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Sample records for relative concentration profile

  1. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  2. Relative effects of plasma, fibrinogen concentrate, and factor XIII on ROTEM coagulation profiles in an in vitro model of massive transfusion in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David E; Halmin, Märit; Wikman, Agneta; Östlund, Anders; Ågren, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Massive traumatic haemorrhage is aggravated through the development of trauma-induced coagulopathy, which is managed by plasma transfusion and/or fibrinogen concentrate administration. It is yet unclear whether these treatments are equally potent in ensuring adequate haemostasis, and whether additional factor XIII (FXIII) administration provides further benefits. In this study, we compared ROTEM whole blood coagulation profiles after experimental massive transfusion with different transfusion regimens in an in vitro model of dilution- and transfusion-related coagulopathy. Healthy donor blood was mixed 1 + 1 with six different transfusion regimens. Each regimen contained RBC, platelet concentrate, and either fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or Ringer's acetate (RA). The regimens were further augmented through addition of a low- or medium-dose fibrinogen concentrate and FXIII. Transfusion with FFP alone was insufficient to maintain tissue-factor activated clot strength, coincidental with a deficiency in fibrin-based clot strength. Fibrinogen concentrate conserved, but did not improve coagulation kinetics and overall clot strength. Only combination therapy with FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved both coagulation kinetics and fibrin-based clot strength. Administration of FXIII did not result in an improvement of clot strength. In conclusion, combination therapy with both FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved clotting time and produced firm clots, representing a possible preferred first-line regimen to manage trauma-induced coagulopathy when RBC and platelets are also transfused. Further research is required to identify optimal first-line transfusion fluids for massive traumatic haemorrhage.

  3. Fluorine concentration profiles in archaeological bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Sparks, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences was applied to the measurement of radial concentration profiles of fluorine, in transverse slices of archaeological bone from humans, moas, and other animals. A beam of 2.5 MeV protons was focused to a rectangular spot 250 microns by 50 microns, traversed along a radial line 3mm long, and gamma rays of 5-7 MeV from the reaction 19 F(p, α#betta#) 16 O were detected in a large sodium iodide crystal. Bombardment caused no detectable loss of fluorine from the bone. Measured profiles display a wide variety of shapes and maximum concentrations. In bones which had been exposed to ground water the fluorine concentration usually increases from the centre towards the surface, sometimes by as much as a factor of eight. The concentration at the surface is usually in the range 0.2 to 1%, though in moa bone from a limestone cave it is only 0.025%. Once a quantitative method of analysis has been developed, based on the shape of the profile rather than its magnitude, these profiles might be useful for dating bone. In the meantime, they could be used to distinguish bones of different ages from a common site

  4. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  5. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  6. Validation of predicted exponential concentration profiles of chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, Anne; Baijens, Iris; Ragas, Ad; Huijbregts, Mark; Meent, Dik van de

    2007-01-01

    Multimedia mass balance models assume well-mixed homogeneous compartments. Particularly for soils, this does not correspond to reality, which results in potentially large uncertainties in estimates of transport fluxes from soils. A theoretically expected exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth has been proposed, but hardly tested against empirical data. In this paper, we explored the correspondence between theoretically predicted soil concentration profiles and 84 field measured profiles. In most cases, chemical concentrations in soils appear to decline exponentially with depth, and values for the chemical specific soil penetration depth (d p ) are predicted within one order of magnitude. Over all, the reliability of multimedia models will improve when they account for depth-dependent soil concentrations, so we recommend to take into account the described theoretical exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth in chemical fate studies. In this model the d p -values should estimated be either based on local conditions or on a fixed d p -value, which we recommend to be 10 cm for chemicals with a log K ow > 3. - Multimedia mass model predictions will improve when taking into account depth dependent soil concentrations

  7. Factors that influence an elemental depth concentration profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of secondary ion mass spectrometry in concentration profiling is discussed. Two classes of factors that influence an elemental concentration profile are instrumental effects and ion-matrix effects. Instrumental factors that must be considered are: (1) uniformity of the primary ion current density, (2) constancy of the primary ion current, (3) redeposition, (4) memory, (5) primary ion beam tailing and the nonfocused component, (6) chemical purity of the primary ion beam, and (7) residual gas impurities. Factors which can be classified as ion matrix effects are: (1) the mean escape depth of secondary ions, (2) recoil implantation, (3) molecular ion interferences, (4) primary ion beam induced diffusion of matrix species, (5) nonuniform sputter removal of matrix layers, and (6) implanted primary ion chemical and lattice damage effects

  8. Ionization rates and profiles of electron concentration in Martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komitov, B.; Spasov, S.; Gogoshev, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization and vertical profiles of electron concentration in the Martian atmosphere are calculated as functions of the solar zenith angles varying from O deg to 90 deg. A neutral atmospheric model based on direct mass-spectometric measurements from the Viking-1 landing modul is employed in the calculation. The Earth data of the ionization solar flux at the same level of the solar activity and for the month of the Viking-1 measurements reduced for the Mars orbit are used. The numerical result for the photoionization rates and quasi-equilibrium electron-concentration profiles in the upper Martian atmosphere at different solar zenith angles from 0 deg to 100 deg are presented. It is shown that the maxima of both quantities decrease and move towards the upper atmosphere regions. The calculated electron density at the zenith solar angle of 40 deg are compared to Viking-1 experimental data and a good agreement is achieved

  9. Atmospheric relative concentrations in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.; Smyth, S.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the ARCON95 computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research for use in control room habitability assessments. The document includes a user's guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, and a programmer's guide to the code. The ARCON95 code uses hourly meteorological data and recently developed methods for estimating dispersion in the vicinity of buildings to calculate relative concentrations at control room air intakes that would be exceeded no more five percent of the time. These concentrations are calculated for averaging periods ranging from one hour to 30 days in duration. Relative concentrations calculated by ARCON95 are significantly lower than concentrations calculated using the currently accepted procedure when winds are less than two meters per second. For higher wind speeds, ARCON95 calculates about the same concentrations as the current procedure

  10. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko [Department of Veterinary Radiology and Radiation Biology, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Towada, Aomori (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizuka, Iwate (Japan); Futatsugawa, Shoji [Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center (NMCC), Takizuka, Iwate (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  11. Tissue concentration-time profile of selenium after sodium selenite administration to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko; Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and brain of rats (Jcl Wister, 9 wks old, n=32) were investigated after a single intravenous (iv) / oral (po) administration of sodium selenite (dose is equivalent to 2 mg/kg b.w. of Se). The Se concentration was determined by PIXE analysis. Among the investigated biological samples, Se concentration was the highest in the kidney or liver, followed by the heart, lung or spleen, then plasma, and the brain. Se concentrations in these organs were 0.5 to 5 times of plasma Se. The distribution profiles of Se in the organs were dependent on the route of administration. Furthermore, their profiles appeared almost parallel to the plasma Se-concentration in a logarithmic scale. Compared to the Se concentration-time profiles in plasma and organs by the route of administration, po group showed about 1/4-1/2 of the Se concentration in iv group except for kidney. Kidney kept relatively higher concentration of Se, which was similar in the both groups. This may explain our recently published data that urinary excretion was similar in the both groups. The relative oral bioavailability of plasma and each organ was calculated by the ratio of area under the concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) to AUCiv. Each organ appeared to have their own bioavailability (i.e., liver 39%, kidney 97%, heart 37%, lung 18%, spleen 10%, and brain 72%), where plasma was 46%. These results highly suggested that different Se distribution in organs by the different route of administration was due to the different metabolic profile. (author)

  12. Atmospheric relative concentrations in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the ARCON96 computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation for potential use in control room habitability assessments. It includes a user's guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, and a programmer's guide to the code. The ARCON96 code uses hourly meteorological data and recently developed methods for estimating dispersion in the vicinity of buildings to calculate relative concentrations at control room air intakes that would be exceeded no more than five percent of the time. The concentrations are calculated for averaging periods ranging from one hour to 30 days in duration. ARCON96 is a revised version of ARCON95, which was developed for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Changes in the code permit users to simulate releases from area sources as well as point sources. The method of averaging concentrations for periods longer than 2 hours has also been changed. The change in averaging procedures increases relative concentrations for these averaging periods. In general, the increase in concentrations is less than a factor of two. The increase is greatest for relatively short averaging periods, for example 0 to 8 hours and diminishes as the duration of the averaging period increases

  13. Hydrogen concentration profiles and chemical bonding in silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.; Stein, H.J.; Doyle, B.L.; Picraux, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    The complementary technique of nuclear reaction analysis and infrared absorption were used to study the concentration profile and chemical bonding of hydrogen in silicon nitride for different preparation and annealing conditions. Silicon nitride prepared by chemical vapor deposition from ammonia-silane mixtures is shown to have hydrogen concentrations of 8.1 and 6.5 at.% for deposition temperatures of 750 and 900 0 C, respectively. Plasma deposition at 300 0 C from these gases results in hydrogen concentrations of approximately 22 at.%. Comparison of nuclear reaction analysis and infrared absorption measurements after isothermal annealing shows that all of the hydrogen retained in the films remains bonded to either silicon or nitrogen and that hydrogen release from the material on annealing is governed by various trap energies involving at least two N-H and one Si-H trap. Reasonable estimates of the hydrogen release rates can be made from the effective diffusion coefficient obtained from measurements of hydrogen migration in hydrogen implanted and annealed films

  14. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  15. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  16. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  17. Zeolite-filled silicone rubber membranes. Experimental determination of concentration profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Hennepe, H.J.C.; Boswerger, W.B.F.; Bargeman, D.; Bargeman, D.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Permeant concentrations in silicalite-filled silicone rubber membranes during pervaporation of propanol/water mixtures were measured using multi-layered membranes. Experimentally determined concentration profiles show that the propanol concentration in the silicalite-filled membrane increases with

  18. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  19. Ambient NO2 concentration profiles in Flanders using passive sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Potgieter-Vermaak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of Europe NO2 emissions from excessive road traffic, concentrated by confined spaces and limited dispersion, are often higher than the ambient guideline values. As a pollutant,NO2 has a number of adverse effects on human health and the environment. The European Union sets guideline and threshold values for various pollutants, to protect humans and the environment, of which NO2 is one. Flanders adopted these values as most countries did, and the monitoring and evaluation of the levels against these guideline values are mostly done by VMM (the Flemish Environmental Company. The air quality Framework Directive (96/62/EG was drafted on the27th of September 1996 and instituted on the 21st of November 1996. New guideline values forNO2 will come into effect in 2010 (1999/30/EG. The future hourly guideline value is 200 µg m-3which may not be exceeded more than 18 times in a calendar year. The average annual guideline value must not exceed 40 µg m-3.Currently various pollutants are continuously monitored by means of fixed monster monitors and analysers, where after data is extrapolated to give an overview of the dispersion. In the 2003annual report the future guideline value has been exceeded in 7 locations in Flanders. Moreover, in a separate study it was reported that in various locations with high traffic density and low dispersion, this value was exceeded, even though the dispersion model did not indicate it. Hence, to test these and other locations against the future guideline value a total of 19points, in 6 different cities and towns in Flanders, were chosen to monitor the NO2 profile over a1 year period. Passive sampling, averaged over periods of 2 weeks, was used and comparisons with the fixed monitors in some of these locations were possible. The future annual guideline value of 40 µg m-3 (2010 was exceeded in 11 of the 19 measured locations. When high traffic density was accompanied by low dispersion the value was at its

  20. An improved procedure for determining grain boundary diffusion coefficients from averaged concentration profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, D.; Fleig, J.; Maier, J.

    2008-03-01

    Whipple's solution of the problem of grain boundary diffusion and Le Claire's relation, which is often used to determine grain boundary diffusion coefficients, are examined for a broad range of ratios of grain boundary to bulk diffusivities Δ and diffusion times t. Different reasons leading to errors in determining the grain boundary diffusivity (DGB) when using Le Claire's relation are discussed. It is shown that nonlinearities of the diffusion profiles in lnCav-y6/5 plots and deviations from "Le Claire's constant" (-0.78) are the major error sources (Cav=averaged concentration, y =coordinate in diffusion direction). An improved relation (replacing Le Claire's constant) is suggested for analyzing diffusion profiles particularly suited for small diffusion lengths (short times) as often required in diffusion experiments on nanocrystalline materials.

  1. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  2. Temporal Profiles Dissociate Regional Extracellular Ethanol versus Dopamine Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of dopamine via microdialysis has demonstrated that acute, systemic ethanol increases extracellular dopamine in regions innervated by dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Simultaneous measurement of dialysate dopamine and ethanol allows comparison of the time courses of their extracellular concentrations. Early studies demonstrated dissociations between the time courses of brain ethanol concentrations and dopaminergic responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) elicited by acute ethanol administration. Both brain ethanol and extracellular dopamine levels peak during the first 5 min following systemic ethanol administration, but the dopamine response returns to baseline while brain ethanol concentrations remain elevated. Post hoc analyses examined ratios of the dopamine response (represented as a percent above baseline) to tissue concentrations of ethanol at different time points within the first 25–30 min in the prefrontal cortex, NAc core and shell, and dorsomedial striatum following a single intravenous infusion of ethanol (1 g/kg). The temporal patterns of these “response ratios” differed across brain regions, possibly due to regional differences in the mechanisms underlying the decline of the dopamine signal associated with acute intravenous ethanol administration and/or to the differential effects of acute ethanol on the properties of subpopulations of midbrain dopamine neurons. This Review draws on neurochemical, physiological, and molecular studies to summarize the effects of acute ethanol administration on dopamine activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions, to explore the potential reasons for the regional differences observed in the decline of ethanol-induced dopamine signals, and to suggest directions for future research. PMID:25537116

  3. Height profile of particle concentration in an aeolian saltating cloud: A wind tunnel investigation by PIV MSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ayrault, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Attempt is made to define the particle concentration in an aeolian saltating cloud and its variation with height using artificial spherical quartz sand in a wind tunnel. The height profiles of the relative particle concentration in aeolian saltating cloud at three wind velocities were detected by the state of the art PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) MSD (Mie Scattering Diffusion) technique, and converted to actual concentration based on sand transport rate and the variation with height of velocity of the saltating cloud. The particle concentration was found to decay exponentially with height and to increase with wind velocity. It decayed more rapidly when the wind velocity decreased. The volume/volume concentration in the near-surface layer was at the order of 10-4. The results obtained by PIV MSD technique were in good agreement with those derived from the sand flux and velocity profiles, the former being about 15% greater than the later.

  4. Study on characteristics of fluorine concentration profiles in fluorosis sheep teeth and bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shizhan; Shui Yongqing; Wang Lianbin; Yang Huazhong; Zhai Xujiu; Wang Yuwen; Lei Guilin

    1990-01-01

    The deep-ward fluorine concentration profiles in fluorosis sheep teeth and bones were determined through 19 F(p, αγ) 16 O reaction with proton energy 3.2 MeV. The profiles show a diffusion characteristic, indicating that the fluorine ion diffusion may be one of the important factors that brought forth pathological changes of livestock teeth and bones

  5. Dynamic changes in amino acid concentration profiles in patients with sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Su

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the dynamic concentration profiles of 42 amino acids and the significance of these profiles in relation to sepsis, with the aim of providing guidance for clinical therapies.Thirty-five critically ill patients with sepsis were included. These patients were further divided into sepsis (12 cases and severe sepsis (23 cases groups or survivor (20 cases and non-survivor (15 cases groups. Serum samples from the patients were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 following intensive care unit (ICU admission, and the serum concentrations of 42 amino acids were measured.The metabolic spectrum of the amino acids changed dramatically in patients with sepsis. As the disease progressed further or with poor prognosis, the levels of the different amino acids gradually increased, decreased, or fluctuated over time. The concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs, especially taurine, decreased significantly as the severity of sepsis worsened or with poor prognosis of the patient. The serum concentrations of SAAs, especially taurine, exhibited weak negative correlations with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA (r=-0.319 and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (r=-0.325 scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of cystine, taurine, and SAA levels and the SOFA and APACHE II scores, which denoted disease prognosis, were 0.623, 0.674, 0.678, 0.86, and 0.857, respectively.Critically ill patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism, especially of SAAs such as cystine and taurine, may provide an indicator of the need for the nutritional support of sepsis in the clinic.ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01818830.

  6. Assessing one-dimensional diffusion in nanoporous materials from transient concentration profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinke, Lars; Kaerger, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    The use of interference microscopy has enabled the direct observation of transient concentration profiles generated by intracrystalline transport diffusion in nanoporous materials. The thus accessible intracrystalline concentration profiles contain a wealth of information which cannot be deduced by any macroscopic method. In this paper, we illustrate five different ways for determining the concentration-dependent diffusivity in one-dimensional systems and two for the surface permeability. These methods are discussed by application to concentration profiles evolving during the uptake of methanol by the zeolite ferrierite and of methanol by the metal organic framework (MOF) manganese(II) formate. We show that the diffusivity can be calculated most precisely by means of Fick's 1st law. As the circumstances permit, Boltzmann's integration method also yields very precise results. Furthermore, we present a simple procedure that enables the estimation of the influence of the surface barrier on the overall uptake process by plotting the boundary concentration versus the overall uptake

  7. Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV-visible limb spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, K.; Joseph, B.M.; Dosanjh, R.; McDade, I.C.; McLinden, C.A.; McConnell, J.C.; Stegman, J.; Murtagh, D.P.; Llewellyn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The OSIRIS instrument, launched on the Odin satellite in February 2001, includes an optical spectrograph that will record UV-visible spectra of sunlight scattered from the limb over a range of tangent heights. These spectra will be used to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone, NO 2 , OC1O, BrO, NO 3 , O 2 , and aerosols, for the investigation of both stratospheric and mesospheric processes, particularly those related to ozone chemistry. In this work, the retrieval of vertical profiles of trace-gas concentrations from OSIRIS limb-radiance spectra is described. A forward model has been developed to simulate these spectra, and it consists of a single-scattering radiative-transfer model with partial spherical geometry, trace-gas absorption, Mic scattering by stratospheric aerosols, a Lambertian surface contribution, and OSIRIS instrument response and noise. Number-density profiles have been retrieved by using optimal estimation (OE) to combine an a priori profile with the information from sets of synthetic 'measurements'. For ozone, OE has been applied both to limb radiances at one or more discrete wavelengths and to effective-column abundances retrieved over a broad spectral range using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The results suggest that, between 15 and 35 km, ozone number densities can be retrieved to 10% accuracy or better on 1 and 2 km grids and to 5% on a 5 km grid. The combined DOAS-OE approach has also been used to retrieve NO 2 number densities, yielding 13% accuracy or better for altitudes from 18 to 36 km (in a 2 km grid. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy - optimal estimation retrievals of BrO and OC1O reproduce the true profiles above 15 km in the noise-free case, but the quality of the retrievals is highly sensitive to noise on the simulated OSIRIS spectra because of the weak absorption of these two gases. The development of inversion methods for the retrieval of trace-gas concentrations from OSIRIS spectra is continuing

  8. Relations between fatty acid synthesis, pyruvate concentration and cell concentration of suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Geelen, M.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The cell concentration of suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes affects both the rate of pyruvate accumulation in the incubation medium and the rate of fatty acid synthesis. 2. 2. At low cell concentrations pyruvate accumulation is directly related to the cell concentration but levels off

  9. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  10. Melatonin in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Endogenous and Pharmacokinetic Profiles in Relation to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Suzanne E.; Adkins, Karen W.; Calcutt, M. Wade; Carter, Melissa D.; Goodpaster, Robert L.; Wang, Lily; Shi, Yaping; Burgess, Helen J.; Hachey, David L.; Malow, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental melatonin has been used to treat sleep onset insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although the mechanism of action is uncertain. We assessed endogenous and supplemental melatonin profiles in relation to sleep in nine children with ASD. In endogenous samples, maximal melatonin concentration (C[subscript max]) and…

  11. Determining concentration depth profiles in fluorinated networks by means of electric force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miccio, Luis A.; Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegria, Angel; Montemartini, Pablo E.; Oyanguren, Patricia A.; Schwartz, Gustavo A.; Colmenero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    By means of electric force microscopy, composition depth profiles were measured with nanometric resolution for a series of fluorinated networks. By mapping the dielectric permittivity along a line going from the surface to the bulk, we were able to experimentally access to the fluorine concentration profile. Obtained data show composition gradient lengths ranging from 30 nm to 80 nm in the near surface area for samples containing from 0.5 to 5 wt. % F, respectively. In contrast, no gradients of concentration were detected in bulk. This method has several advantages over other techniques because it allows profiling directly on a sectional cut of the sample. By combining the obtained results with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we were also able to quantify F/C ratio as a function of depth with nanoscale resolution.

  12. Plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations in Nevada Test Site soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Fowler, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    Many soil profile samples were collected by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group from five nuclear safety test sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range in Nevada, U.S.A. The profile samples were analyzed for 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and in some cases 235 U and 238 U, in order to estimate the depth of radionuclide penetration and level of contamination at specific sampling depths after an extended period of time since deposition on the surface. Nearly 70 individual profiles were examined. About one-half of the profiles exhibited a smooth leaching pattern with more than 95 percent of the plutonium in the top 5 cm. Other profile patterns are discussed relative to mechanical disturbance of the profile after the initial deposition, accumulation of plutonium in specific zones within the soil profile, and occurrence of large amounts of plutonium in the deepest parts of the soil profile. The implications of these observations are discussed with respect to redistribution of radioactivity by wind, water, and burrowing animals, ingestion by burrowing and grazing animals, uptake by vegetation, and cleanup operations. (auth)

  13. Bradsim-prediction of solute concentration. Temperature and physical property profiles along pulsed plate columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdail, D.H.; Evans, S.F.; Jenkins, J.A.; Smith, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic model of the operation of the BRADSIM pulsed plate column is developed. Examples of simulation of the pures process extraction system are given. Profiles of dissolved substances concentrations and profiles of physical properties of liquid along the column are provided. Calculated values are compared with the experimental data, obtained in case of the column 50 mm in diameter, Harwell extractional facility and Sellafield pulsed column 300 mm in diameter for extraction systems uranyl nitrate-nitric acid-20% and 30% TBP in kerosene. 2 refs.; 6 figs

  14. Characterizing contaminant concentrations with depth by using the USGS well profiler in Oklahoma, 2003-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Becker, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Oklahoma Water Science Center has been using the USGS well profiler to characterize changes in water contribution and contaminant concentrations with depth in pumping public-supply wells in selected aquifers. The tools and methods associated with the well profiler, which were first developed by the USGS California Water Science Center, have been used to investigate common problems such as saline water intrusion in high-yield irrigation wells and metals contamination in high-yield public-supply wells.

  15. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  16. Transportable lidar for the measurement of ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanzeng; Howell, J.N.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In many areas of the United States, as well as in other industrial areas (such as Europe), elevated and potentially harmful levels of ozone are being measured during summer. Most of this ozone is photochemically produced. The relatively long lifetime of ozone allows industrially produced ozone to be transported on a hemispheric scale. Since the trends of tropospheric ozone are very likely dependent on the source strengths and distributions of the pollutants and the chemical/ transport process involved, a predictive understanding of tropospheric ozone climatology requires a focus on the chemical and transport processes that link regional emissions to hemispheric ozone trends and distributions. Of critical importance to these studies is a satisfactory data base of tropospheric ozone distribution from which global and regional tropospheric ozone climatology can be derived, and the processes controlling tropospheric ozone can be better understood. A transportable lidar for measuring ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere is needed. One such system is being developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Resources Laboratory (NOAA/ERL) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL)

  17. Measure of hydrogen concentration profile in materials by resonant nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livi, R.P.; Zawislak, F.C.; Acquadro, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The technique for determining the profile of hydrogen concentration in proximities of the surface of materials, is presented. The preliminary measurements were done, using the Pelletron accelerator at Sao Paulo University (USP), in Brazil, for the resonant-nuclear reaction 1 H( 19 F, α γ) 16 O. By using this reaction the technique is sensitive for concentrations above 500 ppm, which could be reduced to 100 ppm through special shieldings and other techniques to reduce the background radiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. The radon concentration profile and the flux from a pilot-scale layered tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, P.; Fourcade, N.; Campbell, F.E.; Caplan, H.

    1982-01-01

    A pilot tailings model was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the sub-aerial technique of tailing deposition for the proposed uranium mine and mill at Key Lake, Saskatchewan. A series of radon measurements were made on the model and results obtained for the radon concentration profile in the tailings, and for the flux from the surface. The results were compared with the model calculations of Zettwoog. (U.K.)

  19. Profiles determination of Cesium-137 concentration in the main areas of Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, H.C.C.; Aoki, P.E.; Enokihara, C.T.; Rostelato, M.; Lepki, V.; Bambalas, E.

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes the profiles determination of cesium-137 concentration measured in function of depth and applied in seven areas considered as the main contamination focus. Since november 14th to december 17th 1987, 125 soil drillings were made and a total of 740 soil samples were prepared. Obtained data allowed to calculate the soil volume to be removed from contaminate areas. It was verified that after remotions the remaining activity was approximately 0,89Ci. (author) [pt

  20. Concentrations and congener profiles of chlorinated paraffins in domestic polymeric products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Gao, Wei; Liang, Yong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2018-03-21

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are widely used in domestic polymeric products as plasticizers and fire retardants. In this study, concentrations and congener profiles of short-chain and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) were investigated in domestic polymeric products, including plastics, rubber and food packaging in China. The average concentrations of SCCPs in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and food packaging were 234, 3968, 150 and 188 ng/g, respectively and the corresponding average concentrations of MCCPs in these samples were 37.4, 2537, 208 and 644 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of CPs in rubber and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were significantly higher than in other matrices. The highest concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs were found in a PVC cable sheath with 191 mg/g and 145 mg/g, respectively. Congener group profiles analysis indicated C 11 - and C 13 -congener groups were predominant in carbon homologues of SCCPs, and C 14 -congener groups were predominant in MCCPs. High levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in domestic polymeric products implied that they might be a significant source to the environment and human exposure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A UML profile for the OBO relation ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ontologies have increasingly been used in the biomedical domain, which has prompted the emergence of different initiatives to facilitate their development and integration. The Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry consortium provides a repository of life-science ontologies, which are developed according to a set of shared principles. This consortium has developed an ontology called OBO Relation Ontology aiming at standardizing the different types of biological entity classes and associated relationships. Since ontologies are primarily intended to be used by humans, the use of graphical notations for ontology development facilitates the capture, comprehension and communication of knowledge between its users. However, OBO Foundry ontologies are captured and represented basically using text-based notations. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides a standard and widely-used graphical notation for modeling computer systems. UML provides a well-defined set of modeling elements, which can be extended using a built-in extension mechanism named Profile. Thus, this work aims at developing a UML profile for the OBO Relation Ontology to provide a domain-specific set of modeling elements that can be used to create standard UML-based ontologies in the biomedical domain. Results We have studied the OBO Relation Ontology, the UML metamodel and the UML profiling mechanism. Based on these studies, we have proposed an extension to the UML metamodel in conformance with the OBO Relation Ontology and we have defined a profile that implements the extended metamodel. Finally, we have applied the proposed UML profile in the development of a number of fragments from different ontologies. Particularly, we have considered the Gene Ontology (GO), the PRotein Ontology (PRO) and the Xenopus Anatomy and Development Ontology (XAO). Conclusions The use of an established and well-known graphical language in the development of biomedical ontologies provides a more

  2. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  3. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication.

  4. Time and spatial concentration profile inside a membrane by means of a memory formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michele; Cametti, Cesare; Ruggero, Vittorio

    2008-03-01

    In this note, the profile concentration of diffusing particles inside a membrane has been calculated on the basis of the Fick diffusion equation modified by introducing a memory formalism. In highly heterogeneous systems, such as biological membranes, the intrinsic structural complexity of the medium restricts the applicability of continuum diffusion models and suggests that diffusion parameters could depend at a certain time or position on what happens at preceding times (diffusion with memory). Here, we deal with two particular cases, the diffusion of glucose across an erythrocyte membrane, when the concentration at both sides of the membrane are assigned, and the permeation transport of small molecular weight solute through an artificial hydrogel polymeric membrane. However, the present procedure can be easily extended to more general conditions. The knowledge of the concentration profile within a membranous structure, which is usually not easily experimentally accessible, completes the description of the rather complex phenomenon of the transport across a highly structured confined medium and can also lead to an improvement in controlled drug-delivery systems.

  5. Comparison of gene expression and fatty acid profiles in concentrate and forage finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J W; Garmyn, A J; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Duan, Q; Beitz, D C; Mateescu, R G

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid profiles and intramuscular expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were characterized in concentrate- (CO) and forage- (FO) based finishing systems. Intramuscular samples from the adductor were taken at slaughter from 99 heifers finished on a CO diet and 58 heifers finished on a FO diet. Strip loins were obtained at fabrication to evaluate fatty acid profiles of LM muscle for all 157 heifers by using gas chromatography fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Composition was analyzed for differences by using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure in SAS. Differences in fatty acid profile included a greater atherogenic index, greater percentage total MUFA, decreased omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, decreased percentage total PUFA, and decreased percentage omega-3 fatty acids in CO- compared with FO-finished heifers (P0.05). Upregulation was observed for PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in FO-finished compared with CO-finished heifers in both atherogenic index categories (P<0.05). Upregulation of diglyceride acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2) was observed in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of steroyl Co-A desaturase (SCD) was upregulated in CO-finished heifers with a LAI, and downregulated in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was significantly downregulated in CO-finished heifers with a HAI compared with all other categories (P<0.05). The genes identified in this study which exhibit differential regulation in response to diet or in animals with extreme fatty acid profiles may provide genetic markers for selecting desirable fatty acid profiles in future selection programs.

  6. The prediction of concentration profiles for a NIMCIX column absorbing uranium from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for the prediction of concentration profiles for a countercurrent ion-exchange absorption column, use being made of equilibrium and kinetic data derived from small-scale batch tests. A comparison is presented between the predictions and the measured performance of a column (2,5 m in diameter) absorbing uranium from solution. The method is shown to be adequate for design purposes provided that the data used are from tests in which the solution and resin conditions approximate those for which the plant is being designed [af

  7. Use of nuclear methods for the analysis of materials and the determination of concentration profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of the activation analysis and nuclear reaction analysis are presented. These methods allow the oligo-elements and impurities (in trace amounts) to be determined in materials with accuracy and a high sensitivity. They can also be applied to the determination of major elements in a small amount of materials. Surface analysis and concentration profile determination are possible when the nature and energy of the incident particles are judiciously selected. Exemples of analysis of steels, pure iron and refractories are given [fr

  8. Radon concentrations profiles over the brazilian Amazon basin during wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Dias, P.L.S.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric radon measurements were performed airborne in the Brazilian Amazon Basin during the wet season ABLE-2B experiment. The vertical profiles of radon showed a small decrease of concentration with increasing altitude at a rate varying from 6.5 to 11 x 10 - 2 Bq m - 3 km - 1. The calculation of the flux balance of radon in the troposphere above the Amazon Basin indicated a residual flux at the upper boundary of the measurement domain (6 km) of 0.14 atom cm - 2 s - 1. This residue may be associated with the turbulent transport of radon due to cloud activity. (author)

  9. Determination of the concentration profile of chemical elements in superheater pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.; Aspiazu F, J.

    1986-05-01

    This work has for object to determine the profile of concentration of chemical elements at trace level in a superheater pipe of Thermoelectric Plants using the X-ray emission spectroscopy technique induced by protons coming from the Accelerator of the Nuclear Center. In the X-ray detection, a Si Li detector was used. The technique was chosen because it allows a multielemental analysis, of high sensitivity and precision. The results can help to understand the problems that are had in the change of flexibility or of corrosion. This will be from utility to the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). (Author)

  10. Contamination profile of Printed Circuit Board Assemblies in relation to soldering types and conformal coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Typical printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) processed by reflow, wave, or selective wave soldering were analysed for typical levels of process related residues, resulting from a specific or combination of soldering process. Typical solder flux residue distribution pattern, composition......, and concentration are profiled and reported. Presence of localized flux residues were visualized using a commercial Residue RAT gel test and chemical structure was identified by FT-IR, while the concentration was measured using ion chromatography, and the electrical properties of the extracts were determined...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiometric dating of sediment core from waterwork reservoir Rozgrund and analysis of mercury concentration depth profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Radioisotope dating of lake sediments combined with analysis of chemical properties of the sediment layers allow us to study the history of the human impact on nature. Undisturbed sediment layers in the core samples serve as chronicle database with information about lake ecosystem and surrounding environment in the time of deposition. A sediment core sample from the bottom of the water-work reservoir Rozgrund was collected and separated into 2 cm thick layers. Samples were analysed by HPGe spectrometry for anthropogenous Cs-137 activity. From identified peaks corresponding to nuclear tests and Chernobyl accident the sedimentation rate was calculated and the chronology of layers established. Sub-samples from each layer were prepared separately for the analysis of the Hg concentration by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show very small variations in Hg concentrations and there is no significant trend present in the profile. (author)

  13. The role of silicon interstitials in the deactivation and reactivation of high concentration boron profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboy, Maria [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: marabo@tel.uva.es; Pelaz, Lourdes [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Marques, Luis A. [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, Pedro [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barbolla, Juan [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Venezia, V.C. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Duffy, R. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Griffin, Peter B. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-12-15

    Boron cluster formation and dissolution in high concentration B profiles and the role of Si interstitials in these processes are analyzed by kinetic non-lattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. For this purpose, we use theoretical structures as simplifications of boron implants into preamorphized Si, followed by low-temperature solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth or laser thermal annealing process. We observe that in the presence of high B concentrations (above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), significant deactivation occurs during high temperature anneal, even in the presence of only equilibrium Si interstitials. The presence of additional Si interstitials from an end of range (EOR) damage region accelerates the deactivation process and makes B deactivation slightly higher. We show that B deactivation and reactivation processes can be clearly correlated to the evolution of Si interstitial defects at the EOR. The minimum level of activation occurs when the Si interstitial defects at EOR dissolve or form very stable defects.

  14. Thermal Profile of the Lunar Interior Constrained by Revised Estimates of Concentrations of Heat Producing Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua-Haviland, H.; Panovska, S.; Mallik, A.; Bremner, P. M.; McDonough, W. F.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the heat producing element (HPE) concentrations of the Moon is important for understanding the thermal state of the interior. The lunar HPE budget is debated to be suprachondritic [1] to chondritic [2]. The Moon is differentiated, thus, each reservoir has a distinct HPE signature complicating this effort. The thermal profile of the lunar interior has been constructed using HPE concentrations of an ordinary chondrite (U = 0.0068 ppm; Th = 0.025 ppm; K = 17 ppm) which yields a conservative low estimate [2, 3, 4]. A later study estimated the bulk lunar mantle HPE concentrations (U = 0.039 ppm; Th = 0.15 ppm; K = 212 ppm) based on measurements of Apollo pyroclastic glasses [5] assuming that these glasses represent the least fractionated, near-primary lunar mantle melts, hence, are the best proxies for capturing mantle composition. In this study, we independently validate the revised estimate by using HPE concentrations [5] to construct a conductive lunar thermal profile, or selenotherm. We compare our conductive profile to the range of valid temperatures. We demonstrate the HPE concentrations reported by [5], when used in a simple 1D spherical thermal conduction equation, yield an impossibly hot mantle with temperatures in excess of 4,000 K (Fig 1). This confirms their revised estimate is not representative of the bulk lunar mantle, and perhaps only representative of a locally enriched mantle domain. We believe that their Low-Ti avg. source estimate (Th = 0.055 ppm, Th/U=4; K/U=1700), with the least KREEP assimilation is the closest representation of the bulk lunar mantle, producing 3E-12 W/kg of heat. This estimate is close to that of the Earth (5E-12 W/kg), indicating that the bulk Earth and lunar mantles are similar in their HPE constituents. We have used the lunar mantle heat production, in conjunction with HPE estimates of the Fe-Ti-rich cumulates (high Ti-source estimate from [5]) and measurements of crustal ferroan anorthite [6], to capture the

  15. Effect of Entrainment and Overflow Occurrences on Concentration Profile in PUREX Flow Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Ishii, Junichi; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    A deviation in the operational condition of a mixer settler and a centrifugal contactor causes an entrainment or an overflow, which affects the concentration profile. Although there has been no quantitative study about the effect of such abnormal flows on the concentration profile, the occurrence of such abnormal flows has been severely restricted for a PUREX flow sheet. However, the restriction of abnormal flows can be relaxed when the effect of such flows is limited within the allowable range such that the concentration of the product does not deviate from its specification. This relaxation could serve to benefit a continuous operation under a certain degree of deviation from the operational condition and a smaller design load of a solvent extractor. From this viewpoint, the relationship between the magnitude of abnormal flows and the effect of them on the process was studied quantitatively using a specially developed code in a wide range of PUREX flow sheet conditions, and the possibility of this relaxation was investigated. The results showed that the effect of the abnormal flow on the concentration in the organic outflow or aqueous raffinate was dominated by the leakage fraction under normal conditions regardless of each specific flow sheet condition. The common correlations were found between the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium under the occurrence of abnormal flows and that under no abnormal flow for the stripping and extracting conditions, respectively. Comparing the given correlations and the usual specification of the leakage fraction of uranium and plutonium suggested that the restriction of the abnormal flows could be relaxed for a usual PUREX flow sheet

  16. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oelmann

    Full Text Available Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population.Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated.We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08, p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07, p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08, p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06, p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07-3.48, p = 0.03 and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09-3.47, p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months.This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases.

  17. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  18. Nitrogen concentration profiles in oxy-nitrited high-speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcz, A.; Turos, A.; Wielunski, L.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear microanalysis has been applied for the determination of in-depth concentration profiles of nitrogen in oxy-nitrided high-speed steel. The concentration profiles were deduced from measurements of the nitrogen content, determined by means of the 14 N(d,α) 12 C reaction for the set of initially identical samples after the removal of surface layers of sequentially increasing thicknesses. The 1.2 MeV deuterons were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Research Van de Graaf accelerator LECH. The α-particles produced in the 14 N(d,α) 12 C reaction were detected by means of silicon surface barrier detector mounted at 150 deg C. Strong blocking of the nitrogen diffusion due to the presence of oxygen has been observed. The accuracy of nitrogen detection is of the order of 5% for nitrogen-rich regions and 10% for the matrix. However, the local non-uniformity of the steel may cause a spread of about 20% of the measured values. (T.G.)

  19. Duality based direct resolution of unique profiles using zero concentration region information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Elnaz; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2018-07-01

    Self Modeling Curve Resolution (SMCR) is a class of techniques concerned with estimating pure profiles underlying a set of measurements on chemical systems. In general, the estimated profiles are ambiguous (non-unique) except if some special conditions fulfilled. Implementing the adequate information can reduce the so-called rotational ambiguity effectively, and in the most desirable cases lead to the unique solution. Therefore, studies on circumstances resulting in unique solution are of particular importance. The conditions of unique solution can particularly be studied based on duality principle. In bilinear chemical (e.g., spectroscopic) data matrix, there is a natural duality between its row and column vector spaces using minimal constraints (non-negativity of concentrations and absorbances). In this article, the conditions of the unique solution according to duality concept and using zero concentration region information is intended to show. A simulated dataset of three components and an experimental system with synthetic mixtures containing three amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are analyzed. It is shown that in the presence of sufficient information, the reliable unique solution is obtained that is valuable in analytical qualification and for quantitative verification analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Rasia, E. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F. [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Merten, J.; Ettori, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, M.; Coe, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Balestra, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benítez, N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Biviano, A. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Bradley, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); De Petris, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-12-10

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  1. The music of clash: predictions on the concentration-mass relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Merten, J.; Ettori, S.; Postman, M.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Umetsu, K.; Czakon, N.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; De Petris, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ∼11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  2. The MUSIC of CLASH: Predictions on the Concentration-Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, M.; Rasia, E.; Vega, J.; Merten, J.; Postman, M.; Yepes, G.; Sembolini, F.; Donahue, M.; Ettori, S.; Umetsu, K.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Benítez, N.; Biviano, A.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Czakon, N.; De Petris, M.; Ford, H.; Giocoli, C.; Gottlöber, S.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jouvel, S.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Medezinski, E.; Melchior, P.; Mercurio, A.; Molino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Monna, A.; Moustakas, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Nonino, M.; Rhodes, J.; Rosati, P.; Sayers, J.; Seitz, S.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the MUSIC-2 N-body/hydrodynamical simulations aimed at estimating the expected concentration-mass relation for the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) cluster sample. We study nearly 1,400 halos simulated at high spatial and mass resolution. We study the shape of both their density and surface-density profiles and fit them with a variety of radial functions, including the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), the generalized NFW, and the Einasto density profiles. We derive concentrations and masses from these fits. We produce simulated Chandra observations of the halos, and we use them to identify objects resembling the X-ray morphologies and masses of the clusters in the CLASH X-ray-selected sample. We also derive a concentration-mass relation for strong-lensing clusters. We find that the sample of simulated halos that resembles the X-ray morphology of the CLASH clusters is composed mainly of relaxed halos, but it also contains a significant fraction of unrelaxed systems. For such a heterogeneous sample we measure an average two-dimensional concentration that is ~11% higher than is found for the full sample of simulated halos. After accounting for projection and selection effects, the average NFW concentrations of CLASH clusters are expected to be intermediate between those predicted in three dimensions for relaxed and super-relaxed halos. Matching the simulations to the individual CLASH clusters on the basis of the X-ray morphology, we expect that the NFW concentrations recovered from the lensing analysis of the CLASH clusters are in the range [3-6], with an average value of 3.87 and a standard deviation of 0.61.

