the decision-analytic variables sensitivity, specificity, equivocal fraction, disease probability, and outcome utility. Each of these factors affecting DU, and hence CER, is a local, not universal, value; these local values strongly affect CER, which in effect becomes a property of the local medical setting. When DU = +1 and there are no adverse effects, CER = 1 and the patient benefits from the test dollar for dollar. When there are adverse effects effective cost exceeds base cost, and for an imperfect test DU 1. As DU approaches 0 (worthless test), CER approaches infinity (no effectiveness at any cost). If DU is negative, indicating that doing the test at all would be detrimental, CER also becomes negative. We conclude that the CER model is a useful preliminary method for ranking the relative cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests, and that the comparisons would best be done using local values; different groups might well arrive at different rankings. (Author)

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  10. Innovation in technology for the least product price and cost - a new minimum cost relation for reductions during technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    By analogy with the concepts of human learning, we show and introduce a new method to obtain least product cost and price that includes the effect of innovation and technological learning in manufacturing and production. This key result is a new paradigm instead of the usual economic 'power law' formulation. The new analysis is based on extensive analysis of many technological systems, and is directly related to the presence of learning as experience is accumulated. The results agree with the observed data. By using a consistent basis, the method replaces previous empirical 'power law' descriptions of the technological learning curve with a new 'marginal minimum cost equation' (MCE). (author)

  11. Bragg peak and relative biological efficiency of different ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček st., Miloš; Judas, Libor; Kundrát, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. 1 (2002), S309-S309 ISSN 0167-8140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK4055109 Keywords : Bragg peak * relative biological efficisncy * radiological mechanism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2002

  12. Microorganisms for efficient production of melatonin and related compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant microbial cells and methods for producing 5HTP, melatonin and related compounds using such cells are described. More specifically, the recombinant microbial cell may comprise exogenous genes encoding one or more of an L-tryptophan hydroxylase, a 5- hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylyase...

  13. Validation of generic cost estimates for construction-related activities at nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.; Sciacca, F.; Claiborne, E.; Watlington, B.; Riordan, B.; McLaughlin, M.

    1988-05-01

    This report represents a validation study of the cost methodologies and quantitative factors derived in Labor Productivity Adjustment Factors and Generic Methodology for Estimating the Labor Cost Associated with the Removal of Hardware, Materials, and Structures From Nuclear Power Plants. This cost methodology was developed to support NRC analysts in determining generic estimates of removal, installation, and total labor costs for construction-related activities at nuclear generating stations. In addition to the validation discussion, this report reviews the generic cost analysis methodology employed. It also discusses each of the individual cost factors used in estimating the costs of physical modifications at nuclear power plants. The generic estimating approach presented uses the /open quotes/greenfield/close quotes/ or new plant construction installation costs compiled in the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) as a baseline. These baseline costs are then adjusted to account for labor productivity, radiation fields, learning curve effects, and impacts on ancillary systems or components. For comparisons of estimated vs actual labor costs, approximately four dozen actual cost data points (as reported by 14 nuclear utilities) were obtained. Detailed background information was collected on each individual data point to give the best understanding possible so that the labor productivity factors, removal factors, etc., could judiciously be chosen. This study concludes that cost estimates that are typically within 40% of the actual values can be generated by prudently using the methodologies and cost factors investigated herein

  14. Overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure

    2017-01-01

    This is a brief overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity: concept of competitiveness, measurement of competitiveness, determinants of competitiveness.

  15. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as thyroid nodular disease and its associated morbidity (hyperthyroidism). For the estimation of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical costs related to thyroid nodular diseases in Belgium, data from the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, the National Institute for Disease and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI), the Information Network about the prescription of reimbursable medicines (FARMANET), Intercontinental Marketing Services, and expert opinions were used. These costs translate into savings after implementation of the iodization program and are defined as costs due to thyroid nodular disease throughout the article. Costs related to the iodization program are referred to as program costs. Only figures dating from before the start of the intervention were exploited. Only adult and elderly people (≥18 years) were taken into account in this study because thyroid nodular diseases predominantly affect this age group. The yearly costs due to thyroid nodular diseases caused by mild iodine deficiency in the Belgian adult population are ∼€38 million. It is expected that the iodization program will result in additional costs of ∼€54,000 per year and decrease the prevalence of thyroid nodular diseases by 38% after a 4-5-year period. The net savings after establishment of the program are therefore estimated to be at least €14 million a year. Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium should be quite cost effective, if only considering its impact on

  16. Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Bricaud, Annick; Morel, André

    1992-11-01

    By using a set-up that combines an integrating sphere with a spectroradiometer LI-1800 UW, the backscattering properties of nine different phytoplankters grown in culture have been determined experimentally for the wavelengths domain ν = 400 up to 850 nm. Simultaneously, the absorption and attenuation properties, as well as the size distribution function, have been measured. This set of measurements allowed the spectral values of refractive index, and subsequently the volume scattering functions (VSF) of the cells, to be derived, by operating a scattering model previously developed for spherical and homogeneous cells. The backscattering properties, measured within a restricted angular domain (approximately between 132 and 174°), have been compared to theoretical predictions. Although there appear some discrepancies between experimental and predicted values (probably due to experimental errors as well as deviations of actual cells from computational hypotheses), the overall agreement is good; in particular the observed interspecific variations of backscattering values, as well as the backscattering spectral variation typical of each species, are well accounted for by theory. Using the computed VSF, the measured backscattering properties can be converted (assuming spherical and homogeneous cells) into efficiency factors for backscattering ( overlineQbb) . Thhe spectral behavior of overlineQbb appears to be radically different from that for total scattering overlineQb. For small cells, overlineQ (λ) is practically constant over the spectrum, whereas overlineQb(λ) varies approximately according to a power law (λ -2). As the cell size increases, overlineQbb conversely, becomes increasingly featured, whilst overlineQb becomes spectrally flat. The chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficients ( b b∗ appear highly variable and span nearly two orders of magnitude. The chlorophyll-specific absorption and scattering coefficients, a ∗ and b ∗, are mainly ruled by

  17. A practical, efficient and low cost diet for rearing the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Zografou, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been artificially reared and used for the application of the sterile insect technique and other purposes, throughout the world. The larval diet used is rather expensive and it is mixed in the rearing facility. The most expensive ingredient used in this diet is yeast which is variable in composition and has a relatively short shelf life due mainly to its high nutritional value. This is particularly true for all countries like Greece which do not manufacture brewer's yeast. Also, it is widely known that the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae grow in a wide variety of fruits and artificial diets. These fruits and artificial diets, although very different in chemical/nutritional as well as physical/ecological parameters, are successfully tolerated and utilised by the larvae. These observations prompted the initiation of research into diets containing a variety of low cost ingredients widely used in the vertebrate feed industry and easily found in any country. To our knowledge, no one has tested complete diets produced by well-established feed manufacturers for larval rearing of this insect

  18. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  19. Energy- and cost-efficient lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    calculations require a sampling of the phase space. The hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm performs this. For this task, a single AMD Radeon HD 7970 GPU provides four times the performance of two AMD Opteron 6220 running an optimized reference code. The same advantage is achieved in terms of energy-efficiency. In terms of normalized total cost of acquisition (TCA), GPU-based clusters match conventional large-scale LQCD systems. Contrary to those, however, they can be scaled up from a single node. Examples of large GPU-based systems are LOEWE-CSC and SANAM. On both, CL{sup 2}QCD has already been used in production for LQCD studies.

  20. Energy- and cost-efficient lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    calculations require a sampling of the phase space. The hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm performs this. For this task, a single AMD Radeon HD 7970 GPU provides four times the performance of two AMD Opteron 6220 running an optimized reference code. The same advantage is achieved in terms of energy-efficiency. In terms of normalized total cost of acquisition (TCA), GPU-based clusters match conventional large-scale LQCD systems. Contrary to those, however, they can be scaled up from a single node. Examples of large GPU-based systems are LOEWE-CSC and SANAM. On both, CL 2 QCD has already been used in production for LQCD studies.

  1. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  2. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their rela...