  3. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  4. Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate concentration and simulated gastrointestinal fluids on release profile of paracetamol from chitosan microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Andrie; Krisanti, Elsa A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem to overcome in oral drug administration is the significant pH changes present in the human digestive system. In this study, ionotropic gelation method employing 2-8% (w/v) tripolyphosphate solutions were used to crosslink chitosan microspheres for a controlled release of paracetamol as a model drug. The release profiles of paracetamol from chitosan microspheres were determined using simulated gastrointestinal fluids having pH values of 1.2, 6.8, and 7.4. The results showed that the paracetamol loading and the encapsulation efficiency values increased with increasing concentration of tripolyphosphate solutions used in the preparation step. Paracetamol released at pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffer solutions was significantly higher than that at pH 7.4; also, more paracetamol was released in the presence of α-amylase and β-glucosidase enzymes. The release profiles showed zero-order release behaviour up to 8 hours where the highest drug release was 39% of the paracetamol loaded in the chitosan microspheres, indicating a strong crosslinking between chitosan and TPP anions. The relatively low accumulated drug release could be compensated by employing suitable enzymes, lower TPP solution concentration, and addition of other biodegradable polymer to reduce the TPP crosslink.

  5. Halo Profiles and the Concentration–Mass Relation for a ΛCDM Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Hillary L.; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Frontiere, Nicholas; Finkel, Hal; Pope, Adrian; Morozov, Vitali

    2018-05-01

    Profiles of dark matter-dominated halos at the group and cluster scales play an important role in modern cosmology. Using results from two very large cosmological N-body simulations, which increase the available volume at their mass resolution by roughly two orders of magnitude, we robustly determine the halo concentration–mass (c‑M) relation over a wide range of masses, employing multiple methods of concentration measurement. We characterize individual halo profiles, as well as stacked profiles, relevant for galaxy–galaxy lensing and next-generation cluster surveys; the redshift range covered is 0 ≤ z ≤ 4, with a minimum halo mass of M 200c ∼ 2 × 1011 M ⊙. Despite the complexity of a proper description of a halo (environmental effects, merger history, nonsphericity, relaxation state), when the mass is scaled by the nonlinear mass scale M ⋆(z), we find that a simple non-power-law form for the c–M/M ⋆ relation provides an excellent description of our simulation results across eight decades in M/M ⋆ and for 0 ≤ z ≤ 4. Over the mass range covered, the c–M relation has two asymptotic forms: an approximate power law below a mass threshold M/M ⋆ ∼ 500–1000, transitioning to a constant value, c 0 ∼ 3 at higher masses. The relaxed halo fraction decreases with mass, transitioning to a constant value of ∼0.5 above the same mass threshold. We compare Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) and Einasto fits to stacked profiles in narrow mass bins at different redshifts; as expected, the Einasto profile provides a better description of the simulation results. At cluster scales at low redshift, however, both NFW and Einasto profiles are in very good agreement with the simulation results, consistent with recent weak lensing observations.

  6. Spectroscopic Analysis of Ion Concentration Profile at Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David; Saraf, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Owing to the difference in Fermi levels at an electrode/electrolyte interface, ions form an electrical double layer (EDL) with ion concentrations well over 10-fold compared to bulk. The concentration profile of the EDL intrinsically affects the electrochemical reaction rates at the electrode, which is of great significance in many applications, such as batteries and biosensors. Conventionally, using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the electrical properties of the EDL are represented as ``equivalent circuits'' consisting of the resistance to charge transfer (Rct), the double layer capacitance (Cdl) and a ``Warburg (constant phase) diffusion element'' that represents the long range diffusion of ions to the electrode. The translation to the well-understood physical structure can be lost as complicated effects are often lumped together. For example, the effect of subtle modification of the electrode surface by say, redox compounds, enzymes, or polymers is not directly measured, and must be inferred by capacitance changes. An interferometer method will be described to directly measure changes in concentration at the interface during redox process. This method in concert with CV or EIS performed concomitantly will lead to more information to model the diffuse layer for improved understanding of the kinetics of the reaction at different distances from the electrode. Applications to DNA and polymer adsorption binding will be discussed.

  7. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Escobar, Rocio Echarri, Vivencio BarriosDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.Keywords: statins, high doses, tolerability, liver, muscle

  8. Fabrication of Graded Porous and Skin-Core Structure RDX-Based Propellants via Supercritical CO2 Concentration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weitao; Li, Yuxiang; Ying, Sanjiu

    2015-04-01

    A fabrication process to produce graded porous and skin-core structure propellants via supercritical CO2 concentration profile is reported in this article. It utilizes a partial gas saturation technique to obtain nonequilibrium gas concentration profiles in propellants. Once foamed, the propellant obtains a graded porous or skin-pore structure. This fabrication method was studied with RDX(Hexogen)-based propellant under an SC-CO2 saturation condition. The principle was analyzed and the one-dimensional diffusion model was employed to estimate the gas diffusion coefficient and to predict the gas concentration profiles inside the propellant. Scanning electron microscopy images were used to analyze the effects of partial saturation on the inner structure. The results also suggested that the sorption time and desorption time played an important role in gas profile generation and controlled the inner structure of propellants.

  9. Profile of ocular trauma in industries-related hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikala, P; Sadiqulla, Mohammed; Shivakumar, D; Prakash, K H

    2013-05-01

    Ocular trauma is a worldwide cause of visual morbidity, a significant proportion of which occurs in the industrial workplace and includes a spectrum of simple ocular surface foreign bodies, abrasions to devastating perforating injuries causing blindness. Being preventable is of social and medical concern. A prospective case series study, to know the profile of ocular trauma at a hospital caters exclusively to factory employees and their families, to co-relate their demographic and clinical profile and to identify the risk factors. Patients with ocular trauma who presented at ESIC Model hospital, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, from June 2010 to May 2011 were taken a detailed demographic data, nature and cause of injury, time interval between the time of injury and presentation along with any treatment received. Ocular evaluation including visual acuity, anterior and posterior segment findings, intra-ocular pressure and gonio-scopy in closed globe injuries, X-rays for intraocular foreign body, B-scan and CT scan were done. Data analyzed as per the ocular trauma classification group. The rehabilitation undertaken medically or surgically was analyzed. At follow-up, the final best corrected visual acuity was noted. A total of 306 cases of ocular trauma were reported; predominantly in 20-40 year age group (72.2%) and in men (75%). The work place related cases were 50.7%and of these, fall of foreign bodies led the list. Visual prognosis was poorer in road traffic accidents rather than work place injuries owing to higher occurrence of open globe injuries and optic neuropathy. Finally, 11% of injured cases ended up with poor vision. Targeting groups most at risk, providing effective eye protection, and developing workplace safety cultures may together reduce occupational eye injuries.

  10. Microscale profiling of photosynthesis-related variables in a highly productive biofilm photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Piltz, Bastian; Podola, Björn; Dron, Anthony; de Beer, Dirk; Melkonian, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In the present study depth profiles of light, oxygen, pH and photosynthetic performance in an artificial biofilm of the green alga Halochlorella rubescens in a porous substrate photobioreactor (PSBR) were recorded with microsensors. Biofilms were exposed to different light intensities (50-1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) and CO2 levels (0.04-5% v/v in air). The distribution of photosynthetically active radiation showed almost identical trends for different surface irradiances, namely: a relatively fast drop to a depth of about 250 µm, (to 5% of the incident), followed by a slower decrease. Light penetrated into the biofilm deeper than the Lambert-Beer Law predicted, which may be attributed to forward scattering of light, thus improving the overall light availability. Oxygen concentration profiles showed maxima at a depth between 50 and 150 μm, depending on the incident light intensity. A very fast gas exchange was observed at the biofilm surface. The highest oxygen concentration of 3.2 mM was measured with 1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and 5% supplementary CO2. Photosynthetic productivity increased with light intensity and/or CO2 concentration and was always highest at the biofilm surface; the stimulating effect of elevated CO2 concentration in the gas phase on photosynthesis was enhanced by higher light intensities. The dissolved inorganic carbon concentration profiles suggest that the availability of the dissolved free CO2 has the strongest impact on photosynthetic productivity. The results suggest that dark respiration could explain previously observed decrease in growth rate over cultivation time in this type of PSBR. Our results represent a basis for understanding the complex dynamics of environmental variables and metabolic processes in artificial phototrophic biofilms exposed to a gas phase and can be used to improve the design and operational parameters of PSBRs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  12. Application of PAH concentration profiles in lake sediments as indicators for smelting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wiebke; Ruppert, Hans; Licha, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The ability of lake sediment cores to store long-term anthropogenic pollution establishes them as natural archives. In this study, we focus on the influence of copper shale mining and smelting in the Mansfeld area of Germany, using the depth profiles of two sediment cores from Lake Süßer See. The sediment cores provide a detailed chronological deposition history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the studied area. Theisen sludge, a fine-grained residue from copper shale smelting, reaches the lake via deflation by wind or through riverine input; it is assumed to be the main source of pollution. To achieve the comparability of absolute contaminant concentrations, we calculated the influx of contaminants based on the sedimentation rate. Compared to the natural background concentrations, PAHs are significantly more enriched than heavy metals. They are therefore more sensitive and selective for source apportionment. We suggest two diagnostic ratios of PAHs to distinguish between Theisen sludge and its leachate: the ratio fluoranthene to pyrene ~2 and the ratio of PAH with logKOW5.7 converging to an even lower value than 2.3 (the characteristic of Theisen sludge) to identify the particulate input in lake environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a 4 He 2+ ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 μm 2 . The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH x (0< x<3) samples with a qualitatively known hydrogen concentration profile are presented and discussed. The calibration of the microbeam set-up and possible improvement of the measurement technique are described

  14. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    1999-09-02

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 {mu}m{sup 2}. The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH{sub x} (0concentration profile are presented and discussed. The calibration of the microbeam set-up and possible improvement of the measurement technique are described.

  15. Contaminação bacteriana em concentrados plaquetários: identificação, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e sepse associada à transfusão Bacterial contamination on platelet concentrates: identification, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and transfusion-related sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiéli Martini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Devido à sepse bacteriana associada à transfusão de concentrados plaquetários (CPs ter sérias consequências clínicas para os pacientes, alguns procedimentos têm sido incorporados na preparação e no controle de qualidade dos componentes sanguíneos para reduzir o risco da contaminação bacteriana. Este artigo descreve a prevalência da contaminação bacteriana dos CPs que foram transfundidos, o espectro bacteriano detectado com seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e as reações transfusionais nos receptores. MÉTODOS: Um total de 292 CPs (278 randômicos e 14 por aférese, proveniente do Hemocentro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (HEMORGS de Santa Maria foi testado. As quantidades de 100μL e 200μL foram coletadas da porção tubular da bolsa de plaquetas e semeadas utilizando dois tipos de metodologias. RESULTADOS: Em cinco unidades(1,7%; 5/292 foram isoladas bactérias pela metodologia qualitativa e apenas uma pela quantitativa. Staphylococcus epidermidis foi o microrganismo identificado em todas as amostras. Dois pacientes apresentaram sepse associada à transfusão com desfecho fatal. CONCLUSÕES: A contaminação bacteriana pelas transfusões de CPs constitui-se num importante problema de saúde pública devido a sua associação com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Neste estudo, somente microrganismos gram-positivos foram isolados sendo que nenhuma amostra obtida por aférese apresentou contaminação.INTRODUCTION: Bacterial sepsis associated with the transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs results in serious clinical implications for patients. Given these implications, certain procedures have been integrated into the preparation and quality control of blood components to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. This article describes the prevalence of bacterial contamination on transfused PCs, the bacterial spectrum detected and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and transfusion

  16. Clinical profile of patients with nascent alcohol related seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical profile of patients with alcohol related seizures (ARS and to identify the prevalence of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE in the same. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive male patients presenting to a tertiary care center in South India with new onset ARS were analyzed with alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT score. All underwent 19 channel digital scalp electroencephalography (EEG and at least computed tomography (CT scan. Results: A total of 27 patients (27% who had cortical atrophy on CT had a mean duration of alcohol intake of 23.62 years compared with 14.55 years in patients with no cortical atrophy (P < 0.001. Twenty-two patients (22% had clustering in the current episode of whom 18 had cortical atrophy. Nearly, 88% patients had generalized tonic clonic seizures while 12% who had partial seizures underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which identified frontal focal cortical dysplasia in one. Mean lifetime duration of alcohol intake in patients presenting with seizures within 6 hours (6H-gp of intake of alcohol was significantly lower (P = 0.029. One patient in the 6H-gp with no withdrawal symptoms had EEG evidence for IGE and had a lower AUDIT score compared with the rest. Conclusion: CT evidence of cortical atrophy is related to the duration of alcohol intake and portends an increased risk for clustering. Partial seizures can be a presenting feature of ARS and those patients may benefit from MRI to identify underlying symptomatic localization related epilepsy (8.3% of partial seizures. IGE is more likely in patients presenting with ARS within first 6 hours especially if they do not have alcohol withdrawal symptoms and scalp EEG is helpful to identify this small subgroup (~1% who may require long-term anti-epileptic medication.

  17. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA

  18. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: ► We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. ► Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. ► The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. ► It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. ► The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  19. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  20. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  1. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Quantification and Analysis of Suspended Sediments Concentration Using Mobile and Static Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Dwinovantyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP can be used not only for measuring ocean currents, but also for quantifying suspended sediment concentrations (SSC from acoustic backscatter strength based on sonar principle. Suspended sediment has long been recognized as the largest sources of sea contaminant and must be considered as one of the important parameters in water quality of seawater. This research was to determine SSC from measured acoustic backscattered intensity of static and mobile ADCP. In this study, vertically mounted 400 kHz and 750 kHz static ADCP were deployed in Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi. A mobile ADCP 307.2 kHz was also mounted on the boat and moved to the predefined cross-section, accordingly. The linear regression analysis of echo intensity measured by ADCP and by direct measurement methods showed that ADCP is a reliable method to measure SSC with correlation coefficient (r 0.92. Higher SSC was observed in low water compared to that in high water and near port area compared to those in observed areas. All of this analysis showed that the combination of static and mobile ADCP methods produces reasonably good spatial and temporal data of SSC.

  4. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of profile pages by adolescents to get to know more about offline friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social network sites are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online profiles are meaningful in gathering information on these 'offline' friends and acquai...

  5. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... techniques (Instrumentation Laboratory Model IL 243). In order to examine ... mmol. Potassium and sugar concentrations were very poorly ... cations that the error in calculating its energy content would be .... mellifica adults (subspecies not named). .... consumption, and thoracic temperature during flight in a.

  6. Changes in polyphenol profile of dried apricots containing SO2 at various concentrations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Melek; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Changes in polyphenols have important effects on the quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO 2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO 2 kg -1 ) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time. Even the lowest SO 2 concentration (451 mg kg -1 ) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during the entire storage period. However, while SO 2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 mg SO 2 kg -1 . Although the major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg kg -1 ), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455-1508 mg kg -1 ), followed by epicatechin (0-426.8 mg kg -1 ), rutin (148.9-477.3 mg kg -1 ), ferulic acid (23.3-55.3 mg kg -1 ) and gallic acid (2.4-43.6 mg kg -1 ). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706-2324 mg kg -1 ). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO 2 kg -1 and stored at 30 °C. To produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ∼2000 mg SO 2 kg -1 should be used. Low storage temperature (<30 °C) was not necessary for the protection of polyphenols. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Cytokine Profiles of Severe Influenza Virus-Related Complications in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fiore-Gartland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available RationaleEffective immunomodulatory therapies for children with life-threatening “cytokine storm” triggered by acute influenza infection are lacking. Understanding the immune profiles of children progressing to severe lung injury and/or septic shock could provide insight into pathogenesis.ObjectivesTo compare the endotracheal and serum cytokine profiles of children with influenza-related critical illness and to identify their associations with severe influenza-associated complications.MethodsChildren with influenza-related critical illness were enrolled across 32 hospitals in development (N = 171 and validation (N = 73 cohorts (December 2008 through May 2016. Concentrations of 42 cytokines were measured in serum and endotracheal samples and clustered into modules of covarying cytokines. Relative concentrations of cytokines and cytokine modules were tested for associations with acute lung injury (ALI, shock requiring vasopressors, and death/ECMO.Measurements and main resultsModules of covarying cytokines were more significantly associated with disease severity than individual cytokines. In the development cohort, increased levels of a serum module containing IL6, IL8, IL10, IP10, GCSF, MCP1, and MIP1α [shock odds ratio (OR = 3.37, family-wise error rate (FWER p < 10−4], and decreased levels of a module containing EGF, FGF2, SCD40L, and PAI-1 (shock OR = 0.43, FWER p = 0.002, were both associated with ALI, shock, and death-ECMO independent of age and bacterial coinfection. Both of these associations were confirmed in the validation cohort. Endotracheal and serum cytokine associations differed markedly and were differentially associated with clinical outcomes.ConclusionWe identified strong positive and negative associations of cytokine modules with the most severe influenza-related complications in children, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of influenza-related critical illness in children. Effective

  8. A novel tropopause-related climatology of ozone profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofieva, V.F.; Tamminen, J.; Kyrola, E.; Mielonen, T.; Veefkind, J.P.; Hassler, B.; Bodeker, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    A new ozone climatology, based on ozonesonde and satellite measurements, spanning the altitude region between the earth's surface and ~60 km is presented (TpO3 climatology). This climatology is novel in that the ozone profiles are categorized according to calendar month, latitude and local

  9. Quantitative evaluation of polymer concentration profile during swelling of hydrophilic matrix tablets using 1H NMR and MRI methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sasa; Lahajnar, Gojmir; Sepe, Ana; Kristl, Julijana

    2005-02-01

    Many pharmaceutical tablets are based on hydrophilic polymers, which, after exposure to water, form a gel layer around the tablet that limits the dissolution and diffusion of the drug and provides a mechanism for controlled drug release. Our aim was to determine the thickness of the swollen gel layer of matrix tablets and to develop a method for calculating the polymer concentration profile across the gel layer. MR imaging has been used to investigate the in situ swelling behaviour of cellulose ether matrix tablets and NMR spectroscopy experiments were performed on homogeneous hydrogels with known polymer concentration. The MRI results show that the thickest gel layer was observed for hydroxyethylcellulose tablets, followed by definitely thinner but almost equal gel layer for hydroxypropylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose of both molecular weights. The water proton NMR relaxation parameters were combined with the MRI data to obtain a quantitative description of the swelling process on the basis of the concentrations and mobilities of water and polymer as functions of time and distance. The different concentration profiles observed after the same swelling time are the consequence of the different polymer characteristics. The procedure developed here could be used as a general method for calculating polymer concentration profiles on other similar polymeric systems.

  10. Nannoplankton and uranium concentration relations in the Black Sea Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedia TOKER

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Nannoplanktons obtained from sixty-two core samples taken from twenty-three holes penetrated in the Southern part of Black Sea were investigated in this work. Twelve species belonging to the Emiliania huxleyi zone (NN 21-Holocene were determined. Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann came into existence in Black Sea three thousand years ago and is very abundant in these sediments. This study clearly showed that uranium concentration increases with increasing nannoplankton content of the sediments. It is also observed that the uranium oxide (U3O8 contents of the Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann accumulations on the abyssal plains are higher than those other sediments in the same environments.

  11. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  12. GPR56-Related Polymicrogyria: Clinicoradiologic Profile of 4 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Neelu A; Udani, Vrajesh

    2015-11-01

    Bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria is an autosomal recessive cortical malformation associated with abnormalities of neuronal migration, white matter changes, and mild brainstem and cerebellar abnormalities. Affected patients present with delayed milestones, intellectual disability, epilepsy, ataxia, and eye movement abnormalities. The clinicoradiologic profile resembles congenital muscular dystrophy. However, no muscle disease or characteristic eye abnormalities of congenial muscular dystrophy are detected in these children. GPR56 is the only confirmed gene associated with bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Antenatal diagnosis is possible if the index case is genetically confirmed. Four patients from different Indian families with a distinct clinicoradiologic profile resembling congenital muscular dystrophy with mutations in the GPR56 gene are described. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Oxygen 18 concentration profile measurements near the surface by 18O(p,α)15N resonance reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsel, G.; David, D.

    1975-01-01

    The method of spectrum reduction in nuclear reaction microanalysis does not allow to obtain depth resolutions better than the order of 2000A. Resolutions of the order of 200A may be obtained by using the narrow resonance technique, when applied to thin films. The latter technique was extended to thick targets, with deep concentration profiles presenting a sharp gradient near the surface. This method is presented and illustrated by the study of 18 O profiles in oxygen diffusion measurements in growing ZrO 2 , using the 629keV resonance of the reaction 18 O(p,α) 15 N [fr

  14. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about “offline” friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and...

  15. Tethered balloon-based particle number concentration, and size distribution vertical profiles within the lower troposphere of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dongfang; Bian, Qinggen; Duan, Yusen; Zhao, Mengfei; Fei, Dongnian; Xiu, Guangli; Fu, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    A tethered balloon-based measurement campaign of particle number concentration (PNC) and particle number size distribution (PNSD) in the size range of 15.7-661.2 nm was conducted within the lower troposphere of 1000 m in Shanghai, a Chinese megacity, during December of 2015. The meteorological conditions, PNC, and PNSD were synchronously measured at the ground-based station as well as by the tethered balloon. On ground level, the 88.2 nm particles were found to have the highest PNC. The Pearson correlation analysis based on the ground level data showed NO2 had a strong correlation with PNC. The synchronous measurement of PNC and PNSD at the ground station and on the tethered balloon showed that the 15.7-200 nm particles had higher PNC on ground level, but the PNC of 200-661.2 nm particles was higher at 400 m. One haze event (Dec 22nd-Dec 23rd) was selected for detailed discussion on the variation of vertical profiles of PNSD and PNC. The vertical distribution of characteristics of PNC and PNSD were observed and compared. Results indicated that the highest MaxDm (the diameter with the highest PNC) during those three launches all appeared at a high altitude, usually above 300 m. Compared to the clean days, the relatively bigger MaxDm at each height in the haze days also indicated regional transport of pollutants might contribute to more to that haze event.

  16. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California I: Interpreting rates and controls based on soil concentration-depth profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Blum, A.E.; Stonestrom, David A.; Anderson, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in element and mineral concentrations in regolith profiles in a chronosequence developed on marine terraces along coastal California are interpreted in terms of chemical weathering rates and processes. In regoliths up to 15 m deep and 226 kyrs old, quartz-normalized mass transfer coefficients indicate non-stoichiometric preferential release of Sr > Ca > Na from plagioclase along with lesser amounts of K, Rb and Ba derived from K-feldspar. Smectite weathering results in the loss of Mg and concurrent incorporation of Al and Fe into secondary kaolinite and Fe-oxides in shallow argillic horizons. Elemental losses from weathering of the Santa Cruz terraces fall within the range of those for other marine terraces along the Pacific Coast of North America. Residual amounts of plagioclase and K-feldspar decrease with terrace depth and increasing age. The gradient of the weathering profile bs is defined by the ratio of the weathering rate, R to the velocity at which the profile penetrates into the protolith. A spreadsheet calculator further refines profile geometries, demonstrating that the non-linear regions at low residual feldspar concentrations at shallow depth are dominated by exponential changes in mineral surface-to-volume ratios and at high residual feldspar concentrations, at greater depth, by the approach to thermodynamic saturation. These parameters are of secondary importance to the fluid flux qh, which in thermodynamically saturated pore water, controls the weathering velocity and mineral losses from the profiles. Long-term fluid fluxes required to reproduce the feldspar weathering profiles are in agreement with contemporary values based on solute Cl balances (qh = 0.025-0.17 m yr-1). During saturation-controlled and solute-limited weathering, the greater loss of plagioclase relative to K-feldspar is dependent on the large difference in their respective solubilities instead of the small difference between their respective

  17. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  18. Health-related profiles of people with lower limb loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Morgan, Sara J; Kim, Jiseon; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    To construct profiles of self-reported health indicators to examine differences and similarities between people with lower limb loss and a normative sample (hereafter called the norm) and to compare health indicators between subgroups based on level and etiology of limb loss. Survey. General community. Adults with unilateral lower limb loss (N=1091) participated in this study. Eligibility criteria included lower limb loss due to trauma or dysvascular complications and regular use of a prosthesis. Not applicable. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item Health Profile version 1.0 measures physical function, pain interference, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, and satisfaction with participation in social roles. The norm includes 5239 individuals representative of the U.S. general population in sex, age, race, ethnicity, and education. People with lower limb loss reported statistically significantly worse physical function, pain interference, and satisfaction with participation in social roles and significantly less fatigue than did the norm. People with transfemoral (ie, above-knee) amputation significantly differed in physical function from people with transtibial (ie, below-knee) amputation. Similarly, people with amputation due to trauma and dysvascular etiology significantly differed in physical function and satisfaction with social roles after adjusting for relevant clinical characteristics. People with lower limb loss generally report worse physical function, pain interference, and satisfaction with social roles than do the norm. People with dysvascular amputation reported worse physical function and satisfaction with social roles than did people with traumatic amputation. Health indicator profiles are an efficient way of providing clinically meaningful information about numerous aspects of self-reported health in people with lower limb loss. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  19. Intermixing in heteroepitaxial islands: fast, self-consistent calculation of the concentration profile minimizing the elastic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R; UhlIk, F; Montalenti, F

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel computational method for finding the concentration profile which minimizes the elastic energy stored in heteroepitaxial islands. Based on a suitable combination of continuum elasticity theory and configurational Monte Carlo, we show that such profiles can be readily found by a simple, yet fully self-consistent, iterative procedure. We apply the method to SiGe/Si islands, considering realistic three-dimensional shapes (pyramids, domes and barns), finding strongly non-uniform distributions of Si and Ge atoms, in qualitative agreement with several experiments. Moreover, our simulated selective-etching profiles display, in some cases, a remarkable resemblance to the experimental ones, opening intriguing questions on the interplay between kinetic, entropic and elastic effects

  20. Cerebral Lactate Concentration in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: In Relation to Time, Characteristic of Injury, and Serum Lactate Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wei Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCerebral lactate concentration can remain detectable in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE after hemodynamic stability. The temporal resolution of regional cerebral lactate concentration in relation to the severity or area of injury is unclear. Furthermore, the interplay between serum and cerebral lactate in neonatal HIE has not been well defined. The study aims to describe cerebral lactate concentration in neonatal HIE in relation to time, injury, and serum lactate.Design/methodsFifty-two newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH were enrolled. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI + MR spectroscopy were performed during and after TH at 54.6 ± 15.0 and 156 ± 57.6 h of life, respectively. Severity and predominant pattern of injury was scored radiographically. Single-voxel 1H MR spectra were acquired using short-echo (35 ms PRESS sequence localized to the basal ganglia (BG, thalamus (Thal, gray matter (GM, and white matter. Cerebral lactate concentration was quantified by LCModel software. Serum and cerebral lactate concentrations were plotted based on age at time of measurement. Multiple comparisons of regional cerebral lactate concentration based on severity and predominant pattern of injury were performed. Spearman’s Rho was computed to determine correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the respective regions of interest.ResultsOverall, serum lactate concentration decreased over time. Cerebral lactate concentration remained low for less severe injury and decreased over time for more severe injury. Cerebral lactate remained detectable even after TH. During TH, there was a significant higher concentration of cerebral lactate at the areas of injury and also when injury was more severe. However, these differences were no longer observed after TH. There was a weak correlation between serum lactate and cerebral lactate concentration at the BG (rs

  1. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass concentration derived by unmanned airborne in situ and remote sensing instruments during dust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Dimitra; Marinou, Eleni; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Kottas, Michael; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Keleshis, Christos; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Amiridis, Vassilis; Russchenberg, Herman; Biskos, George

    2018-05-01

    In situ measurements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensing observations can independently provide dense vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols, information which is strongly required in climate models. In both cases, inverting the recorded signals to useful information requires assumptions and constraints, and this can make the comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare, for the first time, vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) observations and in situ measurements using an optical particle counter on board a UAV during moderate and weak Saharan dust episodes. Agreement between the two measurement methods was within experimental uncertainty for the coarse mode (i.e. particles having radii > 0.5 µm), where the properties of dust particles can be assumed with good accuracy. This result proves that the two techniques can be used interchangeably for determining the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations, bringing them a step closer towards their systematic exploitation in climate models.

  2. Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r=0.43, P<0.001, body mass (r=0.30, P<0.01, BMI (r=0.33, P<0.01, fat mass and fat percentage (r=0.31, P<0.01 and r=0.23, P<0.05, resp.. Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r=0.33, P<0.01 and plasma zonulin (r=0.26, P<0.05 but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r=0.27, P<0.05 and serum glucose concentration (r=0.18, P<0.05 and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r=-0.23, P<0.05. Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  3. Mg concentration profile and its control in the low temperature grown Mg-doped GaN epilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. T.; Yang, J.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Liang, F.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Liu, W.; Xing, Y.; Zhang, L. Q.; Wang, W. J.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the Cp2Mg flux and growth pressure influence to Mg doping concentration and depth profiles is studied. From the SIMS measurement we found that a transition layer exists at the bottom region of the layer in which the Mg doping concentration changes gradually. The thickness of transition layer decreases with the increases of Mg doping concentration. Through analysis, we found that this is caused by Ga memory effect which the Ga atoms stay residual in MOCVD system will react with Mg source, leading a transition layer formation and improve the growth rate. And the Ga memory effect can be well suppressed by increasing Mg doping concentration and growth pressure and thus get a steep Mg doping at the bottom region of p type layer.

  4. An augmented space recursive method for the first principles study of concentration profiles at CuNi alloy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.; Mookerjee, A.

    1995-07-01

    We present here a first principle method for the calculation of effective cluster interactions for semi-infinite solid alloys required for the study of surface segregation and surface ordering on disordered surfaces. Our method is based on the augmented space recursion coupled with the orbital peeling method of Burke in the framework of the TB-LMTO. Our study of surface segregation in CuNi alloys demonstrates strong copper segregation and a monotonic concentration profile throughout the concentration range. (author). 35 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Philippine Public Relations: An Industry and Practitioner Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panol, Zenaida Sarabia

    2000-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive look at public relations in the Philippines; traces how public relations evolved in this Southeast Asian country; and discusses the current status of the industry and its practitioners. (NH)

  6. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  7. Effect of abnormal outflow from end stages on concentration profile in uranium-stripping bank of PUREX flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Shiro

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the abnormal outflow from the end stages on the concentration profile was studied for the uranium-stripping bank to consider the design and the operation of the solvent extraction process, which eases the undesirable effects due to such abnormal flow. The abnormal outflow affected the concentration profile in the same manner as the decrease in the rate of the corresponding liquid flow rate entering the bank. The results suggested that the solvent extractor at the aqueous inlet stage in stripping banks and the solvent extractor at the organic inlet stage in extraction banks should be carefully designed to restrict the respective abnormal aqueous and organic outflows within the normal operational liquid flow rate range. Combining the result and the inherent phase separation behavior of the extractor suggested the possibility of designing the process with the self-controlled function of throughput, which eases the change of the concentration profile due to the undesirable increase in the rate of liquid flow rate entering the bank. Basically the proposed approaches are probably applicable to other general extraction and stripping processes. (author)

  8. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  9. Average pollutant concentration in soil profile simulated with Convective-Dispersive Equation. Model and Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different parts of soil solution move with different velocities, and therefore chemicals are leached gradually from soil with infiltrating water. Solute dispersivity is the soil parameter characterizing this phenomenon. To characterize the dispersivity of soil profile at field scale, it is desirable...

  10. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  11. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  12. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  13. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  14. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research.

  15. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  16. Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles with A Scanning 1.6μm DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Nagai, T.; Sakai, T.; Tsukamoto, M.

    2012-12-01

    Horizontal carbon dioxide (CO2) distribution and wind profiles are important information for understanding of the regional sink and source of CO2. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler lidar with the range resolution is expected to bring several advantages over passive measurements. We have developed a new scanning 1.6μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system to perform simultaniously measurements of CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles in the atmosphere. The 1.6μm DIAL and Doppler lidar system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz). The receiving optics include the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detct Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope[1][2]. Laser beam is transmitted coaxially and motorized scanning mirror system can scan the laser beam and field of view 0-360deg horizontally and 0-52deg vertically. We report the results of vertical CO2 scanning measurenents and vertical wind profiles. The scanning elevation angles were from 12deg to 24deg with angular step of 4deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m altitude resolution. We also obtained vertical wind vector profiles by measuring line-of-sight wind profiles at two azimuth angles with a fixed elevation angle 52deg. Vertical wind vector profiles were obtained up to 5 km altitude with 1 km altitude rasolution. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. References [1] L. B. Vann, et al., "Narrowband fiber-optic phase-shifted Fabry-Perot Bragg grating filters for atmospheric water vapor lidar measurements", Appl. Opt., 44, pp. 7371-7377 (2005). [2] Y. Shibata, et al., "1.5μm incoherent Doppler lidar using a FBG filter", Proceedings

  17. Measurement of concentration profile during charging of Li battery anode materials in LiClO4-PC electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukunaka, Y.; Sakka, T.; Ogata, Y.H.; Selman, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Li metal was galvanostatically electrodeposited on a horizontally positioned, downward-facing Li metal cathode in 0.5 M LiClO 4 -PC electrolyte. The refractive index profile corresponding to the transient Li + ion concentration profile formed in the electrolyte solution upon applying a current step was measured in-situ by holographic interferometry. The configuration of the electrolytic cell was such that mass transfer was governed only by transient diffusion and migration, in the absence of convection. Between the moment of closing the current circuit and the time at which the interference fringes started to shift, an incubation period was observed. Such an incubation period had earlier been observed in lithium electrodeposition at a vertical planar Li metal cathode. The incubation period for the horizontal Li cathode was roughly half that for a vertical one. To study the effect of the electrode material on the incubation period, interferometry measurements were also made at an electrodeposited Ni-Sn alloy electrode. The concentration profile formed near the Ni-Sn alloy electrode during lithiation (alloying or intercalation of Li + into the electrode) agrees well with predictions made by means of the one-dimensional diffusion equation. Only very short incubation period was detected, but the magnitude was negligibly smaller than that of Li metal electrodeposition. The incubation period therefore appears to be characteristic for Li metal electrode only

  18. Profile of isokinetic eccentric-to-concentric strength ratios of shoulder rotator muscles in elite female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; Fleury, Anna Maria; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosia; Dubas, Joao Paulo; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscles strength in female handball players. Twenty-seven handball players performed concentric and eccentric strength tests of both dominant and non-dominant upper limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer. Internal and external rotator muscles peak torque was assessed at 1.05, 3.14, and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in concentric mode and at 3.14 and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in eccentric mode. Concentric balance ratio and functional ratio were obtained. Bi-lateral deficiency was compared. Concentric strength for internal and external rotation was significantly greater for the dominant than for the non-dominant limb for all speeds (P muscles were stronger in the dominant than the non-dominant limb (P stronger than the non-dominant side, balance concentric ratios remained the same, with only the functional strength ratio different at 5.23 rad . s(-1). Our results suggest that concentric strength exercises be used for internal and external rotators on the non-dominant side, and functional exercise that improves eccentric rotation strength for prevention programmes.

  19. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  20. MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THEIR RELATION TO THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP. Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined" profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined" profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined" profile

  1. [Estimation of relation between homocysteine concentration and selected lipid parameters and adhesion molecules concentration in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Baj, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Stepień, Mariusz; Rysz, Jacek

    2008-10-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood. At present among numerous risk factors of atherosclerosis the role of hiperhomocysteinemia in development of cardiovascular heart disease is taken under consideration. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to its cytotoxin action, conducting to endothelial dysfunction and damage. It is correlated with increase of the lipid levels in the blood serum and change of expression of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocystein serum concentration, expression of the selected adhesion molecules and the lipid levels in the blood serum in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The group consisted of 670 children, 76 of them had atherosclerosis risk factors. In further examination 48 children have taken a part, whose parents were agreed for theirs participation in the program. The comparative group composed of 25 children without the risk factors. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol fraction (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol fraction (HDL-C), serum homocysteine concentration (Hcy), the expression of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules (sCAM): sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). Obesity, hypertension and lipid disorders in the shape of higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. No significant differences in serum homocysteine concentration were observed between the investigated groups. However, its concentration was significantly higher in children with two atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in expression of s-VCAM-1 were observed in the investigated groups, concentration of sP-selectin was significantly higher in children with atherosclerosis risk factors (phomocysteine and chosen adhesion molecules in children with atherosclerosis risk factors might potentially constitute the marker of early

  2. Tracking control of concentration profiles in a fed-batch bioreactor using a linear algebra methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rómoli, Santiago; Serrano, Mario Emanuel; Ortiz, Oscar Alberto; Vega, Jorge Rubén; Eduardo Scaglia, Gustavo Juan

    2015-07-01

    Based on a linear algebra approach, this paper aims at developing a novel control law able to track reference profiles that were previously-determined in the literature. A main advantage of the proposed strategy is that the control actions are obtained by solving a system of linear equations. The optimal controller parameters are selected through Monte Carlo Randomized Algorithm in order to minimize a proposed cost index. The controller performance is evaluated through several tests, and compared with other controller reported in the literature. Finally, a Monte Carlo Randomized Algorithm is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking habit profile and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Vázquez, Ma Isabel; Míguez, Ma del Carmen; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Piñeiro, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the results are not consistent. The aim of this study is to explore the association between smoking and HRQOL. Cross-sectional study of 714 Spanish adults (44.7% never smokers and 55.3% smokers) without diagnosis of physical or mental disorder. Each participant provided information about different sociodemographic variables and data on HRQOL. Smokers also reported smoking-related information about smoking-related variables. Nicotine dependence was not associated with the physical dimension of HRQOL, but in the mental component, nicotine dependent smokers showed worse HRQOL than never smokers (p = 0.004) and than non-nicotine dependent smokers (p = 0.014). There were no differences between no-nicotine dependent smokers and never smokers. Smoking status (non smokers vs. smokers), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stage of change, quit attempts in the past year or age of smoking onset were not related to HRQOL. In subjects without physical or mental diseases, only nicotine dependent smokers showed a significant impairment in the mental component of HRQOL. Therefore, it is important to consider nicotine dependence in the relationship between smoking and HRQOL.

  4. Temperature and Relative Humidity Vertical Profiles within Planetary Boundary Layer in Winter Urban Airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jan; Hovorka, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is a dynamic system with turbulent flow where horizontal and vertical air mixing depends mainly on the weather conditions and geomorphology. Normally, air temperature from the Earth surface decreases with height but inversion situation may occur, mainly during winter. Pollutant dispersion is poor during inversions so air pollutant concentration can quickly rise, especially in urban closed valleys. Air pollution was evaluated by WHO as a human carcinogen (mostly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and health effects are obvious. Knowledge about inversion layer height is important for estimation of the pollution impact and it can give us also information about the air pollution sources. Temperature and relative humidity vertical profiles complement ground measurements. Ground measurements were conducted to characterize comprehensively urban airshed in Svermov, residential district of the city of Kladno, about 30 km NW of Prague, from the 2nd Feb. to the 3rd of March 2016. The Svermov is an air pollution hot-spot for long time benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) limit exceedances, reaching the highest B[a]P annual concentration in Bohemia - west part of the Czech Republic. Since the Svermov sits in a shallow valley, frequent vertical temperature inversion in winter and low emission heights of pollution sources prevent pollutant dispersal off the valley. Such orography is common to numerous small settlements in the Czech Republic. Ground measurements at the sports field in the Svermov were complemented by temperature and humidity vertical profiles acquired by a Vaisala radiosonde positioned at tethered He-filled balloon. Total number of 53 series of vertical profiles up to the height of 300 m was conducted. Meteorology parameters were acquired with 4 Hz frequency. The measurements confirmed frequent early-morning and night formation of temperature inversion within boundary layer up to the height of 50 m. This rather shallow inversion had significant

  5. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.C.; van der Molen, S.J.; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in

  6. A comparative performance study of a photovoltaic concentrator system with discrete mirror and continuos profile for two different absorber shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Saiful; Rezau, K.M [University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Profiles of parabolic concentrators of discrete mirror and continuos surface mirror have been designed for combined electrical thermal photovoltaic systems. In the design the changes of concentration ratio, effect of reflection, angle of incidence over the absorber have been taken into account for maximum energy collection. The performances of the system are studied for solar cells of modified grid finger for illuminations from 1-10 sun. The local concentration ratio (LCR) distribution over the absorbers for both the concentrator, the optical efficiency, thermal efficiency, electrical and thermal power output and overall efficiency have been evaluated for different values of beam radiation concentration ratio and focal distance. [Spanish] Se han disenado perfiles de concentradores parabolicos de espejo discreto y de superficie continua para sistemas fotovoltaicos combinados electricos y termicos. En el diseno los cambios de la proporcion de concentracion, del efecto de la reflexion, del angulo de incidencia sobre el observador se han tenido en cuenta para una maxima recoleccion de energia. Los rendimientos del sistema se han estudiado para celdas solares de parrilla modificada para iluminaciones solares de 1-10. Han sido evaluados para diferentes valores de la proporcion de la concentracion de la radiacion en el rayo y la distancia focal la proporcion de concentracion local (LCR) de la distribucion en los absorbedores, para el concentrador la eficiencia optica, la eficiencia termica, electrica, la produccion de energia termica y electrica y la eficiencia total.

  7. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Guerra, F.; Degetto, S.; Jia, G.; Gerdol, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240 Pu and 241 Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  8. Construction of Multi-Year Time-Series Profiles of Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter Concentrations Using Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannimpullath R. Renosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-sedimentary numerical models have been widely employed to derive suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal and estuarine waters. These hydro-sedimentary models are computationally and technically expensive in nature. Here we have used a computationally less-expensive, well-established methodology of self-organizing maps (SOMs along with a hidden Markov model (HMM to derive profiles of suspended particulate inorganic matter (SPIM. The concept of the proposed work is to benefit from all available data sets through the use of fusion methods and machine learning approaches that are able to process a growing amount of available data. This approach is applied to two different data sets entitled “Hidden” and “Observable”. The hidden data are composed of 15 months (27 September 2007 to 30 December 2008 of hourly SPIM profiles extracted from the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. The observable data include forcing parameter variables such as significant wave heights ( H s and H s 50 (50 days from the Wavewatch 3-HOMERE database and barotropic currents ( U b a r and V b a r from the Iberian–Biscay–Irish (IBI reanalysis data. These observable data integrate hourly surface samples from 1 February 2002 to 31 December 2012. The time-series profiles of the SPIM have been derived from four different stations in the English Channel by considering 15 months of output hidden data from the ROMS as a statistical representation of the ocean for ≈11 years. The derived SPIM profiles clearly show seasonal and tidal fluctuations in accordance with the parent numerical model output. The surface SPIM concentrations of the derived model have been validated with satellite remote sensing data. The time series of the modeled SPIM and satellite-derived SPIM show similar seasonal fluctuations. The ranges of concentrations for the four stations are also in good agreement with the corresponding satellite data. The high accuracy of the

  9. Motivational profiles in physical education and their relation to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar; Pedreño, Noelia Belan-do; Rodríguez Marín, Jesús Jesus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R) and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP). Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined "profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined "profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined "profile. Key PointsA "self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for the four types of intrinsic motivations (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement) and identified regulation than for introjected and external regulation.A "non self-determined "profile was found with higher scores for external, introjected regulation and amotivation than for the four types of intrinsic motivation (general, knowledge, stimulation and achievement).In the context of the "non self-determined profile "we could encourage programs that adapt to these needs in such a way that they contribute to increasing the rates of doing physical activity in the population.

  10. Soil erosion determination using the Cs-137 concentration in the soil profile, in a rain fall seasonal ecosystem of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.R.; Garcia, O.F.; Mass, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The soils erosion is one of the main processes of environmental degradation. Latin America presents high levels of erosion however the works that quantificate this problem are few. The application of methods agreed to the tropical countries conditions represents an important limitation in the developing of these works. A methodological option that has arisen in the last years is the application of the distribution analysis of Cs-137 concentration in the soil profile, for estimating the soil motion in a seasonal tropical ecosystem in Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico. The low concentrations of Cs-137 were determined with a gamma spectroscopy system of high resolution and low noise. It is confirmed that the redistribution of Cs-137 in the landscape depends on erosive processes. The conclusion is that in the interpretation of Cs-137 levels it is necessary to incorporate morphology analysis of declivity since this is a low scale measurement. (Author)

  11. An Excel®-based visualization tool of 2-D soil gas concentration profiles in petroleum vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Iason; Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a petroleum vapor intrusion tool implemented in Microsoft ® Excel ® using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and integrated within a graphical interface. The latter helps users easily visualize two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles and indoor concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, biodegradation reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. This tool is based on a two-dimensional explicit analytical model that combines steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation model, in which rate is limited by oxygen availability. As recommended in the recently released United States Environmental Protection Agency's final Petroleum Vapor Intrusion guidance, a sensitivity analysis and a simplified Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis are also included in the spreadsheet.

  12. Dietary fish oil alters the lysophospholipid metabolomic profile and decreases urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B₂ concentration in healthy Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Brockman, Jeffrey A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2011-12-15

    Increased concentrations of dietary fish oil and antioxidants have been shown previously to change circulating concentrations of individual fatty acids (FAs) and vitamin E. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the effects of vitamins E and C, in combination with dietary fish oil, on selected blood and urinary biomarkers. Fifty adult Beagle dogs (mean age 5.3 years, range 1.4-14.2 years) were randomized into five dietary treatment groups for 90 days. All foods were complete and balanced and met the nutrient profiles of AAFCO for adult dogs. For 60 days before study initiation, dogs consumed a pretrial food that contained 74 IU/kg vitaminE and 0mg/kg vitaminC. The five experimental foods were confirmed by analytical methods to contain ≥ 640 IU/kg vitaminE and 130 mg/kg vitaminC (as fed). Experimental foods ranged from low levels of EPA and DHA (pretrial food and lowest experimental food had 0.01% EPA and no detectable DHA) to the highest experimental food with 0.25% EPA and 0.17% DHA. Serum was analyzed for FAs, vitamin E, and cholesterol concentrations; urine was analyzed for 11-dehydro thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)). Serum was also used for metabolomic analysis. FA intake ranged from 0.02 g/day EPA and 0.02 g/day DHA to 0.58 g/day EPA and 0.39 g/day DHA. Increasing dietary concentrations of EPA and DHA resulted in increased serum concentrations of EPA and DHA in a dose-dependent fashion. Greater dietary vitamin E intake resulted in increased serum vitamin E concentrations (Pvitamin E concentrations (Pvitamin E concentration is enhanced primarily by feeding vitamin E and secondarily by serum cholesterol concentration. When feeding diets enriched with fish oil, the major negative predictor of urinary 11-dehydro TXB(2) concentration is serum EPA concentration. Plasma lysophospholipids can be dynamically regulated by dietary fish oil supplementation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relations between Scots pine needle element concentrations and decreased needle longevity along pollution gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamppu, Jukka; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Deceased needle longevity was related to increased heavy metal concentrations. - Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots were sampled along transects near one urban pollution source and two smelters. Needle Mg, P and K concentrations decreased from the second to the fourth age class linearly with needle survival along the urban pollution gradient. Still, over 80% of the average concentration of these nutrients remained in the fourth needle age class. Decreased needle longevity was closely related to the increased heavy metal concentrations near the smelters. Near the urban pollution source, it was related to the increased annual needle mass and the increased needle nutrient concentrations. Decreased Mn accumulation along with needle age was detected near all pollution sources. Leaching of Mn from needles and especially from soil as a cause of decreased needle concentrations is discussed

  14. Effects of Center Offset and Noise on Weak-Lensing Derived Concentration-Mass Relation of Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Fan, Zuhui

    2014-04-01

    With the halo catalog from the Millennium Simulation, we analyze the weak-lensing measured density profiles for clusters of galaxies, paying attention to the determination of the concentration-mass (c-M) relation, which can be biased by the center offset, selection effect, and shape noise from intrinsic ellipticities of background galaxies. Several different methods of locating the center of a cluster from weak-lensing effects alone are explored. We find that, for intermediate redshift clusters, the highest peak from our newly proposed two-scale smoothing method applied to the reconstructed convergence field, first with a smoothing scale of 2' and then 0.'5, corresponds best to the true center. Assuming the parameterized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we fit the reduced tangential shear signals around different centers identified by different methods. It is shown that, for the ensemble median values, a center offset larger than one scale radius rs can bias the derived mass and concentration significantly lower than the true values, especially for low-mass halos. However, the existence of noise can compensate for the offset effect and reduce the systematic bias, although the scatter of mass and concentration becomes considerably larger. Statistically, the bias effect of center offset on the c-M relation is insignificant if an appropriate center finding method is adopted. On the other hand, noise from intrinsic ellipticities can bias the c-M relation derived from a sample of weak-lensing analyzed clusters if a simple χ2 fitting method is used. To properly account for the scatter and covariance between c and M, we apply a Bayesian method to improve the statistical analysis of the c-M relation. It is shown that this new method allows us to derive the c-M relation with significantly reduced biases.

  15. Effects of center offset and noise on weak-lensing derived concentration-mass relation of dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wei; Fan, Zuhui

    2014-01-01

    With the halo catalog from the Millennium Simulation, we analyze the weak-lensing measured density profiles for clusters of galaxies, paying attention to the determination of the concentration-mass (c-M) relation, which can be biased by the center offset, selection effect, and shape noise from intrinsic ellipticities of background galaxies. Several different methods of locating the center of a cluster from weak-lensing effects alone are explored. We find that, for intermediate redshift clusters, the highest peak from our newly proposed two-scale smoothing method applied to the reconstructed convergence field, first with a smoothing scale of 2' and then 0.'5, corresponds best to the true center. Assuming the parameterized Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we fit the reduced tangential shear signals around different centers identified by different methods. It is shown that, for the ensemble median values, a center offset larger than one scale radius r s can bias the derived mass and concentration significantly lower than the true values, especially for low-mass halos. However, the existence of noise can compensate for the offset effect and reduce the systematic bias, although the scatter of mass and concentration becomes considerably larger. Statistically, the bias effect of center offset on the c-M relation is insignificant if an appropriate center finding method is adopted. On the other hand, noise from intrinsic ellipticities can bias the c-M relation derived from a sample of weak-lensing analyzed clusters if a simple χ 2 fitting method is used. To properly account for the scatter and covariance between c and M, we apply a Bayesian method to improve the statistical analysis of the c-M relation. It is shown that this new method allows us to derive the c-M relation with significantly reduced biases.

  16. Relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol profiles of Panadol suppositories in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, K P; Nielson, H W; Schroder, M; Covino, A; Matthews, N T; Murray, R S; Van Der Walt, J H

    1998-10-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol concentration profiles following administration of a proprietary formulation of paracetamol suppositories to postoperative children. Study A-eight children undergoing minor surgery had blood samples collected following the rectal administration of either a 250 mg or 500 mg paracetamol suppository on one day and an equivalent oral dose on the following day. A mean dose of 13 mg/kg gave a mean Cmax (Tmax) of 7.7 mg/L (1.6 h) and 4.9 mg/L (2.0 h) following oral and rectal administration, respectively. The mean relative rectal bioavailability was 78% (95% confidence interval of 55-101%). Study B-20 children undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy were randomly assigned to receive a postoperative dose of 500 mg of paracetamol either as 2 x 250 mg liquid filled or 1 x 500 mg hard wax Panadol suppository. A mean dose of 25 mg/kg produced mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations of 13.2 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L at 2.1 and 1.9 h for the hard and liquid filled suppository, respectively. The absorption rate constants and areas under the curves suggested no difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the two formulations. Absorption of paracetamol following rectal administration of Panadol suppositories to postoperative children is slower and reduced as compared to oral therapy. The hard wax and liquid filled products have similar absorption characteristics. The usually quoted antipyretic therapeutic range for paracetamol is 10-20 mg/L, although 5 mg/L may be effective. A single rectal dose of 25 mg/kg will obtain this lower concentration within 1 h of administration and maintain it for up to 6 h. When given in an appropriate dose for analgesia, maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations would be available in the immediate postoperative period if the rectal dose was given 2 h before the planned end of the procedure.

  17. Vertical profiles of lung deposited surface area concentration of particulate matter measured with a drone in a street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Poikkimäki, Mikko; Järvinen, Anssi; Kuula, Joel; Irjala, Matti; Dal Maso, Miikka; Keskinen, Jorma; Timonen, Hilkka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Rönkkö, Topi

    2018-05-23

    The vertical profiles of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration were measured in an urban street canyon in Helsinki, Finland, by using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) as a moving measurement platform. The street canyon can be classified as an avenue canyon with an aspect ratio of 0.45 and the UAS was a multirotor drone especially modified for emission measurements. In the experiments of this study, the drone was equipped with a small diffusion charge sensor capable of measuring the alveolar LDSA concentration of particles. The drone measurements were conducted during two days on the same spatial location at the kerbside of the street canyon by flying vertically from the ground level up to an altitude of 50 m clearly above the rooftop level (19 m) of the nearest buildings. The drone data were supported by simultaneous measurements and by a two-week period of measurements at nearby locations with various instruments. The results showed that the averaged LDSA concentrations decreased approximately from 60 μm 2 /cm 3 measured close to the ground level to 36-40 μm 2 /cm 3 measured close to the rooftop level of the street canyon, and further to 16-26 μm 2 /cm 3 measured at 50 m. The high-resolution measurement data enabled an accurate analysis of the functional form of vertical profiles both in the street canyon and above the rooftop level. In both of these regions, exponential fits were used and the parameters obtained from the fits were thoroughly compared to the values found in literature. The results of this study indicated that the role of turbulent mixing caused by traffic was emphasized compared to the street canyon vortex as a driving force of the dispersion. In addition, the vertical profiles above the rooftop level showed a similar exponential decay compared to the profiles measured inside the street canyon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIULIA C.Q. RODRIGUES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of the Temperature and the Concentration Profiles of an Industrial Rotary Kiln Used in Clinker Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Diulia C Q; Soares, Atílio P; Costa, Esly F; Costa, Andréa O S

    2017-01-01

    Cement is one of the most used building materials in the world. The process of cement production involves numerous and complex reactions that occur under different temperatures. Thus, there is great interest in the optimization of cement manufacturing. Clinker production is one of the main steps of cement production and it occurs inside the kiln. In this paper, the dry process of clinker production is analysed in a rotary kiln that operates in counter flow. The main phenomena involved in clinker production is as follows: free residual water evaporation of raw material, decomposition of magnesium carbonate, decarbonation, formation of C3A and C4AF, formation of dicalcium silicate, and formation of tricalcium silicate. The main objective of this study was to propose a mathematical model that realistically describes the temperature profile and the concentration of clinker components in a real rotary kiln. In addition, the influence of different speeds of inlet gas and solids in the system was analysed. The mathematical model is composed of partial differential equations. The model was implemented in Mathcad (available at CCA/UFES) and solved using industrial input data. The proposal model is satisfactory to describe the temperature and concentration profiles of a real rotary kiln.

  20. Metabolic profiles and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in non-obese and obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabeer, S; Naidoo, C; Norman, R J; Jialal, I; Reddi, K; Joubert, S M

    1990-10-01

    Clinical parameters, androgen status and lipoprotein lipid profiles were assessed in 10 non-obese and 10 obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and reference subjects matched for age, height and weight. Both obese and non-obese women with PCOD had significantly higher androgen levels when compared to the reference groups. When comparison of lipoprotein lipid profiles were made between groups, non-obese women with PCOD had significantly higher total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels than non-obese reference subjects. Obese PCOD women manifested significantly higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, cholesterol/HDL, and LDL/HDL values than did obese reference subjects. Correlations between serum androgens and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in PCOD and normal women were unhelpful. Both non-obese and obese patients with PCOD had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BPs) than the reference groups. Thus, both non-obese and obese women with PCOD manifest hyperandrogenaemia which may result in a male pattern of lipoprotein lipid concentrations.

  1. 10Be concentrations and the long-term fate of particle-reactive nuclides in five soil profiles from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, M.C.; Krishnaswami, S.; Thomas, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration-depth profiles of cosmic-ray-produced 10 Be(tsub(1/2)=1.5 m.y.) have been measured by accelerator-mass spectrometry in five soil profiles. These measurements were made in an effort (1) to understand the retentivity of soil surfaces for particle-reactive tracers depositing from the atmosphere on time scales of 10 4 -10 6 years, and (2) to explore the application of 10 Be as a chronometer of geomorphic surface age. The profiles sampled are from two wave-cut terraces located near Mendocino, California, a table mountain top and an alluvial fan, both located near Friant, California. The ages of the Mendocino terraces are inferred to be (1-5) x 10 5 years based on amino-stratigraphic correlations and models of terrace evolution; those of the table mountain top and alluvial fan are 9.5 x 10 6 years and 6.0 x 10 5 years, respectively, based on K-Ar analyses. All the surfaces sampled are nearly flat and exhibit few erosional features. In addition to 10 Be we measured 210 Pb, sup(239,) 240 Pu and 7 Be to ascertain the retentivity of the soils for particle-reactive nuclides and to assess the present-day delivery rate of nuclides from the atmosphere. The 7 Be inventory is 4.0 dpm/cm 2 similar to those observed at nearby locations. The inventories of 210 Pb and Pu isotopes conform to those predicted from model calculations and suggest that the soil surfaces sampled retain the entire burden of particle-reactive nuclides delivered to them over short time scales, approx.= 100 years. The 10 Be concentrations in the sample range between (0.2 and 7) x 10 8 atoms/g soil and show strong correlations with leachable Fe and/or Al. (orig./WL)

  2. A study of the horizontal and vertical profile of submicrometer particles in relation to a busy road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Lidia; Thomas, Stephen; Gilbert, Dale; Greenaway, Chris; Rijnders, Esther

    Epidemiological studies are consistently reporting an association between fine particulate pollution and ill-health. Motor vehicle emissions are considered to be the main source of fine particles in ambient urban air of cities which are not directly influenced by industrial emissions. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of a major arterial road on concentration levels of airborne fine particles in its vicinity. Measurements of over 500 particle size distributions in the particle size range 16-626 nm, were made using two scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS). A subsequent comparison of the recorded values from differing locations is discussed, with reference made to topographic and climatic influences. Both horizontal and vertical profile measurements of fine particle number size distributions are described; the combination of the two yielding information as to the relative exposures of occupants of buildings in the vicinity of a major arterial route. With the exception of measurements in close proximity to the freeway (about 15 m), the horizontal profile measurements did not provide any evidence of a statistically significant difference in fine particle number concentration with respect to distance at ground level up to a distance of 200 m within the study area. The vertical profile measurements also revealed no significant correlation between particle concentration and height. However, for buildings in the immediate proximity to the arterial road (about 15 m) concentrations around the building envelope are very high, comparable to those in the immediate vicinity of the road, indicating undiluted concentrations drawn directly from the freeway. This finding has a significant implication for management of indoor air quality in the buildings located in the immediate vicinity of major roads.

  3. Healthcare managers' leadership profiles in relation to perceptions of work stressors and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and differences in managers' own levels of work stress symptoms and perceptions of work stressors causing stress. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data were used. Healthcare managers ( n = 188) rated three dimensions of their leadership behavior and levels of work stressors and stress. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify leadership profiles based on leadership behaviors. Differences in stress-related outcomes between profiles were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Findings Four distinct clusters of leadership profiles were found. They discriminated in perception of work stressors and stress: the profile distinguished by the lowest mean in all behavior dimensions, exhibited a pattern with significantly more negative ratings compared to the other profiles. Practical implications This paper proposes that leadership profile is an individual factor involved in the stress process, including work stressors and stress, which may inform targeted health promoting interventions for healthcare managers. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and work stressors and stress in healthcare managers.

  4. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...

  5. Cytokine Profiles of Severe Influenza Virus-Related Complications in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Fiore-Gartland; Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari; Anna A. Agan; Anushay J. Mistry; Paul G. Thomas; Michael A. Matthay; Michael A. Matthay; PALISI PICFlu Investigators; Tomer Hertz; Tomer Hertz; Tomer Hertz; Adrienne G. Randolph; Adrienne G. Randolph; Adrienne G. Randolph; Ronald C. Sanders

    2017-01-01

    RationaleEffective immunomodulatory therapies for children with life-threatening “cytokine storm” triggered by acute influenza infection are lacking. Understanding the immune profiles of children progressing to severe lung injury and/or septic shock could provide insight into pathogenesis.ObjectivesTo compare the endotracheal and serum cytokine profiles of children with influenza-related critical illness and to identify their associations with severe influenza-associated complications.Methods...

  6. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomos N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC, that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  7. Identification of intestinal loss of a drug through physiologically based pharmacokinetic simulation of plasma concentration-time profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sheila Annie

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding of the role of the gut as a metabolizing organ, recognition of gut wall metabolism and/or other factors contributing to intestinal loss of a compound has been a challenging task due to the lack of well characterized methods to distinguish it from first-pass hepatic extraction. The implications of identifying intestinal loss of a compound in drug discovery and development can be enormous. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) simulations of pharmacokinetic profiles provide a simple, reliable and cost-effective way to understand the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic processes. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of PBPK simulations in bringing to light intestinal loss of orally administered drugs, using two example compounds: verapamil and an in-house compound that is no longer in development (referred to as compound A in this article). A generic PBPK model, built in-house using MATLAB software and incorporating absorption, metabolism, distribution, biliary and renal elimination models, was employed for simulation of concentration-time profiles. Modulation of intrinsic hepatic clearance and tissue distribution parameters in the generic PBPK model was done to achieve a good fit to the observed intravenous pharmacokinetic profiles of the compounds studied. These optimized clearance and distribution parameters are expected to be invariant across different routes of administration, as long as the kinetics are linear, and were therefore employed to simulate the oral profiles of the compounds. For compounds with reasonably good solubility and permeability, an area under the concentration-time curve for the simulated oral profile that far exceeded the observed would indicate some kind of loss in the intestine. PBPK simulations applied to compound A showed substantial loss of the compound in the gastrointestinal tract in humans but not in rats. This accounted for the lower bioavailability of the

  8. Physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size using multi-frequency arrays of acoustic-doppler profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David

    2014-01-01

    As the result of a 12-year program of sediment-transport research and field testing on the Colorado River (6 stations in UT and AZ), Yampa River (2 stations in CO), Little Snake River (1 station in CO), Green River (1 station in CO and 2 stations in UT), and Rio Grande (2 stations in TX), we have developed a physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size at 15-minute intervals using multifrequency arrays of acoustic-Doppler profilers. This multi-frequency method is able to achieve much higher accuracies than single-frequency acoustic methods because it allows removal of the influence of changes in grain size on acoustic backscatter. The method proceeds as follows. (1) Acoustic attenuation at each frequency is related to the concentration of silt and clay with a known grain-size distribution in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (2) The combination of acoustic backscatter and attenuation at each frequency is uniquely related to the concentration of sand (with a known reference grain-size distribution) and the concentration of silt and clay (with a known reference grain-size distribution) in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (3) Comparison of the suspended-sand concentrations measured at each frequency using this approach then allows theory-based calculation of the median grain size of the suspended sand and final correction of the suspended-sand concentration to compensate for the influence of changing grain size on backscatter. Although this method of measuring suspended-sediment concentration is somewhat less accurate than using conventional samplers in either the EDI or EWI methods, it is much more accurate than estimating suspended-sediment concentrations using calibrated pump measurements or single-frequency acoustics. Though the EDI and EWI methods provide the most accurate measurements of suspended-sediment concentration, these measurements are labor-intensive, expensive, and

  9. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  10. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  11. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  12. Relation of major volcanic center concentration on Venus to global tectonic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.; Aubele, Jayne C.

    1993-01-01

    Global analysis of Magellan image data indicates that a major concentration of volcanic centers covering about 40 percent of the surface of Venus occurs between the Beta, Atla, and Themis regions. Associated with this enhanced concentration are geological characteristics commonly interpreted as rifting and mantle upwelling. Interconnected low plains in an annulus around this concentration are characterized by crustal shortening and infrequent volcanic centers that may represent sites of mantle return flow and net downwelling. Together, these observations suggest the existence of relatively simple, large-scale patterns of mantle circulation similar to those associated with concentrations of intraplate volcanism on earth.

  13. Profiles of drug addicts in relation to personality variables and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carou, María; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, Mª Ángeles

    2016-10-07

    In recent decades, research has identified a set of impulsive/disinhibited personality variables closely associated with drug addiction. As well as this, disorders linked with these variables, such as ADHD and personality disorders, are being closely studied in the field of drug addiction. Although much knowledge has been accumulated about the relation of these variables and disorders taken separately, less is known about how these constructs allow identify-specific profiles within the drug dependent population to be identified. This work, on the basis of data collected on a sample of drug addicts in treatment, analyzes how impulsiveness, sensation seeking, self-control, ADHD and personality disorders contribute to identifying specific profiles of addicts. Cluster analysis allowed two profiles to be outlined according to these personality and psychopathology characteristics. Self-control, impulsiveness, impulsive and antisocial personality disorders, as well as scores in ADHD, emerge as the variables that contribute more to profile differentiation. One of these profiles (56.1% of participants) with a high disinhibition pattern, is associated with severe indicators of consumption and criminal career patterns. These results allow us to emphasize the role of personality and impulsiveness-related disorders in the identification of distinctive profiles within the addict population, and suggest the need to generate treatment strategies adapted to personal/psychopathology configurations of drug addicts.

  14. Quantitative interpretation of Cl, Br and I porewater concentration profiles in lake sediments of Loch Lomond, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the four natural analogue sites being investigated by the British Geological Survey is Loch Lomond, Scotland. Naturally occurring halogen elements (Cl, Br and I) have been migrating from a thin marine horizon into overlying freshwater deposits by a diffusion process which has been occurring for at least 5 400 years. This report summarizes the main findings accumulated since 1983 when the work was first begun, and provides a modelling interpretation of the measured concentration-depth profiles using a new numerical code called Diagen. The release rates of I and Br from the organic matter association in the shallow buried marine layer are very slow; subsequent anion movement by diffusion is affected by tortuosity differences in the sediments rather than by chemical reaction with the sediments. The bulk of the evidence supports conservative transport of iodide, bromide and chloride anions towards the sediment/loch interface. The report discusses some implications of the findings

  15. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and soil profile CO2 concentrations in arboretum of Moscow botanical garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Olga; Udovenko, Maria; Matyshak, Georgy

    2016-04-01

    To analyse and predict recent and future climate change on a global scale exchange processes of greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide - over various ecosystems are of rising interest. In order to upscale land-use dependent sources and sinks of CO2, knowledge of the local variability of carbon fluxes is needed. Among terrestrial ecosystems, urban areas play an important role because most of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide originate from these areas. On the other hand, urban soils have the potential to store large amounts of soil organic carbon and, thus, contribute to mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Research objectives: 1) estimate the seasonal dynamics of carbon dioxide production (emission - closed chamber technique and profile concentration - soil air sampling tubes method) by soils of Moscow State University Botanical Garden Arboretum planted with Picea obovata and Pinus sylvestris, 1) identification the factors that control CO2 production. The study was conducted with 1-2 weeks intervals between October 2013 and November 2015 at two sites. Carbon dioxide soil surface efflux during the year ranged from 0 to 800 mgCO2/(m2hr). Efflux values above 0 mgCO2/(m2hr) was observed during the all cold period except for only 3 weeks. Soil CO2 concentration ranged from 1600-3000 ppm in upper 10-cm layer to 10000-40000 ppm at a depth of 60 cm. The maximum concentrations of CO2 were recorded in late winter and late summer. We associate it with high biological activity (both heterotrophic and autotrophic) during the summer, and with physical gas jamming in the winter. The high value of annual CO2 production of the studied soils is caused by high organic matter content, slightly alkaline reaction, good structure and texture of urban soils. Differences in soil CO2 production by spruce and pine urban forest soils (in the pine forest 1.5-2.0 times higher) are caused by urban soil profiles construction, but not temperature regimes. Seasonal

  16. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  17. Suppression of concentration quenching of Er-related luminescence in Er-doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqiang; Tomita, Shigeo; Kudo, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Dierre, Benjamin; Lee, Woong; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaN with different doping concentrations were grown by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy. The intra-4f-shell transitions related green luminescence were observed by both photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. It was found that concentration quenching of Er-related luminescence was observed in PL measurements while not in CL measurements. The different excitation and relaxation processes are suggested as the cause of the concentration quenching characteristics between PL and CL. The strong Er-related CL intensity in highly doped GaN demonstrates that high energy excitation is a promising approach to suppress the concentration quenching in Er-doped GaN.

  18. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L A H; Craciun, A R; Ruytinx, J; Lambaerts, M; Verbruggen, N; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2007-10-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in different classes of expression pattern, were isolated and sequenced. Thirty-six of the represented genes showed homology to function-known genes, whereas 6 matched unknown protein coding sequences, and 102 were possibly novel. Although relatively few TDFs were found to be responsive to the different zinc treatments, their modulated expression levels may suggest a different transcriptional response to zinc treatments in both isolates. Among the identified genes that could be related to heavy-metal detoxification or the tolerance trait were genes encoding for homologues of a heat-shock protein, a putative metal transporter, a hydrophobin, and several proteins involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

  19. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  20. Profile of mood states and stress-related biochemical indices in long-term yoga practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Nobuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown the short-term or intermediate-term practice of yoga to be useful for ameliorating several mental disorders and psychosomatic disorders. However, little is known about the long-term influences of yoga on the mental state or stress-related biochemical indices. If yoga training has a stress-reduction effect and also improves an individual's mental states for a long time, long-term yoga practitioners may have a better mental state and lower stress-related biochemical indices in comparison to non-experienced participants. This study simultaneously examined the differences in mental states and urinary stress-related biochemical indices between long-term yoga practitioners and non-experienced participants. Methods The participants were 38 healthy females with more than 2 years of experience with yoga (long-term yoga group and 37 age-matched healthy females who had not participated in yoga (control group. Their mental states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. The level of cortisol, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and biopyrrin in urine were used as stress-related biochemical indices. Results The average self-rated mental disturbance, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and fatigue scores of the long-term yoga group were lower than those of the control group. There was a trend toward a higher vigor score in the long-term yoga group than that in the control group. There were no significant differences in the scores for depression and confusion in the POMS between the two groups. The urine 8-OHdG concentration showed a trend toward to being lower in the long-term yoga group in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences in the levels of urine biopyrrin or cortisol. Conclusions The present findings suggest that long-term yoga training can reduce the scores related to mental health indicators such as self-rated anxiety, anger, and fatigue.

  1. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instrument: A case study of Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinovantyo, Angga; Manik, Henry M.; Prartono, Tri; Susilohadi; Ilahude, Delyuzar

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the parameters needed to determine the characteristics of sediment transport. However, the measurement of SSC nowadays still uses conventional technique and it has limitations; especially in temporal resolution. With advanced technology, the measurement can use hydroacoustic technology such as Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). ADCP measures the intensity of backscatter as echo intensity unit from sediment particles. The frequency of ADCP used in this study was 400 kHz. The samples were measured and collected from Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi. The highest concentration of suspended sediment was 98.89 mg L-1 and the lowest was 45.20 mg L-1. Time series data showed the tidal condition affected the SSC. From the research, we also made correction from sound signal losses effect such as spherical spreading and sound absorption to get more accurate results by eliminating these parameters in echo intensity data. Simple linear regression analysis at echo intensity measured from ADCP to direct measurement of SSC was performed to obtain the estimation of the SSC. The comparison result of estimation of SSC from ADCP measurements and SSC from laboratory analyses was insignificantly different based on t-test statistical analysis with 95% confidence interval percentage.

  2. Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.

  3. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  4. Coping profiles, perceived stress and health-related behaviors: a cluster analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Trouillet, Raphael; Maneveau, Anaïs; Ninot, Grégory; Neveu, Dorine

    2015-03-01

    Using cluster analytical procedure, this study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of coping profiles (or unique combinations of coping strategies); and (ii) to examine the relationships between these profiles and perceived stress and health-related behaviors. A sample of 578 French students (345 females, 233 males; M(age)= 21.78, SD(age)= 2.21) completed the Perceived Stress Scale-14 ( Bruchon-Schweitzer, 2002), the Brief COPE ( Muller and Spitz, 2003) and a series of items measuring health-related behaviors. A two-phased cluster analytic procedure (i.e. hierarchical and non-hierarchical-k-means) was employed to derive clusters of coping strategy profiles. The results yielded four distinctive coping profiles: High Copers, Adaptive Copers, Avoidant Copers and Low Copers. The results showed that clusters differed significantly in perceived stress and health-related behaviors. High Copers and Avoidant Copers displayed higher levels of perceived stress and engaged more in unhealthy behavior, compared with Adaptive Copers and Low Copers who reported lower levels of stress and engaged more in healthy behaviors. These findings suggested that individuals' relative reliance on some strategies and de-emphasis on others may be a more advantageous way of understanding the manner in which individuals cope with stress. Therefore, cluster analysis approach may provide an advantage over more traditional statistical techniques by identifying distinct coping profiles that might best benefit from interventions. Future research should consider coping profiles to provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between coping strategies and health outcomes and to identify risk groups. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Relation between the concentration of defects and the temperature on a crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A T.V.; Cilense, M [UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Garlipp, W [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1982-01-01

    Following the basic thermodynamics principles, the relation between the concentration of defects and the temperature on a crystal was established. In the case of vacancies, the relation between the changes in the resistivity and the absolute quench temperature was also obtained.

  6. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  8. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with different profiles of individuation in relation to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuation in relation to parents represents an important developmental task during adolescence. The article focuses on the examination of different profiles of individuation in relation to parents and how these profiles manifest themselves in different periods of adolescence. We were also interested in the psychosocial characteristics that vary among adolescents with different profiles of individuation. The sample consisted of 593 adolescents in the age range of 13 to 18 years. The adolescents filled in the self-report questionnaires of individuation in relation to parents and friends, perceived parental behavior, and perceived self-efficacy in learning. They also reported about the frequency of psychological symptoms experienced in the last month. To identify the diverse groups of adolescents the scores on the scale of individuation in relation to parents were subjected to a cluster analysis. Finally, the four-cluster solution was chosen. The clusters were named: Good connectedness with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Highly harmonious relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Cold relationship with parents with threatened autonomy and Ambivalent relationship with parents. The results confirmed the hypothesis, that most adolescents will be classified in the profiles of good relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy. The results also showed that the combination of moderate emotional connectedness with parents, low parental idealization, ability to integrate autonomy and connectedness, low denial of dependency needs and low engulfment anxiety represent the most favorable individuation pattern for psychological adaptation of adolescents.

  9. University Faculty and Work-Related Well-Being: The Importance of the Triple Work Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Maria; Salanova, Marisa; Martin, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this study is to test whether different university faculty work profiles (i.e., teaching, research and management) relate with the experience of well-being at work (i.e., burnout, work engagement and intrinsic satisfaction). Method: Hypotheses were tested through a K-means cluster, ANOVA, and confirmatory factor…

  10. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  11. Effect of wind speed and relative humidity on atmospheric dust concentrations in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Félix, Omar; Corral-Avitia, Alba Y; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2014-07-15

    Atmospheric particulate have deleterious impacts on human health. Predicting dust and aerosol emission and transport would be helpful to reduce harmful impacts but, despite numerous studies, prediction of dust events and contaminant transport in dust remains challenging. In this work, we show that relative humidity and wind speed are both determinants in atmospheric dust concentration. Observations of atmospheric dust concentrations in Green Valley, AZ, USA, and Juárez, Chihuahua, México, show that PM10 concentrations are not directly correlated with wind speed or relative humidity separately. However, selecting the data for high wind speeds (>4m/s at 10 m elevation), a definite trend is observed between dust concentration and relative humidity: dust concentration increases with relative humidity, reaching a maximum around 25% and it subsequently decreases with relative humidity. Models for dust storm forecasting may be improved by utilizing atmospheric humidity and wind speed as main drivers for dust generation and transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E J; Hammond, B R; Yeum, K J; Qin, J; Wang, X D; Castaneda, C; Snodderly, D M; Russell, R M

    2000-06-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids in the macular region of the retina (referred to as macular pigment [MP]). Foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin can increase MP density. Response to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin in other tissues has not been studied. The objective of this study was to examine tissue responses to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin and relations among tissues in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Seven subjects consumed spinach and corn, which contain lutein and zeaxanthin, with their daily diets for 15 wk. At 0, 4, 8, and 15 wk and 2 mo after the study, serum, buccal mucosa cells, and adipose tissue were analyzed for carotenoids, and MP density was measured. Serum and buccal cell concentrations of lutein increased significantly from baseline during dietary modification. Serum zeaxanthin concentrations were greater than at baseline only at 4 wk, whereas buccal cell and adipose tissue concentrations of zeaxanthin did not change. Adipose tissue lutein concentrations peaked at 8 wk. Changes in adipose tissue lutein concentration were inversely related to the changes in MP density, suggesting an interaction between adipose tissue and retina in lutein metabolism. To investigate the possibility of tissue interactions, we examined cross-sectional relations among serum, tissue, and dietary lutein concentrations, anthropometric measures, and MP density in healthy adults. Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men. Sex differences in lutein metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.

  13. Reduction of Nicardipine-Related Phlebitis in Patients with Acute Stroke by Diluting Its Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kei; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koudai; Miyamoto, Norifumi

    2018-03-05

    Nicardipine is frequently used in the treatment of hypertension for patients with acute stroke; however, its dosing is complicated by a high risk of phlebitis. In the present study, we examined whether restricting nicardipine concentration under a specific value could reduce the incidence of nicardipine-related phlebitis in patients with acute stroke. Intravenous nicardipine-related phlebitis was retrospectively analyzed. From July 2015, a simple proposition was made to dilute maximum intravenous nicardipine concentration to lower than 130 µg/mL. The maximum intravenous nicardipine concentration and the incidence of phlebitis were compared between patients treated from July 2014 to June 2015 (preproposition group) and patients treated from July 2015 to June 2016 (postproposition group). A total of 300 patients (preproposition group, 138; postproposition group, 162) were included. The postproposition group demonstrated significantly lower maximum intravenous nicardipine concentration (in µg/mL, 76.9, 47.6-104.5 versus 130.4, 69.8-230.8; P phlebitis (9.9%, 16/162 vs. 30%, 42/138; P phlebitis, which indicated the usefulness of the proposition to dilute maximum intravenous nicardipine concentration to lower than 130 µg/mL. The simple and appropriate proposition about nicardipine administration lowered maximum nicardipine concentration and reduced the incidence of nicardipine-related phlebitis in patients with acute stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  15. Parathyroid hormone related protein concentration in human serum and CSF correlates with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Mark M; Peterson, Lisa K; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein (PTHrP) is involved in intracellular calcium (Ca) regulation, and has been demonstrated to participate in regulation of Ca in brain cells, activation of neurons, and modulation of pain. However, there are conflicting reports regarding the presence of PTHrP in CSF. PTHrP and Ca were quantified in paired CSF and serum samples using mass spectrometry-based methods. Associations between PTHrP and Ca concentrations with age, sex and concentrations of nine CSF diagnostic markers in a set of 140 paired serum and CSF patient samples were evaluated. The observed median PTHrP concentration in CSF was 51 times higher than in serum; the median concentration of Ca in CSF was 1.8 times lower than in serum. We observed positive correlation between concentrations of PTHrP in CSF and serum (p=0.013). Distribution of PTHrP concentrations in serum was associated with age (p=0.0068) and the concentrations were higher in women. In samples with serum calcium concentrations within the reference intervals (n=118), central 95% distribution of concentrations for Ca-CSF, PTHrP-serum and PTHrP-CSF were 5.4 (4.5-6.1) mg/dL, 1.2 (0.5-2.5) pmol/L, 62 (22-125) pmol/L, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PTHrP is a normal constituent of human CSF with median concentrations 51 fold higher than in serum. Elevated serum PTHrP concentrations were positively correlated with age and significantly higher in women. Our data suggest that CSF could be a significant source of circulating PTHrP. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma).