  3. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  4. A cost-efficient method to optimize package size in emerging markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamez-Alban, H.M.; Soto-Cardona, O.C.; Mejia Argueta, C.; Sarmiento, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Packaging links the entire supply chain and coordinates all participants in the process to give a flexible and effective response to customer needs in order to maximize satisfaction at optimal cost. This research proposes an optimization model to define the minimum total cost combination of outer

  5. Minimum cost research when defining a very high efficiency air filtering installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Seau, C.

    1974-01-01

    Economic criteria importance when establishing filtering projects is shown. In a first part, an optimization method of costs is studied. In the existing installations, it is necessary to study the operating costs, and eventually introduce changes in order to improve profitability. In the second part it is indicated how the Marcoule Center has solved this problem [fr

  6. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  7. Efficient hemodynamic event detection utilizing relational databases and wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a temporal query framework for time-oriented medical databases has hitherto been a challenging problem. We describe a novel method for the detection of hemodynamic events in multiparameter trends utilizing wavelet coefficients in a MySQL relational database. Storage of the wavelet coefficients allowed for a compact representation of the trends, and provided robust descriptors for the dynamics of the parameter time series. A data model was developed to allow for simplified queries along several dimensions and time scales. Of particular importance, the data model and wavelet framework allowed for queries to be processed with minimal table-join operations. A web-based search engine was developed to allow for user-defined queries. Typical queries required between 0.01 and 0.02 seconds, with at least two orders of magnitude improvement in speed over conventional queries. This powerful and innovative structure will facilitate research on large-scale time-oriented medical databases.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  9. A cost and technical efficiency analysis of two alternative models for implementing the basic package of health services in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaakman, Aaron Philip; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Boitard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and international partners have directed a contracting-out model through which non-governmental organisations (NGOs) deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 31 of the 34 Afghan provinces. The MoPH also managed health service delivery in three provinces under an alternative initiative entitled Strengthening Mechanisms (SM). In 2011, under the authority of the MoPH and Delegation of the European Union to Afghanistan, EPOS Health Management conducted a cost and technical efficiency study of the contracting-out and SM mechanisms in six provinces to examine economic trade-offs in the provision of the BPHS. The study provides analyses of all resource inputs and primary outputs of the BPHS in the six provinces during 2008 and 2009. The authors examined technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) at the BPHS facility level. Cost analysis results indicate that the weighted average cost per BPHS outpatient visit totalled $3.41 in the SM provinces and $5.39 in the NGO-led provinces in 2009. Furthermore, the data envelopment analyses (DEAs) indicate that facilities in the three NGO-led provinces scored 0.168 points higher on the DEA scale (0-1) than SM facilities. The authors conclude that an approximate 60% increase in costs yielded a 16.8% increase in technical efficiency in the delivery of the BPHS during 2009 in the six provinces.

  10. The hospital costs of treating work-related sawmill injuries in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Tompa, Emile; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Demers, Paul A

    2007-05-01

    This study estimates the hospital costs of treating work-related injury among a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia. Hospital discharge records were extracted from 1989 to 1998 for a cohort of 5,876 actively employed sawmill workers. Injury cases were identified as work-related from these records using ICD-9 external cause of injury codes that indicate place of occurrence and the responsibility of payment schedule that identifies workers' compensation as being responsible for payment. The hospitals in British Columbia have a standard ward rate chart prepared annually by the provincial Ministry of Health to bill and collect payment from agency like workers' compensation agency. Costs were calculated from the hospital perspective using this billing chart. All costs were expressed in 1995 Canadian dollars. The workers' compensation claim records for this study population were extracted and matched with the hospitalised work-related injury records. Costs were also calculated for work-related hospitalisations that the hospital did not appear to be reimbursed for by the workers' compensation system. There were 173 injuries requiring hospitalisation during the 10-year followup period. The median stay in hospitals was 3 days and the median hospital costs were $847. The most costly cause of injury categories were fire, flame, natural and environmental and struck against with median costs of $10,575 and $1,206, respectively, while the least costly category was cutting and piercing with median costs of $296. The most costly nature of injury categories were burns and fracture of lower limb with median costs of $10,575 and $1,800, respectively, while the least costly category was dislocation, sprains and strains with median costs of $437. The total hospital costs for all the work-related injuries were $434,990. Out of a total hospital cost of $434,990 for the 173 work-related injuries, the provincial compensation agency apparently did not compensate $50,663 (12

  11. Potentials for Improvement of Resource Efficiency in Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing: A Case Study Based on Material Flow Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xuan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable resource use by manufacturing companies is driven by resource scarcity, environmental awareness, and cost savings potentials. To address these issues, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA has been developed and applied as an effective environmental management tool. Within MFCA’s general allocation, the accounts of products and losses are overrated by weight or volume. However, such a method is incompatible with Printed Circuit Board (PCB manufacturing because of industry characteristics in which primary inputs and products are measured by area. Based on MFCA, this case study systematically established several linear cost calculation models along the production process for capturing the actual waste flows as well as performing cost-benefit analysis. The recognition of previously ignored losses offered the incentive to find appropriate indicators to conduct cost-benefit analysis on hotspots for losses. Loss identification and analysis indicated that machining and wiring are the necessities and priorities of process optimization for resource efficiency improvement measures. Therefore, this research could not only advance the achievement of a profitable and sustainable production while improving resource efficiency at the source but could also provide support for decision making in PCB manufacturing.

  12. Thermal cooling using low-temperature waste heat. A cost-effective way for industrial companies to improve energy efficiency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, D.; Hirzel, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    As a typical cross-cutting technology, cooling and refrigeration equipment is used for a variety of industrial applications. While cooling is often provided by electric compression cooling systems, thermal cooling systems powered by low-temperature waste heat could improve energy efficiency and promise a technical saving potential corresponding to 0.5 % of the total electricity demand in the German industry. In this paper, we investigate the current and future cost-effectiveness of thermal cooling systems for industrial companies. Our focus is on single-stage, closed absorption and adsorption cooling systems with cooling powers between 40 and 100 kW, which use low-temperature waste heat at temperature levels between 70C and 85C. We analyse the current and future cost-effectiveness of these alternative cooling systems using annual cooling costs (annuities) and payback times. For a forecast until 2015, we apply the concept of experience curves, identifying learning rates of 14 % (absorption machines) and 17 % (adsorption machines) by an expert survey of the German market. The results indicate that thermal cooling systems are currently only cost-effective under optimistic assumptions (full-time operation, high electricity prices) when compared to electric compression cooling systems. Nevertheless, the cost and efficiency improvements expected for this still young technology mean that thermal cooling systems could be more cost-effective in the future. However, depending on future electricity prices, a high number of operating hours is still crucial to achieve payback times substantially below 4 years which are usually required for energy efficiency measures to be widely adopted in the industry.

  13. Relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy : a fuzzy AHP/DEA hybrid model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2009-01-01

    As a provider of national energy security, the Korean Institute of Energy Research is seeking to establish a long term strategic technology roadmap for a hydrogen-based economy. This paper addressed 5 criteria regarding the strategy, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity, technical spinoff, and development cost. The fuzzy AHP and DEA hybrid model were used in a two-stage multi-criteria decision making approach to evaluate the relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process reflects the uncertainty of human thoughts with interval values instead of clear-cut numbers. It therefore allocates the relative importance of 4 criteria, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity and technical spin-off. The relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy can be measured via data envelopment analysis. It was concluded that the scientific decision making approach can be used effectively to allocate research and development resources and activities

  14. Relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy : a fuzzy AHP/DEA hybrid model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Energy Policy Research Division; Mogi, G. [Tokyo Univ., (Japan). Dept. of Technology Management for Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering; Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    As a provider of national energy security, the Korean Institute of Energy Research is seeking to establish a long term strategic technology roadmap for a hydrogen-based economy. This paper addressed 5 criteria regarding the strategy, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity, technical spinoff, and development cost. The fuzzy AHP and DEA hybrid model were used in a two-stage multi-criteria decision making approach to evaluate the relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process reflects the uncertainty of human thoughts with interval values instead of clear-cut numbers. It therefore allocates the relative importance of 4 criteria, notably economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity and technical spin-off. The relative efficiency of hydrogen technologies for the hydrogen economy can be measured via data envelopment analysis. It was concluded that the scientific decision making approach can be used effectively to allocate research and development resources and activities.