  17. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  19. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    MULLER, Ludo; Craciun, A. R.; RUYTINX, Joske; LAMBAERTS, Marc; Verbruggen, N.; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; COLPAERT, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in ...

  20. Uranium concentrations in the phosphates of Congo related to marin and continental mineral authigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giresse, P.; N'Landou, J. de Dieu; Wiber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the Maastrichtian phosphates of Tchivoula (Congo), uanium, for the most part fixed and tetravalent in marine apatites in there after mobilized and occasionally concentrates during the course of successive stages of dissolution, recrystallization (secondary apatite) or authigenesis (ferro-aluminous phosphates, autunite and torbernite). Very high levels near the top of the deposit appear to be related to the percolation of uraniferous solutions from Ypresian phosphatic beds which are no longer present. In the marine Tertiary phosphates of Djeno, diagenesis is less advanced; radial changes in uranium concentration on the scale of individual coprolites of selacians can be observed and are related to the loss of P 2 O 5 [fr

  1. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were...... recruited from a population-based cohort based on previous cognitive assessments in young adulthood and late midlife. The sample included 24 cognitively high-functioning and 26 cognitively impaired participants. Saliva samples were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hour period and analyzed for cortisol...... and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than...

  2. Applications of nutrient profiling: potential role in diet-related chronic disease prevention and the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Rayner, M; Stockley, L; Scarborough, P; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2011-03-01

    A number of different nutrient-profiling models have been proposed and several applications of nutrient profiling have been identified. This paper outlines the potential role of nutrient-profiling applications in the prevention of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD), and considers the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system, which could be modified for purpose, to underpin the multiple potential applications in a particular country. The 'Four 'P's of Marketing' (Product, Promotion, Place and Price) are used as a framework for identifying and for classifying potential applications of nutrient profiling. A logic pathway is then presented that can be used to gauge the potential impact of nutrient-profiling interventions on changes in behaviour, changes in diet and, ultimately, changes in DRCD outcomes. The feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system is assessed by examining the implications of different model design decisions and their suitability to different purposes. There is substantial scope to use nutrient profiling as part of the policies for the prevention of DRCD. A core nutrient-profiling system underpinning the various applications is likely to reduce discrepancies and minimise the confusion for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. It seems feasible that common elements, such as a standard scoring method, a core set of nutrients and food components, and defined food categories, could be incorporated as part of a core system, with additional application-specific criteria applying. However, in developing and in implementing such a system, several country-specific contextual and technical factors would need to be balanced.

  3. Molar concentration-depth profiles at the solution surface of a cationic surfactant reconstructed with angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuangye; Morgner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In the current work, we first reconstructed the molar fraction-depth profiles of cation and anion near the surface of tetrabutylammonium iodide dissolved in formamide by a refined calculation procedure, based on angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. In this calculation procedure, both the transmission functions of the core levels and the inelastic mean free paths of the photoelectrons have been taken into account. We have evaluated the partial molar volumes of surfactant and solvent by the densities of such solutions with different bulk concentrations. With those partial molar volumes, the molar concentration-depth profiles of tetrabutylammonium ion and iodide ion were determined. The surface excesses of both surfactant ions were then achieved directly by integrating these depth profiles. The anionic molar concentration-depth profiles and surface excesses have been compared with their counterparts determined by neutral impact ion scattering spectroscopy. The comparisons exhibit good agreements. Being capable of determining molar concentration-depth profiles of surfactant ions by core levels with different kinetic energies may extend the applicable range of ARXPS in investigating solution surfaces.

  4. The dynamic ocean biological pump: Insights from a global compilation of particulate organic carbon, CaCO3, and opal concentration profiles from the mesopelagic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Doney, Scott C.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2011-09-01

    We have compiled a global data set of 62 open ocean profiles of particulate organic carbon (POC), CaCO3, and opal concentrations collected by large volume in situ filtration in the upper 1000 m over the last 30 years. We define concentration-based metrics for the strength (POC concentration at depth) and efficiency (attenuation of POC with depth in the mesopelagic) of the biological pump. We show that the strength and efficiency of the biological pump are dynamic and are characterized by a regime of constant and high transfer efficiency at low to moderate surface POC and a bloom regime where the height of the bloom is characterized by a weak deep biological pump and low transfer efficiency. The variability in POC attenuation length scale manifests in a clear decoupling between the strength of the shallow biological pump (e.g., POC at the export depth) and the strength of the deep biological pump (POC at 500 m). We suggest that the paradigm of diatom-driven export production is driven by a too restrictive perspective on upper mesopelagic dynamics. Indeed, our full mesopelagic analysis suggests that large, blooming diatoms have low transfer efficiency and thus may not export substantially to depth; rather, our analysis suggests that ecosystems characterized by smaller cells and moderately high %CaCO3 have a high mesopelagic transfer efficiency and can have higher POC concentrations in the deep mesopelagic even with relatively low surface or near-surface POC. This has negative implications for the carbon sequestration prospects of deliberate iron fertilization.

  5. Evaluation of air jet erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst based on glass fiber concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Nandakishora, Y.; Siddaraju, C.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    This paper explains the evaluation of erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst structures in which the glass fibers concentration in the catalyst material is considered as prime factor for erosion resistance and mechanical strength. The samples are prepared and tested at the specified and constant conditions like velocity as 30m/s, sand flow rate as 2g/min, average particle diameter 300 µm and all these samples were tested at different angles at impact preferably 15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,and 90° as per ASTM G76 standards. Say, if 5% glass fibers are present in catalyst material, then erosion resistance increases, but the density of glass fibers is very less because each glass fiber is approximately 20 microns in diameter and weight of individual is negligible. The composition in which 2% fiber is present has slightly higher erosion comparatively, but 3% glass fibers or more foreign inclusion like excessive binders can be eliminated that contributes much for the conversion of NOx. So 2% -3% glass fibers are preferred and optimized based on NOx conversion and erosion resistance property.

  6. Urinary arsenic speciation profiles in mice subchronically exposed to low concentrations of sodium arsenate in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a proven human carcinogen. Although the mechanism of its carcinogenicity is still largely unknown, methylation is thought to have an important role to play in arsenic toxicity. In this study, urinary methylation profiles were investigated in female C57BL/6J black mice given drinking water containing 500 μg arsenate (AsV/L, 250 μg AsV/L, or 100 μg AsV/L as sodium arsenate for 2 months. The concentrations of arsenic chosen reflected those in the drinking water often encountered in arsenic-endemic areas. Urine samples were collected from the mice at the end of the exposure period, and the arsenic species were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All detectable arsenic species showed strong linear correlation with the administered dosage. The methylation patterns were similar in all three groups with a slight decrease of dimethylarsinic acid/AsV ratio in the 500-μg/L group, which corresponded to the significantly higher arsenic retention in the tissue. The results indicate that urinary arsenic could be used as a good biomarker for internal dose and potential biological effects. Different doses of arsenic exposure could result in different degrees of methylation, excretion, and tissue retention, and this may contribute to the understanding of arsenic carcinogenicity.

  7. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-07-01

    Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Toluene diisocyanate concentration investigation among TDI-related factories in Taiwan and their relations to the type of industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Jung; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chang, Ho-Yuan

    2002-03-01

    To determine nationwide 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanates (TDI) concentrations among polyurethane (PU) resin, PU foam, and other TDI-related industries in Taiwan. The ratios of 2,4-/2,6-TDI and the noncarcinogenic risk among these three industries were also investigated. Personal and fixed-area monitoring of TDI concentrations as well as questionnaires were performed for 26 factories in Taiwan. The modified OHSA 42 method was applied in sampling and analysis. Noncarcinogenic hazard index was estimated for these three industries based on the average concentration measurements. Significant differences of TDI concentrations were found among the three industry categories. For personal monitoring, PU foam was found to have the highest TDI levels [18.6 (+/-33.6) and 22.1 (+/-42.3) ppb for 2,4- and 2,6-TDI], Others average [8.3 (+/-18.9) and 10.2 (+/-17.2) ppb], and PU resin lowest [2.0 (+/-3.5) and 0.7 (+/-1.2) ppb]. The estimated average hazard indices were found to be 310-3310. A substantial percentage of airborne TDI concentrations among in Taiwan industries exceeded current TDI occupational exposure limit, and significant difference of TDI levels were found among the three industry categories. The control remedy for the tasks of charging and foaming should be enforced with the highest priority. A separate 2,6-TDI exposure standard is warranted.

  9. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  10. A study of some factors which are related to indoor radon concentrations in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Lobotesi, E.; Mavroudaki, E.; Koukouliou, V.K.; Chanioti, M.; Papadimitriou, D.; Yiakoumakis, M.; Proukakis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Medical Physics Department of the University of Athens is conducting radon-222 measurements in Greek dwellings. It is well known that the concentration of radon gas indoors, are related to various factors. A study of these factors has started and first results are reported. (authors)

  11. Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: a first database for the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzède, R.; Lavigne, H.; Claustre, H.; Uitz, J.; Schmechtig, C.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Guinet, C.; Pesant, S.

    2015-10-01

    In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence is a proxy of chlorophyll a concentration, and is one of the most frequently measured biogeochemical properties in the ocean. Thousands of profiles are available from historical databases and the integration of fluorescence sensors to autonomous platforms has led to a significant increase of chlorophyll fluorescence profile acquisition. To our knowledge, this important source of environmental data has not yet been included in global analyses. A total of 268 127 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles from several databases as well as published and unpublished individual sources were compiled. Following a robust quality control procedure detailed in the present paper, about 49 000 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles were converted into phytoplankton biomass (i.e., chlorophyll a concentration) and size-based community composition (i.e., microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton and picophytoplankton), using a method specifically developed to harmonize fluorescence profiles from diverse sources. The data span over 5 decades from 1958 to 2015, including observations from all major oceanic basins and all seasons, and depths ranging from the surface to a median maximum sampling depth of around 700 m. Global maps of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition are presented here for the first time. Monthly climatologies were computed for three of Longhurst's ecological provinces in order to exemplify the potential use of the data product. Original data sets (raw fluorescence profiles) as well as calibrated profiles of phytoplankton biomass and community composition are available on open access at PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science. Raw fluorescence profiles: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844212 and Phytoplankton biomass and community composition: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844485

  12. Mercury concentrations in pond fish in relation to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Wilson, H.T.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Although many studies have reported that atmospheric mercury is the primary cause for bioaccumulation in fish from remote lakes, few data are available on the effects of possible near-field deposition on fish from nearby waters. The authors surveyed mercury concentrations in fish from 23 ponds in the vicinity of the coal-burning Dickerson Power Plant (Dickerson, MD). A stratified random sampling design was used to select ponds within zones delineated by concentric rings mapped at 3, 7, 10, and 15 km from the plant. For each pond, mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry in sunfish (bluegill, pumpkin seed, or green sunfish), and largemouth bass, which were present in 14 of the ponds. Mean concentrations in the ponds ranged from 0.03 to 0.38 ppm for sunfish and from 0.04 to 0.43 ppm for bass. Alkalinity, pH, conductivity, hardness, and fish length were measured. Stepwise multiple regression identified variables related to tissue concentrations. Differences between strata were tested with ANCOVA. The pattern of concentrations was compared to the pattern of wet deposition predicted by a model. The predicted pattern of local wet deposition did not match the observed pattern of mercury bioaccumulation. This research was sponsored by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Power Plant Research Program

  13. Dual-release hydrocortisone treatment: glycometabolic profile and health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M Mongioì

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adrenal insufficiency (AI is a chronic condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The treatment of AI in the last years has been object of important changes due to the development of a dual-release preparation of hydrocortisone. It differs from previous therapeutic strategy as it contemplates a once-daily tablet that allows more closely mimicking the physiological circadian cortisol rhythm. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dual-release hydrocortisone treatment on the glycometabolic profile and health-related quality of life of patients with AI. Design and Methods: In this clinical open trial, we enrolled ten patients with primary AI (41 ± 2.67 years and nine patients with AI secondary to hypopituitarism (53.2 ± 17.7 years. We evaluated the glycometabolic profile before and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after dual-release hydrocortisone administration. We also evaluated health-related quality of life, estimated by the AddiQol questionnaire. The mean dose administered of dual-release hydrocortisone was 28.33 ± 6.68 mg/day. Results: One female hypopituitary patient dropped out from the study. After 12 months of treatment, the mean dosage administered of dual-release hydrocortisone was significantly lower (P < 0.05 and all patients reported improved quality of life and well-being. The glycometabolic profile improved and the glycosylated hemoglobin decreased significantly in patients with primary AI (6.25 ± 0.2 vs 5.35 ± 0.17, P < 0.05. In contrast, hypopituitary patients had worse glycometabolic profile and a trend toward hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusions: Dual-release hydrocortisone treatment improved the quality of life of patients with AI, and it allowed a decrease of cortisol dosage administered in the absence of side effects. The glycometabolic profile worsened in hypopituitary patients.

  14. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  15. Relationship between weight-related behavioral profiles and health outcomes by sexual orientation and gender

    OpenAIRE

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B. R. Simon; Laska, Melissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Methods Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n=28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified ...

  16. Relationship between patients' oral health-related quality of life, satisfaction with dentition, and personality profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasneh, Jumana; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Al-Hamad, Khaled Q; Al Quran, Firas A M

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patients' oral health-related quality of life, satisfaction with their dentition, and their personality profiles. Eighty-four patients (30 males and 54 females; mean age 31.9+/-12.7 years) seeking routine dental treatment were recruited for this study. A "Dental Impact on Daily Living" (DIDL) questionnaire was used to assess dental satisfaction and impact on daily living. An "Oral Health Impact Profile" (OHIP) was used to measure self-reported discomfort, disability, and dysfunction caused by oral conditions. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the "United Kingdom Oral Health Related Quality of Life" measure (OHQoL-U.K). A "NEO Five Factor inventory" (NEO-FFI) was used to assess personality profiles. The dentition has a measurable impact on daily living as well as with satisfaction with appearance, pain levels, oral comfort, general performance, and eating capability (p=0.000). Younger patients had more profound oral health impacts (p=0.045) and higher neuroticism scores (0.043). OHIP scores were significantly related to OHQoL-UK scores (p=0.000). DIDL scores had significant correlations with OHIP and OHQoL-UK scores (p<0.05). Significant correlations were established between neuroticism and satisfaction with oral comfort, extraversion and total satisfaction and satisfaction with general performance, and openness and satisfaction with appearance (p<0.05). OHIP and OHQoL-UK scores had no significant correlations with psychological profiles. The status of the oral cavity can have a definitive impact on patients' daily living and quality of life regardless age, gender, and level of education. Patients' satisfaction with their dentition has definitive impacts on daily living, quality of life, and dental perceptions. Personality profiles (neuroticism; extraversion, and openness) may influence dental perceptions, play a significant role in shaping satisfaction with dentition, and help

  17. 222Rn concentration in the outdoor atmosphere and its relation to the atmospheric stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    The radon in the outdoor atmosphere has been monitored continuously since 1991. On the basis of the measured data mainly the average daily and the average annual courses of the 222 Rn concentrations have been studied. The annual courses of 222 Rn concentration are similar for all years. They present the annual variations. The average course of the 222 Rn concentration calculated on the basis of all continual measurements in the years 1991-1997 reaches the maximum value in October and the minimum value in April. The average daily courses of the 222 Rn concentration for the individual months of the year. The average daily courses have a form of waves with a maximum in the morning hours and with a minimum in the afternoon. The maximal amplitudes of daily waves have been reached in the summer months, from June till August. The amplitudes of daily waves are very small at the end of an autumn and during the winter months. The analysis of the daily waves and annual courses of 222 Rn showed that the amplitudes of the daily waves are in proportion to the global solar radiation irradiating the Earth's surface. The day duration influence on the phase of the daily wave and the wind velocity influence mainly on the level of the radon concentration. For the study of the relation of the radon concentration in the outdoor atmosphere to the stability the data of the atmosphere were obtained and they were correlated with the radon concentration. The results indicate that the 222 Rn concentrations int he outdoor atmosphere could be used for determination of the vertical atmospheric stability and these ones could reflect the atmospheric stability more completely than the different classifications based on the knowledge pertinent to the meteorological parameters. (authors)

  18. Concentration and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.; Hirakawa, H.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Matsueda, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka (Japan); Todaka, T. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, T. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Non-Co-PCBs) and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Mono-Co-PCBs) accumulate in the human body due to their highly lipophilic properties. In recent years, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of dioxins and related chemicals for the general population of humans. Although there exists an enormous amount of data on this subject, most of it is from breast milk and blood, due to ease of collection; information concerning concentrations and distribution in various human organs hardly exists. Therefore, new data concerning various human tissues is required to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of dioxins and related compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organ tissues. We previously reported on the concentration levels in the human liver and adipose tissues from 28 donors. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of dioxin-like isomers in 8 organs, including blood, lungs, liver, bile, spleen, pancreas, kidney and mesentery fat from 20 donors.

  19. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P profile (all P profile by sex interaction (all P families from developing IPV behaviors. PMID:27135634

  20. Quantification of Hydrogen Concentrations in Surface and Interface Layers and Bulk Materials through Depth Profiling with Nuclear Reaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Markus; Ohno, Satoshi; Ogura, Shohei; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-29

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) via the resonant (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C reaction is a highly effective method of depth profiling that quantitatively and non-destructively reveals the hydrogen density distribution at surfaces, at interfaces, and in the volume of solid materials with high depth resolution. The technique applies a (15)N ion beam of 6.385 MeV provided by an electrostatic accelerator and specifically detects the (1)H isotope in depths up to about 2 μm from the target surface. Surface H coverages are measured with a sensitivity in the order of ~10(13) cm(-2) (~1% of a typical atomic monolayer density) and H volume concentrations with a detection limit of ~10(18) cm(-3) (~100 at. ppm). The near-surface depth resolution is 2-5 nm for surface-normal (15)N ion incidence onto the target and can be enhanced to values below 1 nm for very flat targets by adopting a surface-grazing incidence geometry. The method is versatile and readily applied to any high vacuum compatible homogeneous material with a smooth surface (no pores). Electrically conductive targets usually tolerate the ion beam irradiation with negligible degradation. Hydrogen quantitation and correct depth analysis require knowledge of the elementary composition (besides hydrogen) and mass density of the target material. Especially in combination with ultra-high vacuum methods for in-situ target preparation and characterization, (1)H((15)N,αγ)(12)C NRA is ideally suited for hydrogen analysis at atomically controlled surfaces and nanostructured interfaces. We exemplarily demonstrate here the application of (15)N NRA at the MALT Tandem accelerator facility of the University of Tokyo to (1) quantitatively measure the surface coverage and the bulk concentration of hydrogen in the near-surface region of a H2 exposed Pd(110) single crystal, and (2) to determine the depth location and layer density of hydrogen near the interfaces of thin SiO2 films on Si(100).

  1. Determination of the concentration profile and homogeneity of antioxidants and degradation products in a cross-linked polyethylene type A (PEXa) pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denberg, Martin; Mosbæk, Hans; Hassager, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , the concentration profile was measured at four different places on a 100 m PEXa pipe. A two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the composition of Irganox (R) 1076 was homogenous in the radial direction and heterogeneous in the longitudinal direction. Two degradation products of antioxidants were detected, 2,6-di...

  2. Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Johansson, B.E.O.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Murphy, M.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design.

  3. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  4. Hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profile of sleep deprivation: relation to aging and stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M Porter

    Full Text Available Many aging changes seem similar to those elicited by sleep-deprivation and psychosocial stress. Further, sleep architecture changes with age suggest an age-related loss of sleep. Here, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation in young subjects would elicit both stress and aging-like transcriptional responses.F344 rats were divided into control and sleep deprivation groups. Body weight, adrenal weight, corticosterone level and hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profiles were measured. A second group of animals was exposed to novel environment stress (NES, and their hippocampal transcriptional profiles measured. A third cohort exposed to control or SD was used to validate transcriptional results with Western blots. Microarray results were statistically contrasted with prior transcriptional studies. Microarray results pointed to sleep pressure signaling and macromolecular synthesis disruptions in the hippocampal CA1 region. Animals exposed to NES recapitulated nearly one third of the SD transcriptional profile. However, the SD-aging relationship was more complex. Compared to aging, SD profiles influenced a significant subset of genes. mRNA associated with neurogenesis and energy pathways showed agreement between aging and SD, while immune, glial, and macromolecular synthesis pathways showed SD profiles that opposed those seen in aging.We conclude that although NES and SD exert similar transcriptional changes, selective presynaptic release machinery and Homer1 expression changes are seen in SD. Among other changes, the marked decrease in Homer1 expression with age may represent an important divergence between young and aged brain response to SD. Based on this, it seems reasonable to conclude that therapeutic strategies designed to promote sleep in young subjects may have off-target effects in the aged. Finally, this work identifies presynaptic vesicular release and intercellular adhesion molecular signatures as novel therapeutic targets to counter

  5. Significance of fingernail and toenail mercury concentrations as biomarkers for prenatal methylmercury exposure in relation to segmental hair mercury concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing M; Domingo, José L; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Kawakami, Shoichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the appropriateness of mercury (Hg) concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition for detecting prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). Total Hg concentrations were measured in 54 paired samples of fingernails, toenails, maternal blood, and maternal hair (1cm incremental segments from the scalp toward the tip) collected at 4th weeks of (early) pregnancy, and the same specimens and cord blood collected at parturition. Strong correlations were observed between Hg concentrations in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy (r=0.923, pMercury concentrations in fingernails and toenails at parturition represented strong correlations with those in cord blood (r=0.803, pMercury in fingernails and toenails at early pregnancy reflected the maternal Hg body burden level approximately 5 months retroactively. At parturition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails also showed strong correlations with those in cord blood. In addition, Hg levels in fingernails and toenails at parturition reflected more recent MeHg exposure, compared with those at early pregnancy. These results suggest that fingernails and toenails at parturition are useful biomarkers for prenatal MeHg exposure for mothers and fetuses, especially during the third-trimester of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Concentration-related response potentiometric titrations to study the interaction of small molecules with large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Daems, Devin; De Wael, Karolien; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2014-12-16

    In the present paper, the utility of a special potentiometric titration approach for recognition and calculation of biomolecule/small-molecule interactions is reported. This approach is fast, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in comparison to the other methods for the determination of the association constant values (Ka) and the interaction energies (ΔG). The potentiometric titration measurement is based on the use of a classical polymeric membrane indicator electrode in a solution of the small-molecule ligand. The biomolecule is used as a titrant. The potential is measured versus a reference electrode and transformed into a concentration-related signal over the entire concentration interval, also at low concentrations, where the millivolt (y-axis) versus log canalyte (x-axis) potentiometric calibration curve is not linear. In the procedure, Ka is calculated for the interaction of cocaine with a cocaine binding aptamer and with an anticocaine antibody. To study the selectivity and cross-reactivity, other oligonucleotides and aptamers are tested, as well as other small ligand molecules such as tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, metergoline, lidocaine, and bromhexine. The calculated Ka compared favorably to the value reported in the literature using surface plasmon resonance. The potentiometric titration approach called "concentration-related response potentiometry" is used to study molecular interaction for seven macromolecular target molecules and four small-molecule ligands.

  8. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pdegradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (Pdegradation. © 2013.

  9. Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Barrak M; Rotstein, David S; Law, Jerry M; Rosol, Thomas J; LeRoy, Bruce; Keene, Bruce W; Jackson, Mark W

    2002-07-15

    A 12-year-old Cocker Spaniel with an oral malignant melanoma was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. No metastases were identified during antemortem evaluation, but severe hypercalcemia was evident. Antemortem diagnostic testing failed to identify a cause for the hypercalcemia. No neoplasms other than the melanoma were identified on postmortem examination. Serum parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration was markedly high, and the melanoma had moderate to marked immunostaining for this protein. Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare in dogs with malignant melanoma.

  10. Are periodontal bacterial profiles and placental inflammatory infiltrate in pregnancy related to birth outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Francisco; Pozo, Elena; Blanc, Vanessa; Puertas, Alberto; Bravo, Manuel; O'Valle, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether periodontal clinical parameters, periodontal bacterial profiles, and inflammatory infiltrate in placental chorionic villi are associated with adverse pregnancy results. The authors designed an observational case-control study in 244 postpartum females: mothers with preterm/low-birth weight newborns (n = 91 cases) and mothers with full-term, normal-weight infants (n = 153 controls). Sociodemographic, gynecologic, and periodontal variables were gathered for all participants. Data on placental inflammatory infiltrate in biopsies from 68 cases and 65 controls and the gingival bacterial profile in mothers with periodontitis were gathered, detecting associations with bivariate analyses and constructing a multiple logistic regression model with the number of positive inflammatory cells as the dependent variable. Periodontal values were significantly worse in cases versus controls. Numbers of leukocyte subsets per square millimeters in maternal and fetal vascular spaces were similar between cases and controls. CD45 in maternal placental space was related to the presence of periodontitis (P = 0.029) but not to case or control group (P = 0.264). The anaerobic and commensal bacterial profile in mothers with periodontitis was similar between the groups. Periodontal disease was more severe and a periodontitis diagnosis more frequent in mothers with preterm or low-birth weight versus normal delivery. No differences in anaerobic or commensal bacterial profile were found between mothers with periodontitis in the two groups. Local placental factors, such as the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate and slightly higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the females with these adverse pregnancy outcomes, may be related to a subclinical proinflammatory status that could contribute to triggering premature labor.

  11. Determination of the Relative Sediment Concentration in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vargas Cuervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments (RCS in bodies of water such as rivers, marshes and river deltas require specialized equipment, field work and laboratory analyses of samples, all with high economic costs. Remote sensing, in regions of the optical electromagnetic spectrum, particularly in the visible range between 0.4 and 0.6 µm, shows radiometric contrasts associated with the relative concentration of sediments in water bodies. This work presents an analysis of the principal spectral, spatial and radiometric properties or characteristics of remote sensors for the determination of the relative concentration of sediments in bodies of water, a methodological process for its cartography at a given time or an established period of time. This cartography is based on digital processing of images rather than direct measurements in the field. Lastly, applications are presented for the delta coast of the southwestern area of the Colombian Caribbean between Barranquilla and Punta Piedra and in the lacustrine area of the Guajaro Reservoir and the Jobo and Capote Wetlands in the upper Canal del Dique, Colombia.

  12. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M., E-mail: kirchner@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Faus-Kessler, T.; Jakobi, G.; Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kotalik, J.; Zsolnay, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardy (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. - Caused by temperature-dependent processes regarding deposition, re-volatilization and decomposition of POPs, the concentration of organochlorine pesticides varies in the Alpine region with altitude.

  13. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on the soil profile methane distribution and diffusion in rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Zou, Jianwen; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the impacts of climate change on soil profile concentrations and diffusion effluxes of methane in a rice-wheat annual rotation ecosystem in Southeastern China. We initiated a field experiment with four treatments: ambient conditions (CKs), CO2 concentration elevated to ~500 μmol/mol (FACE), temperature elevated by ca. 2°C (T) and combined elevation of CO2 concentration and temperature (FACE+T). A multilevel sampling probe was designed to collect the soil gas at four different depths, namely, 7 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Methane concentrations were higher during the rice season and decreased with depth, while lower during the wheat season and increased with depth. Compared to CK, mean methane concentration was increased by 42%, 57% and 71% under the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, at the 7 cm depth during the rice season (pCO2 concentration and temperature could significantly increase soil profile methane concentrations and their effluxes from a rice-wheat field annual rotation ecosystem (p<0.05). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. 1.6 μm DIAL Measurement and Back Trajectory Analysis of CO2 Concentration Profiles in the Lower-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In addition to the ground level CO2 network, vertical CO2 concentration profiles also play an important role for the estimation of the carbon budget and global warming in the inversion method. Especially, for the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, vertical CO2 concentration profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution in the lower atmosphere have been conducted by a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We have observed several vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations for nighttime and daytime from 0.25 to 2.5 km altitude with range resolution of 300 m and integration time of 1 hour. In order to extract information on the origin of the CO2 masses, one day back trajectories were calculated by using a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric transport model. In many cases, CO2 low concentration layers of over 1.5km altitude were flown by westerly winds from the forest. In another case, high concentration layers of CO2 were flown from the urban areas. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature in the atmosphere, laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption spectrum are transmitted alternately to the atmosphere for simultaneous measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature profiles. Moreover, a few processing algorithms of CO2-DIAL are also performed for improvement of measurement accuracy. For computation of trajectories and drawing their figures, the JRA-25 data provided by the cooperative research project for the JRA-25 long-term reanalysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the NIPR trajectory model (Tomikawa and Sato, 2005; http://firp-nitram.nipr.ac.jp) were used. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and

  16. Progranulin concentration in relation to bone mineral density among obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milajerdi, Alireza; Maghbooli, Zhila; Mohammadi, Farzad; Hosseini, Banafsheh; Mirzaei, Khadijeh

    2018-01-01

    Adipose tissue, particularly visceral adipose tissue, secretes a variety of cytokines, among which progranulin is a glycoprotein related to the immune system. Along with other secreted proteins, progranulin may be associated with bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are associations between the progranulin and bone mineral density among obese people. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 244 obese participants (aged 22-52). Serum progranulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, oxidised-low dencity lipoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α, parathormone, vitamin D, and interleukins of 1 β, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 17 concentrations were measured. Anthropometric measurements, body composition and bone mineral density were also assessed. Serum progranulin was directly associated with interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, while it had a negative association with interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-α. We also observed a statistically significant direct association between progranulin concentration and visceral fat, abdominal fat, waist, abdominal and hip circumferences, hip T-score, and Z-score and T-score for the lumbar region. A partial correlation test has also shown a significant positive correlation regarding serum progranulin and the hip Z-score. Moreover, progranulin level is inversely associated with ospteopenia (P = 0.04 and CI: 0.17,0.96). Our study revealed that central obesity may be related to increased progranulin concentration. In addition, progranulin concentration was directly related to bone formation parameters, which indicates the protective effects of progranulin on bone density. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms underlying these associations.

  17. Circulating vitamin D concentration and age-related macular degeneration: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Drouet, Morgane; Duval, Guillaume T; Paré, Pierre-Yves; Leruez, Stephanie; Dinomais, Mickael; Milea, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D may be involved in ocular function in older adults, but there is no current consensus on a possible association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to systematically review and quantitatively assess the association of circulating 25OHD concentration with AMD. A Medline search was conducted in November 2015, with no date limit, using the MeSH terms "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D deficiency" OR "Ergocalciferols" OR 'Cholecalciferol' combined with "Age-related macular degeneration" OR "Macular degeneration" OR "Retinal degeneration" OR "Macula lutea" OR "Retina". Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to compute (i) standard mean difference in 25OHD concentration between AMD and non-AMD patients; (ii) AMD risk according to circulating 25OHD concentration. Of the 243 retrieved studies, 11 observational studies-10 cross-sectional studies and 1 cohort study-met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 65 to 17,045 (52-100% women), and the number with AMD ranged from 31 to 1440. Circulating 25OHD concentration was 15% lower in AMD compared with non-AMD on average. AMD was inversely associated with the highest 25OHD quintile compared with the lowest (summary odds ratio (OR)=0.83 [95%CI:0.71-0.97]), notably late AMD (summary OR=0.47 [95%CI:0.28-0.79]). Circulating 25OHD<50nmol/L was also associated with late-stage AMD (summary OR=2.18 [95%CI:1.34-3.56]), an association that did not persist when all categories of AMD were considered (summary OR=1.26 [95%CI:0.90-1.76]). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that high 25OHD concentrations may be protective against AMD, and that 25OHD concentrations below 50nmol/L are associated with late AMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sedentary lifestyle and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance and inflammatory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Latre, Montserrat; Moreno-Franco, Belén; Andrés-Esteban, Eva M; Ledesma, Marta; Laclaustra, Martín; Alcalde, Víctor; Peñalvo, José L; Ordovás, José M; Casasnovas, José A

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the association between sitting time and biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in a sample of healthy male workers. Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 929 volunteers belonging to the Aragon Workers' Health Study cohort. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, pharmacological and laboratory data were collected: lipids-total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100, lipoprotein (a)-, insulin resistance-glucose, glycated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin, and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio-, and inflammatory profile-C-reactive protein and leukocytes. Information on sitting time and physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was analyzed in terms of prevalences and medians, according to tertiles, using a multivariate model (crude and adjusted linear regression) with biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance. The most sedentary individuals had higher body mass index, greater waist circumference, and higher systolic blood pressure, with a significant upward trend in each tertile. Likewise, they had a worse lipid profile with a higher C-reactive protein level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and insulin concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we observed a significant association between the latter parameters and sitting time in hours (log C-reactive protein [β = 0.07], log homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index [β = 0.05], triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [β = 0.23], and insulin [β = 0.44]), which remained after adjustment for metabolic equivalents-h/week. Workers who spend more time sitting show a worse inflammatory and insulin resistance profile independently of the physical activity performed. Copyright © 2013

  19. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  20. Drinking pattern and its relation to hemoglobin concentration in local brew consumers from the Kathmandu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the hemoglobin concentration in alcohol consumers (home made brew-Chang) and compare it with non- alcohohcs healthy subjects. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined in 2053 alcoholic consumers (males: 1056; females: 997) and was compared with 1 027 (males: 623; females: 404) healthy non-alcoholic con-trol subjects. The Hb concentration in alcoholic male and female were 13.42 ± 2.14 g/dL and 12.19 ± 1.55 g/dL compared with control showing 14.43 ± 1.07 g/dL and 12.73 ± 1.41 g/dL in males and females respectively. The differences in Hb concentration between alcoholic and non- alcoholic consumers were highly significant in both genders with a P value of 0. 000 674 in males and 0.004 732 in females. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT) scores was advocated to alcoholic consum-ers to test the severity of drunkenness and disorders related to it. A total of 887 males and 663 females crossed the cut-off limits of ≥8 AUDIT scores showing the addiction towards drinking habits of local brew.

  1. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  2. Hematological profile as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Muccillo-Baisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of petroleum components is well described in the literature, especially with regard to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In some groups of animals, such as birds, oil exposure seems to alter blood parameters, while this relationship is poorly understood in rodents. The study aimed to investigate alterations in hematological profile in the wild rodent Calomys laucha exposed to crude oil contaminated soils. In this study, males specimens of Calomys laucha were exposed for 14 days to two soils contaminated by petroleum: (I landfarming soil, coming from a bioremediation area of contaminated soil from a Petrochemical Complex through landfarming technique and (II soil of a simulated oil spill in laboratory conditions. The animals were exposed individually in cages containing 1 kg soil with free access to food and water. Control animals were exposed to an artificial uncontaminated soil. At the end of the experiment, animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for hematological profile. The animals exposed to soil landfarming had significant reduction in the number of bands, segmented, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and increased red cell distribution width (RDW, while animals exposed to simulated soil spillage in laboratory had decreased number of bands, but an increase in the number of lymphocytes and platelets. These changes in hemostasis may indicate an early stage of the development of associated pathologies, while the hematological profile can be used as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents.

  3. Considerations for automated machine learning in clinical metabolic profiling: Altered homocysteine plasma concentration associated with metformin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlenko, Alena; Moore, Jason H; Orzechowski, Patryk; Olson, Randal S; Cairns, Junmei; Caraballo, Pedro J; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Wang, Liewei; Breitenstein, Matthew K

    2018-01-01

    With the maturation of metabolomics science and proliferation of biobanks, clinical metabolic profiling is an increasingly opportunistic frontier for advancing translational clinical research. Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) approaches provide exciting opportunity to guide feature selection in agnostic metabolic profiling endeavors, where potentially thousands of independent data points must be evaluated. In previous research, AutoML using high-dimensional data of varying types has been demonstrably robust, outperforming traditional approaches. However, considerations for application in clinical metabolic profiling remain to be evaluated. Particularly, regarding the robustness of AutoML to identify and adjust for common clinical confounders. In this study, we present a focused case study regarding AutoML considerations for using the Tree-Based Optimization Tool (TPOT) in metabolic profiling of exposure to metformin in a biobank cohort. First, we propose a tandem rank-accuracy measure to guide agnostic feature selection and corresponding threshold determination in clinical metabolic profiling endeavors. Second, while AutoML, using default parameters, demonstrated potential to lack sensitivity to low-effect confounding clinical covariates, we demonstrated residual training and adjustment of metabolite features as an easily applicable approach to ensure AutoML adjustment for potential confounding characteristics. Finally, we present increased homocysteine with long-term exposure to metformin as a potentially novel, non-replicated metabolite association suggested by TPOT; an association not identified in parallel clinical metabolic profiling endeavors. While warranting independent replication, our tandem rank-accuracy measure suggests homocysteine to be the metabolite feature with largest effect, and corresponding priority for further translational clinical research. Residual training and adjustment for a potential confounding effect by BMI only slightly modified

  4. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Prather, Aric A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems. PMID:28183031

  5. Health-related fitness profiles in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Wetterslev, Jørn; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates whether subgroups of different health-related fitness (HrF) profiles exist among girls and boys with complex congenital heart disease (ConHD) and how these are associated with lifestyle behaviors. METHODS: We measured the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength...... in the Robust clusters reported leading a physically active lifestyle and participants in the Less robust cluster reported leading a sedentary lifestyle. Diagnoses were evenly distributed between clusters. CONCLUSIONS: The cluster analysis attributed some of the variability in cardiorespiratory fitness among...

  6. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  7. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Fabiane L F Z; Nitsch, Taís M; Vilela, Maria Marluce S; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro C

    2015-01-01

    To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with healthy children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values<0.05. Serum albumin levels were higher (p<0.0001) in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p<0.0001). For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p=0.002) only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p<0.0001) in AML patients. It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia in relation to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane L.F.Z. Sanches

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001 in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001. For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002 only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001 in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.

  9. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in relation to history of infertility and use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Snigdha; Wang, Hongyue; Hoeger, Kathy; Swan, Shanna H; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Redmon, Bruce J; Nguyen, Ruby; Barrett, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    To examine urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in pregnant women with planned pregnancies in relation to history of infertility and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Phthalate metabolite concentrations were measured in first-trimester urine samples collected from women participating in a prospective pregnancy cohort study. Prenatal clinics. A total of 750 women, of whom 86 had a history of infertility. Forty-one women used ART to conceive. None. Primary outcomes were concentrations of four metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Multivariable analyses compared phthalate metabolite levels in [1] women reporting a history of infertility vs. those who did not (comparison group); and [2] those who used ART to conceive the index pregnancy vs. women with a history of infertility who did not use ART. Among women with a history of infertility, ∑DEHP was significantly lower in women who conceived after ART compared with those who did not (geometric mean ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.71-0.98). Similar significant associations were observed for all of the individual DEHP metabolites. There were no differences in DEHP metabolite concentrations between women with a history of infertility and the comparison group. Women who used ART to conceive had lower first-trimester phthalate metabolite concentrations than women with a history of infertility who did not use ART. Further research is needed to explore whether those pursuing fertility treatments take precautions to avoid exposure to environmental toxins, to improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratios on Dynamic Profile Changes and Interactions of Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Holstein Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of global ruminal microbiota and metabolites under extensive feeding conditions is a prerequisite for optimizing rumen function and improving ruminant feed efficiency. Furthermore, the gap between the information on the ruminal microbiota and metabolites needs to be bridged. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios (F:C on changes and interactions of ruminal microbiota and metabolites. Four diets with different F:C (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 were limit-fed to 24 Holstein heifers, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing and gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry were used to investigate the profile changes of the ruminal microbes and metabolites, and the interaction between them. The predominant bacterial phyla in the rumen were Bacteroidetes (57.2 ± 2.6% and Firmicutes (26.8 ± 1.6%, and the predominant anaerobic fungi were Neocallimastigomycota (64.3 ± 3.8% and Ascomycota (22.6 ± 2.4%. In total, 44, 9, 25, and 2 genera, respectively, were identified as the core rumen bacteria, ciliate protozoa, anaerobic fungi, and archaea communities across all samples. An increased concentrate level linearly decreased the relative abundance of cellulolytic bacteria and ciliates, namely Fibrobacter, Succinimonas, Polyplastron, and Ostracodinium (q < 0.05, and linearly increased the relative abundance of Entodinium (q = 0.04, which is a non-fibrous carbohydrate degrader. Dietary F:C had no effect on the communities of anaerobic fungi and archaea. Rumen metabolomics analysis revealed that ruminal amino acids, lipids, organic acids, and carbohydrates were altered significantly by altering the dietary F:C. With increasing dietary concentrate levels, the proportions of propionate and butyrate linearly increased in the rumen (P ≤ 0.01. Correlation analysis revealed that there was some utilization relationship or productive association between candidate metabolites and

  11. HPV type-related chromosomal profiles in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens Mariska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN2/3] result from a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types and the accumulation of (epigenetic host cell aberrations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated variable CIN2/3 and cancer risks between different hrHPV types. Recent genomic profiling studies revealed substantial heterogeneity in the chromosomal aberrations detected in morphologically indistinguishable CIN2/3 suggestive of varying cancer risk. The current study aimed to investigate whether CIN2/3 with different hrHPV types vary with respect to their chromosomal profiles, both in terms of the number of aberrations and chromosomal loci affected. Methods Chromosomal profiles were determined of 43 p16INK4a-immunopositive CIN2/3 of women with long-term hrHPV infection (≥ 5 years. Sixteen lesions harboured HPV16, 3 HPV18, 14 HPV31, 1 HPV33, 4 HPV45, 1 HPV51, 2 HPV52 and 2 HPV58. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the chromosomal profiles revealed two major clusters, characterised by either few or multiple chromosomal aberrations, respectively. A majority of 87.5% of lesions with HPV16 were in the cluster with relatively few aberrations, whereas no such unbalanced distribution was seen for lesions harbouring other hrHPV types. Analysis of the two most prevalent types (HPV16 and HPV31 in this data set revealed a three-fold increase in the number of losses in lesions with HPV31 compared to HPV16-positive lesions. In particular, losses at chromosomes 2q, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 8q & 17p and gain at 1p & 1q were significantly more frequent in HPV31-positive lesions (FDR Conclusions Chromosomal aberrations in CIN2/3 are at least in part related to the hrHPV type present. The relatively low number of chromosomal aberrations observed in HPV16-positive CIN2/3 suggests that the development of these lesions is

  12. Microbiome Profiles in Periodontitis in Relation to Host and Disease Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo-Young; Furtado Araujo, Michel V.; Strausbaugh, Linda D.; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Diaz, Patricia I.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the supporting tissues surrounding teeth. The occurrence of periodontitis is associated with shifts in the structure of the communities that inhabit the gingival sulcus. Although great inter-subject variability in the subgingival microbiome has been observed in subjects with periodontitis, it is unclear whether distinct community types exist and if differences in microbial signatures correlate with host characteristics or with the variable clinical presentations of periodontitis. Therefore, in this study we explored the existence of different community types in periodontitis and their relationship with host demographic, medical and disease-related clinical characteristics. Clustering analyses of microbial abundance profiles suggested two types of communities (A and B) existed in the 34 subjects with periodontitis evaluated. Type B communities harbored greater proportions of certain periodontitis-associated taxa, including species historically associated with the disease, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, and taxa recently linked to periodontitis. In contrast, subjects with type A communities had increased proportions of different periodontitis-associated species, and were also enriched for health-associated species and core taxa (those equally prevalent in health and periodontitis). Periodontitis subgingival clusters were not associated with demographic, medical or disease-specific clinical parameters other than periodontitis extent (proportion of sites affected), which positively correlated with the total proportion of cluster B signature taxa. In conclusion, two types of microbial communities were detected in subjects with periodontitis. Host demographics and underlying medical conditions did not correlate with these profiles, which instead appeared to be related to periodontitis extent, with type B communities present in more widespread disease cases. The two

  13. Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in various vascular beds in patients with cirrhosis. Relation to haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1981-01-01

    indicates that sympathetic nervous activity is enhanced in patients with cirrhosis. Based on the above positive correlation between NA and heart rate and the significant release of NA from the kidney, it may be hypothesized that the increased sympathetic nervous activity especially involves heart and kidney......Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were related to various haemodynamic parameters in fifteen patients with cirrhosis. In supine position at rest plasma NA and A in peripheral venous blood were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in normal subjects. Mean...

  14. Psychological and relational correlates of intimate partner violence profiles among pregnant adolescent couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica B; Sullivan, Tami P; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M; Kershaw, Trace S

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P Couple-level interventions focused on relational issues might protect young families from developing IPV behaviors. Aggr. Behav. 43:26-36, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gene expression profiling and association of circulating lactoferrin level with obesity-related phenotypes in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Campbell, L E; Shaibi, G Q; Coletta, D K

    2015-10-01

    Low-grade inflammation is an underlying feature of obesity and identifying inflammatory markers is crucial to understanding this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to perform a global microarray analysis and (ii) to investigate the role of lactoferrin (LTF), one of the most altered genes, in relation to obesity in Latino youth. Non-diabetic Latino youth (71 males/92 females; 15.6 ± 3.2 years) were studied. A subset of 39 participants was randomly selected for global microarray analysis profiling from the whole blood sample. Serum LTF was compared between lean (n = 78) and overweight/obese (n = 85) participants. Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 1870 probes were altered in expression ≥1.2-fold and P obese participants compared with lean. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways including toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor signalling pathways. LTF and TLR5 were increased in expression by 2.2 and 1.5 fold, respectively, in the overweight/obese participants. Increased LTF concentrations were significantly associated with high risk of obesity-related phenotypes (all P obesity risk among Latino youth. This finding is discordant to what has been shown in adults and suggests that age may modulate the association between LTF and obesity-related health. © 2014 World Obesity.

  16. Analyzing socioeconomic related health inequality in mothers and children using the concentration index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Amirian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of socioeconomic inequity on major public health indices such as maternal and child mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries are less understood and needs to be evaluated through the concentration index.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, and 1400 households were enrolled through a stratified cluster random sampling method. The effect of inequity on health outcomes was investigated via a three-stage procedure including: (a definition of health outcomes; (b measuring socioeconomic status using an asset index; and (c measuring inequality of health outcome using concentration index (CI.Results: There was inequality for all outcomes of interest. The CI was negative for low birth weight, underweight, stunting, wasting, minor injuries, moderate injuries, consanguineous marriage, child with disability, short birth spacing, and adolescent pregnancy indicating the disproportionate concentration of the health outcomes among the poor. On the other hand, CI was positive for preterm birth, Nonexclusive breastfeeding, severe injuries, incomplete health care, cesarean section, and advanced maternal age indicating opposite conclusion.Conclusion: According to our results, there is a health inequality between the poor and the rich subgroups which may increase the risk of mothers and infant mortality and morbidity rates among the poor while the majority of the conditions related to the health outcomes are preventable.

  17. EELS measurements of boron concentration profiles in p-a-Si and nip a-Si solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Aken, Bas B.; Duchamp, Martial; Boothroyd, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The p-type Si layer in a-Si and μc-Si solar cells on foil needs to fulfil several important requirements. The layer is necessary to create the electric field that separates the photo-generated charge carriers; the doping also increases the conductivity to conduct the photocurrent to the front......-3, using core-loss EELS combined with numerical analysis. We control the band gap and activation energy of p-a-SiC by varying the B2H6 and CH4 flow during deposition in the process chamber. We have found a linear relation between the activation energy of the dark conductivity Eact and the optical...... band gap E04. Modelling shows that the optimum efficiency in nip solar cells is obtained when the p-a-SiC band gap is slightly larger than the band gap of the absorber layer. We have assessed the potential of core-loss EELS for detecting B and C concentrations as low as 1020cm-3 in a spatially resolved...

  18. A passive air sampler for characterizing the vertical concentration profile of gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near soil surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuzhong; Deng Shuxing; Liu Yanan; Shen Guofeng; Li Xiqing; Cao Jun; Wang Xilong; Reid, Brian; Tao Shu

    2011-01-01

    Air-soil exchange is an important process governing the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel passive air sampler was designed and tested for measuring the vertical concentration profile of 4 low molecular weight PAHs in gaseous phase (PAH LMW4 ) in near soil surface air. Air at various heights from 5 to 520 mm above the ground was sampled by polyurethane foam disks held in down-faced cartridges. The samplers were tested at three sites: A: an extremely contaminated site, B: a site near A, and C: a background site on a university campus. Vertical concentration gradients were revealed for PAH LMW4 within a thin layer close to soil surface at the three sites. PAH concentrations either decreased (Site A) or increased (Sites B and C) with height, suggesting either deposition to or evaporation from soils. The sampler is a useful tool for investigating air-soil exchange of gaseous phase semi-volatile organic chemicals. - Research highlights: → Design, field test and calibration of the novel passive air sampler, PAS-V-I. → Vertical concentration gradients of PAH LMW4 within a thin layer close to soil. → Comparison of results between PAS-V-I measurement and fugacity approach. → Potential application of PAS-V-I and further modifications. - A novel passive sampling device was developed and tested for measuring vertical concentration profile of gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near soil surface air.

  19. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  20. Suicidality and profiles of childhood adversities, conflict related trauma and psychopathology in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Ferry, Finola; Bunting, Brendan

    2016-08-01

    Over 30 years of conflict in Northern Ireland (NI) has impacted on the population's mental health. However, childhood adversities may add to the psychological impact of conflict. The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrence across childhood adversities, conflict related traumas, and psychological health, then explore demographic variations between identified classes, and examine the impact of class membership on suicidal ideation and behaviour. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, a representative epidemiological study which used the CIDI to assess psychopathology and related risk factors in the NI population (N=4340, part 2 n=1986; response rate 64%). Latent Class Analysis uncovered 4 discrete profiles; a conflict class (n=191; 9.6%), a multi-risk class endorsing elevated levels of childhood adversities, conflict related traumas and psychopathology (n=85; 4.3%), a psychopathology class (n=290; 14.6%), and a low risk class (n=1420; 71.5%). Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals who grew up during the worst years of the Troubles were more likely to have experienced multiple traumas and psychopathology. Individuals in the multi-risk class were more than fifteen times more likely to endorse suicidal ideation and behaviour. The main limitations are that the study may not be fully representative of the NI population due to the exclusion criteria applied and also the possible misclassification of conflict related events. The findings indicate that treatment providers should be cognisant that those with wide ranging adversity profiles are those also likely to be reporting psychological distress and suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  2. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...

  3. Profiles of Childhood Trauma in Patients with Alcohol Dependence and Their Associations with Addiction-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Haupt, Lena; von Schönfels, Julia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Schäfer, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    The high occurrence of childhood trauma in individuals with alcohol dependence is well-recognized. Nevertheless, researchers have rarely studied which types of childhood trauma often co-occur and how these combinations of different types and severities of childhood trauma are related to the patients' current addiction-related problems. We aimed to identify childhood trauma profiles in patients with alcohol dependence and examined relations of these trauma profiles with the patients' current addiction-related problems. In 347 alcohol-dependent patients, 5 types of childhood trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Childhood trauma profiles were identified using cluster analysis. The patients' current severity of addiction-related problems was assessed using the European Addiction Severity Index. We identified 6 profiles that comprised different types and severities of childhood trauma. The patients' trauma profiles predicted the severity of addiction-related problems in the domains of psychiatric symptoms, family relationships, social relationships, and drug use. Childhood trauma profiles may provide more useful information about the patient's risk of current addiction-related problems than the common distinction between traumatized versus nontraumatized patients. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  5. 222Rn flux and soil air concentration profiles in West-Germany. Soil 222Rn as tracer for gas transport in the unsaturated soil zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, H.; Muennich, K.O.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the 222 Rn activity concentration profile in the soil and the 222 Rn flux in West-Germany are presented. The spatial pattern of the 222 Rn flux depends more on soil type than on the 226 Ra activity of the soil material. The average 222 Rn flux from sandy soils is 1000-2000 dpm m -2 h -1 and 4000-6000 dpm m -2 h -1 froam loamy and clayey soils. Weekly 222 Rn flux measurements during a period of 1 year at a sandy site show no significant temporal variations. At a clayey site, the 222 Rn flux tends to be higher in summer than in winter. The permeability coefficient P Rn , obtained from simultaneous 222 Rn flux and concentration profile measurements in various soils, can be expressed as a function of the soil parameters total porosity ε 0 , soil moisture F, tortuosity k and the molecular diffusion coefficient D 0 of 222 Rn in air: P = D 0 ((ε 0 -F)/k-const.). The flux of any other gas into or out of the soil can thus be calculated from its measured concentration profile in the soil and from the 222 Rn permeability coefficient, replacing the molecular diffusion coefficient of 222 Rn by that of the specific gas under consideration. As an example, this method of flux determination is demonstrated for the soil CO 2 flux to the atmosphere and for the flux of atmospheric CH 4 into the soil. (author) 14 refs

  6. Radon concentration and its relation with some environmental conditions in the northern safaga bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arabi, A.M.; Tartor, B.A.; Bashter, I.I.; El-Saman, M.I.; Maiyza, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    The coastal zone along the Red Sea at Safaga town is a site for industrial development and accepting future establishment of dense recreational resorts. It includes Safaga harbour in which international trade depends. Until now most of the coastal area at Safaga is pristine and suffering from continuous increasing population densities. There is no idea about the distribution of hydro graphic parameters or radon level in the northern Safaga bay in spite of the area famous as the treatment area for Psoriases and Rheumatoid as will as attractive area for tourism. The relative high relations exist between the radioactivity component and the ph, specific conductivity, water salinity, water density and dissolved oxygen were calculated. The concentration of 226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K in sediment samples collected from bottom of the northern Safaga Bay fluctuated between 5 to 19 Bq.kg-1, 4 to 19 Bq.kg-1 and 1545 to 6122 Bq.kg-1, respectively. Whereas the concentration of radon air varies between 2 -11 Bq.cm-3

  7. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  8. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  9. Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The density profile of Sudan black stained serum lipoproteins was studied in human subjects and various animal species on diets supplemented with cholesterol. 2. 2. In the animals studied (rabbits, calves, mice, chickens, rats and guinea-pigs), the feeding of cholesterol resulted in an

  10. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  11. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  12. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Characteristics of Plantar Pressures and Related Pain Profiles in Elite Sprinters and Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tong-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Wang, Jia-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system. Elite sprinters' pain profiles were examined to evaluate their most common pain areas. In recreational runners, AI values in males were in the normal range and in females were high arch type. The AI values were significantly lower in elite sprinters than in recreational runners. In elite sprinters, particularly males, the static PPD of both feet was higher at the medial metatarsal bone and the lateral heel and lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches. Elite male sprinters' PPD of both feet was mainly transferred to the medial metatarsal bone and decreased at the lateral longitudinal arch and the medial heel during the midstance phase of walking. The lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common sites of musculoskeletal pain in elite sprinters. Elite sprinters' AI values could be classified as high arches, and their PPD tended to parallel the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings correspond to the profile of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles seemed to resonate with the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. A possible link between high-arched runners and PFPS warrants further study.

  14. Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: relation with their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Vinholes, Juliana; Silva, Sara T; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-09-15

    HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) was used to ascertain the authenticity of two certified and two commercial Bauhinia forficata Link samples. Different flavonoids profiles were obtained, involving 39 compounds. Just kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)rutinoside was found in all analysed samples. Five compounds were common to the certified samples of B. forficata Link and B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin, being kaempferol derivatives the most representative ones. The phenolic composition of B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin is described herein for the first time, accounting for eight compounds, while 10 new compounds were identified in B. forficata Link. Commercial B. forficata Link showed higher contents of quercetin derivatives, in addition to the presence of myricetin derivatives and flavonoids-(galloyl)glycosides, for which the MS fragmentation pattern is reported for the first time. B. forficata Link and the two commercial samples were able to inhibit α-glucosidase, with EC(50) values lower than that found for acarbose. Mild effects on cholinesterases were observed with the certified samples, while commercial ones were more effective. The same behaviour was observed concerning the scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The presence of high contents of quercetin derivatives in commercial samples seems to directly influence their biological properties. The differences between phenolic profiles and their relation with the authenticity of commercial samples are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Olm, Matthew R.; Thomas, Brian C.; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context. PMID:29636439

  16. Hospitalized Premature Infants Are Colonized by Related Bacterial Strains with Distinct Proteomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the first weeks of life, microbial colonization of the gut impacts human immune system maturation and other developmental processes. In premature infants, aberrant colonization has been implicated in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, a life-threatening intestinal disease. To study the premature infant gut colonization process, genome-resolved metagenomics was conducted on 343 fecal samples collected during the first 3 months of life from 35 premature infants housed in a neonatal intensive care unit, 14 of whom developed NEC, and metaproteomic measurements were made on 87 samples. Microbial community composition and proteomic profiles remained relatively stable on the time scale of a week, but the proteome was more variable. Although genetically similar organisms colonized many infants, most infants were colonized by distinct strains with metabolic profiles that could be distinguished using metaproteomics. Microbiome composition correlated with infant, antibiotics administration, and NEC diagnosis. Communities were found to cluster into seven primary types, and community type switched within infants, sometimes multiple times. Interestingly, some communities sampled from the same infant at subsequent time points clustered with those of other infants. In some cases, switches preceded onset of NEC; however, no species or community type could account for NEC across the majority of infants. In addition to a correlation of protein abundances with organism replication rates, we found that organism proteomes correlated with overall community composition. Thus, this genome-resolved proteomics study demonstrated that the contributions of individual organisms to microbiome development depend on microbial community context.

  17. Lipid profile of HIV-infected patients in relation to antiretroviral therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Suelen Jorge; Luzia, Liania Alves; Santos, Sigrid Sousa; Rondó, Patrícia Helen Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study reviewed the lipid profile of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients in relation to use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and its different classes of drugs. A total of 190 articles published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from PubMed and LILACS databases; 88 of them met the selection criteria and were included in the review. Patients with HIV/AIDS without ART presented an increase of triglycerides and decreases of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) levels. Distinct ART regimens appear to promote different alterations in lipid metabolism. Protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir and lopinavir, were commonly associated with hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-c, low HDL-c, and hypertriglyceridemia. The protease inhibitor atazanavir is apparently associated with a more advantageous lipid profile. Some nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, stavudine, and zidovudine) induced lipoatrophy and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas abacavir increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases even in the absence of apparent lipid disorders, and tenofovir resulted in lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Although non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predisposed to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, nevirapine was particularly associated with high HDL-c levels, a protective factor against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the infection itself, different classes of drugs, and some drugs from the same class of ART appear to exert distinct alterations in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. A circulating microrna profile is associated with late-stage neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected = 5.6*10-5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected = 8.0*10-4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected = 9.6*10-3. A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p = 1.2*10-8. To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005. Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGFβ, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay.

  19. Concentration- and time-dependent genotoxicity profiles of isoprene monoepoxides and diepoxide, and the cross-linking potential of isoprene diepoxide in cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene, a possible carcinogen, is a petrochemical and a natural product being primarily produced by plants. It is biotransformed to 2-ethenyl-2-methyloxirane (IP-1,2-O and 2-(1-methylethenyloxirane (IP-3,4-O, both of which can be further metabolized to 2-methyl-2,2′-bioxirane (MBO. MBO is mutagenic, but IP-1,2-O and IP-3,4-O are not. While IP-1,2-O has been reported being genotoxic, the genotoxicity of IP-3,4-O and MBO, and the cross-linking potential of MBO have not been examined. In the present study, we used the comet assay to investigate the concentration- and time-dependent genotoxicity profiles of the three metabolites and the cross-linking potential of MBO in human hepatocyte L02 cells. For the incubation time of 1 h, all metabolites showed positive concentration-dependent profiles with a potency rank order of IP-3,4-O > MBO > IP-1,2-O. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 and human leukemia (HL60 cells, IP-3,4-O was still more potent in inducing DNA breaks than MBO at high concentrations (>200 μM, although at low concentrations (≤200 μM IP-3,4-O exhibited slightly lower or similar potency to MBO. Interestingly, their time-dependent genotoxicity profiles (0.5–4 h in L02 cells were different from each other: IP-1,2-O and MBO (200 μM exhibited negative and positive profiles, respectively, with IP-3,4-O lying in between, namely, IP-3,4-O-caused DNA breaks did not change over the exposure time. Further experiments demonstrated that hydrolysis of IP-1,2-O contributed to the negative profile and MBO induced cross-links at high concentrations and long incubation times. Collectively, the results suggested that IP-3,4-O might play a significant role in the toxicity of isoprene.

  20. Pilot study for early prognosis of Azoospermia in relation to Y-STR Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Refaat

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There was a significant correlation of Y-STR Profiling results and the prevalence of Azoospermia condition, which supports the idea of using Y-STR Profiling in early prognosis of Azoospermia.

  1. Direct observation of solid-phase adsorbate concentration profile in powdered activated carbon particle to elucidate mechanism of high adsorption capacity on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Naoya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon (PAC) by pulverization increases its adsorption capacities for natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, which is used as a model adsorbate). A shell adsorption mechanism in which NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle and instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle has been proposed as an explanation for this adsorption capacity increase. In this report, we present direct evidence to support the shell adsorption mechanism. PAC particles containing adsorbed PSS were sectioned with a focused ion beam, and the solid-phase PSS concentration profiles of the particle cross-sections were directly observed by means of field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDXS). X-ray emission from sulfur, an index of PSS concentration, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of the particles. The X-ray emission profile observed by EDXS did not agree completely with the solid-phase PSS concentration profile predicted by shell adsorption model analysis of the PSS isotherm data, but the observed and predicted profiles were not inconsistent when the analytical errors were considered. These EDXS results provide the first direct evidence that PSS is adsorbed mainly in the vicinity of the external surface of the PAC particles, and thus the results support the proposition that the increase in NOM and PSS adsorption capacity with decreasing particle size is due to the increase in external surface area on which the molecules can be adsorbed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient approximations of dispersion relations in optical waveguides with varying refractive-index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yutian; Zhu, Jianxin

    2015-05-04

    In this paper we consider the problem of computing the eigen-modes for the varying refractive-index profile in an open waveguide. We first approximate the refractive-index by a piecewise polynomial of degree two, and the corresponding Sturm-Liouville problem (eigenvalue problem) of the Helmholtz operator in each layer can be solved analytically by the Kummer functions. Then, analytical approximate dispersion equations are established for both TE and TM cases. Furthermore, the approximate dispersion equations converge fast to the exact ones for the continuous refractive-index function as the maximum value of the subinterval sizes tends to zero. Suitable numerical methods, such as Müller's method or the chord secant method, may be applied to the dispersion relations to compute the eigenmodes. Numerical simulations show that our method is very practical and efficient for computing eigenmodes.

  3. Sex-related differences in serum cotinine concentrations in daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Cohen, Sigal Ben-Zaken; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2008-08-01

    Self-reported use of cigarettes generally underestimates the true cigarette exposure of smokers. Serum cotinine is considered the best biomarker to evaluate tobacco exposure. This study determined whether or not there were any significant differences in serum cotinine concentrations between men and women when they reported smoking the same number of cigarettes per day. We analyzed cotinine and tobacco consumption data on 680 women and 840 men, aged 20 years or older, who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and were still actively smoking at the time of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002). Overall, compared with men, women reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (16.1 vs. 18.7, ppoverty status, the use of either menthol or regular cigarettes, and the nicotine content in cigarettes, female compared with male smokers had lower serum cotinine concentrations (difference of 117.6 nmol/L; 95% CI = 42.6-192.6, p = .003). The difference was particularly notable in moderate to heavy smokers (i.e., those who smoked more than 15 cigarettes/day). These findings indicate that significant sex-related differences exist in serum cotinine levels among smokers, which suggests that self-reports may overestimate cigarette exposure in women compared with men.

  4. Prediction of traffic-related nitrogen oxides concentrations using Structural Time-Series models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anneka Ruth; Ghosh, Bidisha; Broderick, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring, modeling and compliance to the standards set by European Union (EU) directives and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines are required to ensure the protection of human and environmental health. Congested urban areas are most susceptible to traffic-related air pollution which is the most problematic source of air pollution in Ireland. Long-term continuous real-time monitoring of ambient air quality at such urban centers is essential but often not realistic due to financial and operational constraints. Hence, the development of a resource-conservative ambient air quality monitoring technique is essential to ensure compliance with the threshold values set by the standards. As an intelligent and advanced statistical methodology, a Structural Time Series (STS) based approach has been introduced in this paper to develop a parsimonious and computationally simple air quality model. In STS methodology, the different components of a time-series dataset such as the trend, seasonal, cyclical and calendar variations can be modeled separately. To test the effectiveness of the proposed modeling strategy, average hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides from a congested urban arterial in Dublin city center were modeled using STS methodology. The prediction error estimates from the developed air quality model indicate that the STS model can be a useful tool in predicting nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides concentrations in urban areas and will be particularly useful in situations where the information on external variables such as meteorology or traffic volume is not available.

  5. Relation of whole blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration to ambient carbon monoxide exposure estimated using regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Carole B; Williams, Michelle A; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q; Schiff, Melissa A; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-04-15

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996-2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks' gestation. CO exposure during the month of blood draw was estimated using a regression model containing predictor terms for year, month, street and population densities, and distance to the nearest major road. Year and month were the strongest predictors. Carboxyhemoglobin level was correlated with estimated CO exposure (rho = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.29). After adjustment for covariates, each 10% increase in estimated exposure was associated with a 1.12% increase in median carboxyhemoglobin level (95% CI: 0.54, 1.69). This association remained after exclusion of 286 women who reported smoking or being exposed to secondhand smoke (rho = 0.24). In this subgroup, the median carboxyhemoglobin concentration increased 1.29% (95% CI: 0.67, 1.91) for each 10% increase in CO exposure. Monthly estimated CO exposure was moderately correlated with an exposure biomarker. These results support the validity of this regression model for estimating ambient CO exposures in this population and geographic setting.

  6. Distribution of medium-to-coarse glass beads in slurry pipe flow: evaluation of measured concentration profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan; Pěník, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2014), s. 186-196 ISSN 0272-6351. [7th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS). Friedrichshafen, 10.09.2013-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : concentration distribution * high concentrated slurry * pipeline flow * slurry flow experiment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.523, year: 2014

  7. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  8. Free Fatty Acids Profiles Are Related to Gut Microbiota Signatures and Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Carrio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking. Therefore, we have addressed the analysis of the relationship among gut microbial populations, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production, FFA levels, and immune mediators (IFNγ, IL-6, and MCP-1 in 101 human adults from the general Spanish population. Levels of selected microbial groups, representing the major phylogenetic types present in the human intestinal microbiota, were determined by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that the intestinal abundance of Akkermansia was the main predictor of total FFA serum levels, displaying a negative association with total FFA and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Similarly, an altered FFA profile, identified by cluster analysis, was related to imbalanced levels of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus as well as increased fecal SCFA, enhanced IL-6 serum levels, and higher prevalence of subclinical metabolic alterations. Although no differences in nutritional intakes were observed, divergent patterns in the associations between nutrient intakes with intestinal microbial populations and SCFA were denoted. Overall, these findings provide new insights on the gut microbiota–host lipid metabolism axis and its potential relevance for human health, where FFA and SCFA seem to play an important role.

  9. Modeling rainfall infiltration on hillslopes using Flux-concentration relation and time compression approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Li; Yu, Zhongbo

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall infiltration on hillslopes is an important issue in hydrology, which is related to many environmental problems, such as flood, soil erosion, and nutrient and contaminant transport. This study aimed to improve the quantification of infiltration on hillslopes under both steady and unsteady rainfalls. Starting from Darcy's law, an analytical integral infiltrability equation was derived for hillslope infiltration by use of the flux-concentration relation. Based on this equation, a simple scaling relation linking the infiltration times on hillslopes and horizontal planes was obtained which is applicable for both small and large times and can be used to simplify the solution procedure of hillslope infiltration. The infiltrability equation also improved the estimation of ponding time for infiltration under rainfall conditions. For infiltration after ponding, the time compression approximation (TCA) was applied together with the infiltrability equation. To improve the computational efficiency, the analytical integral infiltrability equation was approximated with a two-term power-like function by nonlinear regression. Procedures of applying this approach to both steady and unsteady rainfall conditions were proposed. To evaluate the performance of the new approach, it was compared with the Green-Ampt model for sloping surfaces by Chen and Young (2006) and Richards' equation. The proposed model outperformed the sloping Green-Ampt, and both ponding time and infiltration predictions agreed well with the solutions of Richards' equation for various soil textures, slope angles, initial water contents, and rainfall intensities for both steady and unsteady rainfalls.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  11. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  12. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  13. Cytokine concentration in aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Tao, Yong; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    To measure the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The clinical interventional study included a study group of 18 patients with exudative AMD and a control group of 20 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Age did not vary significantly (p = 0.36) between study group (80.8 ± 6.4 years) and control group (77.0 ± 9.9 years), nor did gender (p = 0.75). During the interventions, aqueous humour samples were obtained, in which the concentration of cytokines was measured using a solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Macular thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the study group as compared to the control group, significantly higher concentrations were measured for epithelial growth factor (EGF) (p = 0.017), human growth factor (HGF) (p= 0.048), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) (p = 0.028), interleukin 12p40 (IL12p40) (p = 0.009), interleukin 1a2 (IL1a2) (p = 0.01), interleukin 3 (IL3) (p = 0.02), interleukin 6 (IL6) (p = 0.006), interleukin 8 (IL8) (p = 0.02), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.048), monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) (p = 0.016), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) (p = 0.004) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) (p = 0.006). Macular thickness was significantly associated with the concentrations of EGF (p = 0.001), HGF (p = 0.02), ICAM1 (p = 0.001), interleukin 12p40 (p = 0.006), IL 1a2 (p = 0.002), MIG (p = 0.001), MMP9 (p < 0.001) and PAI1 (p = 0.01). Interleukin 6 and MCP-1 showed significant associations with the height of retinal pigment epithelium detachment. Numerous cytokines are associated with the presence and the amount of exudative AMD. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  14. Modeling Cl- concentration and δ37Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel; Matray, Jean-Michel; Bensenouci, Fethic; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles; Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ 37 Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ 37 Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ 37 Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  15. Modeling Cl{sup -} concentration and δ{sup 37}Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel [Universite de Nimes / Site GIS - 30035 Nimes cedex 01 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, CEREGE UMR7330, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Matray, Jean-Michel [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bensenouci, Fethic [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michelot, Jean-Luc [IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue. West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ{sup 37}Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ{sup 37}Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ{sup 37}Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  16. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  18. Modelling horizontal and vertical concentration profiles of ozone and oxides of nitrogen within high-latitude urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, J.P.; Weston, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Urban ozone concentrations are determined by the balance between ozone destruction, chemical production and supply through advection and turbulent down-mixing from higher levels. At high latitudes, low levels of solar insolation and high horizontal advection speeds reduce the photochemical production and the spatial ozone concentration patterns are largely determined by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide and dry deposition to the surface. A Lagrangian column model has been developed to simulate the mean (monthly and annual) three-dimensional structure in ozone and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentrations in the boundary-layer within and immediately around an urban area. The short-time-scale photochemical processes of ozone and NO x , as well as emissions and deposition to the ground, are simulated. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1x1km and high resolution in the vertical. It has been applied over a 100x100km domain containing the city of Edinburgh (at latitude 56 o N) to simulate the city-scale processes of pollutants. Results are presented, using averaged wind-flow frequencies and appropriate stability conditions, to show the extent of the depletion of ozone by city emissions. The long-term average spatial patterns in the surface ozone and NO x concentrations over the model domain are reproduced quantitatively. The model shows the average surface ozone concentrations in the urban area to be lower than the surrounding rural areas by typically 50% and that the areas experiencing a 20% ozone depletion are generally restricted to within the urban area. The depletion of the ozone concentration to less than 50% of the rural surface values extends only 20m vertically above the urban area. A series of monitoring sites for ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide on a north-south transect through the city - from an urban, through a semi-rural, to a remote rural location - allows the comparison of modelled with observed data for the mean diurnal cycle of ozone

  19. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelissen, Marion; Kuyl, Antoinette C van der; Burg, Remco van den; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Noesel, Carel JM van; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV). Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS) reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169). Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages

  20. Acute Exposure to Perchlorethylene alters Rat Visual Evoked Potentials in Relation to Brain Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    These experiments sought to establish a dose-effect relationship between the concentration of perchloroethylene (PCE) in brain tissue and concurrent changes in visual function. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was implemented to predict concentrations of PCE ...

  1. Quantitative detection of mass concentration of sand-dust storms via wind-profiling radar and analysis of Z- M relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minzhong; Ming, Hu; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Lianhui; Yang, Di

    2018-02-01

    With the aim to achieve quantitative monitoring of sand-dust storms in real time, wind-profiling radar is applied to monitor and study the process of four sand-dust storms in the Tazhong area of the Taklimakan Desert. Through evaluation and analysis of the spatial-temporal distribution of reflectivity factor, it is found that reflectivity factor ranges from 2 to 18 dBz under sand-dust storm weather. Using echo power spectrum of radar vertical beams, sand-dust particle spectrum and sand-dust mass concentration at the altitude of 600 ˜ 1500 m are retrieved. This study shows that sand-dust mass concentration reaches 700 μg/m3 under blowing sand weather, 2000 μg/m3 under sand-dust storm weather, and 400 μg/m3 under floating dust weather. The following equations are established to represent the relationship between the reflectivity factor and sand-dust mass concentration: Z = 20713.5 M 0.995 under floating dust weather, Z = 22988.3 M 1.006 under blowing sand weather, and Z = 24584.2 M 1.013 under sand-dust storm weather. The retrieval results from this paper are almost consistent with previous monitoring results achieved by former researchers; thus, it is implied that wind-profiling radar can be used as a new reference device to quantitatively monitor sand-dust storms.

  2. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  3. Crustal tracers in the atmosphere and ocean: Relating their concentrations, fluxes, and ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qin

    Crustal tracers are important sources of key limiting nutrients (e.g., iron) in remote ocean regions where they have a large impact on global biogeochemical cycles. However, the atmospheric delivery of bio-available iron to oceans via mineral dust aerosol deposition is poorly constrained. This dissertation aims to improve understanding and model representation of oceanic dust deposition and to provide soluble iron flux maps by testing observations of crustal tracer concentrations and solubilities against predictions from two conceptual solubility models. First, we assemble a database of ocean surface dissolved Al and incorporate Al cycling into the global Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) model. The observed Al concentrations show clear basin-scale differences that are useful for constraining dust deposition. The dynamic mixed layer depth and Al residence time in the BEC model significantly improve the simulated dissolved Al field. Some of the remaining model-data discrepancies appear related to the neglect of aerosol size, age, and air mass characteristics in estimating tracer solubility. Next, we develop the Mass-Age Tracking method (MAT) to efficiently and accurately estimate the mass-weighted age of tracers. We apply MAT to four sizes of desert dust aerosol and simulate, for the first time, global distributions of aerosol age in the atmosphere and at deposition. These dust size and age distributions at deposition, together with independent information on air mass acidity, allow us to test two simple yet plausible models for predicting the dissolution of mineral dust iron and aluminum during atmospheric transport. These models represent aerosol solubility as controlled (1) by a diffusive process leaching nutrients from the dust into equilibrium with the liquid water coating or (2) by a process that continually dissolves nutrients in proportion to the particle surface area. The surface-controlled model better captures the spatial pattern of observed

  4. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  5. [Cotinine concentration in the saliva in relation to oral hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek, Teresa; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Piekarczyk, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Cotinine is a biomarker of the exposure to the tobacco smoke, nicotine metabolite with half-life in the saliva which is 17 hours. Assessment of cotinine concentration enables among others verification of the questionnaire data as well as evaluation of both smokers and non-smokers exposure to the tobacco smoke. Practicing proper oral hygiene procedures is an essential factor of the prophylaxis of dental caries and periodontal diseases which influence general health state. The removal of dental calculus is achieved by proper teeth brushing and the use of additional oral aids. The aim of the study was evaluation of cotinine concentration in non-stimulated saliva in order to verify questionnaire data (smoker/non-smoker) and analysis of practicing oral hygiene procedures in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Questionnaire and biochemical studies were conducted in the group of 116 people aged 20-54. In questionnaire survey 53 people (45.69%) confirmed cigarette smoking, 63 (54.31%) declared they had never smoked and never tried to smoke. Non-stimulated saliva was collected between 9(30) and 11(30), 1,5-2 hours after meal. Cotinine concentration was assayed with the use of Cotinine ELISA (Calbiotech, USA). Obtained study results were submitted to statistic analysis with the use of Chi2. Statistically essential test values were those with psmokers and 4.76% non-smokers, brushing teeth at least twice a day was reported subsequently by 73.08% and 95.24% participants. Non-smokers in comparison with smokers considerably more frequently brushed their teeth, at least twice a day (XZ=11.11, pSmokers used a toothbrush with medium hardness bristle (X2=6.05, pSmokers more fre. quently brushed their teeth improperly (X2=1 3.41, pSmokers in comparison with non-smokers did not practice proper oral hygiene which is an essential risk factor of the oral health. It is crucial for dental surgeons to conduct oral hygiene instructions in smokers as well as realization of health

  6. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimu...... of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...

  7. Motivation and body-related factors as discriminators of change in adolescents' exercise behavior profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona B; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relative contributions of weight-related self-perceptions and exercise-related motivation variables in predicting change in leisure-time exercise within a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. A cohort of 310 adolescents (51% male, Mean age = 14.08 ± .32 years at baseline) was classified into four groups on the basis of reported change in leisure-time exercise over 10-months: those who maintain, drop out from exercise, take up exercise, and those who were continually inactive. Discriminant function analyses were conducted to predict group membership from adolescents' profiles of motivational and weight-related perceptions at baseline. For boys, the first discriminant function (DF1) revealed that exercise maintainers reported higher identified regulation, introjected regulation, competence, relatedness, and body satisfaction than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .45). DF2 was more indicative of current exercise levels than change, indicating higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation for both active groups at baseline (between-group R(2) = .40). In girls, DF1 showed that exercise maintainers reported higher intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and lower external regulation than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .58). DF2 indicated that higher body mass index, and perceiving greater pressure to lose weight positively predicted drop out, and negatively predicted exercise uptake (between-group R(2) = .26). Fostering autonomous (self-determined) motivation seems a key determinant to maintaining leisure-time exercise for both boys and girls. Additionally, reducing perceptions of pressure to lose weight and promoting positive interactions with others during exercise may be particularly useful to prevent dropout in girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  9. Security Vulnerability Profiles of Mission Critical Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    While some prior research work exists on characteristics of software faults (i.e., bugs) and failures, very little work has been published on analysis of software applications vulnerabilities. This paper aims to contribute towards filling that gap by presenting an empirical investigation of application vulnerabilities. The results are based on data extracted from issue tracking systems of two NASA missions. These data were organized in three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified security related software bugs and classified them in specific vulnerability classes. Then, we created the security vulnerability profiles, i.e., determined where and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced and what were the dominating vulnerabilities classes. Our main findings include: (1) In IVV issues datasets the majority of vulnerabilities were code related and were introduced in the Implementation phase. (2) For all datasets, around 90 of the vulnerabilities were located in two to four subsystems. (3) Out of 21 primary classes, five dominated: Exception Management, Memory Access, Other, Risky Values, and Unused Entities. Together, they contributed from 80 to 90 of vulnerabilities in each dataset.

  10. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  11. GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Makoto; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshie, Tomoo; Shiomi, Yuuki; Kohashi, Michitaka; Fukunaga, Ken; Nakamura, Shiro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Hatano, Naoya; Shinohara, Masakazu; Irino, Yasuhiro; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-09-01

    The roles that amino acids play in immunity and inflammation are well defined, and the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and certain amino acids has recently attracted attention. In this study, the levels of amino acids and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle-related molecules in the colonic tissues and sera of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were profiled by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with the aim of evaluating whether the clinical state induced by UC leads to variations in the amino acid profile. Colonic biopsy samples from 22 UC patients were used, as well as serum samples from UC patients (n = 13), Crohn's disease (CD) patients (n = 21), and healthy volunteers (n = 17). In the GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules, lower levels of 16 amino acids and 5 TCA cycle-related molecules were observed in the colonic lesion tissues of the UC patients, and the serum profiles of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules of the UC patients were different from those of the CD patients and healthy volunteers. Our study raises the possibility that GC/MS-based profiling of amino acids and TCA cycle-related molecules is a useful early diagnostic tool for UC.

  12. On the relation between plasma and neutral gas profiles in a cold gas-blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bures, M.

    1981-01-01

    A solution for the neutral density profile using the measured plasma density and temperature gradients is presented. The fluid model is used. It is found that the penetration length for neutrals is underestimated in the situation where the integrated profiles are used. The ionization rate need not be inferred in the present calculation, because the ionization of neutrals diffusing into the plasma is implicitly included in measured profiles. This calculation is advantageous in the low temperature range where the ionization rate is a strongly varying function of temperature. Finally the presented solution indicates that the temperature gradient plays the essential role in the determination of the neutral density profile. (Auth.)