  15. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  16. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, O P; Prasad, R; Subbiah, B V [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi. Nuclear Research Lab.

    1977-09-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soybean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with /sup 32/P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soybean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding).

  17. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Rosemeier, Cory A. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Mayers, David [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Singh, Jogender [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  18. Costs in Relation to Disability, Disease Activity, and Health-related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Eriksson, Jonas K; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    between-patient associations) and by generalized estimating equations (GEE), using all observations to also account for within-patient associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to costs. RESULTS: Regardless of the methodology (linear or GEE regression), HAQ was most closely related to both cost types, while work......OBJECTIVE: To compare how costs relate to disability, disease activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-treated patients with RA in southern Sweden (n = 2341) were monitored 2005-2010. Health Assessment...... Questionnaire (HAQ), 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), and EQ-5D scores were linked to register-derived costs of antirheumatic drugs (excluding anti-TNF agents), patient care, and work loss from 30 days before to 30 days after each visit (n = 13,289). Associations of HAQ/DAS28/EQ-5D to healthcare...

  19. Accounting for Energy Cost When Designing Energy-Efficient Wireless Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Vallero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase of the data traffic demand, wireless access networks, through which users access telecommunication services, have expanded, in terms of size and of capability and, consequently, in terms of power consumption. Therefore, costs to buy the necessary power for the supply of base stations of those networks is becoming very high, impacting the communication cost. In this study, strategies to reduce the amount of money spent for the purchase of the energy consumed by the base stations are proposed for a network powered by solar panels, energy batteries and the power grid. First, the variability of the energy prices is exploited. It provides a cost reduction of up to 30%, when energy is bought in advance. If a part of the base stations is deactivated when the energy price is higher than a given threshold, a compromise between the energy cost and the user coverage drop is needed. In the simulated scenario, the necessary energy cost can be reduced by more than 40%, preserving the user coverage by greater than 94%. Second, the network is introduced to the energy market: it buys and sells energy from/to the traditional power grid. Finally, costs are reduced by the reduction of power consumption of the network, achieved by using microcell base stations. In the considered scenario, up to a 31% cost reduction is obtained, without the deterioration of the quality of service, but a huge Capex expenditure is required.

  20. Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting. Building Technologies Solid State Lighting (SSL) Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-10-06

    This project developed an integrated substrate which organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel developers could employ the integrated substrate to fabricate OLED devices with performance and projected cost meeting the MYPP targets of the Solid State Lighting Program of the Department of Energy. The project optimized the composition and processing conditions of the integrated substrate for OLED light extraction efficiency and overall performance. The process was further developed for scale up to a low-cost process and fabrication of prototype samples. The encapsulation of flexible OLEDs based on this integrated substrate was also investigated using commercial flexible barrier films.

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... Organizations 31.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (a) Public relations means all functions and...; or (2) Maintaining or promoting reciprocal understanding and favorable relations with the public at...

  2. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    results compared to production cost of €209-672 kg-1 N removed and €1,013 kg-1 N removed for respectively Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, a commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producer claims that production costs are less than €10 kg-1...... N removed. This up-scaled and commercial figure makes the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and bio-fouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall biofilter...

  3. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G Ginindza

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC, and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden.A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($.The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million. Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million. Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million.According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV infection with a national HPV immunization

  4. Advances in Cost-Efficient Thin-Film Photovoltaics Based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Powalla; Stefan Paetel; Dimitrios Hariskos; Roland Wuerz; Friedrich Kessler; Peter Lechner; Wiltraud Wischmann; Theresa Magorian Friedlmeier

    2017-01-01

    In this article,we discuss the leading thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology based on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)compound semiconductor.This contribution includes a general comparison with the conventional Si-wafer-based PV technology and discusses the basics of the CIGS technology as well as advances in worldrecord-level conversion efficiency,production,applications,stability,and future developments with respect to a flexible product.Once in large-scale mass production,the CIGS technology has the highest potential of all PV technologies for cost-efficient clean energy generation.

  5. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Open a New Era for Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ramping solar energy to electricity conversion efficiencies of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells during the last five years have opened new doors to low-cost solar energy. The record power conversion efficiency has climbed to 19.3% in August 2014 and then jumped to 20.1% in November. In this review, the main achievements for perovskite solar cells categorized from a viewpoint of device structure are overviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of this field are also briefly presented.

  6. Advances in Cost-Efficient Thin-Film Photovoltaics Based on Cu(In,GaSe2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Powalla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the leading thin-film photovoltaic (PV technology based on the Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS compound semiconductor. This contribution includes a general comparison with the conventional Si-wafer-based PV technology and discusses the basics of the CIGS technology as well as advances in world-record-level conversion efficiency, production, applications, stability, and future developments with respect to a flexible product. Once in large-scale mass production, the CIGS technology has the highest potential of all PV technologies for cost-efficient clean energy generation.

  7. Spatial analyses of cost efficient measures to reduce N-leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Ørum, Jens Erik

    (WFD). The analysis shows that the geographical position of the measures are very important in order to achieve the expected nutrient reduction. The current income varies a lot in the River basin and this might influence the choice of cost effective measures to reduce nutrient load. Furthermore a close......The Nitrate Directive has only been implemented satisfactorily in a few EU countries. The Commission have accepted the Danish implementation of the directive based on the Plan for the Aquatic Environment II. The costs of this plan has been calculated to 70 million € or 2,0 € per kg N in reduced...... leaching. The farmers have paid 60% of the costs. The paper then describes an example of a regional analysis covering the River Basin of Ringkøbing Fjord in Denmark, which indicates the type of calculations needed to find the measures and costs in order to comply with parts of the Water Framework Directive...

  8. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  9. Marine Mammals as Models for Cost Efficient AUVs: Specifications of Oscillating Hydrofoils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Terrie

    2004-01-01

    ...), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), river otters (Lontra canadensis), and sea otters (Enhydra lutris) to assess the mechanical operation and energetic cost of oscillating hydrofoils performing in controlled environments...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of single versus double embryo transfer in IVF in relation to female age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loendersloot, Laura L.; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; van Wely, Madelon; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of single embryo transfer followed by an additional frozen thawed single embryo transfer, if more embryos are available, as compared to double embryo transfer in relation to female age. Study design: We used a decision tree model to evaluate the costs

  11. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  12. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Productivity-Related Costs: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amélie E; Coffeng, Jennifer K; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Beek, Allard J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Nieboer, Dagmar; van Dongen, Johanna M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between job satisfaction and total productivity-related costs, and between job satisfaction and absenteeism and presenteeism costs separately. A secondary aim was to explore whether these relationships differed across job types. Linear generalized estimating equation analyses were used to explore the longitudinal relationships. To explore whether the relationships differed across job types, stratified analyses were performed. A significant relationship was found between job satisfaction and total productivity-related costs [β = &OV0556;-273; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -407 to -200] and between job satisfaction and presenteeism costs (β = &OV0556;-276; 95% CI: -367 to -235), but not between job satisfaction and absenteeism costs. These relationships differed across job types. Higher levels of job satisfaction were longitudinally related to lower total productivity-related costs and presenteeism costs, but not to lower absenteeism costs. These relationships seem to differ across job types.