  13. Lead exposure is related to hypercortisolemic profiles and allostatic load in Brazilian older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana N., E-mail: junery@usp.br [Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05403 000 (Brazil); Suchecki, Deborah [Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo 04023-062 (Brazil); Juster, Robert-Paul [Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Plusquellec, Pierrich [Centre for Studies on Human Stress, Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, QC, Canada H1N 3V2 (Canada); School of Psychoeducation, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Barbosa Junior, Fernando [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040903 (Brazil); Bunscheit, Vinícius [Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo 04023-062 (Brazil); Marcourakis, Tania [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Martins de Matos, Tatiane [Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05403 000 (Brazil); Lupien, Sonia J. [Centre for Studies on Human Stress, Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, QC, Canada H1N 3V2 (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    Lead levels (Pb) have been linked to both hyper- and hypo-reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis to acute stress in animals and humans. Similarly, allostatic load (AL), the ‘wear and tear’ of chronic stress, is associated with inadequate HPA axis activity. We examined whether Pb levels would be associated with altered diurnal cortisol profile, as a primary mediator of AL, during aging. Pb levels were measured from blood samples (BPb) of 126 Brazilian individuals (105 women), between 50 and 82 years old. Six neuroendocrine, metabolic, and anthropometric biomarkers were analyzed and values were transformed into an AL index using clinical reference cut-offs. Salivary samples were collected at home over 2 days at awakening, 30-min after waking, afternoon, and evening periods to determine cortisol levels. A multiple linear regression model showed a positive association between BPb as the independent continuous variable and cortisol awakening response (R{sup 2}=0.128; B=0.791; p=0.005) and overall cortisol concentration (R{sup 2}=0.266; B=0.889; p<0.001) as the outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that individuals with high BPb levels showed higher cortisol at 30 min after awakening (p=0.003), and in the afternoon (p=0.002) than those with low BPb values. Regarding AL, regression model showed that BPb was positively associated with AL index (R{sup 2}=0.100; B=0.204; p=0.032). Correlation analyzes with individual biomarkers showed that BPb was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (p=0.02) and negatively correlated with DHEA-S (p=0.049). These findings suggest that Pb exposure, even at levels below the reference blood lead level for adults recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, may contribute to AL and dysregulated cortisol functioning in older adults. Considering these findings were based on cross-sectional data future research is needed to confirm

  14. Lead exposure is related to hypercortisolemic profiles and allostatic load in Brazilian older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana N.; Suchecki, Deborah; Juster, Robert-Paul; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Bunscheit, Vinícius; Marcourakis, Tania; Martins de Matos, Tatiane; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2017-01-01

    Lead levels (Pb) have been linked to both hyper- and hypo-reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis to acute stress in animals and humans. Similarly, allostatic load (AL), the ‘wear and tear’ of chronic stress, is associated with inadequate HPA axis activity. We examined whether Pb levels would be associated with altered diurnal cortisol profile, as a primary mediator of AL, during aging. Pb levels were measured from blood samples (BPb) of 126 Brazilian individuals (105 women), between 50 and 82 years old. Six neuroendocrine, metabolic, and anthropometric biomarkers were analyzed and values were transformed into an AL index using clinical reference cut-offs. Salivary samples were collected at home over 2 days at awakening, 30-min after waking, afternoon, and evening periods to determine cortisol levels. A multiple linear regression model showed a positive association between BPb as the independent continuous variable and cortisol awakening response (R 2 =0.128; B=0.791; p=0.005) and overall cortisol concentration (R 2 =0.266; B=0.889; p<0.001) as the outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that individuals with high BPb levels showed higher cortisol at 30 min after awakening (p=0.003), and in the afternoon (p=0.002) than those with low BPb values. Regarding AL, regression model showed that BPb was positively associated with AL index (R 2 =0.100; B=0.204; p=0.032). Correlation analyzes with individual biomarkers showed that BPb was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (p=0.02) and negatively correlated with DHEA-S (p=0.049). These findings suggest that Pb exposure, even at levels below the reference blood lead level for adults recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, may contribute to AL and dysregulated cortisol functioning in older adults. Considering these findings were based on cross-sectional data future research is needed to confirm our

  15. Determination of the concentration profile of chemical elements in superheater pipes; Determinacion del perfil de concentracion de elementos quimicos en tubos de sobrecalentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F; Aspiazu F, J [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1986-05-15

    This work has for object to determine the profile of concentration of chemical elements at trace level in a superheater pipe of Thermoelectric Plants using the X-ray emission spectroscopy technique induced by protons coming from the Accelerator of the Nuclear Center. In the X-ray detection, a Si Li detector was used. The technique was chosen because it allows a multielemental analysis, of high sensitivity and precision. The results can help to understand the problems that are had in the change of flexibility or of corrosion. This will be from utility to the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE). (Author)

  16. Determination of the cesium-137 concentration profile in the main contamination focus of the radiological accident at Goiania-GO, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, H.C.; Aoki, P.E.; Enokihara, C.T.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Lepki, V.; Bambalas, E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method used to determinate cesium-137 concentration profiles measured in function of depth and applied in seven areas considered as the main contamination focus. Since november 14 th to december 17 th 1987, 125 soil drillings were made and a total of 740 soil samples were prepared. Obtained data allowed to calculate the soil volume to be removed from contaminate areas. It was verified that after remotions the remaining activity was approximately 0,89 Ci. (author) [pt

  17. Five factor model personality traits relate to adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not to their distinct neurocognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Fiona E; Mostert, Jeannette; Glennon, Jeffrey; Onnink, Marten; Dammers, Janneke; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-12-01

    Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences. Irrespective of cognitive profile, participants with ADHD showed significantly higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness than healthy controls. Only the FFM personality factor Openness differed significantly between the three profiles. Higher Openness was more common in those with aberrant attention and inhibition than those with increased delay discounting and atypical working memory / verbal fluency. The results suggest that the personality trait Openness, but not any other FFM factor, is linked to neurocognitive profiles in ADHD. ADHD symptoms rather than profiles of cognitive impairment have associations with personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  19. Glutamate Concentration in the Superior Temporal Sulcus Relates to Neuroticism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Balz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies suggest aberrant neurotransmitter concentrations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ. Numerous studies have indicated deviant glutamate concentrations in SCZ, although the findings are inconsistent. Moreover, alterations in glutamate concentrations could be linked to personality traits in SCZ. Here, we examined the relationships between personality dimensions and glutamate concentrations in a voxel encompassing the occipital cortex (OCC and another voxel encompassing the left superior temporal sulcus (STS. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine glutamate concentrations in the OCC and the STS in 19 SCZ and 21 non-psychiatric healthy control (HC participants. Personality dimensions neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were assessed using the NEO-FFI questionnaire. SCZ compared to HC showed higher glutamate concentrations in the STS, reduced extraversion scores, and enhanced neuroticism scores. No group differences were observed for the other personality traits and for glutamate concentrations in the OCC. For the SCZ group, glutamate concentrations in STS were negatively correlated with the neuroticism scores [r = -0.537, p = 0.018] but this was not found in HC [r(19 = 0.011, p = 0.962]. No other significant correlations were found. Our study showed an inverse relationship between glutamate concentrations in the STS and neuroticism scores in SCZ. Elevated glutamate in the STS might serve as a compensatory mechanism that enables patients with enhanced concentrations to control and prevent the expression of neuroticism.

  20. The relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.

  1. Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in the hyporheic zone through the use of a high density fiber optic measurement network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, W. J.; Quick, A. M.; Farrell, T. B.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a potentially important source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O); stream processes may account for up to 10% of global anthropogenic N2O emissions. However, mechanistic understanding and predictive quantification of this gas flux is hampered by complex temporally and spatially variable interactions between flow dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Reactive inorganic nitrogen (Nr) is typically present at low concentrations in natural stream waters, but many rural and urban streams suffer from an excess of Nr, typically in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). These reactive species are either assimilated by living biomass or transformed by microbial processes. The two primary microbial transformations of Nr are nitrification (NH4+ to NO3-) and denitrification (NO3- to N2). Denitrification, which occurs almost exclusively in the anoxic zone of the HZ, permanently removes between 30-70% of all Nr entering streams, other mechanisms may retain nitrogen. The mass transport of reactive species (i.e. O2, NO3- and N2O) by hyporheic flow strongly influences reaction rates, residence times, and subsequent N2O flux. By extension, stream flow and channel morphology presumably control, and may be effective predictors of, N2O generation rates. By recreating the stream processes in the University of Idaho flume, we are able to control the bed morphology, fluxes and residence times through the HZ and concentrations of Nr from exogenous (stream water) and endogenous (organic material in the streambed) sources. For the present experiment, the flume was divided into three streams, each with different morphologies (3, 6 and 9cm dunes) and all using the same source water. Stream water for this first experimental phase had no significant loading of Nr. As such, all reaction products were the result of endogenous sources of Nr. To measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations we deployed 120 channels of a novel, fiber-optic optode

  2. The socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability among Chinese adults: the application of concentration index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Du, Wei; Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-06-01

    Traffic crashes have become the fifth leading cause of burden of diseases and injuries in China. More importantly, it may further aggravate the degree of health inequality among Chinese population, which is still under-investigated. Based on a nationally representative data, we calculated the concentration index (CI) to measure the socioeconomic inequality in traffic-related disability (TRD), and decomposed CI into potential sources of the inequality. Results show that more than 1.5 million Chinese adults were disabled by traffic crashes and the adults with financial disadvantage bear disproportionately heavier burden of TRD. Besides, strategies of reducing income inequality and protecting the safety of poor road users, are of great importance. Residence appears to counteract the socioeconomic inequality in TRD, however, it does not necessarily come to an optimistic conclusion. In addition to the worrying income gap between rural and urban areas, other possible mechanisms, e.g. the low level of post-crash medical resources in rural area, need further studies. China is one of the developing countries undergoing fast motorization and our findings could provide other countries in similar context with some insights about how to maintain socioeconomic equality in road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  5. Modelling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Perturbations by Externally Induced Cholesterol Pulses of Finite Duration and with Asymmetrically Distributed Concentration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojević, A.; Marković, V. M.; Čupić, Ž.; Vukojević, V.; Kolar-Anić, L.

    2017-12-01

    A model was developed that can be used to study the effect of gradual cholesterol intake by food on the HPA axis dynamics. Namely, well defined oscillatory dynamics of vital neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has proven to be necessary for maintaining regular basal physiology and formulating appropriate stress response to various types of perturbations. Cholesterol, as a precursor of all steroid HPA axis hormones, can alter the dynamics of HPA axis. To analyse its particular influence on the HPA axis dynamics we used stoichiometric model of HPA axis activity, and simulate cholesterol perturbations in the form of finite duration pulses, with asymmetrically distributed concentration profile. Our numerical simulations showed that there is a complex, nonlinear dependence between the HPA axis responsiveness and different forms of applied cholesterol concentration pulses, indicating the significance of kinetic modelling, and dynamical systems theory for the understanding of large-scale self-regulatory, and homeostatic processes within this neuroendocrine system.

  6. Concentrations of AMH and inhibin-B in relation to follicular diameter in normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size....

  7. Security Vulnerability Profiles of NASA Mission Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob P.; Sizemore, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA develops, runs, and maintains software systems for which security is of vital importance. Therefore, it is becoming an imperative to develop secure systems and extend the current software assurance capabilities to cover information assurance and cybersecurity concerns of NASA missions. The results presented in this report are based on the information provided in the issue tracking systems of one ground mission and one flight mission. The extracted data were used to create three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified the software bugs that are security related and classified them in specific security classes. This information was then used to create the security vulnerability profiles (i.e., to determine how, why, where, and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced) and explore the existence of common trends. The main findings of our work include:- Code related security issues dominated both the Ground and Flight mission IVV security issues, with 95 and 92, respectively. Therefore, enforcing secure coding practices and verification and validation focused on coding errors would be cost effective ways to improve mission's security. (Flight mission Developers issues dataset did not contain data in the Issue Category.)- In both the Ground and Flight mission IVV issues datasets, the majority of security issues (i.e., 91 and 85, respectively) were introduced in the Implementation phase. In most cases, the phase in which the issues were found was the same as the phase in which they were introduced. The most security related issues of the Flight mission Developers issues dataset were found during Code Implementation, Build Integration, and Build Verification; the data on the phase in which these issues were introduced were not available for this dataset.- The location of security related issues, as the location of software issues in general, followed the Pareto

  8. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  9. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  10. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Semik, D; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Kilarski, W M; Duda, K; Zoladz, J A

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A), national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training) and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training). Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Significant differences (Pski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  11. Maternal chromium restriction modulates miRNA profiles related to lipid metabolism disorder in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence shows that maternal nutrition status has a vital effect on offspring susceptibility to obesity. MicroRNAs are related to lipid metabolism processes. This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal chromium restriction could affect miRNA expression involved in lipid metabolism in offspring. Weaning C57BL/6J mice born from mothers fed with normal control diet or chromium-restricted diet were fed for 13 weeks. The adipose miRNA expression profile was analyzed by miRNA array analysis. At 16 weeks old, pups from dams fed with chromium-restricted diet exhibit higher body weight, fat weight, and serum TC, TG levels. Six miRNAs were identified as upregulated in the RC group compared with the CC group, whereas eight miRNAs were lower than the threshold level set in the RC group. In the validated target genes of these differentially expressed miRNA, the MAPK signaling pathway serves an important role in the influence of early life chromium-restricted diet on lipid metabolism through miRNA. Long-term programming on various specific miRNA and MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in maternal chromium restriction in the adipose of female offspring. Impact statement For the first time, our study demonstrates important miRNA differences in the effect of maternal chromium restriction in offspring. These miRNAs may serve as "bridges" between the mother and the offspring by affecting the MAPK pathway.

  12. Virus detection and cytokine profile in relation to age among acute exacerbations of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Kenichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Little information is available regarding eosinophil activation and cytokine profiles in relation to age in virus-induced bronchial asthma. We therefore explored the association between age, respiratory viruses, serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and cytokines/chemokines in acute exacerbations of childhood asthma. We investigated viruses in nasal secretions from 88 patients with acute exacerbation of childhood asthma by using antigen detection kits and/or RT-PCR, followed by direct DNA sequencing analysis. We also measured peripheral eosinophil counts, and the serum levels of ECP and 27 types of cytokines/chemokines in 71 virus-induced acute asthma cases and 13 controls. Viruses were detected in 71(80.7%) of the 88 samples. The three major viruses detected were rhinoviruses, RS viruses, and enteroviruses; enteroviruses were found to be dominant in patients aged ≥3 years. There was no change in the levels of rhinoviruses and RS viruses between the two age groups, defined as children aged asthma cases compared with controls. Serum ECP values were significantly higher in patients with virus-induced asthma at age ≥3 years compared with those aged asthma in patients childhood asthma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic profiling identifies markers for inflammation-related tumor-fibroblast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drev, Daniel; Bileck, Andrea; Erdem, Zeynep N; Mohr, Thomas; Timelthaler, Gerald; Beer, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Marian, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of matrix organization, TGFβ receptor signaling and angiogenesis mainly originating from the stroma. Most prominent were increased abundance of SerpinB5 in the parenchyme and latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, thrombospondin-B2, and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich in the stroma. Extracellular matrix remodeling involved collagens type VIII, XII, XIV, and VI as well as lysyl-oxidase-2. In silico analysis of mRNA levels demonstrated altered expression in the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue as compared to mucosa of healthy individuals indicating that inflammatory activation affected the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemistry of 26 tumor specimen confirmed upregulation of SerpinB5, thrombospondin B2 and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting tumor- and compartment-specific protein-signatures that are functionally meaningful by proteomic profiling of whole-tissue extracts together with mining of RNA expression datasets. The results provide the basis for further exploration of inflammation-related stromal markers in larger patient cohorts and experimental models.

  14. Clinical and pharmacoeconomic profile of esomeprazole in acid-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protonic pump inhibitors (PPIs are the most prescribed drugs for acute and maintenance therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori-eradication (in association with antibacterial therapy, for ulcers prevention and cure and, recently, for prevention of NSAIDs-induced gastropathy. The high prevalence of these acid-related disorders induces a large consumption of PPIs; actually, they are the first drug class in terms of National Health Service pharmaceutical expenditure. This widespread and gradually increasing use enforces the need of a rational assessment of their impact on health care resources. This paper provides an updated profile of esomeprazole, the first PPI developed as a pure isomer, which property involves an advantageous metabolism, resulting in enhanced delivery to the proton pump compared with racemic omeprazole. Several studies showed that the success rate for healing reflux esophagitis is greater for esomeprazole than for omeprazole and some other PPIs. According to an Italian pharmacoeconomic model, esomeprazole therapy for erosive esophagitis is associated with higher benefits and lower costs as compared to omeprazole and pantoprazole. For long-term management of non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease, on-demand approach with esomeprazole shows clinical outcomes similar to daily treatment regimens, with substantial cost-saving. Furthermore, esomeprazole is the only PPI approved for 1-week triple therapy for both the eradication and the healing of H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer, while the other PPIs registered the indication for H. pylori-eradication and, separately, a dosing scheme for ulcer healing (independently from etiology.

  15. Factors Related to Blood Hydroxychloroquine Concentration in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon Lee, Ji; Lee, Jennifer; Ki Kwok, Seung; Hyeon Ju, Ji; Su Park, Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    To identify factors associated with blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its major metabolite, N-desethylhydroxychloroquine (DHCQ), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; lupus) receiving long-term oral HCQ treatment. SLE patients who had been taking HCQ for more than 3 months were recruited. Various clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores were examined. The concentrations of HCQ and DHCQ ([HCQ] and [DHCQ]) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and the relationship between [HCQ], [DHCQ], and [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio to various factors was investigated. In total, 189 SLE patients receiving long-term HCQ treatment were included in the analysis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) [HCQ] was 515 (IQR 353-720) ng/ml, the median [DHCQ] was 417 (IQR 266-591) ng/ml, and the median [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio was 1.3 (range 1.0-1.7). [HCQ] was closely associated with [DHCQ] (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). The weight-adjusted oral HCQ dose was strongly associated with both [HCQ] (P < 0.001) and [DHCQ] (P < 0.001). Time since last dose was associated with [HCQ] (P < 0.001). No statistically significant association was found between renal function or smoking and [HCQ] or [DHCQ]. Use of additional immunosuppressants increased both [HCQ] and [DHCQ] after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). The lower SLEDAI score was significantly related to higher [HCQ], after adjusting for age, sex, weight-adjusted HCQ dose, time since last dose, number of other immunosuppressants, and smoking status (P = 0.007). Various factors affected blood levels of [HCQ], [DHCQ], or the [HCQ]:[DHCQ] ratio of SLE patients receiving long-term oral HCQ treatment. Notably, higher [HCQ] was associated with a lower SLEDAI score in our typical outpatient clinic population with lupus. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Raphael dos Santos; Oliveira, Tadeu Silva de; Pereira, José Carlos; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5) as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in th...

  17. Concentration profiles in the wake of a sphere buried in a granular bed through which fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes de Carvalho, J.R.F.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Alves, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration distribution in the wake of a soluble sphere immersed in a granular bed of inerts has been obtained numerically, for transport by both advection and diffusion/dispersion. Fluid flow in the granular bed around the sphere was assumed to follow Darcy's law and, at each point, dispersion of solute was considered in both the cross-stream and stream-wise directions. The elliptic PDE equation, resulting from a differential material balance on the solute, has been solved numerically over a wide range of values of the relevant parameters. (authors)

  18. Concentration profiles in the wake of a sphere buried in a granular bed through which fluid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes de Carvalho, J.R.F.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Alves, M.A. [Porto Univ., Dpet. de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    The concentration distribution in the wake of a soluble sphere immersed in a granular bed of inerts has been obtained numerically, for transport by both advection and diffusion/dispersion. Fluid flow in the granular bed around the sphere was assumed to follow Darcy's law and, at each point, dispersion of solute was considered in both the cross-stream and stream-wise directions. The elliptic PDE equation, resulting from a differential material balance on the solute, has been solved numerically over a wide range of values of the relevant parameters. (authors)

  19. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  20. Measuring and modeling polymer concentration profiles near spindle boundaries argues that spindle microtubules regulate their own nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Bryan; Stiehl, Olivia; Foster, Peter J.; Shelley, Michael J.; Needleman, Daniel J.; Fürthauer, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Spindles are self-organized microtubule-based structures that segregate chromosomes during cell division. The mass of the spindle is controlled by the balance between microtubule turnover and nucleation. The mechanisms that control the spatial regulation of microtubule nucleation remain poorly understood. While previous work found that microtubule nucleators bind to pre-existing microtubules in the spindle, it is still unclear whether this binding regulates the activity of those nucleators. Here we use a combination of experiments and mathematical modeling to investigate this issue. We measured the concentration of microtubules and soluble tubulin in and around the spindle. We found a very sharp decay in the concentration of microtubules at the spindle interface. This is inconsistent with a model in which the activity of nucleators is independent of their association with microtubules but consistent with a model in which microtubule nucleators are only active when bound to pre-existing microtubules. This argues that the activity of microtubule nucleators is greatly enhanced when bound to pre-existing microtubules. Thus, microtubule nucleators are both localized and activated by the microtubules they generate.

  1. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  2. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  3. Mercury concentrations in lentic fish populations related to ecosystem and watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel

    2010-01-01

    Predicting mercury (Hg) concentrations of fishes at large spatial scales is a fundamental environmental challenge with the potential to improve human health. In this study, mercury concentrations were examined for five species across 161 lakes and ecosystem, and watershed parameters were investigated as explanatory variables in statistical models. For all species, Hg...

  4. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (pdrug consumption were higher than those who did not (plead concentration (plead concentration (plead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (plead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the general adult population in Korea has decreased over time from 45.8 μg/l (1999) to 19.7 μg/l (2008). Although it is still higher than in other countries such as the United States and Canada, it is rapidly decreasing. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol drinking status, herbal medication and drug consumption, education level, living area and occupation were significantly related to the blood lead concentrations in Korea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  6. Tannin profile of different Monastrell wines and its relation to projected market prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Olmos, Oscar; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the differences or similarities in tannin composition and concentration in Monastrell wines from different wineries from the same geographic area and, within each winery, from wines elaborated based on different projected market prices, to determine whether there is any relationship between the wine tannin composition and the projected price. The tannin composition of the different wines, all of them analyzed at the same point during winemaking, indicated that those elaborated as premium wines presented higher phenol and tannin contents. The mean degree of polymerization of these wines was also positively related with the projected price, which agreed with the results obtained by size exclusion chromatography, that showed that wines with high projected prices had a higher proportion of polymeric tannins, suggesting that techniques favoring the extraction of skin tannins were mostly used in those wines projected as premium wines, probably looking for greater mouthfeel complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constructing a psychological coping profile in the call centre environment: Wellness-related dispositions in relation to resiliency-related behavioural capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Harry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The context of this research is the coping and wellness of call centre agents in a characteristically high-stress work environment. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to construct a psychological coping profile by investigating the overall relationship between individuals’ wellness-related dispositional attributes and their resiliency-related behavioural capacities. Motivation of the study: It is important that coping in the call centre environment be understood in light of the complexity of the challenges that call centre agents experience in terms of their wellbeing. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey approach was followed, using a non-probability purposive sample (N = 409 comprising predominantly early career, permanently employed black females in call centres in Africa. Main findings: A canonical correlation analysis indicated a significant overall relationship between the wellness-related constructs (sense of coherence, emotional intelligence and burnout and the resiliency-related constructs (career adaptability and hardiness. Structural equation modelling indicated that managing own emotions and cynicism contributed significantly to explaining the participants’ resiliency-related behavioural capacities (hardicommitment and hardi-control. Practical/managerial implications: Enhancing call centre agents’ emotional intelligence and lowering cynicism will increase resiliency-related capacities, such as sense of control and commitment, and will significantly increase the resiliency and capacity of call centre agents to cope with pressure, which can lead to positive work attitudes. Contribution/value-add: The findings may provide valuable pointers for the design of wellness intervention practices and could potentially add to the body of knowledge concerned with employee wellness in call centres.

  8. RELATIONS AMONG WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM RESISTANCE TRAITS AND ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MAIZE GERMPLASM ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Brkić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm – WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important maize pest in Croatia. Using native resistance of maize germplasm could reduce chemical treatments and other costs in maize production. Objectives of this study were: i to assess variability of WCR resistance traits (root injury, regrowth and size and concentrations of nine elements in roots of 128 maize genotypes, and ii to determine correlations among the traits and ion concentrations. Results revealed high variability of maize genotypes for both WCR resistance traits and ion concentrations. Significant moderate negative correlations (>-0.4 were detected between root injury and boron as well as between root regrowth and iron, manganese and zinc concentrations in root. Consequently, ion concentration in maize roots might have an impact on WCR resistance research.

  9. Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan L; Balaguer, Isabel; Duda, Joan L

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to determine if dispositional achievement goal orientation profiles that are reported in the literature would be observed in a sample of youth athletes, and (b) to examine potential achievement goal orientation profile differences on perceptions of the motivational climate, perceptions of peer relationships, and motivation-related responses. Male soccer players (n=223) aged 9-12 years (mean=10.9, s=0.6) completed a multi-section questionnaire containing assessments of dispositional goal (task, ego) orientations, the perceived task- and ego-involving features of the motivational climate, perceived peer acceptance and friendship quality (positive friendship quality, conflict), perceived ability, soccer enjoyment, and satisfaction with one's performance and the team. Four profiles were observed that closely matched those observed by Hodge and Petlichkoff (2000), though in the present study a lower proportion of participants exhibited achievement goal profiles consisting of relatively high ego orientation. Achievement goal profile differences were found for all variables except positive friendship quality, with a general trend for those reporting relatively lower task goal orientation to exhibit less adaptive responses. Overall, the findings support achievement goal frameworks (e.g. Nicholls, 1989) and suggest that further examination of dispositional achievement goals may afford a deeper understanding of social relationships and motivational processes in youth sport.

  10. Effect of oral mineral and energy supplementation on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profile, and milk yield in dairy cows affected with dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquen, M; Galvão, K N; Coleman, A E; Santos, J E P; Goff, J P; Risco, C A

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of mineral/energy supplementation of dairy cows with dystocia on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profiles, and milk yield. Multiparous Holstein cows with dystocia were randomly assigned into two groups, (1) treated with a mineral/energy supplement (DME, n= 18) and (2) not treated (DNT, n= 22). A group of cows with normal parturition were randomly selected and were left untreated (NNT, n= 25). Cows in DME received an oral drench of 110 g of calcium and 400 g of propionate as calcium propionate plus 110 g potassium chloride and 150 g of magnesium sulfate administered within 6 h of calving and again 3 days post-partum. Compared to cows with a normal parturition, dystocic cows had decreased plasma calcium concentrations, increased plasma haptoglobin, decreased milk yield at 1 day post-partum, and tended to have increased rectal temperatures from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Compared with cows in DNT, those in DME had decreased plasma calcium concentrations and increased plasma magnesium concentrations 2 and 3 days post-partum, and a tendency for an increase in rectal temperature from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Dystocia is detrimental to calcium homeostasis post-partum, but mineral/energy supplementation as undertaken in this study is not recommended for use in cows with dystocia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller KL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Katja Linda Waller,1,2 Erik Lykke Mortensen,2,3 Kirsten Avlund,2,3,†, Merete Osler,3,4 Birgitte Fagerlund,5 Martin Lauritzen,2,6 Steen Gammeltoft,7 Poul Jennum1,2 1Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Clinic of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Research Center for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR, Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Center Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark †Kirsten Avlund passed away on June 15, 2012 Abstract: Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were recruited from a population-based cohort based on previous cognitive assessments in young adulthood and late midlife. The sample included 24 cognitively high-functioning and 26 cognitively impaired participants. Saliva samples were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hour period and analyzed for cortisol and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than in the high-functioning group (−4.6 pg/mL, 95% CI: −7.84, −1.36, P=0.006. The 24

  12. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mona Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and body mass index (BMI may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF, visceral fat level (VF, and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF. We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05. BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001. WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001, but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  13. Axial concentration profiles and N{sub 2}O flue gas in a pilot scale bubbling fluidised bed coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarelho, L.A.C.; Matos, M.A.A.; Pereira, F.J.M.A. [Environment and Planning Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-05-15

    Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidised Bed Coal Combustion (ABFBCC) of a bituminous coal and anthracite with particle diameters in the range 500-4000 {mu}m was investigated in a pilot-plant facility (circular section with 0.25 m internal diameter and 3 m height). The experiments were conducted at steady-state conditions using three excess air levels (10%, 25% and 50%) and bed temperatures in the 750-900 {sup o}C range. Combustion air was staged, with primary air accounting for 100%, 80% and 60% of total combustion air. For both types of coal, virtually no N{sub 2}O was found in significant amounts inside the bed. However, just above the bed-freeboard interface, the N{sub 2}O concentration increased monotonically along the freeboard and towards the exit flue. The N{sub 2}O concentrations in the reactor ranged between 0-90 ppm during bituminous coal combustion and 0-30 ppm for anthracite. For both coals, the lowest values occurred at the higher bed temperature (900 {sup o}C) with low excess air (10%) and high air staging (60% primary air), whereas the highest occurred at the lower bed temperature (750 {sup o}C for bituminous, 825 {sup o}C for anthracite) with high excess air (50%) and single stage combustion. Most of the observed results could be qualitatively interpreted in terms of a set of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, where catalytic surfaces (such as char, sand and coal ash) can play an important role in the formation and destruction of N{sub 2}O and its precursors (such as HCN, NH{sub 3} and HCNO) by free radicals (O, H, OH) and reducing species (H{sub 2}, CO, HCs)

  14. Gene expression profiling of preovulatory follicle in the buffalo cow: effects of increased IGF-I concentration on periovulatory events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna U Rao

    Full Text Available The preovulatory follicle in response to gonadotropin surge undergoes dramatic biochemical, and morphological changes orchestrated by expression changes in hundreds of genes. Employing well characterized bovine preovulatory follicle model, granulosa cells (GCs and follicle wall were collected from the preovulatory follicle before, 1, 10 and 22 h post peak LH surge. Microarray analysis performed on GCs revealed that 450 and 111 genes were differentially expressed at 1 and 22 h post peak LH surge, respectively. For validation, qPCR and immunocytochemistry analyses were carried out for some of the differentially expressed genes. Expression analysis of many of these genes showed distinct expression patterns in GCs and the follicle wall. To study molecular functions and genetic networks, microarray data was analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis which revealed majority of the differentially expressed genes to cluster within processes like steroidogenesis, cell survival and cell differentiation. In the ovarian follicle, IGF-I is established to be an important regulator of the above mentioned molecular functions. Thus, further experiments were conducted to verify the effects of increased intrafollicular IGF-I levels on the expression of genes associated with the above mentioned processes. For this purpose, buffalo cows were administered with exogenous bGH to transiently increase circulating and intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I. The results indicated that increased intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I caused changes in expression of genes associated with steroidogenesis (StAR, SRF and apoptosis (BCL-2, FKHR, PAWR. These results taken together suggest that onset of gonadotropin surge triggers activation of various biological pathways and that the effects of growth factors and peptides on gonadotropin actions could be examined during preovulatory follicle development.

  15. The relation between temperature and concentration gradients in superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadorozhko, A A; Rudavskij, E Y; Chagovets, V K; Sheshin, G A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature and concentration gradients nabla T and nabla x in a superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He mixture with an initial concentration 9,8 % of sup 3 He are measured in a temperature range 70-500 mK. The gradients are produced by a steady thermal flow with heating from below. It is shown that the value of nabla x/nabla T observed in the experiment is in good agreement with the theoretical model derived from the temperature and concentration dependences of osmotic pressure. The experimental data permitted us to obtain a thermal diffusion ratio of the solution responsible for the thermal diffusion coefficient.

  16. Relation between tritium concentration and chemical composition in rain at Fukuoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Momoshima, N.; Maeda, Y.; Kakiuchi, H.

    1999-01-01

    Tritium concentrations in rain collected at Fukuoka, Japan from 1982 have been measured. From May 1996 tritium concentrations and chemical species have been analyzed for each rain to examine their relationship. Recent rain was concluded not to be affected by tritium from atmospheric nuclear tests. Tritium concentrations showed a seasonal pattern, high during winter and spring and low during summer and fall and had positive correlations with non-sea-salt SO 4 2- , indicating a long distance of acidic materials as well as tritium from continental China. (author)

  17. Characterization of traffic-related PM concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in near-highway urban residential street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Intaek; Brixey, Laurie A; Wiener, Russell W; Henkle, Stacy W; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Analyses of outdoor traffic-related particulate matter (PM) concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in urban street canyons within a microscale distance of less than 500 m from a highway source are presented as part of the results from the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. Various patterns of spatial and temporal changes in the street canyon PM concentrations were investigated using time-series data of real-time PM concentrations measured during multiple monitoring periods. Concurrent time-series data of local street canyon wind conditions and wind data from the John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport National Weather Service (NWS) were used to characterize the effects of various wind conditions on the behavior of street canyon PM concentrations.Our results suggest that wind direction may strongly influence time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution patterns in near-highway urban street canyons. The rooftop-level wind speeds were found to be strongly correlated with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities in the middle sections of the street blocks. The ambient turbulence generated by shifting local wind directions (angles) showed a good correlation with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities along the entire distance of the first and second street blocks only when the wind angle standard deviations were larger than 30 degrees. Within-canyon turbulent shearing, caused by fluctuating local street canyon wind speeds, showed no correlation with PM concentration fluctuation intensities. The time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution along the longitudinal distances of the street blocks when wind direction was mostly constantly parallel to the street was found to be similar to the distribution pattern for the entire monitoring period when wind direction fluctuated wildly. Finally, we showed that two different PM concentration metrics-time-averaged mean

  18. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p pregnancy (r = -0.590, p pregnancy BMI was significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p sodium (r = 0.254, p = 0.070) levels. Multiple linear regression indicated that mid-trimester AF uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p pregnancy BMI is significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  19. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  20. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  2. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Warnau, Michel; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2009-01-01

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature.

  3. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  4. Serum selenium concentration in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relation to course and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Berendtsen, H; Nørgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal complica......The present knowledge of the role of selenium in human fetal and neonatal development is sparse. In this study we measured serum selenium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood from 500 Danish mothers at delivery, looking for a relationship between various maternal and fetal...... complications and selenium values. In mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries serum selenium concentrations were 0.84 +/- 0.19 mumol/l (mean +/- SD), whereas in cord blood from full-term babies born adequate for gestational age and with no malformations serum selenium concentrations were 0...

  5. Circulating ghrelin concentrations fluctuate relative to nutritional status and influence feeding behavior in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz-Lutz, A E; Knight, T J; Pritchard, R H; Daniel, J A; Clapper, J A; Smart, A J; Trenkle, A; Beitz, D C

    2006-12-01

    The objective of these experiments was to establish the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrations with feed intake and hormones indicative of nutritional state of cattle. In Exp.1, 4 steers (BW 450 +/- 14.3 kg) were used in a crossover design to compare plasma ghrelin concentrations of feed-deprived steers with those of steers allowed to consume feed and to establish the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrations with those of GH, insulin (INS), glucose (GLU), and NEFA. After adaptation to a once-daily feed offering (0800), 2 steers continued the once-daily feeding schedule (FED), whereas feed was withheld from the other 2 steers (FAST). Serial blood samples were collected via indwelling jugular catheter from times equivalent to 22 h through 48 h of feed deprivation. Average plasma ghrelin concentrations were greater (P ruminants.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Genes Related to Renal Mercury Concentrations in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkaissi, Hammoudi; Ekstrand, Jimmy; Jawad, Aksa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following human mercury (Hg) exposure, the metal accumulates with considerable concentrations in kidney, liver, and brain. Although the toxicokinetics of Hg has been studied extensively, factors responsible for inter-individual variation in humans are largely unknown. Differences...

  7. Trends in atmospheric ammonium concentrations in relation to atmospheric sulfate and local agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Likens, Gene E

    2005-06-01

    Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations in air and precipitation at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) in southeastern New York, USA declined over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999, but increased from 1999 to 2001. These trends in particulate NH(4)(+) correlated well with trends in particulate SO(4)(2-) over the 1988-2001 period. The NH(4)(+) trends were not as well correlated with local cattle and milk production, which declined continuously throughout the period. This suggests that regional transport of SO(4)(2-) may have a greater impact on concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition than local agricultural emissions of NH(3). Ammonium concentrations in precipitation correlated significantly with precipitation SO(4)(2-) concentrations for the 1984-2001 period although NH(4)(+) in precipitation increased after 1999 and SO(4)(2-) in precipitation continued to decline after 1999. The correlation between NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was stronger for particulates than for precipitation. Particulate NH(4)(+) concentrations were also correlated with particulate SO(4)(2-) concentrations at 31 of 35 eastern U.S. CASTNet sites that had at least 10 years of data. Air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) were more strongly correlated at the sites that were located within an agricultural landscape than in forested sites. At most of the sites there was either no trend or a decrease in NH(4)(+) dry deposition during the 1988-2001 period. The sites that showed an increasing trend in NH(4)(+) dry deposition were generally located in the southeastern U.S. The results of this study suggest that, in the northeastern U.S., air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition may be more closely linked to SO(4)(2-) and thus SO(2) emissions than with NH(3) emissions. These results also suggest that reductions in S emissions have reduced NH(4)(+) transport to and NH(4)(+)-N deposition in the Northeast.

  8. Relating soil solution Zn concentration to diffusive gradients in thin films measurements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Fien; Smolders, Erik; Oliver, Ian; Zhang, Hao

    2003-09-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has been suggested to sample an available fraction of metals in soil. The objectives of this study were to compare DGT measurements with commonly measured fractions of Zn in soil, viz, the soil solution concentration and the total Zn concentration. The DGT technique was used to measure fluxes and interfacial concentrations of Zn in three series of field-contaminated soils collected in transects toward galvanized electricity pylons and in 15 soils amended with ZnCl2 at six rates. The ratio of DGT-measured concentration to pore water concentration of Zn, R, varied between 0.02 and 1.52 (mean 0.29). This ratio decreased with decreasing distribution coefficient, Kd, of Zn in the soil, which is in agreement with the predictions of the DGT-induced fluxes in soils (DIFS) model. The R values predicted with the DIFS model were generally larger than the observed values in the ZnCl2-amended soils at the higher Zn rates. A modification of the DIFS model indicated that saturation of the resin gel was approached in these soils, despite the short deployment times used (2 h). The saturation of the resin with Zn did not occur in the control soils (no Zn salt added) or the field-contaminated soils. Pore water concentration of Zn in these soils was predicted from the DGT-measured concentration and the total Zn content. Predicted values and observations were generally in good agreement. The pore water concentration was more than 5 times underpredicted for the most acid soil (pH = 3) and for six other soils, for which the underprediction was attributed to the presence of colloidal Zn in the soil solution.

  9. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  10. Fins coloration of perch in relation to external activity concentration of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegoreichenkov, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    -hoc criterion, number of specimens: RT1 - 10, RT2 - 12, RT3 - 13 and RM - 10). Perch in the upper part have a wave length that is closer to the red part of the spectre (595.0 nm and 594.8 nm respectively) which indicate higher concentration of red carotenoids (f.e. astaxanthin). In line with this, significant differences between RM and RT-2 stations fish were found (p=0.0101). The values of channel *a for perch fins were measured. The result of perch from RT-2 and RT-1 stations showed higher values, than those from RT-3 station (p=0.00003 and p=0.00002 respectively). Same differences were discovered for station RT-2 relatively to station RM (p=0.03853). The results are contradictory to our prediction, that perch in caught in upper part of Techa River would be paler. On possible explanation could be that low quality perch (i.e. pale fish) would not be able to inhabit the upper part. However, this would need experimental approach to be tested. This work was performed with the support by NRPA. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Health-related profile and quality of life among nursing home residents: does pain matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Wan, Vanessa T C; Vong, Sinfia K S

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to explore the health-related profile and quality of life among older persons living with and without pain in nursing homes. Ten nursing homes were approached, and 535 older persons were invited to join the study from 2009 to 2011. The nursing home residents' demographic information and information regarding their pain situation and the use of oral analgesic drug and nondrug therapy among the older residents with chronic pain were also collected. Residents' physical health (using the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Elderly Mobility Scores); psychologic health, including happiness, life satisfaction, depression, and loneliness (using the Happiness Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale); and quality of life were investigated. Among the 535 nursing home residents, 396 (74%) of them suffered from pain, with mean pain scores of 4.09 ± 2.19, indicating medium pain intensity a remaining 139 (26%) reported no pain. The location of pain was mainly in the knees, back and shoulders. Our results demonstrated that, with the exception of the no-pain group (p nursing home residents' pain affected both their psychologic health, including happiness, life satisfaction, and depression, and their physical quality of life. Nevertheless, only one-half of the older persons with pain used oral analgesic drug or nondrug therapy to relieve their pain. Pain had a significant impact on their mobility and ADL, was positively correlated with happiness and life satisfaction, and was negatively correlated with loneliness and depression. Pain management is a high priority in elderly care; as such, innovative and interdisciplinary strategies are necessary to enhance quality of life particularly for older persons living in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, Joy; Watts, Stephanie; Robison, Raele; Plowman, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that dysphagia contributes to significant malnutrition, pneumonia, and mortality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it remains unclear how swallowing impairment impacts quality of life in this vulnerable patient population. The aim of the current study was to (1) delineate swallow-related quality of life (SR-QOL) profiles in individuals with ALS and (2) evaluate relationships between SR-QOL, degree of swallowing impairment, and ALS global disease progression. Eighty-one ALS patients underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study and completed the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) instrument and ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were derived by a blinded rater. Correlation analyses and a between groups ANOVA (safe vs. penetrators vs. aspirators) were performed. Mean SWAL-QOL score for this cohort was 75.94 indicating a moderate degree of SR-QOL impairment with fatigue, eating duration, and communication representing the most affected domains. Correlations were revealed between the SWAL-QOL and (1) PAS (r = −0.39, p < 0.001) and (2) ALSFRS-R (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Mean (SD) SWAL-QOL scores for safe versus penetrator versus aspirator groups were 81.2 (2.3) versus 77 (3.4) versus 58.7 (5.9), respectively, with a main effect observed [F(2,78) = 9.71, p < 0.001]. Post hoc testing revealed lower SWAL-QOL scores for aspirators versus safe swallowers (p < 0.001) and aspirators versus penetrators (p < 0.001). Overall, SR-QOL was moderately reduced in this cohort of ALS patients and profoundly impacted in ALS aspirators and individuals with advanced disease. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary intervention to not only avoid malnutrition, weight loss, and pulmonary sequelae but also the associated reduced QOL seen in these individuals. PMID:26837611

  13. NESS06SM reduces body weight with an improved profile relative to SR141716A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastinu, Andrea; Pira, Marilena; Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Pisu, Carla; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Reali, Roberta; Marcello, Stefania; Murineddu, Gabriele; Lazzari, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    We have recently synthesized a new series of 4,5-dihydrobenzo-oxa-cycloheptapyrazole derivatives with the aim to discover novel CB1 antagonist agents characterized by anti-obesity activity comparable to that of SR141716A but with reduced adverse effects such as anxiety and depression. Within the novel class, the CB1 antagonist 8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-4,5-dihydrobenzo-1H-6-oxa-cyclohepta(1,2-c)pyrazole-3-carboxamide (NESS06SM) has been selected as lead compound. We found that NESS06SM is a CB1 neutral antagonist, characterized by poor blood-brain barrier permeability. Moreover, NESS06SM chronic treatment determined both anti-obesity effect and cardiovascular risk factor improvement in C57BL/6N Diet Induced Obesity (DIO) mice fed with fat diet (FD mice). In fact, the mRNA gene expression in Central Nervous System (CNS) and peripheral tissues by real time PCR, showed a significant increase of orexigenic peptides and a decrease of anorexigenic peptides elicited by NESS06SM treatment, compared to control mice fed with the same diet. Moreover, in contrast to SR141716A treatment, the chronic administration of NESS06SM did not change mRNA expression of both monoaminergic transporters and neurotrophins highly related with anxiety and mood disorders. Our results suggest that NESS06SM reduces body weight and it can restore the disrupted expression profile of genes linked to the hunger-satiety circuit without altering monoaminergic transmission probably avoiding SR141716A side effects. Therefore the novel CB1 neutral antagonist could represent a useful candidate agent for the treatment of obesity and its metabolic complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  15. The effect of dietary Chlorella vulgaris inclusion on goat's milk chemical composition, fatty acids profile and enzymes activities related to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Abdullah, M A M; Mavrommatis, A; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Skliros, D; Sotirakoglou, K; Flemetakis, E; Labrou, N E; Zervas, G

    2018-02-01

    The impact of dietary supplementation with microalgae on goat's milk chemical composition, fatty acids (FA) profile and enzymes activities related to antioxidant mechanism has not been well documented. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris on the following: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and FA profile, (ii) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood plasma and (iii) the activities of SOD, GR and lactoperoxidase (LPO) in milk of goats. Furthermore, the oxidative stress indicators for measuring total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays] and oxidative stress biomarkers [malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC)] were also determined in blood plasma and milk of the animals. For this purpose, 16 cross-bred goats were divided into two homogenous groups. Each goat of both groups was fed individually with alfalfa hay and concentrates separately. The concentrates of the control group (Control) had no microalgae, while those of the Chlorella group were supplemented with 10 g lyophilized Chlorella vulgaris/kg concentrates (Chlorella). Thus, the average intake was 5.15 g Chlorella vulgaris/kg DM. The results showed that the dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris had not noticeable impact on goat's milk yield, chemical composition and FA profile. Significantly higher SOD (by 10.31%) and CAT (by 18.66%) activities in the blood plasma of goats fed with Chlorella vulgaris compared with the control were found. Moreover, the dietary supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris caused a significant increase in SOD (by 68.84%) activity and a reduction in PC (by 24.07%) content in goat's milk. In conclusion, the Chlorella vulgaris inclusion in goat's diets improved the

  16. The transport of fallout 137Cs within undisturbed soils in Nigeria based on measured soil concentration profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, I.R.

    2007-12-01

    The transport of fallout 137 Cs within the Nigerian soil has been studied in this paper by the compartment and the diffusion-convection models. The measured concentrations of the radionuclide in the soil layers were examined by the models in order to estimate the transport parameters of residence half-time, migration velocity, diffusion coefficient and the convective velocities of the radionuclide within the soils. The residence half-times were observed to be short and decreased with soil depth with a mean ranging from 0.3 years at 0 - 2cm soil depth in the Akure site to 1.4 years at 10-15cm depth in the Igbeti site. The migration velocity ν, calculated from the residence times with the consideration of the different thicknesses of layers were observed to decrease slowly with depth at all the sampling sites with a range from 3.62 cm y -1 at the Igbeti site to 8.21 cm.y -1 at the Ikogosi site. The migration velocities obtained are quite higher than those reported in literature for global fallout. The range of the diffusion coefficient was 0.72 - 1.02 cm 2 per year while that of the convective velocity was from 0.07 to 0.16 cm per year. Diffusion coefficients were observed to be higher than the convective velocities at all sampling points. (author)

  17. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  18. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014: A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, while the Ångström exponent (AE aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%.

  19. Inhibitory effects of ZnO nanoparticles on aerobic wastewater biofilms from oxygen concentration profiles determined by microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jun; Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Qian, Jin; Dai, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on biofilms were investigated. • 50 mg/L nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in biofilm outer layer. • Adsorbed ZnO NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of biofilms. • Dissolution of ZnO NPs to toxic zinc ions was the main mechanism of toxicity. - Abstract: The presence of ZnO NPs in waste streams can negatively affect the efficiency of biological nutrient removal from wastewater. However, details of the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on microbial activities of wastewater biofilms have not yet been reported. In this study, the temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on the O 2 respiration activities of aerobic wastewater biofilms were investigated using an O 2 microelectrode. The resulting time–course microelectrode measurements demonstrated that ZnO NPs inhibited O 2 respiration within 2 h. The spatial distributions of net specific O 2 respiration were determined in biofilms with and without treatment of 5 or 50 mg/L ZnO NPs. The results showed that 50 mg/L of nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in the outer layer (∼200 μm) of the biofilms, and bacteria present in the deeper parts of the biofilms became even more active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto the biofilm, but these NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of the biofilms. It was found that the inhibition of O 2 respiration induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs (50 mg/L) was mainly due to the release of zinc ions by dissolution of the ZnO NPs

  20. Modifying the strength and strain concentration profile within collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Vucetic, Alan; Harley, Brendan A C

    2017-02-01

    The tendon-to-bone junction is a highly specialized tissue which dissipates stress concentrations between mechanically dissimilar tendon and bone. Upon injury, the local heterogeneities across this insertion are not regenerated, leading to poor functional outcomes such as formation of scar tissue at the insertion and re-failure rates exceeding 90%. Although current tissue engineering methods are moving towards the development of spatially-graded biomaterials to begin to address these injuries, significant opportunities remain to engineer the often complex local mechanical behavior of such biomaterials to enhance their bioactivity. Here, we describe the use of three-dimensional printing techniques to create customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid (PLA) fibers that can be incorporated into a collagen scaffold under development for tendon bone junction repair. Notably, we use additive manufacturing concepts to generate arrays of spatially-graded fibers from biodegradable PLA that are incorporated into collagen scaffolds to create a collagen-PLA composite. We demonstrate the ability to tune the mechanical performance of the fiber-scaffold composite at the bulk scale. We also demonstrate the incorporation of spatially-heterogeneous fiber designs to establish non-uniform local mechanical performance of the composite biomaterial under tensile load, a critical element in the design of multi-compartment biomaterials for tendon-to-bone regeneration applications. Together, this work highlights the capacity to use multi-scale composite biomaterials to control local and bulk mechanical properties, and provides key insights into design elements under consideration for mechanically competent, multi-tissue regeneration platforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effects of ZnO nanoparticles on aerobic wastewater biofilms from oxygen concentration profiles determined by microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jun [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Miao, Lingzhan, E-mail: mlz1988@126.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Chao, E-mail: hhuhjy973@126.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Qian, Jin; Dai, Shanshan [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on biofilms were investigated. • 50 mg/L nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in biofilm outer layer. • Adsorbed ZnO NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of biofilms. • Dissolution of ZnO NPs to toxic zinc ions was the main mechanism of toxicity. - Abstract: The presence of ZnO NPs in waste streams can negatively affect the efficiency of biological nutrient removal from wastewater. However, details of the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on microbial activities of wastewater biofilms have not yet been reported. In this study, the temporal and spatial inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on the O{sub 2} respiration activities of aerobic wastewater biofilms were investigated using an O{sub 2} microelectrode. The resulting time–course microelectrode measurements demonstrated that ZnO NPs inhibited O{sub 2} respiration within 2 h. The spatial distributions of net specific O{sub 2} respiration were determined in biofilms with and without treatment of 5 or 50 mg/L ZnO NPs. The results showed that 50 mg/L of nano-ZnO inhibited the microbial activities only in the outer layer (∼200 μm) of the biofilms, and bacteria present in the deeper parts of the biofilms became even more active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto the biofilm, but these NPs had no adverse effects on the cell membrane integrity of the biofilms. It was found that the inhibition of O{sub 2} respiration induced by higher concentrations of ZnO NPs (50 mg/L) was mainly due to the release of zinc ions by dissolution of the ZnO NPs.

  2. Tailoring Nutritional Advice for Mexicans Based on Prevalence Profiles of Diet-Related Adaptive Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ojeda-Granados

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico’s population is comprised of Amerindians (AM and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we aimed to provide a prevalence profile of several DRAG polymorphisms in the Mexican population, including Central West (CW Mexico subpopulations. Geographic heat maps were built using ArcGIS10 (Esri, Redlands, CA, USA software, based on the published data of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133, ABCA1 Arg230Cys (rs9282541, APOE T388C (rs429358/C526T (rs7412, LCT C-13910T (rs4988235 polymorphisms and AMY1 copy number variation (CNV. Also, new data obtained by allelic discrimination-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays for the MTHFR, ABCA1, and APOE polymorphisms as well as the AMY1 CNV in the CW Mexico subpopulations with different proportions of AM and EUR ancestry were included. In the CW region, the highest frequency of the MTHFR 677T, ABCA1 230C and APOE ε4 adaptive alleles was observed in the AM groups, followed by Mestizos with intermediate AM ancestry. The LCT-13910T allele frequency was highest in Mestizos-EUR but extremely low in AM, while the AMY1 diploid copy number was 6.82 ± 3.3 copies. Overall, the heat maps showed a heterogeneous distribution of the DRAG polymorphisms, in which the AM groups revealed the highest frequencies of the adaptive alleles followed by Mestizos. Given these genetic differences, genome-based nutritional advice should be tailored in a regionalized and individualized manner according to the available foods and Mexican traditional food culture that

  3. A passive air sampler for characterizing the vertical concentration profile of gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near soil surface air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Deng, Shuxing; Liu, Yanan; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Xiqing; Cao, Jun; Wang, Xilong; Reid, Brian; Tao, Shu

    2011-03-01

    Air-soil exchange is an important process governing the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel passive air sampler was designed and tested for measuring the vertical concentration profile of 4 low molecular weight PAHs in gaseous phase (PAH(LMW4)) in near soil surface air. Air at various heights from 5 to 520 mm above the ground was sampled by polyurethane foam disks held in down-faced cartridges. The samplers were tested at three sites: A: an extremely contaminated site, B: a site near A, and C: a background site on a university campus. Vertical concentration gradients were revealed for PAH(LMW4) within a thin layer close to soil surface at the three sites. PAH concentrations either decreased (Site A) or increased (Sites B and C) with height, suggesting either deposition to or evaporation from soils. The sampler is a useful tool for investigating air-soil exchange of gaseous phase semi-volatile organic chemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating the relation between groundwater and river water by measuring the concentration of Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relationship between groundwater in shallow layer and river water by determining the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and nitric nitrogen along with water temperature. The region around ca. 20 km along river A in a certain basin was chosen as a test area. The Rn concentration of groundwater was determined by Rn extracting with toluene and counting in liquid scintillation counter, whereas for river water, it was determined by activated charcoal passive collector method developed by the authors, by which the amount of Rn adsorbed on activated charcoal was estimated by Ge-solid state detector. In addition, water temperature and nitric nitrogen concentration were measured at various points in the test area. Thus, a distribution map of the three parameters was made on the basis of the data obtained in December, 1989. Since Rn concentration is generally higher in ground water than river water and the water temperature in December is higher in the former, it seems likely that the concentrations of Rn and nitric nitrogen would become higher in the area where ground water soaks into river water. Thus, the directions of ground water flow at the respective sites along river A were estimated from the data regarding the properties of ground water. (M.N.)

  5. Dining at the periodic table: metals concentrations as they relate to recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Harper, E M; Lifset, Reid; Graedel, T E

    2007-03-01

    A correlation between the prices of a variety of substances and their dilutions in their initial matrices was shown in 1959 by T.K. Sherwood. The research presented here shows that the relationship holds for engineering metals today, which we termed the metals-specific Sherwood plot. The concentrations of metals in products (e.g., printed wiring boards and automobiles) and waste streams (e.g., municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition debris) were plotted with this correlation. In addition, for the products and waste streams that undergo disassembly at end-of-life, the metals concentrations of the disassembled components were also plotted. It was found that most of the metals that are currently targeted for recycling have post-disassembly concentrations that lie above the metals-specific Sherwood plot (i.e., have concentrations that are more enriched than minimum profitable ore grades). This suggests that material concentration plays a role in the viability of recycling at end-of-life. As products grow in complexity and the variety of materials used, analyses such as this one provide insight for policymakers and those interested in material sustainability into macro-level trends of material use and future recycling practices.

  6. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g -1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  7. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  8. Motivational profiles in table tennis players: Relations with performance anxiety and subjective vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tsz Lun Alan; Zhang, Tao; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2018-06-27

    Research has suggested the need to use a person-centred approach to examine multidimensionality of motivation. Guided by self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the primary aim of the present study was to examine the motivational profiles in table tennis players and their composition by gender, country, training status, and competition levels (from recreational to international). The secondary aim was to examine the differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles. Participants were 281 table tennis players from multiple countries, mostly the U.S. and China. Hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analyses were conducted and showed three motivational profiles with distinct quantity and quality: "low", "controlled", and "self-determined". Chi-square tests of independence demonstrated significant differences in their cluster membership by country, formal training with a coach, and competition levels, but not gender. MANCOVA results indicated differences in performance anxiety and subjective vitality across the motivational profiles, in which the controlled profile had the greatest anxiety symptoms. These differences are attributed to the quality over quantity of motivation, which have meaningful implications for table tennis coaches and sport psychology consultants to diagnose and intervene with players in order to reduce their performance anxiety and improve their well-being.

  9. Relating Nimbus-7 37 GHz data to global land-surface evaporation, primary productivity and the atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Global observations at 37 GHz by the Nimbus-7 SMMR are related to zonal variations of land surface evaporation and primary productivity, as well as to temporal variations of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The temporal variation of CO2 concentration and the zonal variations of evaporation and primary productivity are shown to be highly correlated with the satellite sensor data. The potential usefulness of the 37-GHz data for global biospheric and climate studies is noted.

  10. Leaf litter nitrogen concentration as related to climatic factors in Eurasian forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chunjiang; Berg, Bjørn; Kutsch, Werner

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the patterns of nitrogen (N) concentrations in leaf litter of forest trees as functions of climatic factors, annual average temperature (Temp, °C) and annual precipitation (Precip, dm) and of forest type (coniferous vs. broadleaf, deciduous vs. evergreen, Pinus...... concentration and Temp and Precip by means of regression analysis. Leaf litter data from N2-fixing species were excluded from the analysis. Results: Over the Eurasian continent, leaf litter N concentration increased with increasing Temp and Precip within functional groups such as conifers, broadleaf, deciduous....... In the context of global warming, these regression equations are useful for a better understanding and modelling of the effects of geographical and climatic factors on leaf litter N at a regional and continental scale....

  11. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non-diabetic...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF...

  12. Dose- and time-related platelet response with apheresis platelet concentrates and pooled platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the post-transfusion platelet increment between the apheresis platelet concentrate (n=74 and pooled platelets (n=54. Pre- and post-transfusion platelet count of the recipient were carried out by automated hematology analyzer. In apheresis platelet concentrate group, the mean 24 hours post-transfusion platelet increment was 47 x 109/L which was statistically significant (p<0.001. On the other hand, in pooled platelets group, the mean 24 hours post–transfusions platelet count increment was 11.0 x 109/L which was also statistically significant (p<0.001. This study concluded that the transfusion of apheresis platelet concentrate was more useful than the transfusion of pooled platelets in terms of platelet count increment and requirement of donor.

  13. Some aspects related to stability, critical concentrations and kinetics of flocculation of the calcium phytate colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, F.J.M.; Alvarez, J.G.; Sanchis, S.E.; Munoz, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    As sup(99m)Tc-Ca phytate is an important radiopharmaceutical and its colloidal nature presents problems, we investigated some of them. This work describes the study of the colloidal behaviour of the calcium phytate colloid in terms of its formation, stability and kinetics of flocculation. The study of spontaneous, and centrifugation-induced flocculation allows the determination of two critical concentrations of sol flocculation. The titrations of calcium phytate colloid at different concentrations provide information on the colloidal formation conditions. Moreover, a study on flocculation kinetics was made by turbidity measurements. (author)

  14. Profile analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory following military-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jan E; Cooper, Douglas B; Reid, Matthew W; Tate, David F; Lange, Rael T

    2015-05-01

    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles were examined in 160 U.S. service members (SMs) following mild-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants who sustained a mild TBI had significantly higher PAI scores than those with moderate-severe TBI on eight of the nine clinical scales examined. A two-step cluster analysis identified four PAI profiles, heuristically labeled "High Distress", "Moderate Distress", "Somatic Distress," and "No Distress". Postconcussive and posttraumatic stress symptom severity was highest for the High Distress group, followed by the Somatic and Moderate Distress groups, and the No Distress group. Profile groups differed in age, ethnicity, rank, and TBI severity. Findings indicate that meaningful patterns of behavioral and personality characteristics can be detected in active duty military SMs following TBI, which may prove useful in selecting the most efficacious rehabilitation strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The cuticular hydrocarbons profiles in the stingless bee Melipona marginata reflect task-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Nascimento, F S; Turatti, I C; Mateus, S; Lopes, N P; Zucchi, R

    2010-07-01

    Members of social insect colonies employ a large variety of chemical signals during their life. Of these, cuticular hydrocarbons are of primary importance for social insects since they allow for the recognition of conspecifics, nestmates and even members of different castes. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the variation of the chemical profiles among workers of the stingless bee Melipona marginata, and (2) to investigate the dependence of the chemical profiles on the age and on the behavior of the studied individuals. The results showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers were composed of alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes that varied quantitatively and qualitatively according to function of workers in the colony. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  17. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data descriptions are provided at the following urls:GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.htmlhttps://www3.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/qa/QA-Handbook-Vol-II.pdfVIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB) http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov/saa/products/search?datatype_family=VIIRS_SDRMODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night -MOD0&_L2; http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/MOD07_L2/index.html NWS surface meteorological data - https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isdThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Wang, J., C. Aegerter, and J. Szykman. Potential Application of VIIRS Day/Night Band for Monitoring Nighttime Surface PM2.5 Air Quality From Space. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 124(0): 55-63, (2016).

  18. Anatomy of a turbidity current: Concentration and grain size structure of a deep-sea flow revealed by multiple-frequency acoustic profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gwiazda, R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Maier, K. L.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are responsible for transporting large volumes of sediment to the deep ocean, yet remain poorly understood due to the limited number of field observations of these episodic, high energy events. As part of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment high resolution, sub-minute acoustic velocity and backscatter profiles were acquired with downward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) distributed along the canyon on moorings at depths ranging from 270 to 1,900 m over a period of 18 months. Additionally, three upward-looking ADCPs on different frequencies (300, 600 and 1200 kHz) profiled the water column above a seafloor instrument node (SIN) at 1850 m water depth. Traps on the moorings collected sediment carried by the flows at different heights above the seafloor and sediment cores were taken to determine the depositional record produced by the flows. Several sediment-laden turbidity flows were observed during the experiment, three of which ran out for more than 50 km to water depths of greater than 1,900 m and were observed on all of the moorings. Flow speeds of up to 6 m/s were observed and individual moorings, anchored by railroad wheels, moved up to 7.8 km down-canyon during these powerful events. We present results based on a novel analysis of the multiple-frequency acoustic data acquired by the ADCPs at the SIN integrated with grain size data from the sediment traps, close to the deepest mooring in the array where the flow thickened to the 70 m height of the ADCP above the bed. The analysis allows, for the first time, retrieval of the suspended sediment concentration and vertical distribution of grain size structure within a turbidity in spectacular detail. The details of the stratification and flow dynamics will be used to re-evaluate and discuss our existing models for these deep-sea flows.

  19. Modeling and control of the current density profile in Tokamaks and its relation to electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca, C.

    2009-04-01

    The current density in tokamak plasmas strongly affects transport phenomena, therefore its understanding and control represent a crucial challenge for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of tokamak studies, three topics have been tackled in the course of the present thesis: first, the modelling of the current density evolution in electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) discharges in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV); second, the study of current diffusion and inversion of electron transport properties observed during Swing Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (Swing ECCD) discharges in TCV; third, the analysis of the current density tailoring obtained by local ECCD driven by the improved EC system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The work dedicated to the study of eITBs in TCV has been undertaken to identify which of the main parameters, directly related to the current density, played a relevant role in the confinement improvement created during these advanced scenarios. In this context, the current density has to be modeled, there being no measurement currently available on TCV. Since the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) model has been validated on TCV ohmic heated plasmas, the corresponding scaling factor has often been used as a measure of improved confinement on TCV. The many interpretative simulations carried on different TCV discharges have shown that the thermal confinement improvement factor, H RLW , linearly increases with the absolute value of the minimum shear outside ρ > 0.3, ρ indicating a normalized radial coordinate. These investigations, performed with the transport code ASTRA, therefore confirmed a general observation, formulated through previous studies, that the formation of the transport barrier is correlated with the magnetic shear reversal. This was, indeed, found to be true in all cases studied, regardless of the different heating and

  20. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Warnau, Michel; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2009-01-01

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature. - This work reports the first assessment of Hg levels in edible organisms from the New Caledonian lagoon and the associated risk linked to their consumption by Human

  1. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  2. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  3. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in urban soils: analysis, concentrations, and relation to other persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Some of the first data on polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in soils are presented from a rural-urban-industrial gradient. - We determined the concentrations of 35 PCNs, 12 PCBs, and 20 PAHs in 49 urban topsoils under different land use (house garden, roadside grassland, alluvial grassland, park areas, industrial sites, agricultural sites) and in nine rural topsoils. The sums of concentrations of 35 PCNs (Σ35 PCNs) were -1 in urban soils and -1 in rural soils. The PCN, PCB, and PAH concentrations were highest at industrial sites and in house gardens. While rural soils receive PCNs, PCBs, and PAHs by common atmospheric deposition, there are site-specific sources of PCNs, PCBs, and PAHs for urban soils such as deposition of contaminated technogenic materials. The PCN, PCB, and PAH concentrations decreased from the central urban to the rural area. In the same order the contribution of lower chlorinated PCNs and PCBs increased because they are more volatile and subject to increased atmospheric transport. The PCNs 52+60, and 73 were more abundant in soil samples than in Halowax mixtures, indicating that combustion contributed to the PCN contamination of the soils

  4. Cognitive impairment related changes in the elemental concentration in the brain of old rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, R.F.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de [University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, M.J. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); University of Rio de Janeiro State, Physics Institute, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, P.O. Box: 68509, Zip Code: 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carmo, M.G.T. do [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Nutrition Institute, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, M.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, L.C. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Basics and Clinic Pharmacy, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, S. [University of Campinas State, Civil Engineering Department, SP (Brazil); Martinez, A.M.B. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Histology and Embryology, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    In order to evaluate the elemental concentration as a function of learning and memory deficiency, six different structures of the brain were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). To evaluate the cognitive processes, the animals were tested in an adaptation of the Morris water maze. After the test, the animals were divided into two groups: cognitively healthy (control group) and cognitively impaired. The measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. The following elements were identified: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. K concentration was higher in all regions of the brain studied for control group than the cognitively impaired group. Moreover, the control group presented higher levels for P and Fe in the entorhinal cortex, in the temporal cortex (only P), in the hypothalamus and in the thalamus, than the cognitively impaired group. Br concentration in the animals which presented cognitive impairment was three times larger in the hypothalamus and thalamus, twice larger in temporal cortex and higher in visual cortex than the cognitively healthy group. Cu was more remarkable in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from the animals with cognitive impairment than the control group. We observed that the cognitively impaired group presented highest concentrations of Br and Cu in certain areas than the control group, on the other hand, this group presented highest levels of K for all brain areas studied.

  5. A simple relation for the concentration dependence of osmotic pressure and depletion thickness in polymer solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, G.J.; Skvortsov, A.M.; Tuinier, R.

    2007-01-01

    We propose simple expressions II/IIo = 1 + and (omega/omega(ex))(3 alpha-1) and (delta(0)/delta)(2) = 1 + (omega/omega(ex))(2 alpha) for the osmotic pressure II and the depletion thickness 6 as a function of the polymer concentration omega. Here, IIo and delta 0 correspond to the dilute limit, and

  6. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file

  7. COOKING-RELATED PARTICLE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOME IN RESTON, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In non-smoking households, cooking is one of the most significant sources of indoor particles. To date, there are limited data available regarding indoor particle concentrations generated by different types of cooking. To increase the knowledge base associated with particles ...

  8. Cognitive impairment related changes in the elemental concentration in the brain of old rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, R.F.B.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T.; Carmo, M.G.T. do; Rocha, M.S.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Moreira, S.; Martinez, A.M.B.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the elemental concentration as a function of learning and memory deficiency, six different structures of the brain were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). To evaluate the cognitive processes, the animals were tested in an adaptation of the Morris water maze. After the test, the animals were divided into two groups: cognitively healthy (control group) and cognitively impaired. The measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. The following elements were identified: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. K concentration was higher in all regions of the brain studied for control group than the cognitively impaired group. Moreover, the control group presented higher levels for P and Fe in the entorhinal cortex, in the temporal cortex (only P), in the hypothalamus and in the thalamus, than the cognitively impaired group. Br concentration in the animals which presented cognitive impairment was three times larger in the hypothalamus and thalamus, twice larger in temporal cortex and higher in visual cortex than the cognitively healthy group. Cu was more remarkable in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from the animals with cognitive impairment than the control group. We observed that the cognitively impaired group presented highest concentrations of Br and Cu in certain areas than the control group, on the other hand, this group presented highest levels of K for all brain areas studied

  9. Monoamine related functional gene variants and relationships to monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF of healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Propping Peter

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concentrations of monoamine metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF have been used extensively as indirect estimates of monoamine turnover in the brain. CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations are partly determined by genetic influences. Methods We investigated possible relationships between DNA polymorphisms in the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C, the serotonin 3A receptor (HTR3A, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4, and the dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH genes and CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA, homovanillic acid (HVA, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG in healthy volunteers (n = 90. Results The HTR3A 178 C/T variant was associated with 5-HIAA levels (p = 0.02. The DBH-1021 heterozygote genotype was associated with 5-HIAA (p = 0.0005 and HVA (p = 0.009 concentrations. Neither the HTR2C Cys23Ser variant, nor the DRD4 -521 C/T variant were significantly associated with any of the monoamine metabolites. Conclusions The present results suggest that the HTR3A and DBH genes may participate in the regulation of dopamine and serotonin turnover rates in the central nervous system.

  10. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, Michel [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratories (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Churlaud, Carine [Federation de Recherche en Environnement pour le Developpement Durable (FR-EDD), FR CNRS 3097, Centre Commun d' Analyses, 5 Perspectives de l' Ocean, F-17071 La Rochelle Cedex 9 (France); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)], E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr

    2009-01-15

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature. - This work reports the first assessment of Hg levels in edible organisms from the New Caledonian lagoon and the associated risk linked to their consumption by Human.

  11. An improvement of the retrieval of temperature and relative humidity profiles from a combination of active and passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yunfei; Ma, Shuqing; Xing, Fenghua; Li, Siteng; Dai, Yaru

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on an improvement of the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity profiles through combining active and passive remote sensing. Ground-based microwave radiometer and millimeter-wavelength cloud radar were used to acquire the observations. Cloud base height and cloud thickness determinations from cloud radar were added into the atmospheric profile retrieval process, and a back-propagation neural network method was used as the retrieval tool. Because a substantial amount of data are required to train a neural network, and as microwave radiometer data are insufficient for this purpose, 8 years of radiosonde data from Beijing were used as the database. The monochromatic radiative transfer model was used to calculate the brightness temperatures in the same channels as the microwave radiometer. Parts of the cloud base heights and cloud thicknesses in the training data set were also estimated using the radiosonde data. The accuracy of the results was analyzed through a comparison with L-band sounding radar data and quantified using the mean bias, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and correlation coefficient. The statistical results showed that an inversion with cloud information was the optimal method. Compared with the inversion profiles without cloud information, the RMSE values after adding cloud information reduced to varying degrees for the vast majority of height layers. These reductions were particularly clear in layers with clouds. The maximum reduction in the RMSE for the temperature profile was 2.2 K, while that for the humidity profile was 16%.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in road and farmland soils from an e-waste recycling region in Southern China: Concentrations, source profiles, and potential dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yong; Luo Xiaojun; Lin Zhen; Chen Shejun; Liu Juan; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzed road soils collected near the dismantling workshops of an e-waste recycling region in South China to determine the PBDE profiles. Farmland soils at a distance of about 2 km from the dismantling workshops were also collected to evaluate the potential dispersion and deposition of PBDEs in the surrounding environment. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 191 to 9156 ng/g dry weight in road soils and from 2.9 to 207 ng/g dry weight in farmland soils, respectively. Three PBDE source profiles were observed from the road soils by principal component analysis, and were compared with the congener patterns in different technical products. Elevated abundances of octa- and nona-congeners were found in the 'deca-' derived PBDEs as compared with the deca-BDE products. The results in this study suggest that debromination of BDE 209 may have occurred during the use of electric and electronic equipment and/or another technical formulation (Bromkal 79-8DE) was also likely the source of octa- and nona-congeners in e-wastes. Comparison of the PBDE patterns in road and farmland soils implied that the PBDEs in farmland soils have been subject to complex environmental processes

  13. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Zoladz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A, national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC composition. Significant differences (P<0.05 regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX. Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A. We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training.

  14. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only

  15. Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion

  16. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  17. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace element concentrations in freshwater mussels and macrophytes as related to those in their environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria BEONE

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was primarily designed to contribute to the debate "Do accumulator species reflect the element contamination level of their environment?" This research was carried out: 1 to know the distribution of 15 trace elements and calcium in shell and soft tissues of three species of freshwater mussels and macrophytes; 2 to compare the accumulation capacity of each trace element by mussels and by eight species of macrophytes and 3 to test the relationships between the metal concentrations in the mussels and macrophytes and those in water and sediments. The variability of element residues in the mussels is the major limit to accumulator monitoring. The most important causes are: seasonal cycle, physical environment and biological factors such as the size, age and growth rate. This research was designed to eliminate the consequence of variability deriving from the season and the environment. To this end the mussels and macrophytes were collected at the same time from the same habitat: Ranco Bay, Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy. In addition, the element concentrations in more size-classes of the most abundant mussel species (Unio pictorum and Dreissena polymorpha were measured. Trace elements were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. By arranging the data in sequences of decreasing element concentrations in the organisms as well as in water and sediments, we were able to compare the accumulating ability of the tested species and evaluate their capacity to reflect environmental availability. Neither the sequences in the shell nor those in the tissues were similar to the sequence in the water. The differences between the sequences of the mussel tissues and those of the sediments were less striking than those between shells and sediments. Similar results were obtained by macrophytes. In conclusion, the results of this study (which mimics the monitoring practice prove that bioaccumulators cannot be used to evaluate the

  19. Estimated doses related to 222Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Diaz, Cruz

    2013-01-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39®). The concentration of 222 Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm 2 equivalent to 0,434 Bqm -3 per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10 -6 mSv h -1 by Bqm -3 , it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva -1 and 150 micro risk cancer

  20. CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONCENTRATION OF BREAST MILK IN RELATION WITH AGE AND PARITY OF NURSING WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Goc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determination of the concentration of calcium and magnesium in human milk (n=150 taken from nursing women who lived permanently in Malopolska district (South Poland. Milk samples were classified into groups taking into account women’ age and parity. According to the various age of the women milk samples were segregated into three groups: 20-25 years old, 26-31 years old and 32-37 years old. Included parity milk samples were spitted into two groups: the first group consisted of women who were primiparous (1 baby, the second group included women who were multiparous (≥2 babies. Milk samples were taken between the 7th and 14th day of the postpartum in each age group. The samples were taken by manual expression every morning. The analyses of metals were done by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS, after all samples had been collected. The mean concentration of cooper in milk taken from women of first age group (20-25 years old was 209.44±15.10 mg/L, in second group (26-31 years old was 238.65±13.34 mg/L and in the oldest group (32-37 years old was 261.44±17.16 mg/L. The mean concentration of magnesium in the same group of age was 42.12±3.793 mg/L, 47.51±2.728 mg/L and 45.43±3.840 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration of calcium in milk taken from primiparous was 223.17±10.50mg/L, in multiparous was 266.37±16.20 mg/L. Whereas, the mean concentration of magnesium in transitional milk taken from the same group was 44.12±2.58 mg/L and 47.412±3.16 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that there were statistically significant differences between calcium level in milk taken from the youngest group and the concentration of this metal in milk from the oldest group (p=0.032. Also, when comparing women’s parity, significant differences were found in the concentration of calcium (p=0.022. However, the differences in magnesium levels between tested groups were no statistically significant

  1. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T.; Perera, Surangi N.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  2. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  3. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Perera, Surangi N. [Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States); Svoboda, Kurt R., E-mail: svobodak@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  6. Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate belongs to a group of natural polymers called polysaccharides. They have carboxylic functional groups beside hydroxyls which are common in all polysaccharides. These materials show interesting properties due to theirfunctional groups. One of these properties is the ability of this polymer as a suitable carrier of protecting and transferring drugs and biomolecules. The particle sizes of these polymers are very important for their applications, so different techniques were used for preparation of these materials. In this way polymeric nanoparticles of calcium alginate which are excellent carriers in drug delivery systems were prepared by addition of calcium chloride solution to dilute solution of sodium alginate. Investigation of the size and distribution of nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM method. The concentration effects of both alginate and calcium ions on the size and distribution of  nanoparticles were studied in this research. Results showed that the size of nanoparticles obviously decreased with decreasing polymeric alginate concentration because of lower active sites in polymer chain. On the other hand, thesize and distribution of nanoparticles are significantly improved with increase of calcium cation concentrations. The mean particle size 40-70 nm and spherical shape are the main characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles.

  7. Relations between fluxes and concentrations of Na in cell suspensions of Acer pseudoplatanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennarun, A.-M.

    1978-01-01

    Taking in account the data provided by preliminary compartmental analysis, the net influxes of 24 Na measured in Acer cells after a short loading period (45 minutes) followed by a short wash (1 minute) represent the influx across the plasmalemma (phi sub(0c)) and, after a long loading period (4 hours) followed by a long wash (2 hours) represent the quasi-steady influx from the external solution to the vacuole (phi sub(0v). At flux equilibrium and when the external Na concentration is high enough, the other unidirectional fluxes - phi sub(c0), phi sub(cv) and phi sub(vc) - can be determined from these measurements. This method was used to study the variation of Na flux in terms of the external concentrations and the resulting internal concentrations. The kinetics obtained confirm the active nature of the efflux phi sub(vc) across the tonoplast according to the conclusions given by the application of the USSING-TEORELL criterion to the results of compartmental analysis. On the contrary, they suggest a passive character for the efflux phi sub(c0) accross the plasmalemma which could be considered as active according to the USSING-TEORELL criterion. The contradiction could be eliminated by taking into consideration the important underestimation of the Na activity coefficient in the cytoplasm, due to the neglecting of water binding [fr

  8. Assessment of relative accuracy in the determination of organic matter concentrations in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Kaplan, L.A.; Weishaar, J.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate determinations of total (TOC), dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) organic carbon concentrations are critical for understanding the geochemical, environmental, and ecological roles of aquatic organic matter. Of particular significance for the drinking water industry, TOC measurements are the basis for compliance with US EPA regulations. The results of an interlaboratory comparison designed to identify problems associated with the determination of organic matter concentrations in drinking water supplies are presented. The study involved 31 laboratories and a variety of commercially available analytical instruments. All participating laboratories performed well on samples of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), a compound commonly used as a standard in carbon analysis. However, problems associated with the oxidation of difficult to oxidize compounds, such as dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and caffeine, were noted. Humic substances posed fewer problems for analysts. Particulate organic matter (POM) in the form of polystyrene beads, freeze-dried bacteria and pulverized leaf material were the most difficult for all analysts, with a wide range of performances reported. The POM results indicate that the methods surveyed in this study are inappropriate for the accurate determination of POC and TOC concentration. Finally, several analysts had difficulty in efficiently separating inorganic carbon from KHP solutions, thereby biasing DOC results.