  13. [Financial burden of hepatitis B-related diseases and factors influencing the costs in Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sen; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Ma, Qi-shan; Xiao, He-wei; Lü, Qiu-ying; Xie, Xu; Mei, Shu-jiang; Hu, Dong-sheng; Zhou, Bo-ping; Li, Bing; Chen, Jing-fang; Cui, Fu-qiang; Wang, Fu-zhen; Liang, Xiao-feng

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the direct, indirect and intangible costs due to hepatitis B-related diseases and to explore main factors associated with the costs in Shenzhen. Cluster sampling for cases collected consecutively during the study period was administrated. Subjects were selected from eligible hepatitis B-related patients. By pre-trained professional investigators, health economics-related information was collected, using a structured questionnaire. Hospitalization expenses were obtained through hospital records after the patients were discharged from hospital. Total economic burden of hepatitis B-related patients would involve direct, indirect and intangible costs. Direct costs were further divided into direct medical costs and direct nonmedical costs. Human Capital Approach was employed to measure the indirect costs both on patients and the caregivers in 1-year time span. Willing to pay method was used to estimate the intangible costs. Multiple linear stepwise regression models were conducted to determine the factors linked to the economic burden. On average, the total annual cost of per patient with hepatitis B-related diseases was 81 590.23 RMB Yuan. Among which, direct, indirect and intangible costs were 30 914.79 Yuan (account for 37.9%), 15 258.01 Yuan (18.7%), 35 417.43 Yuan (43.4%), respectively. The total annual costs per patient for hepatocellular carcinoma, severe hepatitis B, decompensated cirrhosis, compensated cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B and acute hepatitis B were 194 858.40 Yuan, 144 549.20 Yuan, 120 333.60 Yuan, 79 528.81 Yuan, 66 282.46 Yuan and 39 286.81 Yuan, respectively. The ratio of direct to indirect costs based on the base-case estimation foot add to 2.0:1, increased from hepato-cellular carcinoma (0.7:1) to compensated cirrhosis (3.5:1), followed by acute hepatitis B (3.3:1), severe hepatitis B (2.8:1), decompensate cirrhosis (2.3:1) and chronic hepatitis B (2.2:1). Direct medical costs were more than direct nonmedical. Ratio between the

  14. Analysis of efficiency and marketing trends cost optimization in enterprises of baking branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukan О.М.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, at the bakery industry, little attention is paid to marketing activities. Limited financial resources and the lack of a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of marketing activities leads to a reduction in marketing budgets and a decrease in the profitability of the enterprise as a whole. Therefore, despite the complexity of conducting an analysis of the cost effectiveness of marketing activities, in market conditions it is necessary to control the level of costs and the formation of optimal marketing budgets. In the work it is determined that the main direction of marketing activity evaluation is the analysis of the cost effectiveness for its implementation. A scientific-methodical approach to the analysis of the effectiveness of marketing costs in the bakery industry is suggested. The analysis of the cost effectiveness of marketing activities on the basis of the assumption that marketing costs are a factor variable determining the patterns of changes in the values of the resulting indicators of financial and economic activities of the enterprise, such as net income from sales of products, gross profit, financial results from operating activities and net profit (losses. The main directions of optimization of marketing activities at bakery enterprises are given.

  15. Thermal efficiency of low cost solar collectors - CSBC; Eficiencia termica de coletores solares de baixo custo - CSBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Renato C.; Shiota, Robson T.; Mello, Samuel F.; Assis Junior, Valdir; Bartoli, Julio R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Tecnologia de Polimeros

    2006-07-01

    The thermal performance of a low cost flat panel solar collector was measured. This Low Cost Solar Collector is a novel concept for water heating using only thermoplastics materials, used on building: ceiling and tubes made of unplasticized PVC, but without transparent cover. The top side of the UPVC panel was black painted to be the solar radiation absorber surface. Prototypes were installed on two charity houses around Campinas and at the FEQ campus, being used without any trouble for one year. The thermal efficiency analysis followed ABNT NBR 10184 standard at the Green-Solar Laboratory, Brazilian Centre for Development of Solar Thermal Energy, PUC-Minas. It was measured a thermal efficiency of 67%, compared to the 75% usually found on conventional solar collectors made of copper tubes and with glass cover. (author)

  16. A cost summary applicable to seismic construction and maintenance of nuclear safety related piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of costs applicable to nuclear power plant piping for an earthquake defined as 0.2 SSE-PGA as a function of three eras of initial construction: 1967--1974, 1974--1981 and 1981--1990. Costs have been presented for both new construction and maintenance in operating plants using both the original PSAR-FSAR design criteria and current SRP requirements. It is recommended that the cost information contained in this report be considered in evaluating the cost benefit relationships associated with current and proposed future changes in seismic design procedures applicable to safety-related piping systems

  17. HOLE-BLOCKING LAYERS FOR SILICON/ORGANIC HETEROJUNCTIONS: A NEW CLASS OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY LOW-COST PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, James [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-12-04

    This project is the first investigation of the use of thin titanium dioxide layers on silicon as a hole-blocking / electron-transparent selective contact to silicon. The work was motivated by the goal of a high-efficiency low-cost silicon-based solar cells that could be processed entirely at low temperature (300 Degree Celsius) or less, without requiring plasma-processing.

  18. Cost efficiency of measures to increase the amount of coarse woody debris in managed Norway spruce forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Ekvall, Hans; Jonsson, Mattias; Bostedt, Göran

    2005-01-01

    Changing silvicultural methods in managed forestland to improve habitat quality for forest organisms has become one of the main means to preserve forest biodiversity in Fennoscandia. In boreal forests, coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important substrate for red-listed species. In this study, we analyse cost efficiency of five management measures taken in Swedish forestry, which aim at increasing CWD in managed forests: retention of living trees at harvest, artificial creation of high stumps, ...

  19. Drycon dry ash conveyor: dry bottom ash handling system with reduced operating costs and improved plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Drycon dry bottom ash extraction system is designed to remove bottom ash beneath the furnace, cooling it without any need of water. Fresh air in countercurrent flow to the ash is used for the ash cooling. Data presented show how savings of time and costs can be achieved with this system and how a boiler efficiency can be increased using this technology. Considerable advantages in the reliability of operation with new improvements of the design are described. 7 figs.

  20. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  1. The use of efficiency assessment tools : solutions to barriers : Workpackage 3 of the European research project ROSEBUD (Road Safety and Environmental Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Use in Decision-making).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Wesemann, P. (eds.)

    2005-01-01

    In road safety, as in most other fields, efficiency is an important criterion in political and professional decision making. Efficiency Assessment Tools (EATs) like Cost Benefit Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Analysis are available to help choose the policy which gives the highest return on

  2. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    examines the extent to which the Army has (1) assessed the costs and benefits of Pacific Pathways; and (2) synchronized plans and incorporated ... costs . Such an analysis could both: • incorporate financial and non-financial costs and benefits of the initiative, to include readiness benefits for... logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as

  3. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Path to SunShot - The Role of Advancements in Solar Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones-Albertus, Rebecca [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Although tremendous progress has been made in reducing the cost of PV systems, additional LCOE reductions of 40%–50% between 2015 and 2020 will be required to reach the SunShot Initiative’s targets (see Woodhouse et al. 2016). Understanding the tradeoffs between installed prices and other PV system characteristics—such as module efficiency, module degradation rate, and system lifetime—are vital. For example, with 29%-efficient modules and high reliability (a 50-year lifetime and a 0.2%/year module degradation rate), a residential PV system could achieve the SunShot LCOE goal with modules priced at almost $1.20/W. But change the lifetime to 10 years and the degradation rate to 2%/year, and the system would need those very high-efficiency modules at zero cost to achieve the same LCOE. Although these examples are extreme, they serve to illustrate the wide range of technological combinations that could help drive PV toward the LCOE goals. SunShot’s PV roadmaps illustrate specific potential pathways to the target cost reductions.

  5. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mahayni, Malek A.

    2011-01-01

    developed to solve the optimal paths problem with different kinds of graphs. An algorithm that solves the problem of paths’ optimization in directed graphs relative to different cost functions is described in [1]. It follows an approach extended from

  6. Human health risks analysis: assessment of health costs of energy related pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Grahn, D.; Lundy, R.T.; Brown, C.D.; Curtiss, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the assessment of health costs of energy related pollutants. It includes the development of new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment

  7. Sequential Optimization of Paths in Directed Graphs Relative to Different Cost Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Abubeker, Jewahir Ali; Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the consideration of an algorithm for sequential optimization of paths in directed graphs relative to di_erent cost functions. The considered algorithm is based on an extension of dynamic programming which allows

  8. Data Flow in Relation to Life-Cycle Costing of Construction Projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolek, Vojtěch; Hanák, Tomáš; Marović, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Life-cycle costing is an important part of every construction project, as it makes it possible to take into consideration future costs relating to the operation and demolition phase of a built structure. In this way, investors can optimize the project design to minimize the total project costs. Even though there have already been some attempts to implement BIM software in the Czech Republic, the current state of affairs does not support automated data flow between the bill of costs and applications that support building facility management. The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate the current situation and outline a future framework that should allow for the use of the data contained in the bill of costs to manage building operating costs.

  9. High-efficiency and low-cost permanent magnet guideway consideration for high-Tc superconducting Maglev vehicle practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, J; Jing, H; Lu, Y; Ma, G; Liu, L; Liu, W; Zhang, Y; Wang, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the cost performance of the present high-T c superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle system for practical application, the multi-pole permanent magnet guideway (PMG) concept was introduced. A well-known double-pole Halbach PMG was chosen as a representative of multi-pole PMGs to compare with traditional monopole PMGs from the point of view of levitation efficiency and cost. Experimental results show that YBCO bulks above the double-pole Halbach PMG can exhibit better load capability and guidance performance as well as dynamics stability at the applied working height between the bulk HTSC and the PMG due to a more reasonable magnetic field distribution at the working range of bulk HTSC. Furthermore, the double-pole PMG configuration can play a more important role in improving guidance performance due to the potential-well field configuration. By comparing with former 'century' PMGs, the double-pole Halbach PMG shows another remarkable advantage in reducing the cost of levitation. As another necessary issue, magnetic field homogeneity and the corresponding magnetic drag force of a double-pole Halbach PMG has been considered by experiment in spite of the above highlights. Synthetically, the multi-pole Halbach PMG design is concluded to be one important choice for future HTS Maglev vehicle applications because of its high efficiency and low cost.

  10. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO_2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO_2-reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO_2-reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO_2-reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  11. The indirect costs of cancer-related absenteeism in the workplace in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioch, Tomasz; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cancer-related absenteeism costs in Poland. Data on sickness absences and disability were retrieved from the Department of Statistics of the Social Insurance Institution. The cost of lost productivity owing to premature death was estimated from data retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry. Absenteeism costs were estimated on the basis of the measure of gross value added per employee. The costs of lost productivity owing to sick leave, disability, and premature death were estimated to be 1.572 billion EUR, 0.504 billion EUR, and 0.535 billion EUR, respectively, in 2009. The indirect costs of lost productivity owing to cancer-related sick leave, disability, and premature death have a substantial effect on the Polish economy. In 2009, they accounted for more than 0.8% of GDP.

  12. Sequential optimization of matrix chain multiplication relative to different cost functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to optimize matrix chain multiplication sequentially relative to different cost functions such as total number of scalar multiplications, communication overhead in a multiprocessor environment, etc. For n matrices our optimization procedure requires O(n 3) arithmetic operations per one cost function. This work is done in the framework of a dynamic programming extension that allows sequential optimization relative to different criteria. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Social cost of CO2 abatement from energy efficiency and solar power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Frequently cited empirical analysis ask whether we should make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conclude that the transition is too costly so we should, instead, focus policy on how to adapt to global warming. This paper makes two improvements in the analysis. First, this empirical analysis accounts for existing low-cost alternatives that are substitutes for fossil fuels. Second, this empirical analysis incorporates existing estimates of externalities from fossil fuels. These two basic improvements in the analysis alter the conclusion; policy should focus on how rapidly and extensively to make the transition from reliance on fossil fuels to the alternatives. The corollary is that we should focus on the efficacy and cost of policy options that are designed to accomplish the transition. 4 tabs., 1 app., 45 refs

  14. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  15. Efficiency and cost effectiveness of retrofitting ventilation in low-rise housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowser, D.; Fugler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effective and inexpensive ventilation systems that can be retrofitted to existing low-rise housing to improve indoor air quality in existing housing stock is discussed. In a project by CMHC ten retrofit ventilation systems in single family residential buildings were tested in an effort to identify homes with specific indoor air quality concerns and to evaluate the performance of these retrofit systems by monitoring air quality before and after installation. Measurements were taken over a two-to-three day period with normal occupancy. In one case radon contamination was also measured directly before and after the retrofit. Cost estimates were based on capital, operating and maintenance expenses. This paper describes the results of three sample case studies. One of these involved a home with high concentration of radon gas. The recommended solution was fan-assisted removal of soil gases as the only way to ensure substantial reductions in concentration. Cost of the system was $2,450, plus $79 annual operating expenses. The second case involved a basement apartment with odour and moisture build-up. To solve the problem, an exhaust-only ventilation system with multiple pick-up points was installed at a cost of $750. Annual operating costs are estimated at $171. The third case study described a dwelling with windows and exhaust ducts showing condensation and mold on the bathroom ceiling. Balanced mechanical ventilation via an HRV was installed to exhaust the moist air from the house and to supply fresh dry air. In this case cost of the system was $1,345 installed, plus annual operating costs of $117. It was stressed that different houses have different requirements. Therefore it is important to be fully aware of the amount of natural ventilation a house has, prior to determining whether the solution demands additional ventilation requirements or simply redistribution. 1 ref., 3 figs

  16. Analysis of energy efficiency and energy consumption costs: a case study for regional wastewater treatment plant in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azuana Ramli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency in the central region wastewater treatment plant by focusing on two aspects: biogas production and prediction of energy production. The analysis is based on one of the biggest central region wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia. After studying the energy efficiency, which consists of optimization of energy consumption and enhancing gas generation, the prediction of power consumption is performed using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model. The prediction results are compared with the linear regression method. Comparison shows that even though the total cost of savings is greater by using linear regression, the prediction through ARIMA is more accurate and has smaller root mean square error. The implementation of these two aspects managed to increase energy efficiency by 10% of energy recovery that could further reduce electricity cost and reduction of sludge cake disposal off site. The study recommends other aspects, such as modification in setting up the frequency of variable speed drive for aerators and blowers and optimizing number of feeds into train unit processes within aeration tanks in increasing energy efficiency.

  17. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE BASIC ASSETS EFFICIENCY ON THE OF CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS COST PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Zeynalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article are considered problems of the analysis of the influence mode to usages and conditions of the building technology and facilities to mechanizations on prime cost produced building product. It is offered original scheme intercropping the factors, in accordance with influence of the working expenses of the facilities of the lab our on prime cost of the building product. The offered methods of the estimation physical wear-out level of the building technology and competitiveness of the active part of production assets of the building enterprise.

  19. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  20. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  1. Material flow cost accounting as a tool for improved resource efficiency in the hotel sector: A case of emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celani John Nyide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA is one of the Environmental Management Accounting (EMA tools that has been developed to enable environmentally and economically efficient material usage and thus improve resource efficiency. However, the use of this tool to improve resource efficiency in the South African hotel sector remains unknown. An exploratory study, qualitative in nature, was conducted using a single case study with embedded units approach. A Hotel Management Group that met the selection criteria formed part of this study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants and additional documents were analysed. The investigated hotels have developed technologies that provide an environmental account in both physical and monetary units which constitute the use of MFCA to improve resource efficiencies. However, the study established a number of factors that affect the implementation of MFCA by the hotel sector in a South African context

  2. Research ethics committee decision-making in relation to an efficient neonatal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, C; Hyde, M J; Modi, N

    2017-07-01

    Randomised controlled trials, a gold-standard approach to reduce uncertainties in clinical practice, are growing in cost and are often slow to recruit. We determined whether methodological approaches to facilitate large, efficient clinical trials were acceptable to UK research ethics committees (RECs). We developed a protocol in collaboration with parents, for a comparative-effectiveness, randomised controlled trial comparing two widely used blood transfusion practices in preterm infants. We incorporated four approaches to improve recruitment and efficiency: (i) point-of-care design using electronic patient records for patient identification, randomisation and data acquisition, (ii) short two-page information sheet; (iii) explicit mention of possible inclusion benefit; (iv) opt-out consent with enrolment as the default. With the support of the UK Health Research Authority, we submitted an identical protocol to 12 UK REC. RECs in the UK. Number of REC granting favourable opinions. The use of electronic patient records was acceptable to all RECs; one REC raised concerns about the short parent information sheet, 10 about inclusion benefit and 9 about opt-out consent. Following responses to queries, nine RECs granted a favourable final opinion and three rejected the application because they considered the opt-out consent process invalid. A majority of RECs in this study consider the use of electronic patient record data, short information sheets, opt-out consent and mention of possible inclusion benefit to be acceptable in neonatal comparative-effectiveness research. We identified a need for guidance for RECs in relation to opt-out consent processes. These methods provide opportunity to facilitate large randomised controlled trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. A general theory to explain the relatively high cost of environmental restoration at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Restoration costs for Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have been the subject of much scrutiny and concern for several years. General opinion is that DOE clean-up costs are as much as three times higher than costs for similar clean-up projects in the private sector. Consequently, DOE Environmental Restoration professionals are continually under pressure to do more with less, which, ironically, can lead to additional inefficiencies in the system. This paper proposes a general theory as to why DOE costs are higher, explains the reasons why current conditions will make it difficult to realize any pervasive or significant decreases in clean-up costs, and presents some general changes that need to take place in the DOE system in order to bring about conditions that will allow more efficient clean-up to occur. The theory is based on a simple economic model that describes the balance between the resources spent for risk avoidance and the corresponding changes in overall productivity as a function of risk. The elementary concepts illustrated with the economic model, when refined and specifically applied, have the potential to become the catalyst for significant change-change that is absolutely necessary if we truly intend to conduct environmental clean-up with the same efficiencies as private industry

  4. analysis of cost efficiency in food crop production among small-scale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Food crop production in Nigeria is dominated by small-scale farmers ... influenced by farm-specific factors, which delineate their ..... vii). Cost of seed: This is the total expenses on seed incurred by the farmer during the last cropping season. It.

  5. analysis of cost efficiency in food crop production among small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Eleven cropping systems were identified with mixed cropping accounting for about 53% of the cropping systems and about 54% of the total hectarage allocations. The maximum likelihood estimates of the stochastic cost function revealed that the explanatory variables; extension contact, crop diversification and credit ...

  6. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif; Leung, Siu; Fan, Zhiyong; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2017-01-01

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication

  7. Efficiency Comparison of Various Parking Charge Schemes Considering Daily Travel Cost in a Linear City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new duration dependent parking fee regime based on the travel cost for an entire day, rather than a single commute trip. Commuters are assumed to reside at one end of a linear city and work in a business center at the other end. A two-stage differential method is used

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Concrete Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, E.; Masanet, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for about 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials

  9. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able

  10. A case study of cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, L.M.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    We propose a mathematical programming formulation that incorporates annualized hours and shows to be very flexible with regard to modeling various contract types. The objective of our model is to minimize salary cost, thereby covering workforce demand, and using annualized hours. Our model is able

  11. An Efficiency Improved Active Power Decoupling Circuit with Minimized Implementation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    topology does not require additional passive component, e.g. inductors or film capacitors for ripple energy storage because this task can be accomplished by the dc-link capacitors themselves, and therefore its implementation cost can be minimized. Another unique feature of the proposed topology...

  12. The Cost Efficiency Impact of the University Operation Fund on Public Universities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jenn-Shyong; Ho, Yi-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This study uses the stochastic frontier multiple-product cost function that is modeled after Battese and Coelli [Battese, G. E., & Coelli, T. J. (1995). "A model for technical inefficiency effects in a stochastic frontier production for panel data." "Empirical Economics" 20(2), 325-332.] in order to empirically measure the…

  13. Cost and fuel efficient SCR-only solution for post-2010 HD emission standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, P.V.A.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment

  14. Efficiencies of Internet-based digital and paper-based scientific surveys and the estimated costs and time for different-sized cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E Uhlig

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relative efficiencies of five Internet-based digital and three paper-based scientific surveys and to estimate the costs for different-sized cohorts.Invitations to participate in a survey were distributed via e-mail to employees of two university hospitals (E1 and E2 and to members of a medical association (E3, as a link placed in a special text on the municipal homepage regularly read by the administrative employees of two cities (H1 and H2, and paper-based to workers at an automobile enterprise (P1 and college (P2 and senior (P3 students. The main parameters analyzed included the numbers of invited and actual participants, and the time and cost to complete the survey. Statistical analysis was descriptive, except for the Kruskal-Wallis-H-test, which was used to compare the three recruitment methods. Cost efficiencies were compared and extrapolated to different-sized cohorts.The ratios of completely answered questionnaires to distributed questionnaires were between 81.5% (E1 and 97.4% (P2. Between 6.4% (P1 and 57.0% (P2 of the invited participants completely answered the questionnaires. The costs per completely answered questionnaire were $0.57-$1.41 (E1-3, $1.70 and $0.80 for H1 and H2, respectively, and $3.36-$4.21 (P1-3. Based on our results, electronic surveys with 10, 20, 30, or 42 questions would be estimated to be most cost (and time efficient if more than 101.6-225.9 (128.2-391.7, 139.8-229.2 (93.8-193.6, 165.8-230.6 (68.7-115.7, or 188.2-231.5 (44.4-72.7 participants were required, respectively.The study efficiency depended on the technical modalities of the survey methods and engagement of the participants. Depending on our study design, our results suggest that in similar projects that will certainly have more than two to three hundred required participants, the most efficient way of conducting a questionnaire-based survey is likely via the Internet with a digital questionnaire, specifically via a centralized e-mail.

  15. High Efficiency, Low Cost Parabolic Dish System for Cogeneration of Electricity and Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayet, Haim; Lozovsky, Ilan; Kost, Ori; Loeckenhoff, Ruediger; Rasch, Klaus-Dieter

    2010-10-01

    Highly efficient combined heat and power generating system based on CPV technology using unique dish design consisting of multiple simple flat mirrors mounted on a plastic parabolic surface. The dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 focuses 10.3 kWp onto a heat and electricity generating receiver. The receiver comprises a water cooled, dense triple junction cell array of 176 cm2 aperture area. A unique arrangement of the cells compensates for the non-uniformity of the reflected flux. Depending on the flow rate, the temperature of the hot water can be adjusted to suit from temperatures for domestic use, to temperatures suited for process heat. The output of 2.3 kWp electrical and 5.5 kWp thermal power from one dish system represent 20 to 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 70% overall system efficiency.

  16. A robust AHP-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency: An application of airport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been an important topic of research among many researchers. Data envelopment analysis has been one of the most important techniques for measuring the efficiency of different units. However, there are some limitations on using such technique and some people prefer to use other methods such as analytical hierarchy process to measure the relative efficiencies. Besides, uncertainty in the input data is another issue, which makes some misleading results. In this paper, we present an integrated robust DEA-AHP to measure the relative efficiency of similar units. The proposed model of this is believed to capable of presenting better results in terms of efficiency compared with exclusive usage of DEA or AHP. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated for a real-world case study of Airport industry and the results are analyzed.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  18. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  19. Costs and compensation of work‐related injuries in British Columbia sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Tompa, Emile; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Demers, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the costs of work‐related injury in a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia from the perspective of the workers' compensation system. Methods Hospital discharge records were extracted from 1989 to 1998 for a cohort of 5786 actively employed sawmill workers. A total of 173 work‐related injury cases were identified from these records using the International classification of diseases—ninth revision (ICD‐9) external cause of injury codes and the responsibility of payment schedule. Workers' compensation records were extracted and matched with hospital records by dates and ICD‐9 diagnosis codes. All costs were converted into 1995 constant Canadian dollars using the Provincial General Consumer Price Index for the non‐healthcare costs and Medical Consumer Price Index for the healthcare costs. A 5% discounting rate was applied to adjust for the time value of money. For the uncompensated cases, costs were imputed from the compensated cases using the median cost for a similar nature of injury. Results 370 hospitalisation events due to injury were captured, and by either of the two indicators (E Codes or payment schedules), 173 (47%) hospitalisation events due to injury, were identified as work related. The median healthcare cost was $4377 and the median non‐healthcare cost was $16 559 for a work‐related injury. The median non‐healthcare and healthcare costs by injury were falls, $19 978 and $5185; struck by falling object, $32 398 and $8625; struck against, $12 667 and $5741; machinery related, $26 480 and $6643; caught in or between, $24 130 and $4389; and overexertion, $7801 and $2710. The total cost was $10 374 115 for non‐healthcare and $1 764 137 for healthcare. The compensation agency did not compensate $874 871 (8.4%) of the non‐healthcare costs and $200 588 (11.4%) of the healthcare costs. Conclusion Eliminating avoidable work‐related injury events can save valuable resources. PMID:17053018

  20. Costs and compensation of work-related injuries in British Columbia sawmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Tompa, Emile; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Demers, Paul A

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the costs of work-related injury in a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia from the perspective of the workers' compensation system. Hospital discharge records were extracted from 1989 to 1998 for a cohort of 5786 actively employed sawmill workers. A total of 173 work-related injury cases were identified from these records using the International classification of diseases-ninth revision (ICD-9) external cause of injury codes and the responsibility of payment schedule. Workers' compensation records were extracted and matched with hospital records by dates and ICD-9 diagnosis codes. All costs were converted into 1995 constant Canadian dollars using the Provincial General Consumer Price Index for the non-healthcare costs and Medical Consumer Price Index for the healthcare costs. A 5% discounting rate was applied to adjust for the time value of money. For the uncompensated cases, costs were imputed from the compensated cases using the median cost for a similar nature of injury. 370 hospitalisation events due to injury were captured, and by either of the two indicators (E Codes or payment schedules), 173 (47%) hospitalisation events due to injury, were identified as work related. The median healthcare cost was 4377 dollars and the median non-healthcare cost was 16,559 dollars for a work-related injury. The median non-healthcare and healthcare costs by injury were falls, 19,978 dollars and 5185 dollars; struck by falling object, 32,398 dollars and 8625 dollars; struck against, 12,667 dollars and 5741 dollars; machinery related, 26,480 dollars and 6643 dollars; caught in or between, 24,130 dollars and 4389 dollars; and overexertion, 7801 dollars and 2710 dollars. The total cost was 10,374,115 dollars for non-healthcare and 1,764,137 dollars for healthcare. The compensation agency did not compensate 874,871 dollars (8.4%) of the non-healthcare costs and 200,588 dollars (11.4%) of the healthcare costs. Eliminating avoidable work-related injury events

  1. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  2. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  3. Designing efficient logging systems for northern hardwoods using equipment production capabilities and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Gardner

    1966-01-01

    Describes a typical logging system used in the Lake and Northeastern States, discusses each step in the operation, and presents a simple method for designing and efficient logging system for such an operation. Points out that a system should always be built around the key piece of equipment, which is usually the skidder. Specific equipment types and their production...

  4. Have Dutch Municipalities Become More Efficient in Managing the Costs of Social Assistance Dependency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; Edzes, Arjen; van Dijk, Jouke

    2010-01-01

    Many welfare reforms undertaken in OECD-countries are directed towards enhancing efficiency in the administration and implementation of social security and social benefits. In this perspective the governance reforms in The Netherlands are an example of decentralisation through budgeting of means to

  5. Reducing the efficiency–stability–cost gap of organic photovoltaics with highly efficient and stable small molecule acceptor ternary solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2016-11-21

    Technological deployment of organic photovoltaic modules requires improvements in device light-conversion efficiency and stability while keeping material costs low. Here we demonstrate highly efficient and stable solar cells using a ternary approach, wherein two non-fullerene acceptors are combined with both a scalable and affordable donor polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and a high-efficiency, low-bandgap polymer in a single-layer bulk-heterojunction device. The addition of a strongly absorbing small molecule acceptor into a P3HT-based non-fullerene blend increases the device efficiency up to 7.7 ± 0.1% without any solvent additives. The improvement is assigned to changes in microstructure that reduce charge recombination and increase the photovoltage, and to improved light harvesting across the visible region. The stability of P3HT-based devices in ambient conditions is also significantly improved relative to polymer:fullerene devices. Combined with a low-bandgap donor polymer (PBDTTT-EFT, also known as PCE10), the two mixed acceptors also lead to solar cells with 11.0 ± 0.4% efficiency and a high open-circuit voltage of 1.03 ± 0.01 V.

  6. Reducing the efficiency–stability–cost gap of organic photovoltaics with highly efficient and stable small molecule acceptor ternary solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya; Ashraf, Raja; Hanifi, David A.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Gasparini, Nicola; Rö hr, Jason A.; Holliday, Sarah; Wadsworth, Andrew; Lockett, Sarah; Neophytou, Marios; Emmott, Christopher J. M.; Nelson, Jenny; Brabec, Christoph J.; Amassian, Aram; Salleo, Alberto; Kirchartz, Thomas; Durrant, James R.; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Technological deployment of organic photovoltaic modules requires improvements in device light-conversion efficiency and stability while keeping material costs low. Here we demonstrate highly efficient and stable solar cells using a ternary approach, wherein two non-fullerene acceptors are combined with both a scalable and affordable donor polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and a high-efficiency, low-bandgap polymer in a single-layer bulk-heterojunction device. The addition of a strongly absorbing small molecule acceptor into a P3HT-based non-fullerene blend increases the device efficiency up to 7.7 ± 0.1% without any solvent additives. The improvement is assigned to changes in microstructure that reduce charge recombination and increase the photovoltage, and to improved light harvesting across the visible region. The stability of P3HT-based devices in ambient conditions is also significantly improved relative to polymer:fullerene devices. Combined with a low-bandgap donor polymer (PBDTTT-EFT, also known as PCE10), the two mixed acceptors also lead to solar cells with 11.0 ± 0.4% efficiency and a high open-circuit voltage of 1.03 ± 0.01 V.

  7. Promotional programmes for energy conservation and CO2 avoidance. Efficiency and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenboehmer, S.; Bach, W.

    1994-01-01

    Least-cost planning and demand-side management are attempts to bring into accord company policies of the energy utility with the targets of environmental and climate protection and resource savings. Since 1982 also the Stadtwerke Muenster have promotional programmes for heating system modernization. With the example of three current promotional programmes the article analysis the costs of such programmes, their impact with regard to energy conservation and CO 2 avoidance and their status within the scope of local climate protection. Moreover the volume of investment is assessed which is necessary in Muenster to reduce the heating energy consumption of existing residential buildings till 2005 by more than one third. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Cost Efficiency Implications of International Cooperation (Implications de rentabilite de la cooperation internationale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    student throughput. As can be seen in the figure, the cost 5 Based the International Labour Organization (ILO) Key Indicators of the Labour Market ...International Labour Organization JPO US F-35 Joint Program Office LS Learning Slope MATC Czech Republic-led Multinational Aviation...meeting in November 2010 in Paris. The participating members have been Canada, the Czech Republic, Italy, Norway (chair) and the United Kingdom. The

  9. Analysis on Cost Efficiency Impact in PT XYZ ADKAR and HERO Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Miscel, Miscel; Bangun, Yuni Ros

    2013-01-01

    Today the world of telecommunications experience intense competition, not only for the operators but also for vendors and suppliers. Competition tariff making operators also reduce the cost of network devices and service / maintance. It affects all network equipment providers or vendors. Each vendor trying to offer competitive prices for the operator. Yet the competition among vendors themselves. PT XYZ as one of the network equipment providers strive to remain competitive and survive in the ...

  10. DOD Civilian and Contractor Workforces: Additional Cost Savings Data and Efficiencies Plan are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Enterprise-wide Contractor Manpower Reporting Application (ECMRA) across all its components, and which will continue to improve reporting of...costs: Not applicable yes (estimated) no (estimated) Source: GAO analysis of DOD’s February 2016 status report | GAO-17-128 aNumber of...and interviewed DOD officials. What GAO Recommends GAO previously recommended that DOD fully address ongoing section 955 requirements, such as

  11. Efficiency of rate and latency coding with respect to metabolic cost and time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 161, Nov 2017 (2017), s. 31-40 ISSN 0303-2647 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * temporal coding * metabolic cost * Fisher information Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  12. Exploring No-Cost Opportunities for Public Sector Information Systems Energy Efficiency: A Tennessee Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Abkowitz Brooks

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC completed a pilot project within its Central Office spaces to test the utilization of computer power management (CPM technologies to implement power saving settings on state-owned, network-connected computer equipment. Currently, the State of Tennessee has no clear protocol regarding energy-conserving power settings on state-owned machines. Activation of monitor sleep modes and system standby and hibernation modes on 615 Central Office computers over an 18-month period reduced energy consumption by an estimated 8093 kWh and $526 per month, amounting to approximately $6312 in cost savings for Tennessee annually. If implemented throughout State of Tennessee executive agencies across the state, energy cost savings could amount to an estimated $323,341 annually. The research endeavored to understand both positive and negative impacts that strategic power management approaches can have on energy consumption, worker productivity, network security, and state budgets. Nearly all impacts discussed were positive. Based on successful results within TDEC Central Office spaces in Tennessee Tower, and considering the potential cost savings that could be achieved, expansion of the implementation of computer power management policies to machines in offices across the state was recommended.

  13. Progress in N-type Si Solar Cell and Module Technology for High Efficiency and Low Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dengyuan; Xiong, Jingfeng; Hu, Zhiyan; Li, Gaofei; Wang, Hongfang; An, Haijiao; Yu, Bo; Grenko, Brian; Borden, Kevin; Sauer, Kenneth; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Haitao [Yingli Green Energy Holding Co., LTD, 071051 Boading (China); Roessler, T. [Yingli Green Energy Europe GmbH, Heimeranstr. 37, 80339 Munich (Germany); Bultman, J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Vlooswijk, A.H.G.; Venema, P.R. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 Vaassen (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A novel high efficiency solar cell and module technology, named PANDA, using crystalline n-type CZ Si wafers has moved into large-scale production at Yingli. The first commercial sales of the PANDA modules commenced in mid 2010. Up to 600MW of mass production capacity from crystal-Si growth, wafer slicing, cell processing and module assembly have been implemented by the end of 2011. The PANDA technology was developed specifically for high efficiency and low cost. In contrast to the existing n-type Si solar cell manufacturing methods in mass production, this new technology is largely compatible with a traditional p-type Si solar cell production line by conventional diffusion, SiNx coating and screen-printing technology. With optimizing all technologies, Yingli's PANDA solar cells on semi-square 6-inch n-type CZ wafers (cell size 239cm{sup 2}) have been improved to currently have an average efficiency on commercial production lines exceeding 19.0% and up to 20.0% in pilot production. The PANDA modules have been produced and were certified according to UL1703, IEC 61215 and IEC 61730 standards. Nearly two years of full production on scale-up lines show that the PANDA modules have a high efficiency and power density, superior high temperature performance, near zero initial light induced degradation, and excellent efficiency at low irradiance.

  14. Analyzing the efficiency, stability and cost potential for fullerene-free organic photovoltaics in one Figure of Merit

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ning

    2018-03-16

    The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPV) devices continue increasing towards the 15% milestone. The recently-emerging non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) have significantly accelerated this development. Most of the efficiency analyses performed previously are based on a fullerene acceptor without considering its contribution to the enhancement of photo-absorption and PCE. Moreover, the stability and cost potential of OPV devices are usually not discussed, which sometimes makes the efficiency prediction less representative for broad interest. In this work, we effectively combine the prediction of efficiencies with experimentally determined stability data to analyze and predict the commercial potential of a NFA-based OPV product. Assuming that NFAs dominate the blend near IR absorption, the efficiency limit of OPV devices is predicted to be close to 20% and is found to be insensitive to the donor bandgap. Along with the excellent photo-stability observed for state-of-the-art NFA-based OPV devices, it is suggested to design corresponding customized donors with promising processing properties, excellent environmental stability and low synthesis complexity as a realistic material pair for large-scale production and commercialization.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  16. Promoting Approaches For Increasing The Cost-Efficiency Of Energy Wood And Pulpwood Harvesting In Young Stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikari, Markku; Palander, Teijo; Ovaskainen, Heikki (Univ. of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Science FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)); Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy , FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Potential approaches for increasing the cost-efficiency of energy wood and industrial roundwood (i.e. pulpwood) harvesting from early thinnings in Finland were ranked in the survey carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and the University of Joensuu. The study was implemented by conducting personal interviews. Research data, based on a total of 40 interviews, were collected during January and February, 2008. In this study, employment, education, and operator issues proved to be of decisive importance for improving energy wood and industrial roundwood harvesting. In the opinion of the respondents, there is considerable potential for increasing the cost-efficiency of wood harvesting by improving harvesting conditions (i.e. effective tending of seedling stands, delaying harvesting operations, pre-clearance of undergrowth, and new wood production methods). The interviewees also stressed that harvesting methods can be rationalized, e.g. multiple-tree handling in industrial roundwood cuttings, integrated pulpwood and energy wood harvesting, and grapple scale measuring. If the most potential methods and techniques were utilized completely in wood harvesting, then there would be significant possibilities for cost savings in young stands. Based on the suggestions of this study, the most profitable guidelines should be utilized immediately

  17. Design and Analysis of Cost-Efficient Sensor Deployment for Tracking Small UAS with Agent-Based Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangmi; Park, Seongha; Kim, Yongho; Matson, Eric T

    2016-04-22

    Recently, commercial unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have gained popularity. However, these UAS are potential threats to people in terms of safety in public places, such as public parks or stadiums. To reduce such threats, we consider a design, modeling, and evaluation of a cost-efficient sensor system that detects and tracks small UAS. In this research, we focus on discovering the best sensor deployments by simulating different types and numbers of sensors in a designated area, which provide reasonable detection rates at low costs. Also, the system should cover the crowded areas more thoroughly than vacant areas to reduce direct threats to people underneath. This research study utilized the Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) technique to model a system consisting of independent and heterogeneous agents that interact with each other. Our previous work presented the ability to apply ABM to analyze the sensor configurations with two types of radars in terms of cost-efficiency. The results from the ABM simulation provide a list of candidate configurations and deployments that can be referred to for applications in the real world environment.

  18. Cost efficient utilisation of biomass in the German energy system in the context of energy and environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The possible uses of biomass for energy provision are manifold. Gaseous, liquid and solid bioenergy carriers can be alternatively converted into heat, power or transport fuel. The contribution of the different utilisation pathways to environmental political targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction and energy political targets for the future share of renewable energy vary accordingly to their techno-economic characteristics. The aim of the presented study is to assess the different biomass options against the background of energy and environmental political targets based on a system analytical approach for the future German energy sector. The results show that heat generation and to a lower extent combined heat and power (CHP) production from solid biomass like wood and straw are the most cost effective ways to contribute to the emission reduction targets. The use of energy crops in fermentation biogas plants (maize) and for production of 1st generation transportation fuels, like biodiesel from rapeseed and ethanol from grain or sugar beet, are less favourable. Optimisation potentials lie in a switch to the production of 2nd generation biofuels and the enhanced use of either biomass residues or low production intensive energy crops. - Research Highlights: → Heat generation and CHP generation from biomass can contribute cost efficiently to emission reduction targets. → Biofuel production represenst the least cost efficient option for emission reduction when using biomass energetically. → The energetical use of biomass shows a high potential to contribute to energy and envirnoment political targets.

  19. Design and Analysis of Cost-Efficient Sensor Deployment for Tracking Small UAS with Agent-Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Shin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, commercial unmanned aerial systems (UAS have gained popularity. However, these UAS are potential threats to people in terms of safety in public places, such as public parks or stadiums. To reduce such threats, we consider a design, modeling, and evaluation of a cost-efficient sensor system that detects and tracks small UAS. In this research, we focus on discovering the best sensor deployments by simulating different types and numbers of sensors in a designated area, which provide reasonable detection rates at low costs. Also, the system should cover the crowded areas more thoroughly than vacant areas to reduce direct threats to people underneath. This research study utilized the Agent-Based Modeling (ABM technique to model a system consisting of independent and heterogeneous agents that interact with each other. Our previous work presented the ability to apply ABM to analyze the sensor configurations with two types of radars in terms of cost-efficiency. The results from the ABM simulation provide a list of candidate configurations and deployments that can be referred to for applications in the real world environment.

  20. Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.