  9. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Concentration in Vaginal Fluid: Relation to Bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghini, Joziani; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a component of innate immunity that prevents iron uptake by microorganisms. We evaluated whether NGAL was present in vaginal fluid and whether concentrations were altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Vaginal secretions from 52 women with VVC, 43 with BV, and 77 healthy controls were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NGAL and for concentrations of L-lactic acid. The median concentration of NGAL in vaginal fluid was significantly higher in control women (561 pg/mL) than in women with BV (402 pg/mL; P = .0116) and lower in women with VVC (741 pg/mL; P = .0017). Median lactic acid levels were similar in controls (0.11 mmol/L) and women with VVC (0.13 mmol/L) and were lower in women with BV (0.02 mmol/L; P vaginal NGAL levels that might facilitate the growth of bacteria associated with BV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Relation between residential radon concentrations and housing characteristics. The Cracow study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E.; Wesolowski, J.; Liu Kaishen

    1995-01-01

    The survey on indoor radon exposure was undertaken to explain whether the excess in lung cancer deaths in the Cracow city center may be attributed to this particular exposure. A total of 310 detectors was placed in households randomly chosen from three homogeneous strata of residential buildings. The first stratum included houses in the old city center constructed predominantly from stone bricks. The second stratum covered the city area with big apartment condominiums built from concrete blocks. The third stratum consisted of single family houses located in a suburban area. From each of these residency strata a random sample of an equal number of households was chosen, and the radon detectors were placed in households located at various levels of the buildings. The three-month radon sampling data were used to determine the distribution of various levels of radon in the households. In the measurement of radon exposure, Landauer α-track samplers were used. The data collected show that the type of building was the best single predictor of indoor radon concentrations. Other variables found to be associated significantly with indoor concentrations were the household level in the building and the house age. In general, residences with concrete slabs and dwellings with rarely-opened windows were found to have slightly higher radon concentrations. (author) 2 tabs., 15 refs

  11. Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in anthracite and bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, and lead by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous sulfate-complex formation. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO4+2 complexes adds to the total dissolved aluminum concentration at pH of equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide or hydroxysulfate minerals and can account for 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of dissolved aluminum in bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at similar pH. Sulfate complexation also can account for 10 to 30 times greater concentrations of dissolved ferric iron concentrations at equilibrium with ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3 to 5. In contrast, lower barium and lead concentrations in bituminous than anthracite discharges indicates elevated sulfate concentration could decrease mobility of these metals by the formation of insoluble minerals such as barite (BaSO4) or anglesite (PbSO4). Most samples were saturated with barite, but none were saturated with anglesite. Hence, lead concentrations could be controlled by coprecipitation with

  12. Cross-cultural structures of concentric and diametric dualism in Lévi-Strauss' structural anthropology: structures of relation underlying the self and ego relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Paul

    2003-02-01

    The parallels between Jung's and Lévi-Strauss' concentric cross-cultural structures of the unconscious are highlighted. Lévi-Strauss' basic contrasts between concentric and diametric dualisms are developed into psychologically relevant differences regarding symmetry, connection and separation, and interaction between foreground and background structures respectively. These contrasts between concentric and diametric structures are applied as a common structural framework for understanding Jungian conceptions of the self, the ego and their relations, Freudian views of compensation and repetition in obsessional neurosis, and Winnicott's conception of a child's transitional object. Developing the contrasts between concentric and diametric structures reveals a compensatory relation between both structures. This supports an argument that concentric structures express the self and diametric structures express the ego in their mutual compensatory interrelation. Contrasting concentric with diametric structures challenges traditional Western logic, including Fordham's view that it is contradictory to treat the self as both centre and totality. It also develops an understanding of Jung's transcendent function which seeks to go beyond the ego-shadow opposition.

  13. Relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy to maternal sleep and mental well-being: The GUSTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Cai, Shirong; Loy, See Ling; Tham, Elaine K H; Yap, Fabian K P; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Shek, Lynette P C; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Daniel Y T; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Chen, Helen; Broekman, Birit F P; Chong, Mary F F

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relation between plasma tryptophan concentrations and sleep and mental well-being. As no studies have been performed in pregnant women, we studied the relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy with sleep quality, and mood during and after pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 572) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at 26-28 weeks gestation and three months post-delivery. Plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks gestation. Poisson regressions estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between tryptophan and poor sleep quality (PSQI global score > 5), probable antenatal depression (EPDS ≥ 15) and probable anxiety (STAI-state ≥ 41) were calculated adjusting for covariates. Mean plasma tryptophan concentrations was 48.0µmol/L (SD: 8.09). Higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of antenatal poor sleep quality adjusting for covariates [PR: 0.88 (95% CI 0.80, 0.97) per 10µmol/L], especially in those participants who also suffered from anxiety symptoms [PR: 0.80 (95% CI 0.67, 0.95)]. No associations were observed between tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy and postnatal sleep quality or mental well-being. Subjective measures were used to assess sleep and mental well-being. We observed that higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were associated with a 12% lower prevalence of poor sleep quality during pregnancy, in particular among those with anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest the importance of having adequate tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival-related profile, pathways, and transcription factors in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P G Crijns

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to advanced stage at presentation and either intrinsic or acquired resistance to classic cytotoxic drugs such as platinum and taxoids. Recent large clinical trials with different combinations and sequences of classic cytotoxic drugs indicate that further significant improvement in prognosis by this type of drugs is not to be expected. Currently a large number of drugs, targeting dysregulated molecular pathways in cancer cells have been developed and are introduced in the clinic. A major challenge is to identify those patients who will benefit from drugs targeting these specific dysregulated pathways.The aims of our study were (1 to develop a gene expression profile associated with overall survival in advanced stage serous ovarian cancer, (2 to assess the association of pathways and transcription factors with overall survival, and (3 to validate our identified profile and pathways/transcription factors in an independent set of ovarian cancers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: According to a randomized design, profiling of 157 advanced stage serous ovarian cancers was performed in duplicate using approximately 35,000 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A continuous predictor of overall survival was built taking into account well-known issues in microarray analysis, such as multiple testing and overfitting. A functional class scoring analysis was utilized to assess pathways/transcription factors for their association with overall survival. The prognostic value of genes that constitute our overall survival profile was validated on a fully independent, publicly available dataset of 118 well-defined primary serous ovarian cancers. Furthermore, functional class scoring analysis was also performed on this independent dataset to assess the similarities with results from our own dataset. An 86-gene overall survival profile discriminated between patients with unfavorable and favorable prognosis (median survival, 19

  15. Body Composition, Lipid Profile, Adipokine Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity Changes during Interventions to Treat Overweight with Exercise Programme and Whole-Body Cryostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six-month-long physical exercise programme with a two-time exposure to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC in 20 sessions on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile, and body composition changes in obese people (30 adult subjects; BMI = 30.39 ± 4.31 kg/m2. Blood samples were taken before the programme, one month following the exercise programme, before and after the first WBC treatment, six months following the exercise programme, after the second WBC treatment, and finally one month after the intervention. Six months of moderate aerobic activity combined with WBC did not change body mass or fat and lean body mass percentages, or circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin concentrations. In response to intervention a significant decrease in the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides was observed, with a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein concentration. The nature of changes in the activity of respective antioxidant enzymes was not identical. After one month of increased physical activity, a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities was observed (13%, 8%, and 70%, resp.. The SOD activity increased significantly after successive whole-body cryostimulation sessions. As regards catalase, a significant progressive decrease in its activity was observed.

  16. Effect of surfactant concentration on nifedipine crystal habit and its related pharmaceutical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Thipparaboina, Rajesh; Modi, Sameer R.; Bansal, Arvind K.; Shastri, Nalini R.

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization in the presence of Polysorbate-80 (T-80), a non-ionic surfactant was explored for crystal habit modification of nifedipine polymorph I (Nif). A concentration dependent reduction in aspect ratio was observed with T-80. Generation of any new solvates/polymorphs was ruled out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, while the absence of T-80 on the surface or bulk of the recrystallized samples was established by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy. The dissolution rate order of the re-crystallized Nif habits was in the order of; Nif-D (Nif with 0.6%v/v T-80)>Nif-C (Nif with 0.4% v/v T-80)>Nif-B (Nif with 0.2% v/v T-80)>Nif-A (plain Nif). Wetting ability and surface free energy determination from contact angle measurements were used to explain the order of dissolution rate. The consequences of varying concentration of T-80 on Nif crystal habit was supported by means of molecular dynamics (MD) which was executed using COMPASS force field while modified attachment energy was computed to acquire the absolute morphology. The mechanism for alteration in the morphology was suggested based on the computed crystal surface chemistry. Nif-D crystal habit was nearly iso-diametric with majority of facets occupied by polar dominant surfaces {0 1 1} and {0 0 2} which ultimately resulted in higher dissolution rate. In Nif-B and Nif-C the dissolution rate was dependent on the proportion of polar and non-polar facet area. The methodology used in this study could be an influential tool for selection of concentration of habit-modifying additives in other crystallization studies.

  17. Salivary calcium concentration and periodontal health of young adults in relation to tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutej, Ivana; Peros, Kristina; Benutic, Anica; Capak, Krunoslav; Basic, Kresimir; Rosin-Grget, Kata

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking and salivary calcium on the periodontal status of young adults. Plaque index, gingival bleeding on probing, supragingival calculus, DMFT index, salivary flow, pH and salivary calcium in unstimulated salivary samples were recorded in smokers and nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers with respect to salivary flow (P = 0.08) and calcium level (P = 0.09). Significant correlations (P smoking of tobacco cigarettes in young healthy subjects may not have a significant impact on salivary flow or calcium concentrations in unstimulated saliva, but an association exists between an increased level of salivary calcium and development of periodontal disease.

  18. An Overview of Process Monitoring Related to the Production of Uranium Ore Concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, Brent [Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC

    2014-04-01

    Uranium ore concentrate (UOC) in various chemical forms, is a high-value commodity in the commercial nuclear market, is a potential target for illicit acquisition, by both State and non-State actors. With the global expansion of uranium production capacity, control of UOC is emerging as a potentially weak link in the nuclear supply chain. Its protection, control and management thus pose a key challenge for the international community, including States, regulatory authorities and industry. This report evaluates current process monitoring practice and makes recommendations for utilization of existing or new techniques for managing the inventory and tracking this material.

  19. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...

  20. Dose-response and concentration-response relation of rocuronium infusion during propofol nitrous oxide and isoflurane nitrous oxide anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansanaho, M; Olkkola, KT; Wierda, JMKH

    The dose-response and concentration-response relation of rocuronium infusion was studied in 20 adult surgical patients during proporfol-nitrous oxide and isoflurane (1 MAC) -nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Neuromuscular block was kept constant, initially at 90% and then at 50% with a closed-loop feedback

  1. Aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations after bimonthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomoko; Wang, Xiying; Sawada, Osamu; Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Ohji, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Clinical evidence supports the efficacy of bimonthly aflibercept injection for age-related macular degeneration. The study aimed to evaluate aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations and the efficacy of bimonthly aflibercept in patients with age-related macular degeneration. This study is a prospective, interventional case series. Enrolled were 35 eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration from 35 patients. Patients received three bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept without loading doses. We collected the aqueous humor just before each injection, measured vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and measured best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal subfield thickness before and after the injections. Aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations were measured. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was 135.4 ± 60.5 pg/mL (mean ± standard deviation, range 60.6-323.4) at baseline and below the lowest detectable limit in all eyes at month 2 and in 32 eyes at month 4 (P age-related macular degeneration. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  2. Identification of gene expression profiling associated with erlotinib-related skin toxicity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caba, Octavio, E-mail: ocaba@ujaen.es [Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Irigoyen, Antonio, E-mail: antonioirigoyen@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Oncology, Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Toledo (Spain); Jimenez-Luna, Cristina, E-mail: crisjilu@ugr.es [Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER), Center of Biomedical Research (CIBM), University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Benavides, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.benavides.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Department of Medical Oncology, Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Malaga (Spain); Ortuño, Francisco M., E-mail: fortuno@ugr.es [Department of Computer Architecture and Computer Technology, Research Center for Information and Communications Technologies, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Gallego, Javier, E-mail: j.gallegoplazas@gmail.com [Department of Medical Oncology, General Universitario de Elche Hospital, Alicante (Spain); Rojas, Ignacio, E-mail: irojas@ugr.es [Department of Computer Architecture and Computer Technology, Research Center for Information and Communications Technologies, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Guillen-Ponce, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.guillen@salud.madrid.org [Department of Medical Oncology, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Torres, Carolina, E-mail: ctorres@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Aranda, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.aranda@imibic.org [Maimonides Institute of Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), Reina Sofía Hospital, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain); Prados, Jose, E-mail: jcprados@ugr.es [Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER), Center of Biomedical Research (CIBM), University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor that showed activity against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The drug's most frequently reported side effect as a result of EGFR inhibition is skin rash (SR), a symptom which has been associated with a better therapeutic response to the drug. Gene expression profiling can be used as a tool to predict which patients will develop this important cutaneous manifestation. The aim of the present study was to identify which genes may influence the appearance of SR in PDAC patients. The study included 34 PDAC patients treated with erlotinib: 21 patients developed any grade of SR, while 13 patients did not (controls). Before administering any chemotherapy regimen and the development of SR, we collected RNA from peripheral blood samples of all patients and studied the differential gene expression pattern using the Illumina microarray platform HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. Seven genes (FAM46C, IFITM3, GMPR, DENND6B, SELENBP1, NOL10, and SIAH2), involved in different pathways including regulatory, migratory, and signalling processes, were downregulated in PDAC patients with SR. Our results suggest the existence of a gene expression profiling significantly correlated with erlotinib-induced SR in PDAC that could be used as prognostic indicator in this patients. - Highlights: • Skin rash (SR) is the most characteristic side effect of erlotinib in PDAC patients. • Erlotinib-induced SR has been associated with a better clinical outcome. • Gene expression profiling was used to determine who will develop this manifestation. • 7 genes involved in different pathways were downregulated in PDAC patients with SR. • Our profile correlated with erlotinib-induced SR in PDAC could be used for prognosis.

  3. Analysis of Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Beams and Isoeffective Dose Profiles Using Geant4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of RBE quantity in the treatment of cancer tumors with proton beams in treatment planning systems (TPS is of high significance. Given the significance of the issue and the studies conducted in the literature, this quantity is fixed and is taken as equal to 1.1. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess RBE quantity of proton beams and their variations in different depths of the tumor. This dependency makes RBE values used in TPS no longer be fixed as they depend on the depth of the tumor and therefore this dependency causes some changes in the physical dose profile. Materials and Methods: The energy spectrum of protons was measured at various depths of the tumor using proton beam simulations and well as the complete simulation of a cell to a pair of DNA bases through Monte Carlo GEANT4. The resulting energy spectrum was used to estimate the number of double-strand breaks generated in cells. Finally, RBE values were calculated in terms of the penetration depth in the tumor. Results and Conclusion: The simulation results show that the RBE value not fixed terms of the depth of the tumor and it differs from the clinical value of 1.1 at the end of the dose profile and this will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose profile. Therefore, to create a uniform impact dose area, deep-finishing systems need to be designed by taking into account deep RBE values.

  4. Identification, quantification, and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachik, F; Spangler, C J; Smith, J C; Canfield, L M; Steck, A; Pfander, H

    1997-05-15

    Thirty-four carotenoids, including 13 geometrical isomers and eight metabolites, in breast milk and serum of three lactating mothers have been separated, identified, quantified, and compared by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array (PDA) detection-mass spectrometry (MS). Among the metabolites were two oxidation products of lycopene and four of lutein/ zeaxanthin. In addition, two metabolites of lutein, formed as a result of dehydration of this dihydroxycarotenoid under acidic conditions similar to those of the stomach, have also been identified in plasma and breast milk. The oxidative metabolites of lycopene with a novel five-membered-ring end group have been identified as epimeric 2,6-cyclolycopene-1,5-diols by comparison of their HPLC-UV/visible-MS profiles with those of fully characterized (1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy) synthetic compounds. The HPLC procedures employed also detected vitamin A, two forms of vitamin E (gamma- and alpha-tocopherol), and two non-carotenoid food components, i.e., piperine and caffeine, in serum and breast milk.

  5. Effects of dietary inclusion of high concentrations of crude glycerin on meat quality and fatty acid profile of feedlot fed Nellore bulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H C B van Cleef

    Full Text Available Crude glycerin, the main by-product of biodiesel production, can replace dietary energy sources, such as corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% of crude glycerin in dry matter (DM of the total diets, and its effects on meat quality parameters of feedlot Nellore bulls. Thirty animals (227.7 ± 23.8 kg body weight; 18 months old were housed in individual pens and fed 5 experimental diets, containing 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30% crude glycerin (DM basis. After 103 d (21 d adaptation animals were slaughtered and the Longissimus muscle was collected. The characteristics assessed were chemical composition, fatty acid profile, cholesterol, shear force, pH, color, water-holding capacity, cooking loss and sensory properties. The increasing inclusion of crude glycerin in the diets did not affect the chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle (P > 0.10. A quadratic effect was observed when levels of crude glycerin were increased, on the concentration of pentadecanoic, palmitoleic and eicosenoic fatty acids in meat (P < 0.05, and on the activity of the delta-9 desaturase 16 and delta-9 desaturase 18 enzymes (P < 0.05. The addition of crude glycerin increased the gamma linolenic fatty acid concentration (P < 0.01, and altered the monounsaturated fatty acids in Longissimus muscle of animals (Pquad. < 0.05. Crude glycerin decreased cholesterol content in meat (P < 0.05, and promoted higher flavor score and greasy intensity perception of the meat (P < 0.01. The inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle bulls`diets (DM basis improves meat cholesterol and sensory attributes, such as flavor, without affecting significantly the physical traits, the main fatty acid concentrations and the chemical composition.

  6. Organophosphate esters and phthalate esters in human hair from rural and urban areas, Chongqing, China: Concentrations, composition profiles and sources in comparison to street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Lu, Jun-Feng; Ma, Jing-Ye; Wang, Huan; Du, Xiao-Fan

    2018-06-01

    Human hair and street dust from rural and urban areas in Chongqing were collected to analyze Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Concentrations of OPEs in urban hair were significantly higher than those in rural hair, whereas PAEs concentrations in rural hair were significantly higher than those in urban hair. Different composition patterns of OPEs were observed in rural and urban hair, where tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris (butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the dominating analogues in rural hair, accounting for 62.1% of the OPEs burden, and tris (methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) exhibited a high contribution in urban hair, responsible for 51.3% of total OPEs, which differed from the composition profiles in corresponding street dust. Analogous composition patterns of PAEs were found in hair of both areas. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the most abundant analogues in hair samples, while DEHP was the predominant analogue in dust samples. No clear tendency was obtained between the increasing ages and the concentrations of both compounds. Most OPEs and PAEs congeners showed significantly positive correlation with one another in rural hair. On the contrary, different correlation patterns were observed in urban hair for OPEs and PAEs, indicating multiple or additional sources existed in urban areas. Significant correlations of OPEs and PAEs were found between hair and corresponding street dust samples, but poor correlations of OPEs and PAEs were observed between rural hair and rural indoor dust, suggesting that street dust may be a predominant exogenous source for human exposure to OPEs and PAEs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary phosphorus concentrations related to breaking load and chemical bone properties in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S N; Lawrence, L A; McDowell, L R; Warnick, A C; Wilkinson, N S

    1990-04-01

    Effects of dietary P on breaking load and chemical properties of bone were evaluated in growing beef heifers. Initially, 14 weaned Angus heifers received ad libitum a low P diet (.10% P dry basis) for 270 d. Heifers were subsequently randomly allotted into two groups (7 heifers/group) and received ad libitum either .12 or .20% P (dry basis). The experimental endpoint was 245 d of the treatment phase for nonpregnant and 3 wk postpartum for pregnant heifers. Results indicate that chemical and physical properties of bovine bones are sensitive to dietary P. Mineralization of rib bones was less at .12% P (dry basis). Rib bone density (g/cm3) and mineral content expressed on a per unit volume basis (mg/cm3) were the most sensitive parameters measured. Breaking load results of 12th ribs also indicated a greater amount of mineral present in heifers receiving .20% P (153.8 vs. 114.3 kg). Vertebral bone density and mineral concentrations on a per unit volume basis were also sensitive to dietary P and clearly ranked the two dietary P amounts, whereas percentage of bone ash or mineral concentration expressed on an ash basis did not.

  8. An experimental study on renal damage induced by ionic contrast media in relation to iodine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yang, Moon Ho

    1990-01-01

    Renal injury caused by iodinated contrast media has been widely known, but there has been few papers regarding the pathological change. A series of kidneys after injection of iodinated contrast media was examined to document pathological change. A total of 80 rats was divided into two groups; those given Urografin-60% by 5ml/kg; those given Urografin-76% by 5ml/kg. The kidneys were removed out 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after injection of contrast media and microscopically examined. The resulted were as follows: 1. Pathological changes induced by ionic contrast media were deposition of proteinaceous materials in the proximal convoluted tubules, congestion of interstitial vessels, and vasa rectae, and epithelial degeneration of collecting ducts. There was no detectable pathological changes in the glomerulus, loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubules. 2. All pathological changes were severe, as the concentration of contrast media increased. 3. These pathologic changes appeared 1 day after injection of contrast media and persisted at least 3 weeks without improvement. Author concludes that the renal damage induced by ionic contrast media becomes severe with increase in concentration, and pathologic changes are not influence with time interval

  9. Relation between 222Rn concentration in outdoor air and lower atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Mori, Tadashige; Yunoki, Eiji; Michihiro, Kenshuh; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Sahashi, Ken.

    1991-01-01

    Using the height of the surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and the variation of the 222 Rn concentration in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222 Rn is estimated to be 0.020 Bq·m -2 ·s -1 , which is observed elsewhere on land. Furthermore, the exposure rate at 1 m above the air-ground interface due to the short-lived 222 Rn daughters in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer can be estimated using the height of the surface-based inversion layer and the 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor air at the ground level before and after the onset of the surface-based inversion layer. From these treatment, it is clearly demonstrated that the monostatic acoustic sounder is useful as a supplementary method for a weather survey which forms a part of monitoring around the nuclear facilities. (author)

  10. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Affan Bin; Reichlin Tobias R.; Twerenbold Raphael; Meister Marc; Moehring Berit; Wildi Karin; Bassetti Stefano; Zellweger Christa; Gimenez Maria Rubini; Hoeller Rebeca; Murray Karsten; Sou SeoungMann; Mueller Mira; Mosimann Tamina; Reiter Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Absolute changes in high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. Methods: In a prospective international multicenter study high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs cTn) was ...

  11. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  12. Epigenomics of Total Acute Sleep Deprivation in Relation to Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles and RNA Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Emil K; Boström, Adrian E; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Despite an established link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic processes in humans, it remains unclear to what extent sleep deprivation modulates DNA methylation. We performed a within-subject randomized blinded study with 16 healthy subjects to examine the effect of one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on the genome-wide methylation profile in blood compared with that in normal sleep. Genome-wide differences in methylation between both conditions were assessed by applying a paired regression model that corrected for monocyte subpopulations. In addition, the correlations between the methylation of genes detected to be modulated by TSD and gene expression were examined in a separate, publicly available cohort of 10 healthy male donors (E-GEOD-49065). Sleep deprivation significantly affected the DNA methylation profile both independently and in dependency of shifts in monocyte composition. Our study detected differential methylation of 269 probes. Notably, one CpG site was located 69 bp upstream of ING5, which has been shown to be differentially expressed after sleep deprivation. Gene set enrichment analysis detected the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways to be enriched among the differentially methylated genes. These results provide evidence that total acute sleep deprivation alters the methylation profile in healthy human subjects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study that systematically investigated the impact of total acute sleep deprivation on genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in blood and related the epigenomic findings to the expression data.

  13. Reload safety evaluation of boron dilution accident related to shutdown margin proportional to boron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Ki Bog; Song, Jae Woong

    1993-06-01

    This report investigates the efficient safety evaluation method and analysis procedure on Boron Dilution Accident(BDA) under the proportional shutdown margin to boron concentration. Also investigated are problems caused by applying this shutdown margin limit. Through this investigation, the safety of Kori-3 Cycle-8, Yonggwang-2 Cycle-7, Kori-4 Cycle-8 and Yonggwang-1 Cycle-8 with respect to BDA is verified. In order to satisfy the shutdown margin requirement in the Technical Specifications, it is shown that the High Flux Alarm at Shutdown Setting for Kori-4 Cycle-8 and Yonggwang-1 Cycle-8 at Mode 5 should be set at 2 or the Technical Specification should be revised. (Author)

  14. Modeling of the interfacial separation work in relation to impurity concentration in adjoining materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Ilia M.; Makhviladze, Tariel M.; Minushev, Airat Kh.; Sarychev, Mikhail E.

    2010-02-01

    On the basis of the general thermodynamic approach developed in a model describing the influence of point defects on the separation work at an interface of solid materials is developed. The kinetic equations describing the defect exchange between the interface and the material bulks are formulated. The model have been applied to the case when joined materials contain such point defects as impurity atoms (interstitial and substitutional), concretized the main characteristic parameters required for a numerical modeling as well as clarified their domains of variability. The results of the numerical modeling concerning the dependences on impurity concentrations and the temperature dependences are obtained and analyzed. Particularly, the effects of interfacial strengthening and adhesion incompatibility predicted analytically for the case of impurity atoms are verified and analyzed.

  15. Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Carbonated Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Yaroslav

    Sustainability of modern concrete industry recently has become an important topic of scientific discussion, and consequently there is an effort to study the potential of the emerging new supplementary cementitious materials. This study has a purpose to investigate the effect of reactive magnesia (reactive MgO) as a replacement for general use (GU) Portland Cements and the effect of environmental factors (CO2 concentrations and relative humidity) on accelerated carbonation curing results. The findings of this study revealed that improvement of physical properties is related directly to the increase in CO2 concentrations and inversely to the increase in relative humidity and also depends much on %MgO in the mixture. The conclusions of this study helped to clarify the effect of variable environmental factors and the material replacement range on carbonation of reactive magnesia concrete materials, as well as providing an assessment of the optimal conditions for the effective usage of the material.

  16. Functional Communication Profiles in Children with Cerebral Palsy in Relation to Gross Motor Function and Manual and Intellectual Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Park, Jieun; Choi, Yoon Seong; Goh, Yu Ra; Park, Eun Sook

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate communication function using classification systems and its association with other functional profiles, including gross motor function, manual ability, intellectual functioning, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study recruited 117 individuals with CP aged from 4 to 16 years. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Viking Speech Scale (VSS), Speech Language Profile Groups (SLPG), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and intellectual functioning were assessed in the children along with brain MRI categorization. Very strong relationships were noted among the VSS, CFCS, and SLPG, although these three communication systems provide complementary information, especially for children with mid-range communication impairment. These three communication classification systems were strongly related with the MACS, but moderately related with the GMFCS. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that manual ability and intellectual functioning were significantly related with VSS and CFCS function, whereas only intellectual functioning was significantly related with SLPG functioning in children with CP. Communication function in children with a periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL) varied widely. In the cases with a PVWL, poor functioning was more common on the SLPG, compared to the VSS and CFCS. Very strong relationships were noted among three communication classification systems that are closely related with intellectual ability. Compared to gross motor function, manual ability seemed more closely related with communication function in these children. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  17. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Algal and aquatic plant carbon concentrating mechanisms in relation to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario; Beardall, John; Maberly, Stephen C

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms (also known as inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms; both abbreviated as CCMs) presumably evolved under conditions of low CO(2) availability. However, the timing of their origin is unclear since there are no sound estimates from molecular clocks, and even if there were, there are no proxies for the functioning of CCMs. Accordingly, we cannot use previous episodes of high CO(2) (e.g. the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) to indicate how organisms with CCMs responded. Present and predicted environmental change in terms of increased CO(2) and temperature are leading to increased CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) and decreased CO(3)(2-) and pH in surface seawater, as well as decreasing the depth of the upper mixed layer and increasing the degree of isolation of this layer with respect to nutrient flux from deeper waters. The outcome of these forcing factors is to increase the availability of inorganic carbon, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) to aquatic photolithotrophs and to decrease the supply of the nutrients (combined) nitrogen and phosphorus and of any non-aeolian iron. The influence of these variations on CCM expression has been examined to varying degrees as acclimation by extant organisms. Increased PAR increases CCM expression in terms of CO(2) affinity, whilst increased UVB has a range of effects in the organisms examined; little relevant information is available on increased temperature. Decreased combined nitrogen supply generally increases CO(2) affinity, decreased iron availability increases CO(2) affinity, and decreased phosphorus supply has varying effects on the organisms examined. There are few data sets showing interactions amongst the observed changes, and even less information on genetic (adaptation) changes in response to the forcing factors. In freshwaters, changes in phytoplankton species composition may alter with environmental change with consequences for frequency of

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate

  20. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  1. Identifying latent profiles of posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms in Canadian veterans: Exploring differences across profiles in health related functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don

    2015-07-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-06-24

    Bacteria related to the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals have been detected in fresh and saline surface waters used for recreational purposes in coastal areas of Horry County, South Carolina, since the early 2000s. Specifically, concentrations of the facultative anaerobic organism, Enterococcus, have been observed to exceed the single-sample regulatory limit of 104 colony forming units per 100 milliliters of water. Water bodies characterized by these concentrations are identified on the 303(d) list for impaired water in South Carolina; moreover, because current analytical methods used to monitor Enterococcus concentrations take up to 1 day for results to become available, water-quality advisories are not reflective of the actual health risk.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of protein expression related genes of Pichia pastoris under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    Full Text Available The physiological responses and transcription profiling of Pichia pastoris GS115 to simulated microgravity (SMG were substantially changed compared with normal gravity (NG control. We previously reported that the recombinant P. pastoris grew faster under SMG than NG during methanol induction phase and the efficiencies of recombinant enzyme production and secretion were enhanced under SMG, which was considered as the consequence of changed transcriptional levels of some key genes. In this work, transcriptiome profiling of P. pastoris cultured under SMG and NG conditions at exponential and stationary phases were determined using next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. Four categories of 141 genes function as methanol utilization, protein chaperone, RNA polymerase and protein transportation or secretion classified according to Gene Ontology (GO were chosen to be analyzed on the basis of NGS results. And 80 significantly changed genes were weighted and estimated by Cluster 3.0. It was found that most genes of methanol metabolism (85% of 20 genes and protein transportation or secretion (82.2% of 45 genes were significantly up-regulated under SMG. Furthermore the quantity and fold change of up-regulated genes in exponential phase of each category were higher than those of stationary phase. The results indicate that the up-regulated genes of methanol metabolism and protein transportation or secretion mainly contribute to enhanced production and secretion of the recombinant protein under SMG.

  4. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Parra-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P=0.007. Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR=2.66, P=0.01 and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR=2.85, P=0.03. The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied.

  5. Hair cortisol concentration is unaffected by basic military training, but related to sociodemographic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Annen, Hubert; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roos, Lilian; Van Uum, Stan; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; La Marca, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a promising new biomarker for retrospective measurement of chronic stress. The effect of basic military training (BMT) on chronic stress has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week BMT on HCC, while further exploring the role of known and novel covariates. Young healthy male recruits of the Swiss Army participated twice, 10 weeks apart, in data collection (1st examination: n = 177; 2nd examination: n = 105). On two occasions, we assessed HCC, perceived stress and different candidate variables that may affect HCC (e.g. socioeconomic status, meteorological data). Military training increased perceived stress from the first to the second examination, but did not affect HCC. In line with this, there was no correlation between HCC and perceived stress ratings. This could be interpreted as a missing influence of mainly physical stress (e.g. exercise) on HCC. In contrast, significant correlations were found between HCC and ambient temperature, humidity and education. Future studies should control for meteorological data and educational status when examining HCC.

  6. Relative effects of climate and source strength on atmospheric lead concentrations in Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, H. C.; de Freitas, C. R.; Hay, J. E.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric lead levels were examined to assess the consequences of the 46 percent reduction in the lead content of premium grade petrol in New Zealand. Since this change was implemented in July 1986 observed levels of atmospheric lead decreased by 38 percent, but all or part of this reduction may have been due to factors other than fluctuations in lead emissions, notably variations in climate. Analysis of detailed atmospheric lead, meteorological and traffic data measured contemporaneously provided insight into the atmospheric processes influencing lead levels in Auckland and formed the basis of a statistical model capable of predicting monthly lead concentrations. The model was used to predict lead levels in Auckland for the period July 1986 through to July 1989 in the absence of any reduction in the lead content of petrol. Comparison with values observed for the same period showed that all of the reduction in atmospheric lead levels since July 1986 can be attributed to the reduction in the lead content of petrol. Policy planning implications of such a finding are considered.

  7. Dioxin concentration in milk, faeces and tissues of cows related to feed contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.J.; Kamphues, J. [Inst. of Animal Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Wiesmueller, T. [Federal State Office for Consumer Protection, Potsdam (Germany); Appuhn, H. [Agricultural Investigation and Research Inst., Hameln (Germany); Stehr, D. [District Government of Lueneburg (Germany); Severin, K. [Chamber for Agriculture, Hannover (Germany); Landmann, D. [Agricultural Teaching and Research Facility, Echem (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin contamination of feed and food is a frequently discussed problem, even in the press. The EU legislation sets maximum levels for dioxins in food and feeding stuffs. The dioxin concentration of milk, faeces and tissues of lactating cows grazing in an area of higher dioxin level in the soil and grass, has been tested in part 1 of this small scale field study. Soil intake of grazing cows can reach 1.5 kg soil/d under extreme meteorological conditions. Considering that, the dioxin load of soil and the degree of contamination of feedstuffs could play an important role regarding the exposition of grazing animals. Due to repeated flooding the area the experiment took place was known for a higher dioxin level in soil and grass. The area was separated in a depression and an elevation (in flooding areas depressions are known for their higher dioxin level). Grassland is not only used for grazing animals, but also to obtain hay or grass silage. In part 2 of the field study grass silage obtained on the same area, was fed to dry cows to test whether or not there a risk for milk quality after parturition. The primary aim of this field study was to investigate different matrices at different moments of the experiment. The secondary aim was to develop recommendations on how to prevent or at least how to minimize the dioxin load of feed and with it of food, if food producing animals graze on such areas.

  8. Relation of Cloud Occurrence Frequency, Overlap, and Effective Thickness Derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat Merged Cloud Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profile derived from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical pro les can be related by a set of equations when the correlation distance of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches the random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from the random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data support these assumptions. However, the correlation distance sometimes becomes large, which might be an indication of precipitation. The cloud correlation distance is equivalent to the de-correlation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth [2000] when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same.

  9. [Relation between physical activity, muscle function and IGF-1, testosterone and DHEAS concentrations in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M; Patricot, M C; Lacour, J R; Rahmani, A; Berthouze, S; Kostka, T

    2002-10-01

    Lower amounts of circulating anabolic hormones are thought to accelerate the age related decline in muscle mass and function. Replacement therapies are promising interventions but there are problems with these therapies. Thus alternative strategies should be developed. The age related changes in hormonal status may be probably influenced by exercise. The purpose of this study was: a) to confirm with other methods, more adapted for elderly people, the results of a previous study that has shown relationship between physical activity (PA) and quadriceps muscle function with dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Quadriceps muscle power (Pmax) is measured in this new work with a recently developed leg extensor machine and, b) to complete the results of the first study examining simultaneously the relationship between PA, Pmax and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) with DHEAS, IGF-1 and testosterone in a group of healthy elderly people. Fifty independent, community dwelling elderly subjects (25 mens and 25 womens) aged from 66 to 84 volunteered to participate in the study. PA was evaluated by the questionnaire and expressed using two activity indices: mean habitual daily energy expenditure (MHDEE) and the daily energy expenditure corresponding to leisure time sports activities (Sports Activity). Pmax and optimal shortening velocity (vopt) were measured on a Ergopower dynamometer. The Pmax was expressed relative to body mass, Pmax/kg (W kg-1), and relative to the mass of the two quadriceps muscles, Pmax/Quadr (W.kgQuadr-1). VO2max has been measured during a maximal treadmill exercise. In women, IGF-1 correlated significantly with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Pmax/kg (r = 0.54, P = 0.004) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), whereas DHEAS with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Sports Activity (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), VO2max (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), Pmax/kg (r = 0.46, P = 0.02) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.55, P = 0.004). No such correlation was

  10. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  11. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Profiling Occupant Behaviour in Danish Dwellings using Time Use Survey Data - Part II: Time-related Factors and Occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmes, V.M.; Li, R.; Andersen, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Occupant behaviour has been shown to be one of the key driving factors of uncertainty in prediction of energy consumption in buildings. Building occupants affect building energy use directly and indirectly by interacting with building energy systems such as adjusting temperature set...... occupant profiles for prediction of energy use to reduce the gap between predicted and real building energy consumptions. In this study, we exploit diary-based Danish Time Use Surveys for understanding and modelling occupant behaviour in the residential sector in Denmark. This paper is a continuation......-points, switching lights on/off, using electrical devices and opening/closing windows. Furthermore, building inhabitants’ daily activity profiles clearly shape the timing of energy demand in households. Modelling energy-related human activities throughout the day, therefore, is crucial to defining more realistic...

  13. Examining burnout profiles in relation to health and well-being in the Veterans Health Administration employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Mohr, David C; Osatuke, Katerine

    2018-04-23

    The goals of this paper were twofold: (a) To provide a population overview of burnout profiles by occupation in a large, health care sector employee population and (b) to investigate how burnout profiles relate to self-reported health behaviours, chronic conditions, and absenteeism. Burnout profiles were considered by 5 main occupational groups (physicians, nurses, other clinical, administrative, and wage grade [trade, craft, and labor workers]) in survey respondents (n = 86,257 employees). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine how burnout profiles were associated with health controlling for gender, age, race, ethnicity, and occupational group. Employees in the "Frustrated/Burning Up" and "Withdrawing/Burned Out" profiles, respectively, had significantly increased odds of anxiety (OR = 2.17; 99% CI [2.04, 2.31]; OR = 2.21; 99% CI [2.05, 2.38]), depression (OR = 2.06; 99% CI [1.93, 2.20]; OR = 2.20; 99% CI [2.04, 2.38]), sleep disorders (OR = 1.98; 99% CI [1.85, 2.12]; OR = 1.97; 99% CI [1.81, 2.13]), low back disease (OR = 1.60; 99% CI [1.50, 1.71]; OR = 1.58; 99% CI [1.47, 1.70]), physical inactivity (OR = 1.49; 99% CI [1.38, 1.60]; OR = 1.68; 99% CI [1.54, 1.83]), and 5 or more days away from work (OR = 1.74; 99% CI [1.65, 1.85]; OR = 2.15; 99% CI [2.01, 2.30]). Burnout is related to the health of employees. Burnout profiles offer a way to assess patterns of burnout by occupational group and may help customize future interventions. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br, E-mail: rfranklin@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2015-07-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km{sup 2} and drains an area of 320 km{sup 2}. It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  15. Assessment of metal, trace and rare earth element concentrations in a sedimentary profile from Ponte Nova reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Flavio R.; Bordon, Isabella C.C.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponte Nova reservoir, located in the upper basin of the Tiete River in the southern region of Sao Paulo State, covers an area of 25.7 km 2 and drains an area of 320 km 2 . It was built in 1972 to control the rivers flow in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) and water supply. A 30 cm sediment core was collected in the dam in August 2014, sliced at every 2.5 cm. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to the sediment samples to determine some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. The enrichment factor (EF) and Igeo were applied to the results by using NASC (North American Shale Composite) as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. An EF>1.5 was obtained for As, Hf, Rb, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Nd and Sm when NASC values were used, but only for Br, when the last layer concentration values were used as reference values. Similar results were obtained for the Igeo index. For semi-metal As and metals Cr and Zn concentration values were compared to oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL) only Cr exceeded TEL value in some slices of the profile. These results may indicate that there is no anthropogenic contribution for the elements analyzed in this reservoir. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the results. (author)

  16. High arsenic and boron concentrations in groundwaters related to mining activity in the Bigadic borate deposits (Western Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemici, Unsal; Tarcan, Gueltekin; Helvaci, Cahit; Somay, A. Melis

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the environmental impacts of borate mines in Bigadic district, which are the largest colemanite and ulexite deposits in the world. Borate-bearing formations have affected the concentrations of some contaminants in groundwater. Groundwater quality is directly related to the borate zones in the mines as a result of water-rock interaction processes. Calcium is the dominant cation and waters are Ca-SO 4 and HCO 3 type in the mine (Tuelue borate mine) from which colemanite is produced. However in the Simav and Acep Borate Mines, ulexite and colemanite minerals are produced and waters from these open pit mines are Na-HCO 3 -SO 4 types. High SO 4 concentrations (reaching 519 mg/L) might be explained by the existence of anhydrite, gypsum and celestite minerals in the borate zone. Groundwater from tuff and borate strata showed relatively low pH values (7-8) compared to surface and mine waters (>8). EC values ranged from 270 to 2850 μS/cm. Boron and As were the two important contaminants determined in the groundwaters around the Bigadic borate mines. Arsenic is the major pollutant and it ranged from 33 to 911 μg/L in the groundwater samples. The concentrations of B in the study area ranged from 0.05 to 391 mg/L. The highest B concentrations were detected at the mine areas. The extension of the borate zones in the aquifer systems is the essential factor in the enrichment of B and As, and some major and trace elements in groundwaters are directly related to the leaching of the host rock which are mainly composed of tuffs and limestones. According to drinking water standards, all of the samples exceed the tolerance limit for As. Copper, Mn, Zn and Li values are enriched but do not exceed the drinking water standards. Sulfate, Al and Fe concentrations are above the drinking water standard for the groundwater samples

  17. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma