WorldWideScience

Sample records for relationships facilitate fine-mapping

  1. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Du

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs. We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33. We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s.

  2. Fine mapping and characterization of BPH27, a brown planthopper resistance gene from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Qiu, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, F; Meng, J; Wei, S; Li, R; Chen, B

    2013-01-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) is one of the most serious rice pests worldwide. Growing resistant varieties is the most effective way to manage this insect, and wild rice species are a valuable source of resistance genes for developing resistant cultivars. BPH27 derived from an accession of Guangxi wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. (Accession no. 2183, hereafter named GX2183), was primarily mapped to a 17-cM region on the long arm of the chromosome four. In this study, fine mapping of BPH27 was conducted using two BC(1)F(2) populations derived from introgression lines of GX2183. Insect resistance was evaluated in the BC(1)F(2) populations with 6,010 individual offsprings, and 346 resistance extremes were obtained and employed for fine mapping of BPH27. High-resolution linkage analysis defined the BPH27 locus to an 86.3-kb region in Nipponbare. Regarding the sequence information of rice cultivars, Nipponbare and 93-11, all predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the fine-mapping region have been annotated as 11 types of proteins, and three ORFs encode disease-related proteins. Moreover, the average BPH numbers showed significant differences in 96-120 h after release in comparisons between the preliminary near-isogenic lines (pre-NILs, lines harboring resistance genes) and BaiR54. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower in the pre-NIL plants compared with the recurrent parent BaiR54. The pre-NIL exhibited 50.7% reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to BaiR54. The new development in fine mapping of BPH27 will facilitate the efforts to clone this important resistant gene and to use it in BPH-resistance rice breeding.

  3. Multiple mentoring relationships facilitate learning during fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolinske, T

    1995-01-01

    Fieldwork provides a means by which students are socialized into their profession and their careers. During Level I and Level II fieldwork, students acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will enable them to achieve entry-level competence The experiences that students have during Level II fieldwork influence their subsequent career choices. To support these experiences, students form a variety of helping relationships with faculty members, clinicians, peers, family, and friends. This article examines the role and responsibilities of the student as protégé and of the clinical educator as information peer, collegial peer, special peer, and mentor. In light of the challenges faced by most clinicians secondary to health care reform, an alternative to the one-to-one supervision model is presented. The multiple mentoring model of fieldwork supervision has several advantages: (a) fieldwork educators work with students according to their strengths and interests; (b) the model promotes collegiality and clinical reasoning skills because students use each other as resources and observe different fieldwork educators approaching similar situations; and (c) the model allows a fieldwork site to accept more students at one time, while minimizing stress on any one fieldwork educator. A framework defining the functions of the mentor-protégé relationship is provided, with an emphasis on the effect that clinical educators have in their roles as mentors, guides, role models, and teachers who provide opportunities for the student to develop entry-level competency in a chosen profession.

  4. Constraints on eQTL Fine Mapping in the Presence of Multisite Local Regulation of Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL detection has emerged as an important tool for unraveling of the relationship between genetic risk factors and disease or clinical phenotypes. Most studies use single marker linear regression to discover primary signals, followed by sequential conditional modeling to detect secondary genetic variants affecting gene expression. However, this approach assumes that functional variants are sparsely distributed and that close linkage between them has little impact on estimation of their precise location and the magnitude of effects. We describe a series of simulation studies designed to evaluate the impact of linkage disequilibrium (LD on the fine mapping of causal variants with typical eQTL effect sizes. In the presence of multisite regulation, even though between 80 and 90% of modeled eSNPs associate with normally distributed traits, up to 10% of all secondary signals could be statistical artifacts, and at least 5% but up to one-quarter of credible intervals of SNPs within r2 > 0.8 of the peak may not even include a causal site. The Bayesian methods eCAVIAR and DAP (Deterministic Approximation of Posteriors provide only modest improvement in resolution. Given the strong empirical evidence that gene expression is commonly regulated by more than one variant, we conclude that the fine mapping of causal variants needs to be adjusted for multisite influences, as conditional estimates can be highly biased by interference among linked sites, but ultimately experimental verification of individual effects is needed. Presumably similar conclusions apply not just to eQTL mapping, but to multisite influences on fine mapping of most types of quantitative trait.

  5. Chromosomal genomics facilitates fine mapping of a Russian wheat aphid resistance gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staňková, Helena; Valárik, Miroslav; Lapitan, N.L.V.; Berkman, P.J.; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.; Luo, M.C.; Tulpová, Zuzana; Kubaláková, Marie; Stein, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 7 (2015), s. 1373-1383 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * BREAD WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2015

  6. Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Gaulton (Kyle); T. Ferreira (Teresa); Y. Lee (Yeji); A. Raimondo (Anne); R. Mägi (Reedik); M.E. Reschen (Michael E.); A. Mahajan (Anubha); A. Locke (Adam); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); N.R. Robertson (Neil); R.A. Scott (Robert); I. Prokopenko (Inga); L.J. Scott (Laura); T. Green (Todd); T. Sparsø (Thomas); D. Thuillier (Dorothee); L. Yengo (Loic); H. Grallert (Harald); S. Wahl (Simone); M. Frånberg (Mattias); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); H. Kestler (Hans); H. Chheda (Himanshu); L. Eisele (Lewin); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); L. Qi (Lu); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); S.M. Willems (Sara); M. Li (Man); H. Chen (Han); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); P. Kwan (Phoenix); C. Ma (Clement); M. Linderman (Michael); Y. Lu (Yingchang); S.K. Thomsen (Soren K.); J.K. Rundle (Jana K.); N.L. Beer (Nicola L.); M. van de Bunt (Martijn); A. Chalisey (Anil); H.M. Kang (Hyun Min); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); P. Almgren (Peter); D. Baldassarre (Damiano); B. Balkau (Beverley); R. Benediktsson (Rafn); M. Blüher (Matthias); H. Boeing (Heiner); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin P.); N.P. Burtt (Noël); J. Carey (Jason); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); P.S. Chines (Peter); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); D.J. Couper (David J.); A. Crenshaw (Andrew); R.M. van Dam (Rob); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); M. Dorkhan (Mozhgan); T. Edkins (Ted); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); T. Esko (Tõnu); E. Eury (Elodie); J. Fadista (João); J. Flannick (Jason); P. Fontanillas (Pierre); C.S. Fox (Caroline); P.W. Franks (Paul W.); K. Gertow (Karl); C. Gieger (Christian); B. Gigante (Bruna); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); G.B. Grant (George); N. Grarup (Niels); C.J. Groves (Christopher J.); M. Hassinen (Maija); C.T. Have (Christian T.); C. Herder (Christian); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); A.B. Hreidarsson (Astradur); S.E. Humphries (Steve E.); D.J. Hunter (David J.); A.U. Jackson (Anne); A. Jonsson (Anna); M.E. Jørgensen (Marit E.); T. Jørgensen (Torben); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); N.D. Kerrison (Nicola D.); L. Kinnunen (Leena); N. Klopp (Norman); A. Kong (Augustine); P. Kovacs (Peter); P. Kraft (Peter); J. Kravic (Jasmina); C. Langford (Cordelia); K. Leander (Karin); L. Liang (Liming); P. Lichtner (Peter); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia M.); B. Lindholm (Bengt); A. Linneberg (Allan); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); J. Luan (Jian'fan); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); O. McLeod (Olga); J. Meyer (Jobst); E. Mihailov (Evelin); G. Mirza (Ghazala); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); C. Navarro (Carmen); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); N.N. Oskolkov (Nikolay N.); K.R. Owen (Katharine); D. Palli (Domenico); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); J.R.B. Perry (John); C.P. Platou (Carl); M. Roden (Michael); D. Ruderfer (Douglas); D. Rybin (Denis); Y.T. Van Der Schouw (Yvonne T.); B. Sennblad (Bengt); G. Sigurosson (Gunnar); A. Stancáková (Alena); D. Steinbach; P. Storm (Petter); K. Strauch (Konstantin); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Q. Sun; B. Thorand (Barbara); E. Tikkanen (Emmi); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Trakalo (Joseph); E. Tremoli (Elena); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); R. Wennauer (Roman); S. Wiltshire (Steven); A.R. Wood (Andrew); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); I. Dunham (Ian); E. Birney (Ewan); L. Pasquali (Lorenzo); J. Ferrer (Jorge); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); J. Dupuis (Josée); J.C. Florez (Jose); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J.S. Pankow (James); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); J.B. Meigs (James B.); F.B. Hu (Frank B.); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); T.A. Lakka (Timo); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); M. Stumvoll (Michael); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); L. Lind (Lars); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); E. Korpi-Hyövälti (Eeva); T. Saaristo (Timo); J. Saltevo (Juha); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); A. Metspalu (Andres); R. Erbel (Raimund); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); S. Moebus (Susanne); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); E. Ingelsson (Erik); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); R.N. Bergman (Richard N.); F.S. Collins (Francis S.); K.L. Mohlke (Karen L.); H. Koistinen (Heikki); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); K. Hveem (Kristian); I. Njølstad (Inger); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); P.J. Donnelly (Peter J.); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); U. de Faire (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); T. Illig (Thomas); A. Peters (Annette); S. Cauchi (Stephane); R. Sladek (Rob); P. Froguel (Philippe); T. Hansen (Torben); O. Pedersen (Oluf); A.D. Morris (Andrew); C.N.A. Palmer (Collin N. A.); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Nilsson (Peter M.); L. Groop (Leif); I.E. Barroso (Inês); C. Langenberg (Claudia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); C.A. O'Callaghan (Christopher A.); A.L. Gloyn (Anna); D. Altshuler (David); M. Boehnke (Michael); T.M. Teslovich (Tanya M.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); A.P. Morris (Andrew)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each

  7. Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaulton, Kyle J; Ferreira, Teresa; Lee, Yeji; Raimondo, Anne; Mägi, Reedik; Reschen, Michael E; Mahajan, Anubha; Locke, Adam; William Rayner, N; Robertson, Neil; Scott, Robert A; Prokopenko, Inga; Scott, Laura J; Green, Todd; Sparso, Thomas; Thuillier, Dorothee; Yengo, Loic; Grallert, Harald; Wahl, Simone; Frånberg, Mattias; Strawbridge, Rona J; Kestler, Hans; Chheda, Himanshu; Eisele, Lewin; Gustafsson, Stefan; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Qi, Lu; Karssen, Lennart C; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Willems, Sara M; Li, Man; Chen, Han; Fuchsberger, Christian; Kwan, Phoenix; Ma, Clement; Linderman, Michael; Lu, Yingchang; Thomsen, Soren K; Rundle, Jana K; Beer, Nicola L; van de Bunt, Martijn; Chalisey, Anil; Kang, Hyun Min; Voight, Benjamin F; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Almgren, Peter; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Blüher, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bottinger, Erwin P; Burtt, Noël P; Carey, Jason; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chines, Peter S; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Couper, David J; Crenshaw, Andrew T; van Dam, Rob M; Doney, Alex S F; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; Edkins, Sarah; Eriksson, Johan G; Esko, Tonu; Eury, Elodie; Fadista, João; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fox, Caroline; Franks, Paul W; Gertow, Karl; Gieger, Christian; Gigante, Bruna; Gottesman, Omri; Grant, George B; Grarup, Niels; Groves, Christopher J; Hassinen, Maija; Have, Christian T; Herder, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hreidarsson, Astradur B; Humphries, Steve E; Hunter, David J; Jackson, Anne U; Jonsson, Anna; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Kao, Wen-Hong L; Kerrison, Nicola D; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Kovacs, Peter; Kraft, Peter; Kravic, Jasmina; Langford, Cordelia; Leander, Karin; Liang, Liming; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lindholm, Eero; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; McLeod, Olga; Meyer, Julia; Mihailov, Evelin; Mirza, Ghazala; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Navarro, Carmen; Nöthen, Markus M; Oskolkov, Nikolay N; Owen, Katharine R; Palli, Domenico; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peltonen, Leena; Perry, John R B; Platou, Carl G P; Roden, Michael; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rybin, Denis; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sennblad, Bengt; Sigurðsson, Gunnar; Stančáková, Alena; Steinbach, Gerald; Storm, Petter; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Thorand, Barbara; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tonjes, Anke; Trakalo, Joseph; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Wennauer, Roman; Wiltshire, Steven; Wood, Andrew R; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Dunham, Ian; Birney, Ewan; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Ferrer, Jorge; Loos, Ruth J F; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Pankow, James S; van Duijn, Cornelia; Sijbrands, Eric; Meigs, James B; Hu, Frank B; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stumvoll, Michael; Pedersen, Nancy L; Lind, Lars; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Saaristo, Timo E; Saltevo, Juha; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Metspalu, Andres; Erbel, Raimund; Jöcke, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Ingelsson, Erik; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Koistinen, Heikki; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hveem, Kristian; Njølstad, Inger; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Donnelly, Peter J; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Illig, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Cauchi, Stephane; Sladek, Rob; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Collin N A; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Nilsson, Peter M; Groop, Leif C; Barroso, Inês; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Gloyn, Anna L; Altshuler, David; Boehnke, Michael; Teslovich, Tanya M; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct

  8. Multi-ethnic fine-mapping of 14 central adiposity loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Buchkovich, Martin L; Winkler, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    precise localizations of potential functional variants and suggest a possible regulatory role. Meta-analysis results for WHR were obtained from 77 167 EA participants from GIANT and 23 564 AA participants from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium. For fine mapping we interrogated SNPs...

  9. Fine-mapping identifies two additional breast cancer susceptibility loci at 9q31.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orr, Nick; Dudbridge, Frank; Dryden, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further...

  10. Fine-mapping identifies two additional breast cancer susceptibility loci at 9q31.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Orr (Nick); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Dryden (Nicola); S. Maguire (Sarah); D. Novo (Daniela); E. Perrakis (Eleni); N. Johnson (Nichola); M. Ghoussaini (Maya); J. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); C. Apicella (Carmel); J. Stone (Jennifer); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); A. Aitken; H. Warren (Helen); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Chistof); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); E. Cordina-Duverger (Emilie); M. Sanchez (Marie); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); U. Hamann (Ute); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); C. Justenhoven (Christina); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); S. Khan (Sofia); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M. Moisse (Matthieu); O.A.M. Floris; B. Beuselinck (B.); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Peissel (Bernard); V. Pensotti (Valeria); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); S. Slettedahl (Seth); C. Vachon (Celine); G.G. Giles (Graham G.); R.L. Milne (Roger L.); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); V. Kristensen (Vessela); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); S. Nord (Silje); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); W. Zheng (Wei); S.L. Deming-Halverson (Sandra); M. Shrubsole (Martha); J. Long (Jirong); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Robertus A. E. M.); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); D. Klevebring (Daniel); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); M. Kriege (Mieke); P. Hall (Per); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); B. Perkins (Barbara); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); A. Ashworth (Alan); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Jones (Michael); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C. Olswold (Curtis); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); S. Stewart-Brown (Sarah); P. Siriwanarangsan (Pornthep); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidema); H. Iwata (Hisato); J. Ishiguro (Junko); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-chen); D. Van Den Berg (David); D.O. Stram (Daniel O.); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); P. Kang (Peter); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); W. Lu (Wei); Y. Gao; H. Cai (Hui); D. Kang (Daehee); J.-Y. Choi (J.); S.K. Park (Sue); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); J.M. Hartman (Joost); X. Miao; W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); S.C. Lee (Soo Chin); S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); V. Gaborieau (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); W.J. Blot (William); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); L.B. Signorello (Lisa B.); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Bayes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); S. Healey (Sue); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (Guillermo); M. Rosario Alonso; N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); D.F. Easton (Douglas); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); O. Fletcher (Olivia); J. Peto (Julian)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and

  11. Fine mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Balcker, Paul I. W.

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger for celiac disease, risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles and

  12. Characterization and fine mapping of qkc7.03: a major locus for kernel cracking in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingtao; Chen, Lin; Wu, Xun; Gao, Xing; Li, Chunhui; Song, Yanchun; Zhang, Dengfeng; Shi, Yunsu; Li, Yu; Li, Yong-Xiang; Wang, Tianyu

    2018-02-01

    A major locus conferring kernel cracking in maize was characterized and fine mapped to an interval of 416.27 kb. Meanwhile, combining the results of transcriptomic analysis, the candidate gene was inferred. Seed development requires a proper structural and physiological balance between the maternal tissues and the internal structures of the seeds. In maize, kernel cracking is a disorder in this balance that seriously limits quality and yield and is characterized by a cracked pericarp at the kernel top and endosperm everting. This study elucidated the genetic basis and characterization of kernel cracking. Primarily, a near isogenic line (NIL) with a B73 background exhibited steady kernel cracking across environments. Therefore, deprived mapping populations were developed from this NIL and its recurrent parent B73. A major locus on chromosome 7, qkc7.03, was identified to be associated with the cracking performance. According to a progeny test of recombination events, qkc7.03 was fine mapped to a physical interval of 416.27 kb. In addition, obvious differences were observed in embryo development and starch granule arrangement within the endosperm between the NIL and its recurrent parent upon the occurrence of kernel cracking. Moreover, compared to its recurrent parent, the transcriptome of the NIL showed a significantly down-regulated expression of genes related to zeins, carbohydrate synthesis and MADS-domain transcription factors. The transcriptomic analysis revealed ten annotated genes within the target region of qkc7.03, and only GRMZM5G899476 was differently expressed between the NIL and its recurrent parent, indicating that this gene might be a candidate gene for kernel cracking. The results of this study facilitate the understanding of the potential mechanism underlying kernel cracking in maize.

  13. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  14. Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaulton, Kyle J; Ferreira, Teresa; Lee, Yeji

    2015-01-01

    We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct...... signal mapped predominantly to noncoding sequence, implying that association with T2D is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine mapping...... implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that the T2D risk allele for this SNP increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D risk allele...

  15. The Relationship of Facilitative Functioning to Effective Peer Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1978-01-01

    This study investigates peer supervision. The criterion used was counselor trainees' growth in facilitative functioning. The study sought to ascertain whether the facilitative counselor trainee was also the effective peer supervisor, to provide information on evaluating peer-supervisory experience, and to shed light on the most effective…

  16. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  17. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers based on Biparental Resequencing for Fine Mapping Seed Weight in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a complement to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, biallelic insertions and deletions (InDels represent powerful molecular markers with desirable features for filling the gap in current genetic linkage maps. In this study, 28,908 small InDel polymorphisms (1–5 base pair, bp distributed genome-wide were identified and annotated by comparison of a whole-genome resequencing data set from two soybean [ (L. Merr.] genotypes, cultivar Zhonghunag13 (ZH and line Zhongpin03-5373 (ZP. The physical distribution of InDel polymorphisms in soybean genome was uneven, and matched closely with the distribution of previously annotated genes. The average density of InDel in the arm region was significantly higher than that in the pericentromeric region. The genomic regions that were fixed between the two elites were elucidated. With this information, five InDel markers within a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL for seed weight (SW, , were developed and used to genotype 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross of ZP × ZH. Adding these five InDel markers to previously used SNP and SSR markers facilitated the discovery of further recombination events allowing fine-mapping the QTL to a 0.5 Mbp region. Our study clearly underlines the high value of InDel markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in soybean.

  18. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D associations in the IL-2RA (CD25 gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ≃ 0:3 and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data.

  19. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D. PMID:22947656

  20. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for mastitis resistance on bovine chromosome 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, N F; Sahana, G; Iso-Touru, T

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell score (SCS) were mapped on bovine chromosome 11. The mapping population consisted of 14 grandsire families belonging to three Nordic red cattle breeds: Finnish Ayrshire (FA), Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Danish Red......, each affecting one trait; or one QTL affecting a single trait. A QTL affecting CM was fine-mapped. In FA, a haplotype having a strong association with a high negative effect on mastitis resistance was identified. The mapping precision of an earlier detected SCS-QTL was not improved by the LDLA analysis...

  1. Genetic fine-mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Locke, Adam; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil; Scott, Robert A; Prokopenko, Inga; Scott, Laura J; Green, Todd; Sparso, Thomas; Thuillier, Dorothee; Yengo, Loic; Grallert, Harald; Wahl, Simone; Frånberg, Mattias; Strawbridge, Rona J; Kestler, Hans; Chheda, Himanshu; Eisele, Lewin; Gustafsson, Stefan; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Qi, Lu; Karssen, Lennart C; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Willems, Sara M; Li, Man; Chen, Han; Fuchsberger, Christian; Kwan, Phoenix; Ma, Clement; Linderman, Michael; Lu, Yingchang; Thomsen, Soren K; Rundle, Jana K; Beer, Nicola L; van de Bunt, Martijn; Chalisey, Anil; Kang, Hyun Min; Voight, Benjamin F; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Almgren, Peter; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Benediktsson, Rafn; Blüher, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borringer, Erwin P; Burtt, Noël P; Carey, Jason; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chines, Peter S; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Couper, David J; Crenshaw, Andrew T; van Dam, Rob M; Doney, Alex SF; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; Edkins, Sarah; Eriksson, Johan G; Esko, Tonu; Eury, Elodie; Fadista, João; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fox, Caroline; Franks, Paul W; Gertow, Karl; Gieger, Christian; Gigante, Bruna; Gottesman, Omri; Grant, George B; Grarup, Niels; Groves, Christopher J; Hassinen, Maija; Have, Christian T; Herder, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hreidarsson, Astradur B; Humphries, Steve E; Hunter, David J; Jackson, Anne U; Jonsson, Anna; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Kerrison, Nicola D; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Kovacs, Peter; Kraft, Peter; Kravic, Jasmina; Langford, Cordelia; Leander, Karin; Liang, Liming; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lindholm, Eero; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Ching-Ti; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luan, Jian’an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; McLeod, Olga; Meyer, Julia; Mihailov, Evelin; Mirza, Ghazala; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Navarro, Carmen; Nöthen, Markus M; Oskolkov, Nikolay N; Owen, Katharine R; Palli, Domenico; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perry, John RB; Platou, Carl GP; Roden, Michael; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rybin, Denis; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sennblad, Bengt; Sigurðsson, Gunnar; Stančáková, Alena; Steinbach, Gerald; Storm, Petter; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Thorand, Barbara; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tonjes, Anke; Trakalo, Joseph; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Wennauer, Roman; Wood, Andrew R; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Dunham, Ian; Birney, Ewan; Pasquali, Lorenzo; Ferrer, Jorge; Loos, Ruth JF; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Pankow, James S; van Duijn, Cornelia; Sijbrands, Eric; Meigs, James B; Hu, Frank B; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stumvoll, Michael; Pedersen, Nancy L; Lind, Lars; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Saaristo, Timo E; Saltevo, Juha; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Metspalu, Andres; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Ingelsson, Erik; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Koistinen, Heikki; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hveem, Kristian; Njølstad, Inger; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Donnelly, Peter J; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Illig, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Cauchi, Stephane; Sladek, Rob; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Collin NA; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Nilsson, Peter M; Groop, Leif C; Barroso, Inês; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; O’Callaghan, Christopher A; Gloyn, Anna L; Altshuler, David; Boehnke, Michael; Teslovich, Tanya M; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    We performed fine-mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in/near KCNQ1. “Credible sets” of variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to non-coding sequence, implying that T2D association is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine-mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that this T2D-risk allele increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D-risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease. PMID:26551672

  2. Discovery and fine mapping of serum protein loci through transethnic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J A; Prins, Bram P; Feitosa, Mary F; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H; Folsom, Aaron R; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P; Lopez, Lorna M; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V; Winkler, Cheryl A; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y D; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J; Frayling, Timothy M; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hicks, Andrew A; Koenig, Wolfgang; O' Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S; North, Kari E; Felix, Janine F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Cupples, L Adrienne; Perry, John R B; Morris, Andrew P

    2012-10-05

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci under selective phenotyping strategies based on linkage and linkage disequilibrium criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Berg, P; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    disequilibrium-based sampling criteria (LDC) for selecting individuals to phenotype are compared to random phenotyping in a quantitative trait loci (QTL) verification experiment using stochastic simulation. Several strategies based on LAC and LDC for selecting the most informative 30%, 40% or 50% of individuals...... for phenotyping to extract maximum power and precision in a QTL fine mapping experiment were developed and assessed. Linkage analyses for the mapping was performed for individuals sampled on LAC within families and combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analyses was performed for individuals sampled across...... the whole population based on LDC. The results showed that selecting individuals with similar haplotypes to the paternal haplotypes (minimum recombination criterion) using LAC compared to random phenotyping gave at least the same power to detect a QTL but decreased the accuracy of the QTL position. However...

  4. Fine-Mapping of the 1p11.2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Hisani N; Chung, Charles C; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2: 120......The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799-121,481,132) flanking......,300,000-120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Per-allelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry...

  5. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, S; Yao, J; Guo, X; Fernandez-Rhodes, L; Lim, U; Boston, J; Buzková, P; Carlson, C S; Cheng, I; Cochran, B; Cooper, R; Ehret, G; Fornage, M; Gong, J; Gross, M; Gu, C C; Haessler, J; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B; Hindorff, L A; Houston, D; Irvin, M R; Jackson, R; Kuller, L; Leppert, M; Lewis, C E; Li, R; Le Marchand, L; Matise, T C; Nguyen, K-Dh; Chakravarti, A; Pankow, J S; Pankratz, N; Pooler, L; Ritchie, M D; Bien, S A; Wassel, C L; Chen, Y-D I; Taylor, K D; Allison, M; Rotter, J I; Schreiner, P J; Schumacher, F; Wilkens, L; Boerwinkle, E; Kooperberg, C; Peters, U; Buyske, S; Graff, M; North, K E

    2017-02-01

    Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine-mapping cardiovascular-associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Of the 17 WHR loci, eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine-mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female-stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of this

  6. Fine Mapping of Ur-3, a Historically Important Rust Resistance Locus in Common Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar P. Hurtado-Gonzales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a devastating disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in the Americas and Africa. The historically important Ur-3 gene confers resistance to many races of the highly variable bean rust pathogen that overcome other rust resistance genes. Existing molecular markers tagging Ur-3 for use in marker-assisted selection produce false results. Here, we describe the fine mapping of the Ur-3 locus for the development of highly accurate markers linked to Ur-3. An F2 population from the cross Pinto 114 (susceptible × Aurora (resistant with Ur-3 was evaluated for its reaction to four different races of U. appendiculatus. A bulked segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBEAN6K_3 placed the approximate location of Ur-3 in the lower arm of chromosome Pv11. Specific SSR and SNP markers and haplotype analysis of 18 sequenced bean varieties positioned Ur-3 in a 46.5 kb genomic region from 46.96 to 47.01 Mb on Pv11. We discovered in this region the SS68 KASP marker that was tightly linked to Ur-3. Validation of SS68 on a panel of 130 diverse common bean cultivars containing all known rust resistance genes revealed that SS68 was highly accurate and produced no false results. The SS68 marker will be of great value in pyramiding Ur-3 with other rust resistance genes. It will also significantly reduce time and labor associated with the current phenotypic detection of Ur-3. This is the first utilization of fine mapping to discover markers linked to rust resistance in common bean.

  7. Fine Mapping of Ur-3, a Historically Important Rust Resistance Locus in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; Valentini, Giseli; Gilio, Thiago A S; Martins, Alexandre M; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-02-09

    Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus , is a devastating disease of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) in the Americas and Africa. The historically important Ur-3 gene confers resistance to many races of the highly variable bean rust pathogen that overcome other rust resistance genes. Existing molecular markers tagging Ur-3 for use in marker-assisted selection produce false results. Here, we describe the fine mapping of the Ur-3 locus for the development of highly accurate markers linked to Ur-3 An F 2 population from the cross Pinto 114 (susceptible) × Aurora (resistant with Ur-3 ) was evaluated for its reaction to four different races of U. appendiculatus A bulked segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBEAN6K_3 placed the approximate location of Ur-3 in the lower arm of chromosome Pv11. Specific SSR and SNP markers and haplotype analysis of 18 sequenced bean varieties positioned Ur-3 in a 46.5 kb genomic region from 46.96 to 47.01 Mb on Pv11. We discovered in this region the SS68 KASP marker that was tightly linked to Ur-3 Validation of SS68 on a panel of 130 diverse common bean cultivars containing all known rust resistance genes revealed that SS68 was highly accurate and produced no false results. The SS68 marker will be of great value in pyramiding Ur-3 with other rust resistance genes. It will also significantly reduce time and labor associated with the current phenotypic detection of Ur-3 This is the first utilization of fine mapping to discover markers linked to rust resistance in common bean. Copyright © 2017 Hurtado-Gonzales et al.

  8. Integrating functional data to prioritize causal variants in statistical fine-mapping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Kichaev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard statistical approaches for prioritization of variants for functional testing in fine-mapping studies either use marginal association statistics or estimate posterior probabilities for variants to be causal under simplifying assumptions. Here, we present a probabilistic framework that integrates association strength with functional genomic annotation data to improve accuracy in selecting plausible causal variants for functional validation. A key feature of our approach is that it empirically estimates the contribution of each functional annotation to the trait of interest directly from summary association statistics while allowing for multiple causal variants at any risk locus. We devise efficient algorithms that estimate the parameters of our model across all risk loci to further increase performance. Using simulations starting from the 1000 Genomes data, we find that our framework consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art fine-mapping methods, reducing the number of variants that need to be selected to capture 90% of the causal variants from an average of 13.3 to 10.4 SNPs per locus (as compared to the next-best performing strategy. Furthermore, we introduce a cost-to-benefit optimization framework for determining the number of variants to be followed up in functional assays and assess its performance using real and simulation data. We validate our findings using a large scale meta-analysis of four blood lipids traits and find that the relative probability for causality is increased for variants in exons and transcription start sites and decreased in repressed genomic regions at the risk loci of these traits. Using these highly predictive, trait-specific functional annotations, we estimate causality probabilities across all traits and variants, reducing the size of the 90% confidence set from an average of 17.5 to 13.5 variants per locus in this data.

  9. Fine mapping of the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyumi; Choi, Doil; Lee, Jundae

    2018-01-01

    The genomic region cosegregating with the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene of Capsicum annuum L. was delimited to a region of 869.9 kb on chromosome 5 through fine mapping analysis. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 gene that controls pollen development, was identified in this region. Genic male sterility caused by the ms 1 gene has been used for the economically efficient production of massive hybrid seeds in paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), a colored bell-type sweet pepper. Previously, a CAPS marker, PmsM1-CAPS, located about 2-3 cM from the ms 1 locus, was reported. In this study, we constructed a fine map near the ms 1 locus using high-resolution melting (HRM) markers in an F 2 population consisting of 1118 individual plants, which segregated into 867 male-fertile and 251 male-sterile plants. A total of 12 HRM markers linked to the ms 1 locus were developed from 53 primer sets targeting intraspecific SNPs derived by comparing genome-wide sequences obtained by next-generation resequencing analysis. Using this approach, we narrowed down the region cosegregating with the ms 1 gene to 869.9 kb of sequence. Gene prediction analysis revealed 11 open reading frames in this region. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, was identified; this gene is a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 (MS1) gene, which encodes a PHD-type transcription factor that regulates pollen and tapetum development. Sequence comparison analysis suggested that the CA05g06780 gene is the strongest candidate for the ms 1 gene of paprika. To summarize, we developed a cosegregated marker, 32187928-HRM, for marker-assisted selection and identified a strong candidate for the ms 1 gene.

  10. Generalization and fine mapping of European ancestry-based central adiposity variants in African ancestry populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Yao, Jie; Guo, Xiuqing; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Lim, Unhee; Boston, Jonathan; Buzková, Petra; Carlson, Christopher S.; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Fornage, Myriam; Gong, Jian; Gross, Myron; Gu, C. Charles; Haessler, Jeff; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Le Marchand, Loic; Matise, Tara C.; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Pooler, Loreall; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bien, Stephanie A.; Wassel, Christina L.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Allison, Matthew; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wilkens, Lynne; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Peters, Ulrike; Buyske, Steven; Graff, Mariaelisa; North, Kari E.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of BMI and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. Subjects/Methods To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine mapping cardiovascular associated loci, to explore novel array-wide associations with WC and WHR among 15 945 African descendants using all and sex-stratified groups. We further interrogated 17 known WHR regions for African ancestry-specific variants. Results Of the 17 WHR loci, eight SNPs located in four loci were replicated in the sex-combined or sex-stratified meta-analyses. Two of these eight independently associated with WHR after conditioning on the known variant in European descendants (rs12096179 in TBX15-WARS2 and rs2059092 in ADAMTS9). In the fine mapping assessment, the putative functional region was reduced across all four loci but to varying degrees (average 40% drop in number of putative SNPs and 20% drop in genomic region). Similar to previous studies, the significant SNPs in the female stratified analysis were stronger than the significant SNPs from the sex-combined analysis. No novel associations were detected in the array-wide analyses. Conclusions Of 17 previously identified loci, four loci replicated in the African ancestry populations of

  11. Fine-mapping analysis of the MHC region for vitiligo based on a new Han-MHC reference panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Juan; Zhang, Xuelei; Wen, Leilei; Sun, Jingying; Cheng, Yuyan; Tang, Xianfa; Liang, Bo; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Fusheng; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Anping; Zhang, Xuejun; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yang, Sen; Sun, Liangdan

    2018-03-30

    Vitiligo is an immune-related disease with patchy depigmentation of skin and hair caused by selective destruction of melanocytes. In recent decades, many studies have shown the association between vitiligo and HLA genes; however, the results of Han Chinese are scarce. In this study, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of the MHC region in 2818 Han Chinese subjects through a widely used HLA imputation method with a newly built large-scale Han-MHC reference panel. Three new four-digit HLA alleles (HLA-DQB1 ∗ 02:02, HLA-DQA1 ∗ 02:01 and HLA-DPB1 ∗ 17:01) were identified to be associated with the risk of vitiligo, and four previously reported alleles were confirmed. Further conditional analysis revealed that two important variants, HLA-DQβ1 amino acid position 135 (OR = 1.79, P = 1.87 × 10 -11 ) and HLA-B amino acid positions 45-46 (OR = 1.44, P = 5.61 × 10 -11 ), conferred most of the MHC associations. Three-dimension ribbon models showed that the former is located within the β2 domain of the HLA-DQβ1 molecule, and the latter lies in the α1 domain of the HLA-B molecule, while both are involved in specific antigen presenting process. Finally, we summarized all significant signals in the MHC region to clarify their complex relationships, and 8.60% of phenotypic variance could be explained based on all reported variants in Han Chinese so far. Our findings highlight the complex genetic architecture of the MHC region for vitiligo in Han Chinese population and expand our understanding of the roles of HLA coding variants in the etiology of vitiligo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Edward J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs u...

  13. The Relationship between Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects: Statistical Artifacts, Baselines, and a Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between interference and facilitation effects in the Stroop task is poorly understood yet central to its implications. At question is the modal view that they arise from a single mechanism--the congruency of color and word. Two developments have challenged that view: (a) the belief that facilitation effects are fractionally small…

  14. The Relationship between Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Effectiveness of Undergraduate Chemistry Peer Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, J. R.; Barnard, R. A.; Peterson, L. J.; Coppola, B. P.

    2018-01-01

    Use of peer instruction and facilitation has surged in undergraduate education at large colleges and universities in recent years. Studies on peer instruction have been directed primarily at student learning gains and affective outcomes among the facilitators. For peer instructors, the relationship between their teaching effectiveness and their…

  15. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance gene bph19(t).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J W; Wang, L; Pang, X F; Pan, Q H

    2006-04-01

    Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a resistance gene against brown planthopper (BPH) biotype 2 in rice was performed using two F(2) populations derived from two crosses between a resistant indica cultivar (cv.), AS20-1, and two susceptible japonica cvs., Aichi Asahi and Lijiangxintuanheigu. Insect resistance was evaluated using F(1) plants and the two F(2) populations. The results showed that a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as bph19(t), conditioned the resistance in AS20-1. A linkage analysis, mainly employing microsatellite markers, was carried out in the two F(2) populations through bulked segregant analysis and recessive class analysis (RCA), in combination with bioinformatics analysis (BIA). The resistance gene locus bph19(t) was finely mapped to a region of about 1.0 cM on the short arm of chromosome 3, flanked by markers RM6308 and RM3134, where one known marker RM1022, and four new markers, b1, b2, b3 and b4, developed in the present study were co-segregating with the locus. To physically map this locus, the bph19(t)-linked markers were landed on bacterial artificial chromosome or P1 artificial chromosome clones of the reference cv., Nipponbare, released by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. Sequence information of these clones was used to construct a physical map of the bph19(t) locus, in silico, by BIA. The bph19(t) locus was physically defined to an interval of about 60 kb. The detailed genetic and physical maps of the bph19(t) locus will facilitate marker-assisted gene pyramiding and cloning.

  16. Saturation of an intra-gene pool linkage map: towards a unified consensus linkage map for fine mapping and synteny analysis in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carlos H; Fernandez, Andrea C; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A; McClean, Phillip E; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364 × BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364 × G19833 (DG) and BAT93 × JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning.

  17. Fine Mapping of Two Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes Located at the Pm1 Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by (DC. f. sp. ( is a globally devastating foliar disease of wheat ( L.. More than a dozen genes against this disease, identified from wheat germplasms of different ploidy levels, have been mapped to the region surrounding the locus on the long arm of chromosome 7A, which forms a resistance (-gene cluster. and from einkorn wheat ( L. were two of the genes belonging to this cluster. This study was initiated to fine map these two genes toward map-based cloning. Comparative genomics study showed that macrocolinearity exists between L. chromosome 1 (Bd1 and the – region, which allowed us to develop markers based on the wheat sequences orthologous to genes contained in the Bd1 region. With these and other newly developed and published markers, high-resolution maps were constructed for both and using large F populations. Moreover, a physical map of was constructed through chromosome walking with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and comparative mapping. Eventually, and were restricted to a 0.12- and 0.86-cM interval, respectively. Based on the closely linked common markers, , , and (another powdery mildew resistance gene in the cluster were not allelic to one another. Severe recombination suppression and disruption of synteny were noted in the region encompassing . These results provided useful information for map-based cloning of the genes in the cluster and interpretation of their evolution.

  18. Cross-Population Joint Analysis of eQTLs: Fine Mapping and Functional Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoquan; Luca, Francesca; Pique-Regi, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been shown as a powerful tool to uncover the genetic underpinnings of many complex traits at molecular level. In this paper, we present an integrative analysis approach that leverages eQTL data collected from multiple population groups. In particular, our approach effectively identifies multiple independent cis-eQTL signals that are consistent across populations, accounting for population heterogeneity in allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium patterns. Furthermore, by integrating genomic annotations, our analysis framework enables high-resolution functional analysis of eQTLs. We applied our statistical approach to analyze the GEUVADIS data consisting of samples from five population groups. From this analysis, we concluded that i) jointly analysis across population groups greatly improves the power of eQTL discovery and the resolution of fine mapping of causal eQTL ii) many genes harbor multiple independent eQTLs in their cis regions iii) genetic variants that disrupt transcription factor binding are significantly enriched in eQTLs (p-value = 4.93 × 10-22). PMID:25906321

  19. Genetic analysis and gene fine mapping of aroma in rice (Oryza sativa L. Cyperales, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xia Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated inheritance and carried out gene fine mapping of aroma in crosses between the aromatic elite hybrid rice Oryza sativa indica variety Chuanxiang-29B (Ch-29B and the non-aromatic rice O. sativa indica variety R2 and O. sativa japonica Lemont (Le. The F1 grains and leaves were non-aromatic while the F2 non-aroma to aroma segregation pattern was 3:1. The F3 segregation ratio was consistent with the expected 1:2:1 for a single recessive aroma gene in Ch-29B. Linkage analysis between simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and the aroma locus for the aromatic F2 plants mapped the Ch-29B aroma gene to a chromosome 8 region flanked by SSR markers RM23120 at 0.52 cM and RM3459 at 1.23 cM, a replicate F2 population confirming these results. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones cover chromosome 8 markers RM23120 and RM3459. Our molecular mapping data from the two populations indicated that the aroma locus occurs in a 142.85 kb interval on BAC clones AP005301 or AP005537, implying that it might be the same gene reported by Bradbury et al (2005a; Plant Biotec J. 3:363-370. The flanking markers Aro7, RM23120 and RM3459 identified by us could greatly accelerate the efficiency and precision of aromatic rice breeding programs.

  20. Fine Mapping of QUICK ROOTING 1 and 2, Quantitative Trait Loci Increasing Root Length in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitomi, Yuka; Nakao, Emari; Kawai, Sawako; Kanno, Noriko; Ando, Tsuyu; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Irie, Kenji; Uga, Yusaku

    2018-02-02

    The volume that the root system can occupy is associated with the efficiency of water and nutrient uptake from soil. Genetic improvement of root length, which is a limiting factor for root distribution, is necessary for increasing crop production. In this report, we describe identification of two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for maximal root length, QUICK ROOTING 1 ( QRO1 ) on chromosome 2 and QRO2 on chromosome 6, in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.). We measured the maximal root length in 26 lines carrying chromosome segments from the long-rooted upland rice cultivar Kinandang Patong in the genetic background of the short-rooted lowland cultivar IR64. Five lines had longer roots than IR64. By rough mapping of the target regions in BC 4 F 2 populations, we detected putative QTLs for maximal root length on chromosomes 2, 6, and 8. To fine-map these QTLs, we used BC 4 F 3 recombinant homozygous lines. QRO1 was mapped between markers RM5651 and RM6107, which delimit a 1.7-Mb interval on chromosome 2, and QRO2 was mapped between markers RM20495 and RM3430-1, which delimit an 884-kb interval on chromosome 6. Both QTLs may be promising gene resources for improving root system architecture in rice. Copyright © 2018 Kitomi et al.

  1. Fine Mapping of QUICK ROOTING 1 and 2, Quantitative Trait Loci Increasing Root Length in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kitomi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The volume that the root system can occupy is associated with the efficiency of water and nutrient uptake from soil. Genetic improvement of root length, which is a limiting factor for root distribution, is necessary for increasing crop production. In this report, we describe identification of two quantitative trait loci (QTLs for maximal root length, QUICK ROOTING 1 (QRO1 on chromosome 2 and QRO2 on chromosome 6, in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. We measured the maximal root length in 26 lines carrying chromosome segments from the long-rooted upland rice cultivar Kinandang Patong in the genetic background of the short-rooted lowland cultivar IR64. Five lines had longer roots than IR64. By rough mapping of the target regions in BC4F2 populations, we detected putative QTLs for maximal root length on chromosomes 2, 6, and 8. To fine-map these QTLs, we used BC4F3 recombinant homozygous lines. QRO1 was mapped between markers RM5651 and RM6107, which delimit a 1.7-Mb interval on chromosome 2, and QRO2 was mapped between markers RM20495 and RM3430-1, which delimit an 884-kb interval on chromosome 6. Both QTLs may be promising gene resources for improving root system architecture in rice.

  2. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Body Weight in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus Using 2b-RAD Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution genetic linkage map is essential for a wide range of genetics and genomics studies such as comparative genomics analysis and QTL fine mapping. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus is widely distributed in Eurasia, and is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. In this study, a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed for crucian carp using 2b-RAD technology. The consensus map contains 8487 SNP markers, assigning to 50 linkage groups (LGs and spanning 3762.88 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.44 cM and genome coverage of 98.8%. The female map had 4410 SNPs, and spanned 3500.42 cM (0.79 cM/marker, while the male map had 4625 SNPs and spanned 3346.33 cM (0.72 cM/marker. The average recombination ratio of female to male was 2.13:1, and significant male-biased recombination suppressions were observed in LG47 and LG49. Comparative genomics analysis revealed a clear 2:1 syntenic relationship between crucian carp LGs and chromosomes of zebrafish and grass carp, and a 1:1 correspondence, but extensive chromosomal rearrangement, between crucian carp and common carp, providing evidence that crucian carp has experienced a fourth round of whole genome duplication (4R-WGD. Eight chromosome-wide QTL for body weight at 2 months after hatch were detected on five LGs, explaining 10.1–13.2% of the phenotypic variations. Potential candidate growth-related genes, such as an EGF-like domain and TGF-β, were identified within the QTL intervals. This high-density genetic map and QTL analysis supplies a basis for genome evolutionary studies in cyprinid fishes, genome assembly, and QTL fine mapping for complex traits in crucian carp.

  3. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  4. Clustering by neurocognition for fine-mapping of the schizophrenia susceptibility loci on chromosome 6p

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Yu-Li; Fann, Cathy Shen-Jang; Hsiao, Po-Chang; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Hung, Shuen-Iu; Chen, Chun-Houh; Wu, Han-Ming; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Liu, Shi K.; Hwang, Tzung J.; Hsieh, Ming H.; Chang, Chien-Ching; Yang, Wei-Chih; Lin, Jin-Jia; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Chen, Wei J.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome 6p is one of the most commonly implicated regions in the genome-wide linkage scans of schizophrenia, whereas further association studies for markers in this region were inconsistent likely due to heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify more homogeneous subgroups of families for fine mapping on regions around markers D6S296 and D6S309 (both in 6p24.3) as well as D6S274 (in 6p22.3) by means of similarity in neurocognitive functioning. A total of 160 families of patients with schizophrenia comprising at least two affected siblings who had data for 8 neurocognitive test variables of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were subjected to cluster analysis with data visualization using the test scores of both affected siblings. Family clusters derived were then used separately in family-based association tests for 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region of 6p24.3 and 6p22.3. Three clusters were derived from the family-based clustering, with deficit cluster 1 representing deficit on the CPT, deficit cluster 2 representing deficit on both the CPT and the WCST, and a third cluster of non-deficit. After adjustment using false discovery rate for multiple testing, SNP rs13873 and haplotype rs1225934-rs13873 on BMP6-TXNDC5 genes were significantly associated with schizophrenia for the deficit cluster 1 but not for the deficit cluster 2 or non-deficit cluster. Our results provide further evidence that the BMP6-TXNDC5 locus on 6p24.3 may play a role in the selective impairments on sustained attention of schizophrenia. PMID:19694819

  5. Facilitativeness, conflict, demand for approval, self-esteem, and satisfaction with romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    This study is an examination of the extent to which satisfaction with a main current romantic relationship is associated with negative conflict, demand for approval, self-esteem, and the 3 facilitative conditions of unconditional regard, empathy, and congruence. One or more of these conditions have been proposed as important determinants of relationship satisfaction by various relationship-enhancement approaches such as behavioral marital therapy and cognitive-behavioral marital therapy. College students (86 women and 58 men) completed S. S. Hendrick's (1988) Relationship Satisfaction Scale, a measure of negative conflict formulated by the author, R. G. Jones's (1969) Demand for Approval Scale (modified for a particular relationship), M. Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale, and a shortened modified version of G. T. Barrett-Lennard's (1964) Relationship Inventory. Relationship satisfaction was most strongly related to the level of regard and empathy, which is consistent with approaches to relationships that emphasize empathy training.

  6. Fine-mapping of a QTL influencing pork tenderness on porcine chromosome 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beever Jonathan E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL exhibiting large effects on both Instron shear force and taste panel tenderness was detected within the Illinois Meat Quality Pedigree (IMQP. This QTL mapped to the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 (SSC2q. Comparative analysis of SSC2q indicates that it is orthologous to a segment of human chromosome 5 (HSA5 containing a strong positional candidate gene, calpastatin (CAST. CAST polymorphisms have recently been shown to be associated with meat quality characteristics; however, the possible involvement of other genes and/or molecular variation in this region cannot be excluded, thus requiring fine-mapping of the QTL. Results Recent advances in porcine genome resources, including high-resolution radiation hybrid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC physical maps, were utilized for development of novel informative markers. Marker density in the ~30-Mb region surrounding the most likely QTL position was increased by addition of eighteen new microsatellite markers, including nine publicly-available and nine novel markers. Two newly-developed markers were derived from a porcine BAC clone containing the CAST gene. Refinement of the QTL position was achieved through linkage and haplotype analyses. Within-family linkage analyses revealed at least two families segregating for a highly-significant QTL in strong positional agreement with CAST markers. A combined analysis of these two families yielded QTL intervals of 36 cM and 7 cM for Instron shear force and taste panel tenderness, respectively, while haplotype analyses suggested further refinement to a 1.8 cM interval containing CAST markers. The presence of additional tenderness QTL on SSC2q was also suggested. Conclusion These results reinforce CAST as a strong positional candidate. Further analysis of CAST molecular variation within the IMQP F1 boars should enhance understanding of the molecular basis of pork tenderness, and thus

  7. Relationship of Physical Activity Facilitators and Body Mass Index in Kashan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khalili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many factors that affect the level of physical activity and body mass index of the elderly. The current study aimed to assess the relationship of  physical activity facilitators and body mass index of Kashan elderly. Methods: The cross-sectional study sampled 400 elderly older than 60 referred to 10 healthcare centers in Kashan, 2014, via multistage quota method. Participations were tested under demographic characters, body mass index(BMI level, and exercise benefits part of exercise benefits and barrier scale (persian  version for measurig  physical activity facilitators. Data were analyzed in SPSS software, descriptive statistic, Spearman correlation test, Chi-Square and Ordinal regression. Results: Of the participations73.6% were overweight or obese. Median and interquartile range (IQR of  physical activity facilitators was 75 and 33 respectively. The most prominent  physical activity facilitators was" physical activity increases my physical ability, (83.2%. There was a significantly inverse relationship between  physical activity facilitators  score and BMI of participants (r=-0.233, P=0.001. Ordinal regression evealed that mostly predictor of  BMI among  physical activity facilitators was "physical activity improves the quality of my work " (OR=8.683, P=0.001. Conclusion: Results identified  physical activity facilitators directly is related to improve physical circumstances of the elderly people. Surly poviding  physical activity facilitators through educational and interventional programs may improve the health status of aging population.

  8. Fine Mapping of qroot-yield-1.06, a QTL for Root, Plant Vigor and Yield in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Ascanio, Ana Karine

    2015-01-01

    Root-yield-1.06 is a major QTL affecting root system architecture (RSA) and other agronomic traits in maize. The effect of this QTL has been evaluated with the development of near isogenic lines (NILs) differing at the QTL position. The objective of this study was to fine map qroot-yield-1.06 by marker-assisted searching for chromosome recombinants in the QTL interval and concurrent root phenotyping in both controlled and field conditions, through successive generations. Complementary approac...

  9. Fine-mapping of qGW4.05, a major QTL for kernel weight and size in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Li, Yong-xiang; Li, Chunhui; Wu, Xun; Qin, Weiwei; Li, Xin; Jiao, Fuchao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dengfeng; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Li, Yu; Wang, Tianyu

    2016-04-12

    Kernel weight and size are important components of grain yield in cereals. Although some information is available concerning the map positions of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel weight and size in maize, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these QTLs. qGW4.05 is a major QTL that is associated with kernel weight and size in maize. We combined linkage analysis and association mapping to fine-map and identify candidate gene(s) at qGW4.05. QTL qGW4.05 was fine-mapped to a 279.6-kb interval in a segregating population derived from a cross of Huangzaosi with LV28. By combining the results of regional association mapping and linkage analysis, we identified GRMZM2G039934 as a candidate gene responsible for qGW4.05. Candidate gene-based association mapping was conducted using a panel of 184 inbred lines with variable kernel weights and kernel sizes. Six polymorphic sites in the gene GRMZM2G039934 were significantly associated with kernel weight and kernel size. The results of linkage analysis and association mapping revealed that GRMZM2G039934 is the most likely candidate gene for qGW4.05. These results will improve our understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying kernel development in maize.

  10. Spatiotemporal Relationships among Audiovisual Stimuli Modulate Auditory Facilitation of Visual Target Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Huamin; Sun, Fang; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory information is multimodal; through audiovisual interaction, task-irrelevant auditory stimuli tend to speed response times and increase visual perception accuracy. However, mechanisms underlying these performance enhancements have remained unclear. We hypothesize that task-irrelevant auditory stimuli might provide reliable temporal and spatial cues for visual target discrimination and behavioral response enhancement. Using signal detection theory, the present study investigated the effects of spatiotemporal relationships on auditory facilitation of visual target discrimination. Three experiments were conducted where an auditory stimulus maintained reliable temporal and/or spatial relationships with visual target stimuli. Results showed that perception sensitivity (d') to visual target stimuli was enhanced only when a task-irrelevant auditory stimulus maintained reliable spatiotemporal relationships with a visual target stimulus. When only reliable spatial or temporal information was contained, perception sensitivity was not enhanced. These results suggest that reliable spatiotemporal relationships between visual and auditory signals are required for audiovisual integration during a visual discrimination task, most likely due to a spread of attention. These results also indicate that auditory facilitation of visual target discrimination follows from late-stage cognitive processes rather than early stage sensory processes. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  11. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate......A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same...... population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P mastitis-related traits...

  12. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Horikoshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG, none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3 and FG (GCK and G6PC2. The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  13. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Mӓgi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hӓgg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S; Winkler, Thomas W; Willems, Sara M; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R; Groves, Christopher J; Bennett, Amanda J; Lehtimӓki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Karssen, Lennart C; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D; Samani, Nilesh J; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Slagboom, P Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.

  14. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora.

  15. Comprehensive fine mapping of chr12q12-14 and follow-up replication identify activin receptor 1B (ACVR1B) as a muscle strength gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windelinckx, An; De Mars, Gunther; Huygens, Wim; Peeters, Maarten W.; Vincent, Barbara; Wijmenga, Cisca; Lambrechts, Diether; Delecluse, Christophe; Roth, Stephen M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi; Aerssens, Jeroen; Vlietinck, Robert; Beunen, Gaston P.; Thomis, Martine A.

    Muscle strength is important in functional activities of daily living and the prevention of common pathologies. We describe the two-staged fine mapping of a previously identified linkage peak for knee strength on chr12q12-14. First, 209 tagSNPs in/around 74 prioritized genes were genotyped in 500

  16. High-density genetic map using whole-genome re-sequencing for fine mapping and candidate gene discovery for disease resistance in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-density genetic linkage maps are essential for fine mapping QTLs controlling disease resistance traits, such as early leaf spot (ELS), late leaf spot (LLS), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). With completion of the genome sequences of two diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut, we could use ...

  17. Fine mapping and introgressing qFIS1-2, a major QTL for kernel fissure resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring increases breakage during milling and decreases the value of processed rice. This study employed molecular gene tagging methods to fine-map a fissure resistance (FR) locus in ‘Cybonnet’, a semidwarf tropical japonica cultivar, as well as transfer this trait to...

  18. Fine Mapping of the Dominant Potyvirus Resistance Gene Pvr7 Reveals a Relationship with Pvr4 in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Jelli; An, Jeongtak; Kang, Won-Hee; Jahn, Molly; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2018-01-01

    Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) is the most common potyvirus infection of pepper plants and causes significant yield losses. The Pvr7 gene from Capsicum chinense PI159236 and the Pvr4 gene from C. annuum CM334 both have been reported to confer dominant resistance to PepMoV. The Pvr7 locus conferring resistance to PepMoV in C. annuum '9093' was previously mapped to chromosome 10. To develop a high-resolution map of the Pvr7 locus in 9093, we constructed an intraspecific F 2 mapping population consisting of 916 individuals by crossing PepMoV-resistant C. annuum '9093' and the PepMoV-susceptible C. annuum 'Jeju'. To delimit the Pvr7 target region, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from the Pvr4 region were used for genotyping the F 2 population. Molecular mapping delimited the Pvr7 locus to a physical interval of 258 kb, which was the same region as Pvr4 on chromosome 10. Three SNP markers derived from Pvr4 mapping perfectly cosegregated with PepMoV resistance. Sequencing analyses of the Pvr7 flanking markers and the Pvr4-specific gene indicated that Pvr7 and Pvr4 are the same gene. Resistance spectrum analysis of 9093 against pepper potyviruses showed that 9093 has a resistance spectrum similar to that of cultivar CM334. These combined results demonstrate that, unlike previously thought, the dominant PepMoV resistance in 9093 could be derived from C. annuum 'CM334', and that Pvr4 and Pvr7 should be considered as the same locus.

  19. Fine-mapping of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes of the Staphylococcus aureus SEB antigen using short overlapping peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhao

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB is one of the most potent Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins (SEs. Due to its conserved sequence and stable structure, SEB might be a good candidate antigen for MRSA vaccines. Although cellular immune responses to SEB are well-characterized, much less is known regarding SEB-specific humoral immune responses, particularly regarding detailed epitope mapping. In this study, we utilized a recombinant nontoxic mutant of SEB (rSEB and an AlPO4 adjuvant to immunize BALB/c mice and confirmed that rSEB can induce a high antibody level and effective immune protection against MRSA infection. Next, the antisera of immunized mice were collected, and linear B cell epitopes within SEB were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Three immunodominant B cell epitopes of SEB were screened by ELISA, including a novel epitope, SEB205-222, and two known epitopes, SEB97-114 and SEB247-261. Using truncated peptides, an ELISA was performed with peptide-KLH antisera, and the core sequence of the three immunodominant B cell epitopes were verified as SEB97-112, SEB207-222, and SEB247-257. In vitro, all of the immunodominant epitope-specific antisera (anti-SEB97-112, anti-SEB207-222 and anti-SEB247-257 were observed to inhibit SEB-induced T cell mitogenesis and cytokine production from splenic lymphocytes of BALB/c mice. The homology analysis indicated that SEB97-112 and SEB207-222 were well-conserved among different Staphylococcus aureus strains. The 3D crystal structure of SEB indicated that SEB97-112 was in the loop region inside SEB, whereas SEB207-222 and SEB247-257 were in the β-slice region outside SEB. In summary, the fine-mapping of linear B-cell epitopes of the SEB antigen in this study will be useful to understand anti-SEB immunity against MRSA infection further and will be helpful to optimize MRSA vaccine designs that are based on the SEB antigen.

  20. Warm thanks: gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa A; Bartlett, Monica Y

    2015-02-01

    Recent theorizing on the nature and function of gratitude (the find-remind-and-bind theory; Algoe, 2012) stipulates that expressing gratitude should serve to alert previously unacquainted peers to the potential for a high-quality social bond (i.e., a find function). Although the logic of this premise is supported by extant research, it has not, as yet, been tested empirically. In the current study, participants received a note from a previously unacquainted peer that contained an expression of gratitude (or did not) with regard to prior benefits provided by the participant. After providing ratings of the peer and ostensibly completing the study, participants were given an opportunity to spontaneously give their contact information to the peer, which served as a behavioral measure of affiliation. In line with the proposed find function of gratitude expressions, recipients of expressions of gratitude were more likely to extend the effort to continue the relationship with the novel peer by providing that peer with a means to contact them. This experiment also provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth (e.g., friendliness, thoughtfulness) serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. As such, these findings provide the first empirical evidence regarding 1 of the 3 central premises of the find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude (Algoe, 2012) in the context of novel relationships. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Fine mapping of the EDA gene: A translocation breakpoint is associated with a CpG island that is transcribed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Montonen, O. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    In order to identify the gene for human X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), a translocation breakpoint in a female with t(X;1)(q13.1;p36.3) and EDA (patient AK) was finely mapped. The EDA region contains five groups of rare-cutter restriction sites that define CpG islands. The two more centromeric of these islands are associated with transcripts of 3.5 kb and 1.8 kb. The third CpG island maps within <1 kb of the translocation breakpoint in patient AK, as indicated by a genomic rearrangement, and {approximately}100 kb centromeric from another previously mapped translocation breakpoint (patient AnLy). Northern analysis with a probe from this CpG island detected an {approximately}6-kb mRNA in several fetal tissues tested. An extended YAC contig of 1,200 kb with an average of fivefold coverage was constructed. The two most telomeric CpG islands map 350 kb telomeric of the two translocations. Taken together, the results suggest that the CpG island just proximal of the AK translocation breakpoint lies at the 5{prime} end of a candidate gene for EDA. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fine-Mapping Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene: Separate QTLs Identified for Hypertension and for ACE Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Min; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Fann, Cathy S. J.; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Kang, Chih-Sen; Chen, Chien-Chung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been implicated in multiple biological system, particularly cardiovascular diseases. However, findings associating ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism with hypertension or other related traits are inconsistent. Therefore, in a two-stage approach, we aimed to fine-map ACE in order to narrow-down the function-specific locations. We genotyped 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE from 1168 individuals from 305 young-onset (age ≤40) hypertension pedigrees, and found four linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks. A tag-SNP, rs1800764 on LD block 2, upstream of and near the ACE promoter, was significantly associated with young-onset hypertension (p = 0.04). Tag-SNPs on all LD blocks were significantly associated with ACE activity (p-value: 10–16 to ACE activity were found between exon13 and intron18 and between intron 20 and 3′UTR, as revealed by measured haplotype analysis. These two major QTLs of ACE activity and the moderate effect variant upstream of ACE promoter for young-onset hypertension were replicated by another independent association study with 842 subjects. PMID:23469169

  3. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Ross-Adams, Helen; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Halim, Silvia; Russel, Roslin; Dunning, Alison M.; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y.; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Morgan, Angela; Dicks, Ed; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Bojesen, Stig E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease. PMID:23535824

  4. Fine mapping of the Bsr1 barley stripe mosaic virus resistance gene in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cui

    Full Text Available The ND18 strain of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV infects several lines of Brachypodium distachyon, a recently developed model system for genomics research in cereals. Among the inbred lines tested, Bd3-1 is highly resistant at 20 to 25 °C, whereas Bd21 is susceptible and infection results in an intense mosaic phenotype accompanied by high levels of replicating virus. We generated an F(6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21 and used the RILs, and an F(2 population of a second Bd21 × Bd3-1 cross to evaluate the inheritance of resistance. The results indicate that resistance segregates as expected for a single dominant gene, which we have designated Barley stripe mosaic virus resistance 1 (Bsr1. We constructed a genetic linkage map of the RIL population using SNP markers to map this gene to within 705 Kb of the distal end of the top of chromosome 3. Additional CAPS and Indel markers were used to fine map Bsr1 to a 23 Kb interval containing five putative genes. Our study demonstrates the power of using RILs to rapidly map the genetic determinants of BSMV resistance in Brachypodium. Moreover, the RILs and their associated genetic map, when combined with the complete genomic sequence of Brachypodium, provide new resources for genetic analyses of many other traits.

  5. Fine mapping of the rice bacterial blight resistance gene Xa-4 and its co-segregation marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An F2 population developed from the Xa-4 near isogenic lines,IR24 and IRBB4,was used for fine mapping of the rice bacterial blight resistance gene,Xa-4.Some restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers on the high-density map constructed by Harushima et al.and the amplified DNA fragments homologous to the conserved domains of plant disease resistance (R) genes were used to construct the genetic linkage map around the gene Xa-4 by scoring susceptible individuals in the population.Xa-4 was mapped between the RFLP marker G181 and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) marker M55.The R gene homologous fragment marker RS13 was found co-segregating with Xa-4 by analyzing all the plants in the population.This result opened an approach to map-based cloning of this gene,and marker RS13 can be applied to molecular marker-assisted selection of Xa-4 in rice breeding programs.

  6. Genetic characterization and fine mapping of S25, a hybrid male sterility gene, on rice chromosome 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2018-02-10

    Hybrid male sterility genes are important factors in creating postzygotic reproductive isolation barriers in plants. One such gene, S25, is known to cause severe transmission ratio distortion in inter-subspecific progeny of cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. To further characterize the S25 gene, we fine-mapped and genetically characterized the S25 gene using near-isogenic lines with reciprocal genetic backgrounds. We mapped the S25 locus within the 0.67-1.02 Mb region on rice chromosome 12. Further genetic analyses revealed that S25 substantially reduced male fertility in the japonica background, but not in the indica background. In first-generation hybrid progeny, S25 had a milder effect than it had in the japonica background. These results suggest that the expression of S25 is epistatically regulated by at least one partially dominant gene present in the indica genome. This finding supports our previous studies showing that hybrid male sterility due to pollen killer genes results from epistatic interaction with other genes that are hidden in the genetic background.

  7. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amidou N'Diaye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2 approximately 0.8. More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10(-12 and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10(-8. As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10(-4 for overall replication. Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01. Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.

  8. Fine mapping of shattering locus Br2 reveals a putative chromosomal inversion polymorphism between the two lineages of Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzhi; Zhu, Huilan; Gill, Bikram S; Li, Wanlong

    2015-04-01

    This work laid the foundation for cloning of shattering gene Br2 and provided first line of evidence that two major Aegilops tauschii lineages are differentiated by an inversion polymorphism. Chromosome inversions often accompany population differentiation and capture local adaptation during speciation. Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor species of hexaploid wheat, consists of two genetically isolated lineages, L1 and L2, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying the population differentiation in this diploid species. During fine mapping of the shattering gene Br2 using a large F2 population derived from a cross between TA1604 (an L1 accession) and AL8/78 (an L2 accession), we found contrasting patterns of crossover distribution in the Br2 interval and neighboring regions despite the high local gene synteny with Brachypodium distachyon and rice. Br2 was localized in a 0.08-cM interval, and 13 marker loci formed a block, where single-crossovers were completely suppressed, but double-crossovers were enriched with a recombination rate of ~11 cM/Mb. In contrast, in a neighboring region no double-crossover was recovered, but single-crossover rate reached 24 cM/Mb, which is much higher than the genome-wide average. This result suggests a putative inversion polymorphism between the parental lines in the Br2 region. Genotyping using the markers from the Br2 region divided a collection of 55 randomly sampled A. tauschii accessions into two major groups, and they are largely genetically isolated. The two groups correspond to the L1 and L2 lineages based on their geographic distribution patterns. This provides first evidence that inversions may underlie the evolution of A. tauschii lineages. The presence of inter-lineage inversions may complicate map-based cloning in A. tauschii and transfer of useful traits to wheat.

  9. Fine mapping of a QTL on chromosome 13 for submaximal exercise capacity training response: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva K; Sarzynski, Mark A; Sung, Yun Ju; Argyropoulos, George; Stütz, Adrian M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2012-08-01

    Although regular exercise improves submaximal aerobic capacity, there is large variability in its response to exercise training. While this variation is thought to be partly due to genetic differences, relatively little is known about the causal genes. Submaximal aerobic capacity traits in the current report include the responses of oxygen consumption (ΔVO(2)60), power output (ΔWORK60), and cardiac output (ΔQ60) at 60% of VO2max to a standardized 20-week endurance exercise training program. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 475 HERITAGE Family Study Caucasians identified a locus on chromosome 13q for ΔVO(2)60 (LOD = 3.11). Follow-up fine mapping involved a dense marker panel of over 1,800 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 7.9-Mb region (21.1-29.1 Mb from p-terminus). Single-SNP analyses found 14 SNPs moderately associated with both ΔVO(2)60 at P ≤ 0.005 and the correlated traits of ΔWORK60 and ΔQ60 at P < 0.05. Haplotype analyses provided several strong signals (P < 1.0 × 10(-5)) for ΔVO(2)60. Overall, association analyses narrowed the target region and included potential biological candidate genes (MIPEP and SGCG). Consistent with maximal heritability estimates of 23%, up to 20% of the phenotypic variance in ΔVO(2)60 was accounted for by these SNPs. These results implicate candidate genes on chromosome 13q12 for the ability to improve submaximal exercise capacity in response to regular exercise. Submaximal exercise at 60% of maximal capacity is an exercise intensity that falls well within the range recommended in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and thus has potential public health relevance.

  10. The Relationship between Leisure Constraints, Constraint Negotiation Strategies and Facilitators with Recreational Sport Activity Participation of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Funda

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the constraints in participating the leisure activities for college students, the strategies of negotiation regarding these constraints and the relationship between the facilitators and activity participation. The population of the study consists of currently registered students from Ankara University.…

  11. A high-resolution genetic linkage map and QTL fine mapping for growth-related traits and sex in the Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Fu, Beide; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Tong, Jingou

    2018-04-02

    A high-density genetic linkage map is essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genome analysis, identification of candidate genes and marker-assisted selection for economic traits in aquaculture species. The Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) is one of the most important aquacultured strains in China. However, quite limited genetics and genomics resources have been developed for genetic improvement of economic traits in such strain. A high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed by using 7820 2b-RAD (2b-restriction site-associated DNA) and 295 microsatellite markers in a F2 family of the Yangtze River common carp (C. c. haematopterus). The length of the map was 4586.56 cM with an average marker interval of 0.57 cM. Comparative genome mapping revealed that a high proportion (70%) of markers with disagreed chromosome location was observed between C. c. haematopterus and another common carp strain (subspecies) C. c. carpio. A clear 2:1 relationship was observed between C. c. haematopterus linkage groups (LGs) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) chromosomes. Based on the genetic map, 21 QTLs for growth-related traits were detected on 12 LGs, and contributed values of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) ranging from 16.3 to 38.6%, with LOD scores ranging from 4.02 to 11.13. A genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 10.83) and three chromosome-wide significant QTLs (mean LOD = 4.84) for sex were mapped on LG50 and LG24, respectively. A 1.4 cM confidence interval of QTL for all growth-related traits showed conserved synteny with a 2.06 M segment on chromosome 14 of D. rerio. Five potential candidate genes were identified by blast search in this genomic region, including a well-studied multi-functional growth related gene, Apelin. We mapped a set of suggestive and significant QTLs for growth-related traits and sex based on a high-density genetic linkage map using SNP and microsatellite markers for Yangtze River common carp. Several

  12. Nurses' perceptions of facilitating genuineness in a nurse–patient relationship

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    Anna Elizabeth Van den Heever

    2015-06-01

    Results: When groups were compared, statistically significant differences were identified in nurses' perceptions of facilitating genuineness with respect to age, years' experience as a nurse and qualifications. It is recommended that nurses' awareness of genuineness and its facilitation should involve learning through socialisation and self-awareness.

  13. The relationship between facilitators' questions and the level of reflection in postsimulation debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Dieckmann, Peter; Rystedt, Hans; Søreide, Eldar; Friberg, Febe

    2013-06-01

    Simulation-based education is a learner-active method that may enhance teamwork skills such as leadership and communication. The importance of postsimulation debriefing to promote reflection is well accepted, but many questions concerning whether and how faculty promote reflection remain largely unanswered in the research literature. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the depth of reflection expressed in questions by facilitators and responses from nursing students during postsimulation debriefings. Eighty-one nursing students and 4 facilitators participated. The data were collected in February and March 2008, the analysis being conducted on 24 video-recorded debriefings from simulated resuscitation teamwork involving nursing students only. Using Gibbs' reflective cycle, we graded the facilitators' questions and nursing students' responses into stages of reflection and then correlated these. Facilitators asked most evaluative and fewest emotional questions, whereas nursing students answered most evaluative and analytic responses and fewest emotional responses. The greatest difference between facilitators and nursing students was in the analytic stage. Only 23 (20%) of 117 questions asked by the facilitators were analytic, whereas 45 (35%) of 130 students' responses were rated as analytic. Nevertheless, the facilitators' descriptive questions also elicited student responses in other stages such as evaluative and analytic responses. We found that postsimulation debriefings provide students with the opportunity to reflect on their simulation experience. Still, if the debriefing is going to pave the way for student reflection, it is necessary to work further on structuring the debriefing to facilitate deeper reflection. Furthermore, it is important that facilitators consider what kind of questions they ask to promote reflection. We think future research on debriefing should focus on developing an analytical framework for grading reflective questions. Such

  14. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of the virescent gene v 1 in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

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    Mao, Guangzhi; Ma, Qiang; Wei, Hengling; Su, Junji; Wang, Hantao; Ma, Qifeng; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Shuxun

    2018-02-01

    The young leaves of virescent mutants are yellowish and gradually turn green as the plants reach maturity. Understanding the genetic basis of virescent mutants can aid research of the regulatory mechanisms underlying chloroplast development and chlorophyll biosynthesis, as well as contribute to the application of virescent traits in crop breeding. In this study, fine mapping was employed, and a recessive gene (v 1 ) from a virescent mutant of Upland cotton was narrowed to an 84.1-Kb region containing ten candidate genes. The GhChlI gene encodes the cotton Mg-chelatase I subunit (CHLI) and was identified as the candidate gene for the virescent mutation using gene annotation. BLAST analysis showed that the GhChlI gene has two copies, Gh_A10G0282 and Gh_D10G0283. Sequence analysis indicated that the coding region (CDS) of GhChlI is 1269 bp in length, with three predicted exons and one non-synonymous nucleotide mutation (G1082A) in the third exon of Gh_D10G0283, with an amino acid (AA) substitution of arginine (R) to lysine (K). GhChlI-silenced TM-1 plants exhibited a lower GhChlI expression level, a lower chlorophyll content, and the virescent phenotype. Analysis of upstream regulatory elements and expression levels of GhChlI showed that the expression quantity of GhChlI may be normal, and with the development of the true leaf, the increase in the Gh_A10G0282 dosage may partially make up for the deficiency of Gh_D10G0283 in the v 1 mutant. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment revealed that the protein sequence encoded by the third exon of GhChlI is highly conserved across diverse plant species, in which AA substitutions among the completely conserved residues frequently result in changes in leaf color in various species. These results suggest that the mutation (G1082A) within the GhChlI gene may cause a functional defect of the GhCHLI subunit and thus the virescent phenotype in the v 1 mutant. The GhChlI mutation not only provides a tool for understanding the

  15. Fine mapping of a linkage peak with integration of lipid traits identifies novel coronary artery disease genes on chromosome 5

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    Nolan Daniel K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD, and one of its intermediate risk factors, dyslipidemia, possess a demonstrable genetic component, although the genetic architecture is incompletely defined. We previously reported a linkage peak on chromosome 5q31-33 for early-onset CAD where the strength of evidence for linkage was increased in families with higher mean low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C. Therefore, we sought to fine-map the peak using association mapping of LDL-C as an intermediate disease-related trait to further define the etiology of this linkage peak. The study populations consisted of 1908 individuals from the CATHGEN biorepository of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization; 254 families (N = 827 individuals from the GENECARD familial study of early-onset CAD; and 162 aorta samples harvested from deceased donors. Linkage disequilibrium-tagged SNPs were selected with an average of one SNP per 20 kb for 126.6-160.2 MB (region of highest linkage and less dense spacing (one SNP per 50 kb for the flanking regions (117.7-126.6 and 160.2-167.5 MB and genotyped on all samples using a custom Illumina array. Association analysis of each SNP with LDL-C was performed using multivariable linear regression (CATHGEN and the quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT; GENECARD. SNPs associated with the intermediate quantitative trait, LDL-C, were then assessed for association with CAD (i.e., a qualitative phenotype using linkage and association in the presence of linkage (APL; GENECARD and logistic regression (CATHGEN and aortas. Results We identified four genes with SNPs that showed the strongest and most consistent associations with LDL-C and CAD: EBF1, PPP2R2B, SPOCK1, and PRELID2. The most significant results for association of SNPs with LDL-C were: EBF1, rs6865969, p = 0.01; PPP2R2B, rs2125443, p = 0.005; SPOCK1, rs17600115, p = 0.003; and PRELID2, rs10074645, p = 0.0002. The most significant results for

  16. Genetics and fine mapping of a purple leaf gene, BoPr, in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Bao-Zhen; Han, Feng-Qing; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Li-Mei; Zhuang, Mu; Lv, Hong-Hao; Liu, Yu-Mei; Li, Zhan-Sheng; Cai, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yong

    2017-03-14

    Due to its variegated and colorful leaves, ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) has become a popular ornamental plant. In this study, we report the fine mapping and analysis of a candidate purple leaf gene using a backcross population and an F 2 population derived from two parental lines: W1827 (with white leaves) and P1835 (with purple leaves). Genetic analysis indicated that the purple leaf trait is controlled by a single dominant gene, which we named BoPr. Using markers developed based on the reference genome '02-12', the BoPr gene was preliminarily mapped to a 280-kb interval of chromosome C09, with flanking markers M17 and BoID4714 at genetic distances of 4.3 cM and 1.5 cM, respectively. The recombination rate within this interval is almost 12 times higher than the usual level, which could be caused by assembly error for reference genome '02-12' at this interval. Primers were designed based on 'TO1000', another B. oleracea reference genome. Among the newly designed InDel markers, BRID485 and BRID490 were found to be the closest to BoPr, flanking the gene at genetic distances of 0.1 cM and 0.2 cM, respectively; the interval between the two markers is 44.8 kb (reference genome 'TO1000'). Seven annotated genes are located within the 44.8 kb genomic region, of which only Bo9g058630 shows high homology to AT5G42800 (dihydroflavonol reductase), which was identified as a candidate gene for BoPr. Blast analysis revealed that this 44.8 kb interval is located on an unanchored scaffold (Scaffold000035_P2) of '02-12', confirming the existence of assembly error at the interval between M17 and BoID4714 for reference genome '02-12'. This study identified a candidate gene for BoPr and lays a foundation for the cloning and functional analysis of this gene.

  17. Variants for HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides identified from admixture mapping and fine-mapping analysis in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Priya B; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Arnett, Donna K; Hunt, Steven C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, Dabeeru C; Cooper, Richard S; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African Americans. The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1905 unrelated African American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3556 African American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age(2), sex, body mass index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding caused by population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), 8 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), 14 (triglycerides), and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52 939 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2 SNPs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4 SNPs), and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data were used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions, including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14, and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Variants for HDL-C, LDL-C and Triglycerides Identified from Admixture Mapping and Fine-Mapping Analysis in African-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Priya B.; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, D.C.; Cooper, R.S.; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. Methods and Results The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1,905 unrelated African-American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Family Blood Pressure Program. Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3,556 African-American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age2, sex, body-mass-index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding due to population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (LDL-C), 8 (HDL-C), 14 (triglycerides) and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52,939 SNPs were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with HDL-C (2 SNPs), LDL-C (4 SNPs) and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data was used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14 and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. PMID:25552592

  19. A novel allele of TaGW2-A1 is located in a finely mapped QTL that increases grain weight but decreases grain number in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Huijie; Feng, Zhiyu; Du, Xiaofen; Song, Yane; Liu, Xinye; Qi, Zhongqi; Song, Long; Li, Jiang; Li, Linghong; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Yao, Yingyin; Xin, Mingming; Xiao, Shihe; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2018-03-01

    A novel TaGW2-A1 allele was identified from a stable, robust QTL region, which is pleiotropic for thousand grain weight, grain number per spike, and grain morphometric parameters in wheat. Thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain number per spike (GNS) are two crucial determinants of wheat spike yield, and genetic dissection of their relationships can help to fine-tune these two components and maximize grain yield. By evaluating 191 recombinant inbred lines in 11 field trials, we identified five genomic regions on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3B, 5B, or 7A that solely influenced either TGW or GNS, and a further region on chromosome 6A that concurrently affected TGW and GNS. The QTL of interest on chromosome 6A, which was flanked by wsnp_BE490604A_Ta_2_1 and wsnp_RFL_Contig1340_448996 and designated as QTgw/Gns.cau-6A, was finely mapped to a genetic interval shorter than 0.538 cM using near isogenic lines (NILs). The elite NILs of QTgw/Gns.cau-6A increased TGW by 8.33%, but decreased GNS by 3.05% in six field trials. Grain Weight 2 (TaGW2-A1), a well-characterized gene that negatively regulates TGW and grain width in wheat, was located within the finely mapped interval of QTgw/Gns.cau-6A. A novel and rare TaGW2-A1 allele with a 114-bp deletion in the 5' flanking region was identified in the parent with higher TGW, and it reduced TaGW2-A1 promoter activity and expression. In conclusion, these results expand our knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis of TGW-GNS trade-offs in wheat. The QTLs and the novel TaGW2-A1 allele are likely useful for the development of cultivars with higher TGW and/or higher GNS.

  20. Fine mapping and identification of a novel locus qGL12.2 control grain length in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lan; Ding, Yingbin; Zheng, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Lizhen; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Lifang; Cheng, Yunlian; Qiao, Weihua; Yang, Qingwen

    2018-04-19

    A wild rice QTL qGL12.2 for grain length was fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12 containing six candidate genes and none was reported previously. Grain length is an important trait for yield and commercial value in rice. Wild rice seeds have a very slender shape and have many desirable genes that have been lost in cultivated rice during domestication. In this study, we identified a quantitative trait locus, qGL12.2, which controls grain length in wild rice. First, a wild rice chromosome segment substitution line, CSSL41, was selected that has longer glume and grains than does the Oryza sativa indica cultivar, 9311. Next, an F 2 population was constructed from a cross between CSSL41 and 9311. Using the next-generation sequencing combined with bulked-segregant analysis and F 3 recombinants analysis, qGL12.2 was finally fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12. Six candidate genes were found, and no reported grain length genes were found in this interval. Using scanning electron microscopy, we found that CSSL41 cells are significantly longer than those of 9311, but there is no difference in cell widths. These data suggest that qGL12.2 is a novel gene that controls grain cell length in wild rice. Our study provides a new genetic resource for rice breeding and a starting point for functional characterization of the wild rice GL gene.

  1. Exploring reforms while learning to teach science: Facilitating exploration of theory-practice relationships in a teacher education study group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jacob G.

    This dissertation inserts a new view into an old problem in teacher education. The study explores the theory-practice gap, the large distance between what preservice science teachers experience in schools, are able to enact, and are told they should hold themselves to in their practice. It does so by narrowing the focus of analysis to a secondary science study group and examining how the facilitator uses sociocultural constructivism to promote discussion. The analysis surfaces key communicative moves made by the facilitator and preservice teachers that yield fruitful discussion of theory-practice relationships. Additionally, the study's use of discourse analysis as a methodology and intertextuality as a conceptual framework opens new directions for applied sociolinguistic research and scholarship in science teacher education. Findings from the study focus on what was discussed and how explorations of theory-practice relationships were facilitated. Preservice teachers in the study group engaged in meaningful conversations about constructivist theory and its application to their students and teaching of science. They discussed many science education topics such as planning science lessons that actively engage students, assessment of content understanding, and management of content-based activities. Discussions of broader science education goals, including implementation of inquiry or development of collaborative communities, were not promoted. Examination of the facilitation illuminates a number of strategies found to be helpful in supporting these explorations. This study shows that facilitation can successfully support preservice teachers to construct understanding of social constructivist assumptions underlying the National Science Education Standards (NSES), as well as a few components of the Standards themselves. The focus on the underlying assumptions suggests that science teacher education should focus on these so that preservice teachers can build a strong

  2. The role of special education teachers in facilitating peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities in lower secondary school.

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    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2017-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities may lack sufficiently developed skills to initiate qualitatively good social interactions; thus, they might be in need of assistance. This study examined special education teachers' role in facilitating peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities in a mainstream school context. The study was based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with nine special education teachers who belong to special education groups in lower secondary schools. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify themes. The teachers made substantial efforts to promote social competence and ensure optimal conditions to foster peer interactions. An "academic-oriented" education, divergent attitudes, challenges in teacher collaboration, and organizational constraints may be barriers. In a mainstream school, the role of special education teachers appears to be dependent on the basic values of the school management in terms of real opportunities to foster peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities.

  3. Similarity facilitates relationships on social networks: a field experiment on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angélique; Jacob, Céline; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    People interact more readily with someone with whom they think they have something in common, but the effect of an incidental similarity has never been examined on social networks. Facebook users were contacted by a stranger who also possessed a Facebook page and who asked them to become his friend. The request message contained one item of similarity, two items of similarity, or none. Compliance to the request was the dependent variable. Increased compliance to the request was found when comparing the two similarity conditions with the control no-similarity condition. However, no difference was found between the two similarity conditions. Similarity appears to foster relationships on social networks.

  4. Mindful Processing in Psychotherapy - Facilitating Natural Healing Process within Attuned Therapeutic Relationship

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    Gregor Žvelc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is non-judgmental, accepting awareness of what is going on in the present moment. The author proposes that mindfulness promotes natural healing of the organism, where the change comes spontaneously by acceptance and awareness of internal experience. Such process the author describes as ‘mindful processing’, because with mindful awareness disturbing experiences can be processed and integrated. The author’s interest in how mindfulness can be systematically applied in psychotherapy led to the development of the ‘mindful processing’ method, which invites the client to become aware of the moment-to-moment subjective experience. The method is used within attuned therapeutic relationship and thetheoretical framework of Integrative Psychotherapy. Mindful Processing is not goal-oriented and doesn’t strive to achieve a positive outcome. Such an outcome is a natural by-product of accepting awareness of both pleasant and unpleasant inner experience (body sensations, affects and/or thoughts. The method is illustrated with a transcript of a session with commentary.

  5. Considering the Role of Personality in the Work-Family Experience: Relationships of the Big Five to Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Julie Holliday; Musisca, Nicholas; Fleeson, William

    2004-01-01

    Using a national, random sample (N=2130), we investigated the relationship between each of the Big Five personality traits and conflict and facilitation between work and family roles. Extraversion was related to greater facilitation between roles but was not related to conflict, whereas neuroticism was related to greater conflict but only weakly…

  6. Fine mapping of a Phytophthora-resistance gene RpsWY in soybean (Glycine max L.) by high-throughput genome-wide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Ren, Hailong; Xia, Qiuju; Song, Enliang; Tan, Zhiyuan; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Gengyun; Nian, Hai

    2017-05-01

    Using a combination of phenotypic screening, genetic and statistical analyses, and high-throughput genome-wide sequencing, we have finely mapped a dominant Phytophthora resistance gene in soybean cultivar Wayao. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in many soybean-production regions in the world. Identification of resistant gene(s) and incorporating them into elite varieties are an effective way for breeding to prevent soybean from being harmed by this disease. Two soybean populations of 191 F 2 individuals and 196 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed to map Rps gene by crossing a susceptible cultivar Huachun 2 with the resistant cultivar Wayao. Genetic analysis of the F 2 population indicated that PRR resistance in Wayao was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily named RpsWY, which was mapped on chromosome 3. A high-density genetic linkage bin map was constructed using 3469 recombination bins of the RILs to explore the candidate genes by the high-throughput genome-wide sequencing. The results of genotypic analysis showed that the RpsWY gene was located in bin 401 between 4466230 and 4502773 bp on chromosome 3 through line 71 and 100 of the RILs. Four predicted genes (Glyma03g04350, Glyma03g04360, Glyma03g04370, and Glyma03g04380) were found at the narrowed region of 36.5 kb in bin 401. These results suggest that the high-throughput genome-wide resequencing is an effective method to fine map PRR candidate genes.

  7. Trans-ethnic meta-regression of genome-wide association studies accounting for ancestry increases power for discovery and improves fine-mapping resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mägi, Reedik; Horikoshi, Momoko; Sofer, Tamar; Mahajan, Anubha; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Franceschini, Nora; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2017-09-15

    Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) across diverse populations can increase power to detect complex trait loci when the underlying causal variants are shared between ancestry groups. However, heterogeneity in allelic effects between GWAS at these loci can occur that is correlated with ancestry. Here, a novel approach is presented to detect SNP association and quantify the extent of heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry. We employ trans-ethnic meta-regression to model allelic effects as a function of axes of genetic variation, derived from a matrix of mean pairwise allele frequency differences between GWAS, and implemented in the MR-MEGA software. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate increased power to detect association for MR-MEGA over fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis across a range of scenarios of heterogeneity in allelic effects between ethnic groups. We also demonstrate improved fine-mapping resolution, in loci containing a single causal variant, compared to these meta-analysis approaches and PAINTOR, and equivalent performance to MANTRA at reduced computational cost. Application of MR-MEGA to trans-ethnic GWAS of kidney function in 71,461 individuals indicates stronger signals of association than fixed-effects meta-analysis when heterogeneity in allelic effects is correlated with ancestry. Application of MR-MEGA to fine-mapping four type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci in 22,086 cases and 42,539 controls highlights: (i) strong evidence for heterogeneity in allelic effects that is correlated with ancestry only at the index SNP for the association signal at the CDKAL1 locus; and (ii) 99% credible sets with six or fewer variants for five distinct association signals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Identification and fine mapping of nuclear and nucleolar localization signals within the human ribosomal protein S17.

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    Scott P Kenney

    Full Text Available Human ribosomal protein S17 (RPS17 is mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA, a bone marrow disorder that fails to produce sufficient red blood cells leading to anemia. Recently, an RPS17 protein sequence was also found to be naturally inserted in the genome of hepatitis E virus (HEV from patients chronically-infected by HEV. The role of RPS17 in HEV replication and pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of knowledge about how RPS17 functions at a molecular level. Understanding the biological function of RPS17 is critical for elucidating its role in virus infection and DBA disease processes. In this study we probed the subcellular distribution of normal and mutant RPS17 proteins in a human liver cell line (Huh7. RPS17 was primarily detected within the nucleus, and more specifically within the nucleoli. Using a transient expression system in which RPS17 or truncations were expressed as fusions with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP, we were able to identify and map, for the first time, two separate nuclear localization signals (NLSs, one to the first 13 amino acids of the amino-terminus of RPS17 and the other within amino acids 30-60. Additionally, we mapped amino acid sequences required for nucleolar accumulation of RPS17 to amino acids 60-70. Amino acids 60-70 possess a di-RG motif that may be necessary for nucleolar retention of RPS17. The results from this study enhance our knowledge of RSP17 and will facilitate future mechanistic studies about the roles of RSP17 in hepatitis E and DBA disease processes.

  9. Replication and fine mapping for association of the C2orf43, FOXP4, GPRC6A and RFX6 genes with prostate cancer in the Chinese population.

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    Qing-Zhi Long

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer represents the leading cause of male death across the world. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS identified five novel susceptibility loci for prostate cancer in the Japanese population. This study is to replicate and fine map the potential association of these five loci with prostate cancer in the Chinese Han population.In Phase I of the study, we tested the five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which showed the strongest association evidence in the original GWAS in Japanese. The study sample consists of 1,169 Chinese Hans, comprising 483 patients and 686 healthy controls. Then in phase II, flanking SNPs of the successfully replicated SNPs in Phase I were genotyped and tested for association with prostate cancer to fine map those significant association signals.We successfully replicated the association of rs13385191 (located in the C2orf43 gene, P = 8.60×10(-5, rs12653946 (P = 1.33×10(-6, rs1983891 (FOXP4, P = 6.22×10(-5, and rs339331 (GPRC6A/RFX6, P = 1.42×10(-5 with prostate cancer. The most significant odds ratio (OR was recorded as 1.41 (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.68 for rs12653946. Rs9600079 did not show significant association (P = 8.07×10(-2 with prostate cancer in this study. The Phase II study refined these association signals, and identified several SNPs showing more significant association with prostate cancer than the very SNPs tested in Phase I.Our results provide further support for association of the C2orf43, FOXP4, GPRC6A and RFX6 genes with prostate cancer in Eastern Asian populations. This study also characterized the novel loci reported in the original GWAS with more details. Further work is still required to determine the functional variations and finally clarify the underlying biological mechanisms.

  10. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fine-mapping of Pch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine D; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Plieske, Jörg; Polley, Andreas; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Zschäckel, Thomas; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2017-03-01

    Genotypes with recombination events in the Triticum ventricosum introgression on chromosome 7D allowed to fine-map resistance gene Pch1, the main source of eyespot resistance in European winter wheat cultivars. Eyespot (also called Strawbreaker) is a common and serious fungal disease of winter wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis (former name Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for eyespot was performed with 732 microsatellite markers (SSR) and 7761 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90 K iSELECT wheat array using a panel of 168 European winter wheat varieties as well as three spring wheat varieties and phenotypic evaluation of eyespot in field tests in three environments. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 1.20 (most resistant) to 5.73 (most susceptible) with an average value of 4.24 and a heritability of H 2  = 0.91. A total of 108 SSR and 235 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified by considering associations with a -log 10 (P value) ≥3.0. Significant MTAs for eyespot-score BLUEs were found on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 5A, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7D for the SSR markers and chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B and 7D for the SNP markers. For 18 varieties (10.5%), a highly resistant phenotype was detected that was linked to the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 on chromosome 7D. The identification of genotypes with recombination events in the introgressed genomic segment from Triticum ventricosum harboring the Pch1 resistance gene on chromosome 7DL allowed the fine-mapping of this gene using additional SNP markers and a potential candidate gene Traes_7DL_973A33763 coding for a CC-NBS-LRR class protein was identified.

  11. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Feng; Gao, Li Jun; Li, Jin Hua; Li, Rong Bai; Gao, Han Liang; Deng, Guo Fu; Yang, Jin Shui; Luo, Xiao Jin

    2012-12-01

    Heading date in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a critical agronomic trait with a complex inheritance. To investigate the genetic basis and mechanism of gene interaction in heading date, we conducted genetic analysis on segregation populations derived from crosses among the indica cultivars Bo B, Yuefeng B and Baoxuan 2. A set of dominant complementary genes controlling late heading, designated LH1 and LH2, were detected by molecular marker mapping. Genetic analysis revealed that Baoxuan 2 contains both dominant genes, while Bo B and Yuefeng B each possess either LH1 or LH2. Using larger populations with segregant ratios of 3 : 1, we fine-mapped LH1 to a 63-kb region near the centromere of chromosome 7 flanked by markers RM5436 and RM8034, and LH2 to a 177-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 8 between flanking markers Indel22468-3 and RM25. Some candidate genes were identified through sequencing of Bo B and Yuefeng B in these target regions. Our work provides a solid foundation for further study on gene interaction in heading date and has application in marker-assisted breeding of photosensitive hybrid rice in China.

  12. Fine-mapping the HOXB region detects common variants tagging a rare coding allele: evidence for synthetic association in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Saunders

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10(-14. Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197, which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.

  13. Fine mapping of a dominantly inherited powdery mildew resistance major-effect QTL, Pm1.1, in cucumber identifies a 41.1 kb region containing two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Yu, Ting; Xu, Ruixue; Shi, Yang; Lin, Xiaojian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A dominantly inherited major-effect QTL for powdery mildew resistance in cucumber was fine mapped. Two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes were identified as the most possible candidates. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and other cucurbit crops, but the molecular genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucurbits are still poorly understood. In this study, through marker-assisted backcrossing with an elite cucumber inbred line, D8 (PM susceptible), we developed a single-segment substitution line, SSSL0.7, carrying 95 kb fragment from PM resistance donor, Jin5-508, that was defined by two microsatellite markers, SSR16472 and SSR16881. A segregating population with 3600 F2 plants was developed from the SSSL0.7 × D8 mating; segregation analysis confirmed a dominantly inherited major-effect QTL, Pm1.1 in cucumber chromosome 1 underlying PM resistance in SSSL0.7. New molecular markers were developed through exploring the next generation resequenced genomes of Jin5-508 and D8. Linkage analysis and QTL mapping in a subset of the F2 plants delimited the Pm1.1 locus into a 41.1 kb region, in which eight genes were predicted. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed that two concatenated genes, Csa1M064780 and Csa1M064790 encoding the same function of a cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, were the most likely candidate genes. GFP fusion protein-aided subcellular localization indicated that both candidate genes were located in the plasma membrane, but Csa1M064780 was also found in the nucleus. This is the first report of dominantly inherited PM resistance in cucumber. Results of this study will provide new insights into understanding the phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber. This work should also facilitate marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding for PM resistance.

  14. The Relationship between Core Self-Evaluations and Work and Family Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict and Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyar, Scott L.; Mosley, Donald C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation on work and family outcomes and explores the influence of core self-evaluations (CSE) among these relationships. CSE is comprised of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and general self-efficacy. CSE was found to be negatively related to work interfering…

  15. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832, East Asian (n = 9,449, and European (n = 10,829 ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4 in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies.

  16. Fine mapping of the rice Bph1 gene, which confers resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens stal), and development of STS markers for marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young-Soon; Ji, Hyeonso; Yun, Doh-Won; Ahn, Byoung-Ohg; Lee, Myung Chul; Suh, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Chun Seok; Ahn, Eok Keun; Jeon, Yong-Hee; Jin, Il-Doo; Sohn, Jae-Keun; Koh, Hee-Jong; Eun, Moo-Young

    2008-08-31

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is a major insect pest in rice, and damages these plants by sucking phloem-sap and transmitting viral diseases. Many BPH resistance genes have been identified in indica varieties and wild rice accessions, but none has yet been cloned. In the present study we report fine mapping of the region containing the Bph1 locus, which enabled us to perform marker-aided selection (MAS). We used 273 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Cheongcheongbyeo, an indica type variety harboring Bph1 from Mudgo, and Hwayeongbyeo, a BPH susceptible japonica variety. By random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 656 random 10-mer primers, three RAPD markers (OPH09, OPA10 and OPA15) linked to Bph1 were identified and converted to SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) markers. These markers were found to be contained in two BAC clones derived from chromosome 12: OPH09 on OSJNBa0011B18, and both OPA10 and OPA15 on OSJNBa0040E10. By sequence analysis of ten additional BAC clones evenly distributed between OSJNBa0011B18 and OSJNBa0040E10, we developed 15 STS markers. Of these, pBPH4 and pBPH14 flanked Bph1 at distances of 0.2 cM and 0.8 cM, respectively. The STS markers pBPH9, pBPH19, pBPH20, and pBPH21 co-segregated with Bph1. These markers were shown to be very useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding populations of 32 F6 RILs from a cross between Andabyeo and IR71190, and 32 F5 RILs from a cross between Andabyeo and Suwon452.

  17. Fine mapping of S37, a locus responsible for pollen and embryo sac sterility in hybrids between Oryza sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yumin; Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Hongyang; Bian, Xiaofeng; Yu, Yang; Yu, Xiaowen; Chen, Haiyuan; Liu, Linglong; Zhang, Wenwei; Jiang, Ling; Zhou, Jiawu; Tao, Dayun; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid sterility locus S37 between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa results in both pollen and embryo sac sterility. Interspecific crossing between African cultivated rice Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa cultivars is hindered by hybrid sterility. To dissect the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility, we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL)-S37 using Dianjingyou1 (DJY1) as the recipient parent and an African cultivated rice variety as the donor parent. Empty pollen and embryo sac sterility were observed in F1 hybrids between DJY1 and NIL-S37. Cytological analyses showed that pollen abortion in the F1 hybrids occurred at the late binucleate stage due to a failure of starch accumulation in pollen grains. In addition, partial abortion of the embryo sac in the F1 hybrid was observed during function megaspore developing into mature embryo sac. Molecular analysis revealed that the semi-sterility was largely caused by the abortion of male and female gametophytes carrying the S37 allele from DJY1. A population of 25,600 plants derived from the hybrid DJY1/NIL-S37 was developed to fine map S37. Based on the physical location of molecular markers, S37 locus was finally delimited to a region of 205 kb on the short arm of chromosome 1 in terms of reference sequences of cv. Nipponbare. Interestingly, an about 97-kb DNA segment was deleted in the NIL-S37 based on BAC clone information of O. glaberrima. Fifty-four open reading frames (ORF) were predicted in this 205-kb region of DJY1, whereas only 31 ORFs were in that of NIL-S37. These results are valuable for cloning of S37 gene and further breaking reproductive isolation between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa cultivars, as well as marker-assisted transferring of the corresponding neutral allele in rice breeding programs.

  18. Facilitated disclosure versus clinical accommodation of infidelity secrets: an early pivot point in couple therapy. Part 1: couple relationship ethics, pragmatics, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark H; Harper, James M; Seedall, Ryan B

    2009-01-01

    A critical and potentially polarizing decision in treating infidelity is whether facilitating partner disclosure or accommodating nondisclosure is most beneficial following private disclosure of infidelity to the therapist. Given couple distress and volatility following disclosure, understandably some therapists judge accommodating an infidelity secret both efficient and compassionate. Employing Western ethics and an attachment/intimacy lens, we consider ethical, pragmatic, and attachment intimacy implications of accommodating infidelity secrets. Issues bearing on the decision to facilitate disclosure or accommodate nondisclosure include (a) relationship ethics and pragmatics; (b) attachment and intimacy consequences; and (c) prospects for healing. We conclude that facilitating voluntary disclosure of infidelity, although difficult and demanding, represents the most ethical action with the best prospects for renewed and vital attachment intimacy.

  19. Fine mapping and candidate gene search of quantitative trait loci for growth and obesity using mouse intersubspecific subcongenic intercrosses and exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Although growth and body composition traits are quantitative traits of medical and agricultural importance, the genetic and molecular basis of those traits remains elusive. Our previous genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses in an intersubspecific backcross population between C57BL/6JJcl (B6 and wild Mus musculus castaneus mice revealed a major growth QTL (named Pbwg1 on a proximal region of mouse chromosome 2. Using the B6.Cg-Pbwg1 intersubspecific congenic strain created, we revealed 12 closely linked QTLs for body weight and body composition traits on an approximately 44.1-Mb wild-derived congenic region. In this study, we narrowed down genomic regions harboring three (Pbwg1.12, Pbwg1.3 and Pbwg1.5 of the 12 linked QTLs and searched for possible candidate genes for the QTLs. By phenotypic analyses of F2 intercross populations between B6 and each of four B6.Cg-Pbwg1 subcongenic strains with overlapping and non-overlapping introgressed regions, we physically defined Pbwg1.12 affecting body weight to a 3.8-Mb interval (61.5-65.3 Mb on chromosome 2. We fine-mapped Pbwg1.3 for body length to an 8.0-Mb interval (57.3-65.3 and Pbwg1.5 for abdominal white fat weight to a 2.1-Mb interval (59.4-61.5. The wild-derived allele at Pbwg1.12 and Pbwg1.3 uniquely increased body weight and length despite the fact that the wild mouse has a smaller body size than that of B6, whereas it decreased fat weight at Pbwg1.5. Exome sequencing and candidate gene prioritization suggested that Gcg and Grb14 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.12 and that Ly75 and Itgb6 are putative candidate genes for Pbwg1.5. These genes had nonsynonymous SNPs, but the SNPs were predicted to be not harmful to protein functions. These results provide information helpful to identify wild-derived quantitative trait genes causing enhanced growth and resistance to obesity.

  20. Discovery and fine-mapping of adiposity loci using high density imputation of genome-wide association studies in individuals of African ancestry: African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lu, Yingchang; Justice, Anne E; Mudgal, Poorva; Liu, Ching-Ti; Young, Kristin; Yanek, Lisa R; Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Rand, Kristin; Brody, Jennifer A; Cade, Brian E; Dimitrov, Latchezar; Duan, Qing; Guo, Xiuqing; Lange, Leslie A; Nalls, Michael A; Okut, Hayrettin; Tajuddin, Salman M; Tayo, Bamidele O; Vedantam, Sailaja; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Chen, Guanjie; Chen, Wei-Min; Chesi, Alessandra; Irvin, Marguerite R; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Smith, Jennifer A; Zheng, Wei; Allison, Matthew A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bartz, Traci M; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bottinger, Erwin P; Carpten, John; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Conti, David V; Cooper, Richard S; Fornage, Myriam; Freedman, Barry I; Garcia, Melissa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Hsu, Yu-Han H; Hu, Jennifer; Huff, Chad D; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick; Klein, Eric; Li, Jin; McKnight, Barbara; Nayak, Uma; Nemesure, Barbara; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Olshan, Andrew; Press, Michael F; Rohde, Rebecca; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Salako, Babatunde; Sanderson, Maureen; Shao, Yaming; Siscovick, David S; Stanford, Janet L; Stevens, Victoria L; Stram, Alex; Strom, Sara S; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Witte, John S; Yao, Jie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan B; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ambs, Stefan; Cushman, Mary; Faul, Jessica D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Levin, Albert M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ware, Erin B; Weir, David R; Zhao, Wei; Zhi, Degui; Arnett, Donna K; Grant, Struan F A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Oloapde, Olufunmilayo I; Rao, D C; Rotimi, Charles N; Sale, Michele M; Williams, L Keoki; Zemel, Babette S; Becker, Diane M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Li, Yun; Patel, Sanjay R; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; Bowden, Donald W; Cupples, L Adrienne; Haiman, Christopher A; Loos, Ruth J F; North, Kari E

    2017-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes. In the sex-combined analyses, we identified one novel locus (TCF7L2/HABP2) for WHRadjBMI and eight previously established loci at P African ancestry individuals. An additional novel locus (SPRYD7/DLEU2) was identified for WHRadjBMI when combined with European GWAS. In the sex-stratified analyses, we identified three novel loci for BMI (INTS10/LPL and MLC1 in men, IRX4/IRX2 in women) and four for WHRadjBMI (SSX2IP, CASC8, PDE3B and ZDHHC1/HSD11B2 in women) in individuals of African ancestry or both African and European ancestry. For four of the novel variants, the minor allele frequency was low (African ancestry sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses, 26 BMI loci and 17 WHRadjBMI loci contained ≤ 20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% posterior probability of driving the associations. The lead variants in 13 of these loci had a high probability of being causal. As compared to our previous HapMap imputed GWAS for BMI and WHRadjBMI including up to 71,412 and 27,350 African ancestry individuals, respectively, our results suggest that 1000 Genomes imputation showed modest improvement in identifying GWAS loci including low frequency variants. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses further improved fine mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between the African and European ancestry populations.

  1. Information technology as a facilitator of suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness about the paramount importance of information technology within business in the context of large businesses. However, research about the investigation of the role of information technology resources in fostering collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in the small and medium enterprise sector has remained scant. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of information technology on collaborative communication, network governance and relationship longevity in Zimbabwe’s SME sector. Five research hypotheses were posited and sample data from 162 small and medium enterprise suppliers were collected and used to empirically test the hypotheses. The results of this study showed that information technology resources positively influenced small and medium enterprise suppliers’ collaborative communication, network governance and consequential relationship longevity with their buyers in a significant way. Overall, the current study findings provided tentative support to the proposition that information technology resources, collaborative communication and network governance should be recognised as significant antecedents for improved relationship longevity between suppliers and their buyers in the SME setting. Therefore, managers in the small and medium enterprise sector and small and medium enterprise owners need to pay attention to both collaborative communication and network governance in order to optimise information technology resource impact on their relationship longevity with their business counterparts. Limitations and future research directions were also indicated.

  2. Fine mapping of powdery mildew resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 in Triticum boeoticum (Boiss.) using the shotgun sequence assembly of chromosome 7AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhuneja, Parveen; Yadav, Bharat; Stirnweis, Daniel; Hurni, Severine; Kaur, Satinder; Elkot, Ahmed Fawzy; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas; Sehgal, Sunish; Gill, Bikram S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-10-01

    A novel powdery mildew resistance gene and a new allele of Pm1 were identified and fine mapped. DNA markers suitable for marker-assisted selection have been identified. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat and causes significant yield losses worldwide. Diploid A genome species are an important genetic resource for disease resistance genes. Two powdery mildew resistance genes, identified in Triticum boeoticum (A(b)A(b)) accession pau5088, PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 were mapped on chromosome 7AL. In the present study, shotgun sequence assembly data for chromosome 7AL were utilised for fine mapping of these Pm resistance genes. Forty SSR, 73 resistance gene analogue-based sequence-tagged sites (RGA-STS) and 36 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were designed for fine mapping of PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2. Twenty-one RGA-STS, 8 SSR and 13 SNP markers were mapped to 7AL. RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a genetic distance of 0.6 and 6.0 cM, respectively. The present investigation established that PmTb7A.1 is a new powdery mildew resistance gene that confers resistance to a broad range of Bgt isolates, whereas PmTb7A.2 most probably is a new allele of Pm1 based on chromosomal location and screening with Bgt isolates showing differential reaction on lines with different Pm1 alleles. The markers identified to be linked to the two Pm resistance genes are robust and can be used for marker-assisted introgression of these genes to hexaploid wheat.

  3. Using clinical indicators to facilitate quality improvement via the accreditation process: an adaptive study into the control relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Sheuwen; Howley, Peter P; Hancock, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine accreditation surveyors' and hospitals' use and perceived usefulness of clinical indicator reports and the potential to establish the control relationship between the accreditation and reporting systems. The control relationship refers to instructional directives, arising from appropriately designed methods and efforts towards using clinical indicators, which provide a directed moderating, balancing and best outcome for the connected systems. Web-based questionnaire survey. Australian Council on Healthcare Standards' (ACHS) accreditation and clinical indicator programmes. Seventy-three of 306 surveyors responded. Half used the reports always/most of the time. Five key messages were revealed: (i) report use was related to availability before on-site investigation; (ii) report use was associated with the use of non-ACHS reports; (iii) a clinical indicator set's perceived usefulness was associated with its reporting volume across hospitals; (iv) simpler measures and visual summaries in reports were rated the most useful; (v) reports were deemed to be suitable for the quality and safety objectives of the key groups of interested parties (hospitals' senior executive and management officers, clinicians, quality managers and surveyors). Implementing the control relationship between the reporting and accreditation systems is a promising expectation. Redesigning processes to ensure reports are available in pre-survey packages and refined education of surveyors and hospitals on how to better utilize the reports will support the relationship. Additional studies on the systems' theory-based model of the accreditation and reporting system are warranted to establish the control relationship, building integrated system-wide relationships with sustainable and improved outcomes.

  4. The Relationship between Elementary Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy and Principals' Facilitation of Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Tracy A.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative correlation survey study investigated the relationship between teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of school principals as instructional leaders in professional learning communities (PLCs) and self-efficacy beliefs of teachers. Social Cognitive Theory, self-efficacy concept, and Adult Learning Theory were at the core of…

  5. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen locus as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Z R Steele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is a progressive disorder that affects cognitive function. There is increasing support for the role of neuroinflammation and aberrant immune regulation in the pathophysiology of AD. The immunoregulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA complex has been linked to susceptibility for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD; however, studies to date have failed to consistently identify a risk HLA haplotype for AD. Contributing to this difficulty are the complex genetic organization of the HLA region, differences in sequencing and allelic imputation methods, and diversity across ethnic populations.Building on prior work linking the HLA to AD, we used a robust imputation method on two separate case-control cohorts to examine the relationship between HLA haplotypes and AD risk in 309 individuals (191 AD, 118 cognitively normal [CN] controls from the San Francisco-based University of California, San Francisco (UCSF Memory and Aging Center (collected between 1999-2015 and 11,381 individuals (5,728 AD, 5,653 CN controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC, a National Institute on Aging (NIA-funded national data repository (reflecting samples collected between 1984-2012. We also examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarker measures for patients seen between 2005-2007 and longitudinal cognitive data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 346, mean follow-up 3.15 ± 2.04 y in AD individuals to assess the clinical relevance of identified risk haplotypes. The strongest association with AD risk occurred with major histocompatibility complex (MHC haplotype A*03:01~B*07:02~DRB1*15:01~DQA1*01:02~DQB1*06:02 (p = 9.6 x 10-4, odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 1.21 [1.08-1.37] in the combined UCSF + ADGC cohort. Secondary analysis suggested that this effect may be driven primarily by individuals who are negative for the established AD genetic risk factor, apolipoprotein E (APOE ɛ4. Separate

  6. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen locus as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Natasha Z R; Carr, Jessie S; Bonham, Luke W; Geier, Ethan G; Damotte, Vincent; Miller, Zachary A; Desikan, Rahul S; Boehme, Kevin L; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Kauwe, John S K; Kramer, Joel H; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni; Hollenbach, Jill A; Huang, Yadong; Yokoyama, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive disorder that affects cognitive function. There is increasing support for the role of neuroinflammation and aberrant immune regulation in the pathophysiology of AD. The immunoregulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex has been linked to susceptibility for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD; however, studies to date have failed to consistently identify a risk HLA haplotype for AD. Contributing to this difficulty are the complex genetic organization of the HLA region, differences in sequencing and allelic imputation methods, and diversity across ethnic populations. Building on prior work linking the HLA to AD, we used a robust imputation method on two separate case-control cohorts to examine the relationship between HLA haplotypes and AD risk in 309 individuals (191 AD, 118 cognitively normal [CN] controls) from the San Francisco-based University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center (collected between 1999-2015) and 11,381 individuals (5,728 AD, 5,653 CN controls) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC), a National Institute on Aging (NIA)-funded national data repository (reflecting samples collected between 1984-2012). We also examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker measures for patients seen between 2005-2007 and longitudinal cognitive data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 346, mean follow-up 3.15 ± 2.04 y in AD individuals) to assess the clinical relevance of identified risk haplotypes. The strongest association with AD risk occurred with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype A*03:01~B*07:02~DRB1*15:01~DQA1*01:02~DQB1*06:02 (p = 9.6 x 10-4, odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 1.21 [1.08-1.37]) in the combined UCSF + ADGC cohort. Secondary analysis suggested that this effect may be driven primarily by individuals who are negative for the established AD genetic risk factor, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4. Separate

  7. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  8. Facilitating participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, Bo

    2018-01-01

    the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...

  9. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  10. The Relationship between School Leaders' Perceptions of High Involvement Model Characteristics in Their Organizations and Their Attitudes towards the Use of the Change Toolkit to Facilitate Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a relationship between school leaders' perceptions regarding High Involvement Model variables as components of their organizations, including power, knowledge, information, leadership, instructional guidance, rewards, and resources, and the leaders' ability to successfully use the IBM…

  11. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  12. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  13. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  14. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership....

  15. Containers, facilitators, innovators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Merisalo, Maria; Inkinen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    : are they containers, facilitators or innovators? This is investigated here through empirical material derived from 27 interviews with top departmental management in three Finnish cities (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa). The results show that local city governments (LCGs) consider cities as facilitators of innovation...

  16. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  17. Practical-theological facilitation as skilled helping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pienaar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.

  18. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  19. Fine mapping of the NRG1 Hirschsprung's disease locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sze-Man Tang

    Full Text Available The primary pathology of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR, colon aganglionosis is the absence of ganglia in variable lengths of the hindgut, resulting in functional obstruction. HSCR is attributed to a failure of migration of the enteric ganglion precursors along the developing gut. RET is a key regulator of the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS and the major HSCR-causing gene. Yet the reduced penetrance of RET DNA HSCR-associated variants together with the phenotypic variability suggest the involvement of additional genes in the disease. Through a genome-wide association study, we uncovered a ∼350 kb HSCR-associated region encompassing part of the neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1. To identify the causal NRG1 variants contributing to HSCR, we genotyped 243 SNPs variants on 343 ethnic Chinese HSCR patients and 359 controls. Genotype analysis coupled with imputation narrowed down the HSCR-associated region to 21 kb, with four of the most associated SNPs (rs10088313, rs10094655, rs4624987, and rs3884552 mapping to the NRG1 promoter. We investigated whether there was correlation between the genotype at the rs10088313 locus and the amount of NRG1 expressed in human gut tissues (40 patients and 21 controls and found differences in expression as a function of genotype. We also found significant differences in NRG1 expression levels between diseased and control individuals bearing the same rs10088313 risk genotype. This indicates that the effects of NRG1 common variants are likely to depend on other alleles or epigenetic factors present in the patients and would account for the variability in the genetic predisposition to HSCR.

  20. A model for fine mapping in family based association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Stefan; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2009-01-01

    Genome wide association studies for complex diseases are typically followed by more focused characterization of the identified genetic region. We propose a latent class model to evaluate a candidate region with several measured markers using observations on families. The main goal is to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the observed markers and the putative true but unobserved disease locus in the region. Based on this model, we estimate the joint distribution of alleles at the observed markers and the unobserved true disease locus, and a penetrance parameter measuring the impact of the disease allele on disease risk. A family specific random effect allows for varying baseline disease prevalences for different families. We present a likelihood framework for our model and assess its properties in simulations. We apply the model to an Alzheimer data set and confirm previous findings in the ApoE region.

  1. Characterization and fine mapping of a female fertility associated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... 1Key Laboratory of Agriculture Responding to Climate Change, Jiangxi ... Female-sterile line can be used as a pollinator which has a great potential for hybrid seeds production. ... Reciprocal crosses and pollen vitality assay suggest that the .... per plant, and seed-setting rate were investigated in ff1(t).

  2. Asexual sporulation facilitates adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, A.J.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Zwaan, B.J.; Schoustra, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the occurrence and spread of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is crucial for public health. It has been hypothesized that asexual sporulation, which is abundant in nature, is essential for phenotypic expression of azole resistance mutations in A. fumigatus facilitating

  3. Facilitators in Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael R.; Erlandson, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This is part of a larger ethnographical study concerning how school development in a local educational context sets cultural and social life in motion. The main data "in this article" consists of semi-structural interviews with teachers (facilitators) who have the responsibility of carrying out a project about formative assessment in…

  4. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  5. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  6. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    so doing, it attempts to examine how Ethiopia's WTO Accession and trade facilitation ... the more expensive imports, exports and production becomes rendering. Ethiopian ..... can reserve the right to refuse requests of importers for the fifth valuation method to ..... units may find it easier to deal with post clearance audit. In the ...

  7. Facilitating Shared Understandings of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    This thesis contributes an identification of a key mechanism and its constituent qualities, for facilitating shared understandings of risk. Globalisation and the pace of technological change increases the uncertainties of decision making within many design and innovation practices. Accordingly......, the focus of participatory workshops has expanded towards addressing broader questions of strategy, business models and other organizational and inter-organisational issues. To develop effective partnerships across the boundaries separating companies, I argue that is necessary for those involved to gain...... or proxy for absent others, 4) an incomplete comic with which children could contribute sketched ideas to a design process 5) a table top tool kits for discussing business relationship issues and 5) a number of bespoke interactive sculpture-like artifacts for provoking insights concerning business dilemmas...

  8. Laser facilitates vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...

  10. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  11. Synergies between veterinarians and para-professionals in the public and private sectors: organisational and institutional relationships that facilitate the process of privatising animal health services in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, J D

    2004-04-01

    and livestock products. An informal delivery system has gained a foothold in many developing countries in the absence of a well-planned strategy for the privatisation of animal health services. Most governments would now acknowledge that this presents a greater risk than the deployment of well-regulated and effectively supervised para-professionals. This paper explores some of the principal challenges facing policy-makers in their efforts to bridge the transition from full state provision of animal health services to the formation of a partnership with the private sector. Governments and donors need to take active steps to facilitate the process of privatisation of animal health services, especially those targeting the poorer rural subsistence and pastoralist farming systems. This would entail an initial investment in developing the necessary management skills at all levels in the delivery system. Thereafter, further investment would be required to allow the changes to be managed using tools such as the strategic planning cycle. Should sufficient resources be made available to allow the full participation of all stakeholders in the delivery of animal health services, appropriate institutions and effective organisational relationships addressing all the more important issues will have to be identified. The paper then proceeds to describe how different livestock production systems determine the level of demand for animal health services. If these services are to be provided on a financially sustainable basis, they must be tailored to meet actual rather than perceived demand. Identifying an appropriate model for animal health service delivery thus requires careful analysis of the production system to be targeted. Governments and donors can play a useful role in providing resources for this type of study as well as for appropriate market studies, business planning, training and access to soft loans. Finally, as regards regulation, as the law stands today, many activities

  12. Directionality in the Relationship of Self-regulation, Self-efficacy, and Mood Changes in Facilitating Improved Physical Activity and Nutrition Behaviors: Extending Behavioral Theory to Improve Weight-Loss Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2017-06-01

    To improve understanding of directionality in the dynamic relationships among psychosocial predictors of behavioral changes associated with weight loss. In women with obesity participating in a new behavioral weight-loss treatment that emphasizes physical activity (n = 53; body mass index = 34.7 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ), mediation and moderated-mediation models were fit to assess directionality in the self-efficacy-self-regulation change relationship and additional effects of mood change and its basis on fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity behaviors through month 6 and from months 6 to 24. Self-regulation was a stronger predictor of change in self-efficacy than vice versa. Mood change did not moderate the relationships significantly between changes in self-efficacy and/or self-regulation, and weight loss behavior. Emotional eating significantly changed mediated relationships between changes in mood and fruit/vegetable intake through month 6 (95% confidence interval, -0.05 to 0.00). Findings clarified relationships of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and mood in the prediction of weight loss behaviors, and informed behavioral treatments for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  14. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  15. Developing facilitation skills--a narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M

    2003-07-01

    Effective facilitation has been identified in the literature as one of three elements, along with context and evidence, that have a dynamic and coexisting relationship to enable the successful uptake of evidence into practice. This paper presents an overview of the concept of facilitation within the context of practice development, ahead of a personal and professional reflective account of a 'developing facilitator'. In the summer of 2001, the author was instrumental in organising the first Practice Development School in Melbourne. Thrown in at the deep end, she found herself co-facilitating with an experienced practice developer from the United Kingdom. Having never facilitated in the arena of an action learning group, nor worked in the field of practice development, there was initially a sense of impending overload and drowning in the new knowledge and skills that needed to be acquired. Drawing upon the work of narrative inquiry the author shares her experiences in the anticipation that in telling her story it will assist others in their journey of becoming a facilitator.

  16. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  17. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    , and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...

  18. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Doobay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”

  19. Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geralyn E Stephens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the ability to collaborate effectively is essential for students moving into 21st century workplaces. Employers are expecting new hires to already possess group-work skills and will seek evidence of their ability to cooperate, collaborate, and complete projects with colleagues, including remotely or at a distance. Instructional activities and assignments that provide students with a variety of ways to engage each other have a direct and immediate effect on their academic performance. This paper shares the Facilitating Collaboration in Online Groups (FCOG instructional planning strategy. The strategy is designed for faculty use and familiarizes students with the process and technology necessary to collaborate effectively in online classroom groups. The strategy utilizes proven teaching techniques to maximize student-student and student-content relationships. Each of the four (4 sequential phases in the FCOG instructional planning strategy are discussed: 1 Creating Groups, 2 Establishing Expectations, 3 Communication Tools, and 4 Assignments and Activities. The discussion also contains implementation suggestions as well as examples of instructional assignments and activities that provide students with a variety of ways to collaborate to reach the learning outcomes.

  20. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  1. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    of root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...... nitrogen transfer between legumes and non-leguminous plants, exploitation of the soil via mycorrhizal fungi and soil-plant processes which alter the mobilisation of plant growth resources such as through exudation of amino acids, extra-cellular enzymes, acidification, competition-induced modification......Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...

  2. On novice facilitators doing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Opportunities for novices to facilitate Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) workshops are limited, especially because of a lack of access to real-world interventions and confidence in their capabilities. Novices are usually young academics building their careers through publishing. Publishing...... is challenging if facilitation and opportunities for data collection are limited. To address this challenge, this paper suggests autoethnography as a framework for addressing difficulties that novices face in conducting research and publishing on PSMs. This suggestion grows out of a literature study...

  3. Facilitation Skills for Library Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Anne; Matheson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Session summary: Brainstorming, problem-solving, team-building and group communication – all of these things can be made easier through facilitation! Come to this fun, interactive workshop to learn techniques and exercises to boost your group meetings. Taught by two information professionals with formal facilitation training and experience, this workshop will give you theory, hands-on practice time and feedback. What participants will learn: Participants will learn techniques to he...

  4. Why (we think) facilitation works: insights from organizational learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2015-10-06

    Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.

  5. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  6. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  7. Brug af mindfulness til facilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gennem de senere år er mindfulness gået fra udelukkende at være en eksistentiel praksis til også at være en behandlingsform og senest til også at blive brugt som et praktisk redskab i erhvervslivet. Denne artikel viser, at mindfulness også kan anvendes i forbindelse med facilitering. Facilitering...... er et værktøj, som bruges i arbejdslivet fx til møder og konferencer, hvor en gruppe mennesker er samlet for at lære eller udrette noget sammen. Det nye ved at kombinere mindfulness med facilitering er, at fokus hermed ændres fra individet, som er centrum for den eksistentielle fordybelse eller det...... terapeutiske forløb, til gruppen, som er udgangspunktet i facilitering. Artiklen viser, hvordan mindfulness konkret kan bruges på gruppeniveau og diskuterer samtidig hvilke problemer, der kan være forbundet hermed. Baseret på vores egne erfaringer, diskuterer vi, hvordan mindfulness kan påvirke en gruppes...

  8. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    -based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...

  9. Facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelurrutia, Miguel A; Benrimoj, S I Charlie; Castrillon, Carla C; de Amezua, María J Casado; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Faus, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    To identify and prioritise facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy. Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 15) and pharmacy strategists (n = 18), and the results were examined using the content analysis method. In addition, two nominal groups (seven community pharmacists and seven strategists) were formed to identify and prioritise facilitators. Results of both techniques were then triangulated. Facilitators for practice change. Twelve facilitators were identified and grouped into four domains (D1: Pharmacist; D2: Pharmacy as an organisation; D3: Pharmaceutical profession; D4: Miscellaneous). Facilitators identified in D1 include: the need for more clinical education at both pre- and post-graduate levels; the need for clearer and unequivocal messages from professional leaders about the future of the professional practice; and the need for a change in pharmacists' attitudes. Facilitators in D2 are: the need to change the reimbursement system to accommodate cognitive service delivery as well as dispensing; and the need to change the front office of pharmacies. Facilitators identified in D3 are: the need for the Spanish National Professional Association to take a leadership role in the implementation of cognitive services; the need to reduce administrative workload; and the need for universities to reduce the gap between education and research. Other facilitators identified in this study include: the need to increase patients' demand for cognitive services at pharmacies; the need to improve pharmacist-physician relationships; the need for support from health care authorities; and the need for improved marketing of cognitive services and their benefits to society, including physicians and health care authorities. Twelve facilitators were identified. Strategists considered clinical education and pharmacists' attitude as the most important, and

  10. Facilitation of self-empowerment of women living with borderline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Borderline personality disorder is characterised by a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects and marked impulsivity. Objective: The objective is to define the central concept of “facilitation of self- empowerment”. Method: Analysis and synthesis reasoning methods as indicated by ...

  11. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  12. Does home life interfere with or facilitate job performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Voydanoff, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study examines whether home life influences inrole and extrarole job performance in positive or negative ways. We hypothesized that home resources would have a direct positive effect on job performance, and an indirect relationship through home-work facilitation (HWF). Home demands were

  13. Facilitating Sexual Health: Intimacy Enhancement Techniques for Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that, although technological advances afford opportunities for reclaiming sexual functioning, even among individuals with chronic illness or devastating injury, they cannot ensure that sexual outlet will facilitate intimacy in a committed relationship. Explains how sex therapy addresses dysfunction in an essential relational context, and…

  14. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  15. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  16. Cognitive implications of facilitating echoic persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L

    2007-06-01

    Seventeen participants performed a tone-pattern-matching task at different presentation levels while concurrently engaged in a simulated-driving task. Presentation levels of 60, 65, and 70 dBC (SPL) were combined factorially with tone-matching delays of 2, 3, and 4 sec. Intensity had no effect on performance in single-task conditions and short-delay conditions. However, when the participants were engaged concurrently in the driving task, a significant interaction between presentation level and delay was observed. In the longest delay condition, the participants performed the tone-pattern-matching task more efficiently (more quickly and without additional errors) as presentation intensity increased. These findings demonstrate the interaction between sensory and cognitive processes and point to a direct-intensity relationship where intensity affects the persistence of echoic memory. Implications for facilitating auditory processing and improving auditory interfaces in complex systems (i.e., transportation environments), particularly for older and hearing-impaired listeners, are discussed.

  17. Facilitating RNA structure prediction with microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzek, Elzbieta; Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H; Catrina, Irina E

    2006-01-17

    Determining RNA secondary structure is important for understanding structure-function relationships and identifying potential drug targets. This paper reports the use of microarrays with heptamer 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides to probe the secondary structure of an RNA and thereby improve the prediction of that secondary structure. When experimental constraints from hybridization results are added to a free-energy minimization algorithm, the prediction of the secondary structure of Escherichia coli 5S rRNA improves from 27 to 92% of the known canonical base pairs. Optimization of buffer conditions for hybridization and application of 2'-O-methyl-2-thiouridine to enhance binding and improve discrimination between AU and GU pairs are also described. The results suggest that probing RNA with oligonucleotide microarrays can facilitate determination of secondary structure.

  18. Semantic Coherence Facilitates Distributional Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Long; Boroditsky, Lera; Frank, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Computational models have shown that purely statistical knowledge about words' linguistic contexts is sufficient to learn many properties of words, including syntactic and semantic category. For example, models can infer that "postman" and "mailman" are semantically similar because they have quantitatively similar patterns of association with other words (e.g., they both tend to occur with words like "deliver," "truck," "package"). In contrast to these computational results, artificial language learning experiments suggest that distributional statistics alone do not facilitate learning of linguistic categories. However, experiments in this paradigm expose participants to entirely novel words, whereas real language learners encounter input that contains some known words that are semantically organized. In three experiments, we show that (a) the presence of familiar semantic reference points facilitates distributional learning and (b) this effect crucially depends both on the presence of known words and the adherence of these known words to some semantic organization. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  20. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and had interviews and focus groups with facilitators. We applied an explorative approach in data collection and analysis, and conducted an inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The facilitators mainly enacted four facilitator roles: teacher, super user, peer...

  1. Role enactment of facilitation in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    facilitation visits in 13 practice settings and had interviews and focus groups with facilitators. We applied an explorative approach in data collection and analysis, and conducted an inductive thematic analysis. Results: The facilitators mainly enacted four facilitator roles: teacher, super user, peer...

  2. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  3. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  4. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  5. The 'patient's physician one-step removed': the evolving roles of medical tourism facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Adams, Krystyna; Kingsbury, Paul; Johnston, Rory

    2011-09-01

    Medical tourism involves patients travelling internationally to receive medical services. This practice raises a range of ethical issues, including potential harms to the patient's home and destination country and risks to the patient's own health. Medical tourists often engage the services of a facilitator who may book travel and accommodation and link the patient with a hospital abroad. Facilitators have the potential to exacerbate or mitigate the ethical concerns associated with medical tourism, but their roles are poorly understood. 12 facilitators were interviewed from 10 Canadian medical tourism companies. Three themes were identified: facilitators' roles towards the patient, health system and medical tourism industry. Facilitators' roles towards the patient were typically described in terms of advocacy and the provision of information, but limited by facilitators' legal liability. Facilitators felt they played a positive role in the lives of their patients and the Canadian health system and served as catalysts for reform, although they noted an adversarial relationship with some Canadian physicians. Many facilitators described personally visiting medical tourism sites and forming personal relationships with surgeons abroad, but noted the need for greater regulation of their industry. Facilitators play a substantial and evolving role in the practice of medical tourism and may be entering a period of professionalisation. Because of the key role of facilitators in determining the effects of medical tourism on patients and public health, this paper recommends a planned conversation between medical tourism stakeholders to define and shape facilitators' roles.

  6. Perceived and desired facilitativeness of one's closest friend, need for approval and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D

    1993-03-01

    The hypothesis that the positive association between self-esteem and the perceived facilitativeness of one's closest friend can be explained by the presumed greater desire of low self-esteem individuals for a facilitative relationship was not confirmed in 262 16-17-year-old females, who completed the Rosenberg (1965) Self-Esteem Scale and a shortened version of the Barrett-Lennard (1964) Relationship Inventory. Although desired facilitativeness correlated significantly positively with self-esteem, the correlation between perceived facilitativeness and self-esteem remained significantly positive when desired facilitativeness was partialled out. The further prediction that the correlation between perceived facilitativeness and self-esteem would be more positive for those scoring higher on the Jones' (1969) Need for Approval Scale was also not confirmed. The opposite result was obtained in that this correlation was significantly positive for those with low need for approval but not for those with a high need.

  7. Facilitating Value Co-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veith, Anne; Assaf, Albert; Josiassen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    will also lead to a high rewards. According to postmodern consumerism theory, consumers are intrinsically motivated to participate (Arnould et al., 2006; Borghini & Caru, 2008; Etgar, 2008; Fisher & Smith, 2011), but may also be extrinsic motivated by, for instance, appraisal and 'autonomy' (Etgar, 2008......). Therefore, for instance, being part of the process is a key incentive for consumers. Postmodern consumers' search for unique experiences calls for individualization, personalization, etc. Although Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004), Karpen et al. (2008), and Karpen et al. (2011) have presented S-D Logic...... as a middle range theory it is still difficult for organizations to operationalize their co-creation efforts. This paper argues that postmodern consumerism can be used to guide the operationalization of the co-creation process by identifying the key facilitators of co-creation for the postmodern consumer...

  8. The Race that Precedes Coactivation: Development of Multisensory Facilitation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutchu, Ayla; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The facilitating effect of multisensory integration on motor responses in adults is much larger than predicted by race-models and is in accordance with the idea of coactivation. However, the development of multisensory facilitation of endogenously driven motor processes and its relationship to the development of complex cognitive skills…

  9. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  10. The Mindful Coach Seven Roles for Facilitating Leader Development

    CERN Document Server

    Silsbee, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Written for executive coaches, teachers, and other development professionals, the book explores the  seven roles or "Voices" that coaches assume while working with a client. The "Voices" are: Master, Partner, Investigator, Reflector, Teacher, Guide and Contractor. Silsbee illuminates the dynamic relationship between these roles, and integrates them in an intelligent roadmap for any coaching conversation. This book offers a helpful resource for internal and external executive coaches as well as leader coaches, consultants, trainers, teachers, and facilitators.

  11. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  12. Online interprofessional education facilitation: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherryn Maree; Ward, Catherine; Reeves, Scott

    2018-04-22

    The use of online media to deliver interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming more prevalent across health professions education settings. Facilitation of IPE activities is known to be critical to the effective delivery of IPE, however, specifics about the nature of online IPE facilitation remains unclear. To explore the health professions education literature to understand the extent, range and nature of research on online IPE facilitation. Scoping review methodology was used to guide a search of four electronic databases for relevant papers. Of the 2095 abstracts initially identified, after screening of both abstracts and full-text papers, 10 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Following abstraction of key information from each study, a thematic analysis was undertaken. Three key themes emerged to describe the nature of the IPE facilitation literature: (1) types of online IPE facilitation contributions, (2) the experience of online IPE facilitation and (3) personal outcomes of online IPE facilitation. These IPE facilitation themes were particularly focused on facilitation of interprofessional student teams on an asynchronous basis. While the included studies provide some insight into the nature of online IPE facilitation, future research is needed to better understand facilitator contributions, and the facilitation experience and associated outcomes, both relating to synchronous and asynchronous online environments.

  13. Brand Relationships 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Bjerregaard, Stine

    Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well...... that consumers remain critical toward the Nike+ initiative as an emotional partner as well as a social interaction builder. This consumer resistance endures in spite of Nike fulfills the criteria for relationship building set forth in the literature....

  14. Stable statistical representations facilitate visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennifer E; Melcher, David

    2014-10-01

    Observers represent the average properties of object ensembles even when they cannot identify individual elements. To investigate the functional role of ensemble statistics, we examined how modulating statistical stability affects visual search. We varied the mean and/or individual sizes of an array of Gabor patches while observers searched for a tilted target. In "stable" blocks, the mean and/or local sizes of the Gabors were constant over successive displays, whereas in "unstable" baseline blocks they changed from trial to trial. Although there was no relationship between the context and the spatial location of the target, observers found targets faster (as indexed by faster correct responses and fewer saccades) as the global mean size became stable over several displays. Building statistical stability also facilitated scanning the scene, as measured by larger saccadic amplitudes, faster saccadic reaction times, and shorter fixation durations. These findings suggest a central role for peripheral visual information, creating context to free resources for detailed processing of salient targets and maintaining the illusion of visual stability.

  15. A Comparison of Gestalt and Relationship Enhancement Treatments with Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Randall E.; Guerney, Bernard G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of Relationship Enhancement and Gestalt Relationship Facilitation. Results indicated couples (N=36) in both groups made significant gains, but Relationship Enhancement participants achieved greater gains in communication, relationship satisfaction, and ability to handle problems. (Author/JAC)

  16. Ghana - Land Tenure Facilitation Impact Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The MCC-supported Land Title Facilitation Activity (LTF) in Ghana was designed to increase investment and productivity by strengthening property rights. In Ghana,...

  17. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge...

  18. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  19. Medical Education to Enhance Critical Consciousness: Facilitators' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Vyas, Rashmi; Verstegen, Danielle; Morahan, Page; Dornan, Tim

    2017-11-01

    To analyze educators' experiences of facilitating cultural discussions in two global health professions education programs and what these experiences had taught them about critical consciousness. A multicultural research team conducted in-depth interviews with 16 faculty who had extensive experience facilitating cultural discussions. They analyzed transcripts of the interviews thematically, drawing sensitizing insights from Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony. Collaboration and conversation helped the team self-consciously examine their positions toward the data set and be critically reflexive. Participant faculty used their prior experience facilitating cultural discussions to create a "safe space" in which learners could develop critical consciousness. During multicultural interactions they recognized and explicitly addressed issues related to power differentials, racism, implicit bias, and gender bias. They noted the need to be "facile in attending to pain" as learners brought up traumatic experiences and other sensitive issues including racism and the impact of power dynamics. They built relationships with learners by juxtaposing and exploring the sometimes-conflicting norms of different cultures. Participants were reflective about their own understanding and tendency to be biased. They aimed to break free of such biases while role modeling how to have the courage to speak up. Experience had given facilitators in multicultural programs an understanding of their responsibility to promote critical consciousness and social justice. How faculty without prior experience or expertise could develop those values and skills is a topic for future research.

  20. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  1. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  2. Facilitators & Barriers to the Adoption of Ergonomic Solutions in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Welch, Laura; Barnidge, Ellen; Weaver, Nancy; Evanoff, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rates of musculoskeletal disorders in construction remain high. Few studies have described barriers and facilitators to the use of available ergonomic solutions. This paper describes these barriers and facilitators and their relationship to the level of adoption. Methods Three analysts rated 16 proposed ergonomic solutions from a participatory ergonomics study and assessed the level of adoption, six adoption characteristics, and identified the category of adoption from a theoretical model. Results Twelve solutions were always or intermittently used and were rated positively for characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility with existing work processes, and trialability. Locus of control (worker vs. contractor) was not related to adoption. Simple solutions faced fewer barriers to adoption than those rated as complex. Conclusions Specific adoption characteristics can help predict the use of new ergonomic solutions in construction. Adoption of complex solutions must involve multiple stakeholders, more time, and shifts in culture or work systems. PMID:28195660

  3. Teachers as Friendship Facilitators: Respeto and Personalismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…

  4. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  5. Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of the Leaf-Color Gene ygl-1 in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Guan

    Full Text Available A novel yellow-green leaf mutant yellow-green leaf-1 (ygl-1 was isolated in self-pollinated progenies from the cross of maize inbred lines Ye478 and Yuanwu02. The mutant spontaneously showed yellow-green character throughout the lifespan. Meanwhile, the mutant reduced contents of chlorophyll and Car, arrested chloroplast development and lowered the capacity of photosynthesis compared with the wild-type Lx7226. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. The ygl-1 locus was initially mapped to an interval of about 0.86 Mb in bin 1.01 on the short arm of chromosome 1 using 231 yellow-green leaf individuals of an F2 segregating population from ygl-1/Lx7226. Utilizing four new polymorphic SSR markers, the ygl-1 locus was narrowed down to a region of about 48 kb using 2930 and 2247 individuals of F2 and F3 mapping populations, respectively. Among the three predicted genes annotated within this 48 kb region, GRMZM2G007441, which was predicted to encode a cpSRP43 protein, had a 1-bp nucleotide deletion in the coding region of ygl-1 resulting in a frame shift mutation. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that YGL-1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues and its expression level was not significantly affected in the ygl-1 mutant from early to mature stages, while light intensity regulated its expression both in the ygl-1 mutant and wild type seedlings. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of some genes involved in chloroplast development were affected in the six-week old ygl-1 plants. These findings suggested that YGL-1 plays an important role in chloroplast development of maize.

  6. Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Hailiang; Fang, Ming; Jostins, Luke; Umićević Mirkov, Maša; Boucher, Gabrielle; Anderson, Carl A; Andersen, Vibeke; Cleynen, Isabelle; Cortes, Adrian; Crins, François; D'Amato, Mauro; Deffontaine, Valérie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Docampo, Elisa; Elansary, Mahmoud; Farh, Kyle Kai-How; Franke, Andre; Gori, Ann-Stephan; Goyette, Philippe; Halfvarson, Jonas; Haritunians, Talin; Knight, Jo; Lawrance, Ian C; Lees, Charlie W; Louis, Edouard; Mariman, Rob; Meuwissen, Theo; Mni, Myriam; Momozawa, Yukihide; Parkes, Miles; Spain, Sarah L; Théâtre, Emilie; Trynka, Gosia; Satsangi, Jack; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Vermeire, Severine; Xavier, Ramnik J; Weersma, Rinse K; Duerr, Richard H; Mathew, Christopher G; Rioux, John D; McGovern, Dermot P B; Cho, Judy H; Georges, Michel; Daly, Mark J; Barrett, Jeffrey C

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here we

  7. Discovery and Fine Mapping of Serum Protein Loci through Transethnic Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Prins, Bram P.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S.; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A.; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L.; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Id P.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y. D.; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J. Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Snieder, Harold; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.

    2012-01-01

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through

  8. Identification and fine mapping of a linear B cell epitope of human vimentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Catharina Essendrup; Houen, Gunnar; Hansen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about antibody-antigen interactions is important for the understanding of the immune system mechanisms and for supporting development of drugs and biomarkers. A tool for identification of these antigenic epitopes of specific antibodies is epitope mapping. In this study, a modified enzyme......-linked immunosorbent assay was applied for epitope mapping of a mouse monoclonal vimentin antibody using overlapping resin-bound peptides covering the entire vimentin protein. The minimal epitope required for binding was identified as the LDSLPLVD sequence using N- and C-terminally truncated peptides. The peptide...... sequence LDSLPLVDTH was identified as the complete epitope, corresponding to amino acids 428-437 in the C-terminal end of the human vimentin protein. Alanine scanning and functionality scanning applying substituted peptides were used to identify amino acids essential for antibody reactivity. In particular...

  9. Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hailiang; Fang, Ming; Jostins, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders that affect millions of people worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci, but few have been conclusively resolved to specific functional variants. Here w...

  10. Analysis of cytoplasmic effects and fine-mapping of a genic male sterile line in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qin

    Full Text Available Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS, including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS, have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.

  11. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soderhall, C.; Korberg, I.B.; Thai, H.T.; Cao, J.; Chen, Y; Zhang, X.; Shulu, Z.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Frisen, L.; Roeleveld, N.; Markljung, E.; Kockum, I.; Nordenskjold, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by

  12. Fine Mapping QTL for mastitis resistance on BTA9 in three Nordic red cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L

    2008-01-01

    A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over...... the whole chromosome in the 16 original families and 18 additional half-sib families. This enabled linkage disequilibrium information to be used in the analysis. Data were analysed by an approach that combines information from linkage and linkage disequilibrium, which allowed the QTL affecting clinical...... mastitis to be mapped to a small interval (BM4208 and INRA084. This QTL showed a pleiotropic effect on SCS in the DR and SRB breeds. Haplotypes associated with variations in mastitis resistance were identified. The haplotypes were predictive in the general population and can be used in marker...

  13. CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization: estradiol is causal for endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Glubb, Dylan M; Painter, Jodie N; Cheng, Timothy; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Doody, Deborah; Dennis, Joe; Webb, Penelope M; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Maranian, Mel J; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Zhao, Hui; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Dowdy, Sean C; Winham, Stacey J; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Tham, Emma; Liu, Tao; Mints, Miriam; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Nyholt, Dale R; Henders, Anjali K; Hopper, John L; Traficante, Nadia; Ruebner, Matthias; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Bojesen, Stig E; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Tomlinson, Ian; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas F; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide-significant association between endometrial cancer and a CYP19A1 SNP (rs727479 in intron 2, P=4.8×10−11). SNP rs727479 was also among those most strongly associated with circulating E2 concentrations in 2767 post-menopausal controls (P=7.4×10−8). The observed endometrial cancer odds ratio per rs727479 A-allele (1.15, CI=1.11–1.21) is compatible with that predicted by the observed effect on E2 concentrations (1.09, CI=1.03–1.21), consistent with the hypothesis that endometrial cancer risk is driven by E2. From 28 candidate-causal SNPs, 12 co-located with three putative gene-regulatory elements and their risk alleles associated with higher CYP19A1 expression in bioinformatical analyses. For both phenotypes, the associations with rs727479 were stronger among women with a higher BMI (Pinteraction=0.034 and 0.066 respectively), suggesting a biologically plausible gene-environment interaction. PMID:26574572

  14. Multi-ethnic fine-mapping of 14 central adiposity loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.T.; Buchkovich, M.L.; Winkler, T.W.; Heid, I.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Borecki, I.B.; Fox, C.S.; Mohlke, K.L.; North, K.E.; Cupples, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium identified 14 loci in European Ancestry (EA) individuals associated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adjusted for body mass index. These loci are wide and narrowingthe signalsremains necessary. Twelve of 14 loci identified inGIANTEA

  15. Fine-mapping the effects of Alzheimer's disease risk loci on brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, Gennady V; Adams, Hieab H; van der Lee, Sven J; Vernooij, Meike W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van der Lugt, Aad; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; Ikram, Mohammad A

    2016-12-01

    The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions. Brain regions most significantly associated with AD risk variants were the left postcentral gyrus with ABCA7 (rs4147929, p = 4.45 × 10 -6 ), right superior frontal gyrus by ZCWPW1 (rs1476679, p = 5.12 × 10 -6 ), and right postcentral gyrus by APOE (p = 6.91 × 10 -6 ). Although no individual voxel passed multiple-testing correction, we found significant spatial overlap between the effects of AD risk loci on VBM and the expression of genes (MEF2C, CLU, and SLC24A4) in the Allen Brain Atlas. Results are available online on www.imagene.nl/ADSNPs/. In this single largest imaging genetics data set worldwide, we found that AD risk loci affect cortical gray matter in several brain regions known to be involved in AD, as well as regions that have not been implicated before. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine Mapping and Functional Analysis of the Multiple Sclerosis Risk Gene CD6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Cuapio, Angélica; Alloza, Iraide; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Alcina, Antonio; García-Barcina, Maria; Fedetz, Maria; Fernández, Óscar; Lucas, Miguel; Órpez, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, Mª Jesus; Otaegui, David; Olascoaga, Javier; Urcelay, Elena; Ortiz, Miguel A.; Arroyo, Rafael; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Antigüedad, Alfredo; Tolosa, Eva; Vandenbroeck, Koen

    2013-01-01

    CD6 has recently been identified and validated as risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS), based on the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs17824933, located in intron 1. CD6 is a cell surface scavenger receptor involved in T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as in thymocyte differentiation. In this study, we performed a haptag SNP screen of the CD6 gene locus using a total of thirteen tagging SNPs, of which three were non-synonymous SNPs, and replicated the recently reported GWAS SNP rs650258 in a Spanish-Basque collection of 814 controls and 823 cases. Validation of the six most strongly associated SNPs was performed in an independent collection of 2265 MS patients and 2600 healthy controls. We identified association of haplotypes composed of two non-synonymous SNPs [rs11230563 (R225W) and rs2074225 (A257V)] in the 2nd SRCR domain with susceptibility to MS (P max(T) permutation = 1×10−4). The effect of these haplotypes on CD6 surface expression and cytokine secretion was also tested. The analysis showed significantly different CD6 expression patterns in the distinct cell subsets, i.e. – CD4+ naïve cells, P = 0.0001; CD8+ naïve cells, P<0.0001; CD4+ and CD8+ central memory cells, P = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively; and natural killer T (NKT) cells, P = 0.02; with the protective haplotype (RA) showing higher expression of CD6. However, no significant changes were observed in natural killer (NK) cells, effector memory and terminally differentiated effector memory T cells. Our findings reveal that this new MS-associated CD6 risk haplotype significantly modifies expression of CD6 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PMID:23638056

  17. Fine Mapping of a Degenerated Abdominal Legs Mutant (Edl in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Wang

    Full Text Available In insects, abdominal appendages, also called prolegs, vary due to adaptive evolution. Mutations on prolegs within species provide insights to better understand the mechanisms underlying appendage development and diversity. In silkworm Bombyx mori, extra-crescents and degenerated abdominal legs (Edl mutant, belonging to the E pseudoallele group, is a spontaneous mutation that adds crescents and degenerates prolegs on the third abdominal segment (A3. This mutation may be a homeotic transformation of A3 to A2. In this study, the Edl locus was mapped within approximately a 211 Kb region that is 10 Kb upstream of Bmabdominal-A (Bmabd-A. RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis of Bmabd-A expression showed a slight but significant decrease, while the expression of BmUltrabithorax (BmUbx was up-regulated in the Edl mutant compared to wildtype (Dazao. Moreover, we also found that BmDistal-less (BmDll, which regulated the development of distal proleg structures, was missing at the tips of the A3 prolegs in the Edl mutant compared to BmDll expression in normally developed prolegs in both the wildtype and mutant. Collectively, we identified approximately a 211 Kb region in the Edl locus that regulates BmUbx and Bmabd-A expression and found that changes in BmUbx and Bmabd-A expression may lead to the loss of distal proleg structures in B. mori.

  18. CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Glubb, Dylan M

    2016-01-01

    Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide-significant associat...

  19. Fine Mapping and Cloning of Leafy Head Mutant Gene pla1-5 in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-neng FENG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We identified a leafy head mutant pla1-5 (plastochron 1-5 from the progeny of japonica rice cultivar Taipei 309 treated with 60Co-γ ray irradiation. The pla1-5 mutant has a dwarf phenotype and small leaves. Compared with its wild type, pla1-5 has more leaves and fewer tillers, and it fails to produce normal panicles at the maturity stage. Genetic analysis showed that the pla1-5 phenotype is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using the map-based cloning strategy, we narrowed down the location of the target gene to a 58-kb region between simple sequence repeat markers CHR1027 and CHR1030 on the long arm of chromosome 10. The target gene cosegregated with molecular markers CHR1028 and CHR1029. There were five predicted genes in the mapped region. The results from sequencing analysis revealed that there was one base deletion in the first exon of LOC_Os10g26340 encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A11 in the pla1-5 mutant, which might result in a downstream frame shift and premature termination. These results suggest that the P450 CYP78A11 gene is the candidate gene of PLA1-5.

  20. Characterization and fine mapping of a light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ye, Bangquan; Yin, Junjie; Yuan, Can; Zhou, Xiaogang; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Wang, Jichun; Chen, Weilan; Qin, Peng; Ma, Bintian; Wang, Yuping; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2015-12-01

    Plants that spontaneously produce lesion mimics or spots, without any signs of obvious adversity, such as pesticide and mechanical damage, or pathogen infection, are so-called lesion mimic mutants (lmms). In rice, many lmms exhibit enhanced resistance to pathogens, which provides a unique opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying lmms. We isolated a rice light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 (llm1). Lesion spots appeared in the leaves of the llm1 mutant at the tillering stage. Furthermore, the mutant llm1 had similar agronomic traits to wild type rice. Trypan blue and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the lesion spot formation on the llm1 mutant was due to programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species. The chloroplasts were severely damaged in the llm1 mutant, suggesting that chloroplast damage was associated with the formation of lesion spots in llm1. More importantly, llm1 exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial blight pathogens within increased expression of pathogenesis related genes (PRs). Using a map-based cloning approach, we delimited the LLM1 locus to a 121-kb interval between two simple sequence repeat markers, RM17470 and RM17473, on chromosome 4. We sequenced the candidate genes on the interval and found that a base mutation had substituted adenine phosphate for thymine in the last exon of LOC_Os04g52130, which led to an amino acid change (Asp(388) to Val) in the llm1 mutant. Our investigation showed that the putative coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX) encoded by LOC_Os04g52130 was produced by LLM1 and that amino acid Asp(388) was essential for CPOX function. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into the mechanism underlying lesion mimic initiation associated with LLM1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fine mapping of dominant X-linked incompatibility alleles in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Daniel R; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    Sex chromosomes have a large effect on reproductive isolation and play an important role in hybrid inviability. In Drosophila hybrids, X-linked genes have pronounced deleterious effects on fitness in male hybrids, which have only one X chromosome. Several studies have succeeded at locating and identifying recessive X-linked alleles involved in hybrid inviability. Nonetheless, the density of dominant X-linked alleles involved in interspecific hybrid viability remains largely unknown. In this report, we study the effects of a panel of small fragments of the D. melanogaster X-chromosome carried on the D. melanogaster Y-chromosome in three kinds of hybrid males: D. melanogaster/D. santomea, D. melanogaster/D. simulans and D. melanogaster/D. mauritiana. D. santomea and D. melanogaster diverged over 10 million years ago, while D. simulans (and D. mauritiana) diverged from D. melanogaster over 3 million years ago. We find that the X-chromosome from D. melanogaster carries dominant alleles that are lethal in mel/san, mel/sim, and mel/mau hybrids, and more of these alleles are revealed in the most divergent cross. We then compare these effects on hybrid viability with two D. melanogaster intraspecific crosses. Unlike the interspecific crosses, we found no X-linked alleles that cause lethality in intraspecific crosses. Our results reveal the existence of dominant alleles on the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster which cause lethality in three different interspecific hybrids. These alleles only cause inviability in hybrid males, yet have little effect in hybrid females. This suggests that X-linked elements that cause hybrid inviability in males might not do so in hybrid females due to differing sex chromosome interactions.

  2. Fine-mapping and initial characterization of QT interval loci in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy L Avery

    Full Text Available The QT interval (QT is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4: ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5: one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT across multiple populations, that novel signals exist in African Americans, and that the SNPs identified as strong candidates for functional evaluation implicate gene regulatory dysfunction in QT prolongation.

  3. Gratitude: prompting behaviours that build relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Monica Y; Condon, Paul; Cruz, Jourdan; Baumann, Jolie; Desteno, David

    2012-01-01

    The emotion gratitude is argued to play a pivotal role in building and maintaining social relationships. Evidence is accumulating that links gratitude to increases in relationship satisfaction. Yet, there is currently little evidence for how gratitude does this. The present paper provides experimental evidence of gratitude facilitating relationship-building behaviours. Study 1 provides evidence that gratitude promotes social affiliation, leading one to choose to spend time with a benefactor. Study 2 offers further evidence of gratitude's ability to strengthen relationships by showing that gratitude facilitates socially inclusive behaviours, preferentially towards one's benefactor, even when those actions come at a cost to oneself.

  4. Minding the close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J H; Omarzu, J

    1997-01-01

    In this theoretical analysis, we argue that a process referred to as minding is essential for a couple to feel mutually close and satisfied in a close relationship over a long period Minding represents a package of mutual self-disclosure, other forms of goal-oriented behavior aimed at facilitating the relationship, and attributions about self's and other's motivations, intentions, and Mort in the relationship. Self-disclosure and attribution activities in minding are aimed at getting to know the other, trying to understand the other's motivations and deeper disposition as they pertain to the relationship, and showing respect and acceptance for knowledge gained about other. We link the concept of minding to other major ideas and literatures about how couples achieve closeness: self-disclosure and social penetration, intimacy, empathy and empathic accuracy, and love and self-expansion. We argue that the minding process articulated here has not previously been delineated and that it is a useful composite notion about essential steps in bonding among humans. We also argue that the minding concept stretches our understanding of the interface of attribution and close relationships. We present research possibilities and implications and consider possible alternative positions and counter arguments about the merits of the minding idea for close relationship satisfaction.

  5. Multinationality as real option facilitator – Illusion or reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies with multinat......Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies...... with multinationality. Our results indicate that multinationality does indeed act as a real option facilitator. Furthermore, we show that, consistent with the notion that there are limits to the operating flexibility associated with multinationality this benefit only accrues fully if the firm is not financially...

  6. Educational technology: a facilitating instrument for the elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rachel da Silva Serejo; Sá, Selma Petra Chaves; Domingos, Ana Maria; Sabóia, Vera Maria; Maia, Tauan Nunes; Padilha, Joviria Marcia Ferreira de Oliveira; Nogueira, Glycia de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    To develop educational technology with caregivers of older people based on the needs, difficulties and concerns related to the elderly care expressed by the caregivers themselves. Research of qualitative nature, with participant observation, based on concepts used by Paulo Freire. Data collection and analysis used the "World Cafe" methodology and the thematic content analysis, respectively. The needs of these caregivers refer to their training and information on aging. The difficulties highlighted are deterrents to quality assistance to older adults, such as: insufficient resources, environmental factor and relationship with the family. The interests are evident in relation to the care and to its more subjective relationship. Final considerations: Educational technologies, printed matter and media, developed along with the caregivers, contribute to orientation and information of caregiver, population and professionals as facilitating instruments, regarding elderly care.

  7. Facilitating peer learning in study groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 University of Aarhus, Denmark, issued a report concerning student experience with the study environment. Among the university's eight faculties, the Danish School of Education (DPU) held the sad record of having the lowest student well-being. This led to an action research project...... 'Facilitating study environment' at one of DPU's educations in spring 2009. The pilot project consisted of three elements: Facilitated study groups, a student bar with facilitated activities, and academic identity events. Subsequently, we have studied students' experiences with the project. This paper outlines...... the preliminary results from the facilitated study groups. After one term (February-May), student satisfaction with both the social and the disciplinary environment had increased. The project shows how academic and social integration can be achieved with minimum faculty member involvement. This is done by relying...

  8. How Facilitation May Interfere with Ecological Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Liancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the vast literature linking competitive interactions and speciation, attempts to understand the role of facilitation for evolutionary diversification remain scarce. Yet, community ecologists now recognize the importance of positive interactions within plant communities. Here, we examine how facilitation may interfere with the mechanisms of ecological speciation. We argue that facilitation is likely to (1 maintain gene flow among incipient species by enabling cooccurrence of adapted and maladapted forms in marginal habitats and (2 increase fitness of introgressed forms and limit reinforcement in secondary contact zones. Alternatively, we present how facilitation may favour colonization of marginal habitats and thus enhance local adaptation and ecological speciation. Therefore, facilitation may impede or pave the way for ecological speciation. Using a simple spatially and genetically explicit modelling framework, we illustrate and propose some first testable ideas about how, when, and where facilitation may act as a cohesive force for ecological speciation. These hypotheses and the modelling framework proposed should stimulate further empirical and theoretical research examining the role of both competitive and positive interactions in the formation of incipient species.

  9. Strategies facilitating practice change in pediatric cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paula D; Dupuis, Lee L; Tomlinson, George; Phillips, Bob; Greenberg, Mark; Sung, Lillian

    2016-09-01

    By conducting a systematic review, we describe strategies to actively disseminate knowledge or facilitate practice change among healthcare providers caring for children with cancer and we evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies. We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO. Fully published primary studies were included if they evaluated one or more professional intervention strategies to actively disseminate knowledge or facilitate practice change in pediatric cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Data extracted included study characteristics and strategies evaluated. In studies with a quantitative analysis of patient outcomes, the relationship between study-level characteristics and statistically significant primary analyses was evaluated. Of 20 644 titles and abstracts screened, 146 studies were retrieved in full and 60 were included. In 20 studies, quantitative evaluation of patient outcomes was examined and a primary outcome was stated. Eighteen studies were 'before and after' design; there were no randomized studies. All studies were at risk for bias. Interrupted time series was never the primary analytic approach. No specific strategy type was successful at improving patient outcomes. Literature describing strategies to facilitate practice change in pediatric cancer is emerging. However, major methodological limitations exist. Studies with robust designs are required to identify effective strategies to effect practice change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Teamwork in a coronary care unit: facilitating and hindering aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethania Ferreira Goulart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, within a multidisciplinary team, the facilitating and hindering aspects for teamwork in a coronary care unit. METHOD A descriptive study, with qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in the coronary care unit of a public hospital. The study population consisted of professionals working in the unit for at least one year. Those who were on leave or who were not located were excluded. The critical incident technique was used for data collection, by means of semi-structured interviews. For data analysis, content analysis and the critical incident technique were applied. RESULTS Participants were 45 professionals: 29 nursing professionals; 11 physicians; 4 physical therapists; and 1 psychologist. A total of 49 situations (77.6% with negative references; 385 behaviors (54.2% with positive references; and 182 consequences emerged (71.9% with negative references. Positive references facilitate teamwork, whereas negative references hinder it. A collaborative/communicative interprofessional relationship was evidenced as a facilitator; whereas poor collaboration among agents/inadequate management was a hindering aspect. CONCLUSION Despite the prevalence of negative situations and consequences, the emphasis on positive behaviors reveals the efforts the agents make in order to overcome obstacles and carry out teamwork.

  11. The genetic architecture of leaf number and its genetic relationship to flowering time in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xufeng; Zhang, Xiangbo; Chen, Qiuyue; Xu, Guanghui; Xu, Dingyi; Wang, Chenglong; Liang, Yameng; Wu, Lishuan; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Jinge; Wu, Yaoyao; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The number of leaves and their distributions on plants are critical factors determining plant architecture in maize (Zea mays), and leaf number is frequently used as a measure of flowering time, a trait that is key to local environmental adaptation. Here, using a large set of 866 maize-teosinte BC2 S3 recombinant inbred lines genotyped by using 19,838 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we conducted a comprehensive genetic dissection to assess the genetic architecture of leaf number and its genetic relationship to flowering time. We demonstrated that the two components of total leaf number, the number of leaves above (LA) and below (LB) the primary ear, were under relatively independent genetic control and might be subject to differential directional selection during maize domestication and improvement. Furthermore, we revealed that flowering time and leaf number are commonly regulated at a moderate level. The pleiotropy of the genes ZCN8, dlf1 and ZmCCT on leaf number and flowering time were validated by near-isogenic line analysis. Through fine mapping, qLA1-1, a major-effect locus that specifically affects LA, was delimited to a region with severe recombination suppression derived from teosinte. This study provides important insights into the genetic basis of traits affecting plant architecture and adaptation. The genetic independence of LA from LB enables the optimization of leaf number for ideal plant architecture breeding in maize. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Emotion processing facilitates working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn R; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-11-01

    The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.

  13. Argumentation: A Methodology to Facilitate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhene, Agnes

    2017-06-20

    Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.

  14. Using facilitative skills in project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Project management can be seen as a profession, discipline and conceptual framework. It has been developed from different fields, including military engineering, mechanical engineering, social sciences and construction. During recent decades, there has been a number of challenges as to its efficacy...... cooperation, mediated by interconnected and diversified systems, is becoming more and more common. These relatively new forms of interaction imply new demands on skills and methods facilitating project cooperation within and among various organizations. Given the pervasiveness of these demands, project...... managers are frequently finding themselves in situations where using facilitating skills is not an option, but a requirement. Facilitation is to be viewed as a process of ‘obstetric’ aid to meet the challenges of coping with the changing conditions for project management described briefly above...

  15. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following......: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including...

  16. Adult maturational processes and the facilitating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1986-09-01

    The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.

  17. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  18. The choice of facilitators in medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lydia L; Frederick, James R

    2018-01-01

    The study identified which of the four facilitators (themselves, agents, insurers, or doctors) consumers are most likely to use when they travel for various medical procedures. A survey conducted between 2011 and 2014 yielded 964 responses. The multinomial logistic regression results showed that being 51-64 years old was positively related to going on their own or using agents to arrange for knee replacements. Having a high school education or less was positively linked to using both agents and insurers to facilitate knee replacements, whereas having a bachelor's degree was negatively associated with going on their own for stem cell therapy.

  19. Take care of well-being: how facilitators and engagement predict performance of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in developing a high quality educational system requires constant research of the variables involved in the teaching-learning process. Among these variables, social and academic facilitators are important because there is empirical evidence about their positive relationship with engagement, commitment, self-efficacy, happiness and satisfaction in the academic context. Moreover, the psychological well-being of university students (i.e., engagement showed to positively affect future academic success. In line, the aim of this study is twofold. First, the relevance of social and university academic facilitators was analyzed depending on the faculty of belonging. Second, the effect of social (e.g., Good relationship with classmates and academic facilitators (e.g., Updated website with new information and easily accessible as well as academic engagement on academic performance (i.e., GPA was tested. The sample consisted of 965 University students. The ANOVAs’ results showed the existence of statistically significant differences in social and university academic facilitators among the different faculties.  Regression analyses demonstrated that social (but not university’s facilitators and academic engagement were positively related to academic performance. Additionally, the interaction between social facilitators and academic engagement was positively related to academic performance.  The effect was also significant when controlling for gender and faculty. The identification of different facilitators allows to develop different activities depending on the faculty, as well as leading to the optimization of teaching-learning process. Moreover, academic facilitators do not affect academic performance. From a practical view, it means that specific interventions can be implemented during the course so that students’ social facilitators and engagement increase.

  20. Practice Facilitators' and Leaders' Perspectives on a Facilitated Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Megan; Brown, Tiffany; Liss, David T; Walunas, Theresa L; Persell, Stephen D

    2018-04-01

    Practice facilitation is a promising approach to helping practices implement quality improvements. Our purpose was to describe practice facilitators' and practice leaders' perspectives on implementation of a practice facilitator-supported quality improvement program and describe where their perspectives aligned and diverged. We conducted interviews with practice leaders and practice facilitators who participated in a program that included 35 improvement strategies aimed at the ABCS of heart health (aspirin use in high-risk individuals, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). Rapid qualitative analysis was used to collect, organize, and analyze the data. We interviewed 17 of the 33 eligible practice leaders, and the 10 practice facilitators assigned to those practices. Practice leaders and practice facilitators both reported value in the program's ability to bring needed, high-quality resources to practices. Practice leaders appreciated being able to set the schedule for facilitation and select among the 35 interventions. According to practice facilitators, however, relying on practice leaders to set the pace of the intervention resulted in a lower level of program intensity than intended. Practice leaders preferred targeted assistance, particularly electronic health record documentation guidance and linkages to state smoking cessation programs. Practice facilitators reported that the easiest interventions were those that did not alter care practices. The dual perspectives of practice leaders and practice facilitators provide a more holistic picture of enablers and barriers to program implementation. There may be greater opportunities to assist small practices through simple, targeted practice facilitator-supported efforts rather than larger, comprehensive quality improvement projects. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  1. Innovation and learning facilitated by play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory

    2008-01-01

    "This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...

  2. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  3. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  4. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  5. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…

  6. Do Digital Technologies Facilitate Illicit Financial Flows?

    OpenAIRE

    Tropina, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The emerging concept of illicit financial flows has become a crosscutting issue on the international agenda in recent years. This umbrella term refers to money illegally earned, transferred, or used. With the development of digital technologies, the use of information and communications networks as a tool for facilitating illicit financial flows is rising as one of the key challenges in ta...

  7. Facilitation of Retention by White Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)

  8. Guide to Resources for ESL Literacy Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn

    This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…

  9. Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating community-based interprofessional education and collaborative practice in a health sciences faculty: Student perceptions and experiences. ... It became apparent that students need to be prepared to work in interprofessional groups. The overall intervention was perceived positively, allowing students to become ...

  10. Prose Learning for Veterinary Educators: Facilitating Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…

  11. The Facilitator. Technical Note No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Patricio; And Others

    This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…

  12. Teacher Actions to Facilitate Early Algebraic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…

  13. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  14. Facilitating Creativity in Science Students' through Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study ascertained how teachers facilitate the creativity skills of the Pupils as an outcome of professional development. 450 primary school pupils and 50 Basic science teachers in the primary schools were sampled. The study adopted the Solomon four group design. The Torrance Test for Creative thinking (TTCT) and ...

  15. Drug facilitated sexual assault with lethal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehling, Lena-Maria; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A very serious case of DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault) is presented, in which a six-year-old girl died following sedation with γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). She had been sexually abused by a relative. Samples of cardiac blood, bile, vitreous humour, liver, kidney, brain tissues and hair were...

  16. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  17. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...

  18. Facilitating Learning Organizations. Making Learning Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.

    This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…

  19. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  20. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhydderch, Melody; Edwards, Adrian; Marshall, Martin; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard

    2006-06-19

    The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by practices increases.

  1. Developing a facilitation model to promote organisational development in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwyn Glyn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between effective organisation of general practices and health improvement is widely accepted. The Maturity Matrix is an instrument designed to assess organisational development in general practice settings and to stimulate quality improvement. It is undertaken by a practice team with the aid of a facilitator. There is a tradition in the primary care systems in many countries of using practice visitors to educate practice teams about how to improve. However the role of practice visitors as facilitators who enable teams to plan practice-led organisational development using quality improvement instruments is less well understood. The objectives of the study were to develop and explore a facilitation model to support practice teams in stimulating organisational development using a quality improvement instrument called the Maturity Matrix. A qualitative study based on transcript analysis was adopted. Method A model of facilitation was constructed based on a review of relevant literature. Audio tapes of Maturity Matrix assessment sessions with general practices were transcribed and facilitator skills were compared to the model. The sample consisted of two facilitators working with twelve general practices based in UK primary care. Results The facilitation model suggested that four areas describing eighteen skills were important. The four areas are structuring the session, obtaining consensus, handling group dynamics and enabling team learning. Facilitators effectively employed skills associated with the first three areas, but less able to consistently stimulate team learning. Conclusion This study suggests that facilitators need careful preparation for their role and practices need protected time in order to make best use of practice-led quality improvement instruments. The role of practice visitor as a facilitator is becoming important as the need to engender ownership of the quality improvement process by

  2. Cognitive Load Imposed by Ultrasound-Facilitated Teaching Does Not Adversely Affect Gross Anatomy Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A.; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using…

  3. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  4. Behavioral facilitation: a cognitive model of individual differences in approach motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Meier, Brian P; Tamir, Maya; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Ode, Scott

    2009-02-01

    Approach motivation consists of the active, engaged pursuit of one's goals. The purpose of the present three studies (N = 258) was to examine whether approach motivation could be cognitively modeled, thereby providing process-based insights into personality functioning. Behavioral facilitation was assessed in terms of faster (or facilitated) reaction time with practice. As hypothesized, such tendencies predicted higher levels of approach motivation, higher levels of positive affect, and lower levels of depressive symptoms and did so across cognitive, behavioral, self-reported, and peer-reported outcomes. Tendencies toward behavioral facilitation, on the other hand, did not correlate with self-reported traits (Study 1) and did not predict avoidance motivation or negative affect (all studies). The results indicate a systematic relationship between behavioral facilitation in cognitive tasks and approach motivation in daily life. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits of modeling the cognitive processes hypothesized to underlie individual differences motivation, affect, and depression. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Activation of Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons by Secretin Facilitates Social Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2017-02-01

    Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde eMénoret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behaviour, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events.

  7. Twelve tips for facilitating Millennials' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners.  The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees.  The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training.  The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning.  With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.

  8. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Orthographic facilitation in oral vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate

    2009-10-01

    An experiment investigated whether exposure to orthography facilitates oral vocabulary learning. A total of 58 typically developing children aged 8-9 years were taught 12 nonwords. Children were trained to associate novel phonological forms with pictures of novel objects. Pictures were used as referents to represent novel word meanings. For half of the nonwords children were additionally exposed to orthography, although they were not alerted to its presence, nor were they instructed to use it. After this training phase a nonword-picture matching posttest was used to assess learning of nonword meaning, and a spelling posttest was used to assess learning of nonword orthography. Children showed robust learning for novel spelling patterns after incidental exposure to orthography. Further, we observed stronger learning for nonword-referent pairings trained with orthography. The degree of orthographic facilitation observed in posttests was related to children's reading levels, with more advanced readers showing more benefit from the presence of orthography.

  10. Architectural space characteristics facilitating teaching and apprenticeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Lima Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevance of the architectural space as a facilitator of teaching and learning processes. It adopts an analytical methodology based on the architecture and pedagogy literature to know the view of these areas on the subject, and identifies relevant spatial attributes to facilitate education. Research has shown that there are recurrences pointing disciplinary fields of environmental comfort, ergonomics and environmental psychology, which were the subject of this conceptual research about the positive and negative impacts on the school design facility by each attribute of these disciplines. As result, it presents a framework of attributes, characteristics and relevance to teaching and learning to be used as support to the space needs assessment, ie: during the first stage of an architectural design process.

  11. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  12. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Martin R.; Blomster, Juuso I.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, J?rg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P.; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the pr...

  13. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  14. A facilitated mentoring process for engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald, L.; Clark, M.

    1993-11-01

    Mentoring has been occurring in organizations for many, many years through a natural pairing process of people wanting to help one another. The numerous benefits of mentoring to both the protege and the mentor are widely known. In this paper we describe a Facilitated Mentoring Pilot Program for engineers, successfully completed in June, 1993. This career development tool can help make ``Every Engineer a Leader.``

  15. Learning Environment Facilitating Educational Achievements of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Šūmane, Ilze

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The doctoral thesis of Ilze Šūmane in pedagogy science, school pedagogy sub-discipline ”Learning environment facilitating educational achievements of teenagers” was worked out in the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogy, Psychology and Arts, University of Latvia, under the supervision of Dr.paed., professor Rudīte Andersone from2001 till 2011. The topicality of the research determined by the necessity to improve quality learning and education. During an effective study ...

  16. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  17. YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Denis Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .

  18. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  19. COGNITIVE FATIGUE FACILITATES PROCEDURAL SEQUENCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eBorragán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.

  20. Novice facilitators and the use of scripts for managing facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on the use of scripts by novice facilitators (novices) in Facilitated Modelling (FM) workshops. To address this gap, this paper illustrates how novices—supported by scripts—switch between and combine facilitation skills and competencies to successfully manage FM workshops...... and achieve outcomes. This illustration is based on a micro-level analysis of a transcript from a Viable System Model workshop held in a food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark. Through our findings we identify two distinct script-supported FM behaviours and related script-supported facilitation practices...... that enable novices to (a) acquire skills and competencies; and (b) switch between and combine skills and competencies to successfully manage workshops and achieve outcomes. Our study links micro-level considerations to a meta-level framework that relates the script-supported FM behaviours and practices...

  1. GRAFISK FACILITERING - En magtanalyse af styringen i konsulentværktøjet grafisk facilitering

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Anna; Boholt, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The topic of this thesis is the relatively new consultancy tool of graphic facilitation (GF). GF is a method that combines hand-drawn images and big picture thinking. A graphic facilitator leads a group through a process that results in visual output such as a poster or pamphlet. Our thesis analyses this management tool from a power perspective in an attempt to determine the power relations inherent in its practice. Our theoretical basis is French philosopher Michel Foucault’s theory...

  2. 50 CFR 600.752 - Use of conveners and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of conveners and facilitators. 600.752..., by consensus. The facilitator may be the same person as the convener used under paragraph (a) of this... facilitator, the FNP shall select, by consensus, a person to serve as facilitator. A person designated to...

  3. Facilitation as a management discipline to support organizational development processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2015-01-01

    facilitation may be employed as a method to support organisational development processes. The article unfolds the concept of facilitation, identifies the processes that merit facilitation and demonstrates how facilitation work may be approached. The first step in the process is acknowledgement of the need...

  4. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...... women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated...

  5. An Exploration of Supervisory and Therapeutic Relationships and Client Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Hope; Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Robinson, E. H. Mike

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored the connection between the facilitative conditions present within the supervisory relationship, the therapeutic relationship, and client outcomes. A correlational research design was used with a sample of 55 counselors-in-training and 88 clients. Results indicated a significant positive relationship between the therapeutic…

  6. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences Through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha PERVEEN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and

  7. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  8. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  9. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  10. Personality and recovery: integrating personality assessment data to facilitate the recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, D C

    2001-01-01

    The relatively enduring and persistent nature of personality traits means that they will likely continue to impact the course of psychiatric recovery after Axis I symptoms are stabilized. These traits can significantly impact the choices that recovering persons make and the quality of interpersonal relationships with care providers who are trying to facilitate the recovery process. Despite this, they are often inadequately assessed and considered in providing psychiatric care. This manuscript reviews the common combinations of personality traits that have emerged across a variety of clinical samples. The implications of these personality features for the provision of care in an inpatient setting to facilitate recovery are discussed.

  11. Spatial olfactory learning facilitates long-term depression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marion Agnès Emma; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it has emerged that visual spatial exploration facilitates synaptic plasticity at different synapses within the trisynaptic network. Particularly striking is the finding that visuospatial contexts facilitate hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), raising the possibility that this form of plasticity may be important for memory formation. It is not known whether other sensory modalities elicit similar permissive effects on LTD. Here, we explored if spatial olfactory learning facilitates LTD in the hippocampus region of freely behaving rats. Patterned afferent stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicited short-term depression (STD) (<1 h) of evoked responses in the Stratum radiatum of the CA1 region. Coupling of this protocol with novel exploration of a spatial constellation of olfactory cues facilitated short-term depression into LTD that lasted for over 24 h. Facilitation of LTD did not occur when animals were re-exposed 1 week later to the same odors in the same spatial constellation. Evaluation of learning behavior revealed that 1 week after the 1st odor exposure, the animals remembered the odors and their relative positions. These data support that the hippocampus can use nonvisuospatial resources, and specifically can use spatial olfactory information, to facilitate LTD and to generate spatial representations. The data also support that a tight relationship exists between the processing of spatial contextual information and the expression of LTD in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Facilitating a just and trusting culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Jill; Kline, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify managerial and organizational characteristics and behaviors that facilitate the fostering of a just and trusting culture within the healthcare system. Two studies were conducted. The initial qualitative one was used to identify themes based on interviews with health care workers that facilitate a just and trusting culture. The quantitative one used a policy-capturing design to determine which factors were most likely to predict outcomes of manager and organizational trust. The factors of violation type (ability vs integrity), providing an explanation or not, blame vs no blame by manager, and blame vs no blame by organization were all significant predictors of perceptions of trust. Limitations to the generalizability of findings included both a small and non-representative sample from one health care region. The present findings can be useful in developing training systems for managers and organizational executive teams for managing medical error events in a manner that will help develop a just and trusting culture. A just and trusting culture should enhance the likelihood of reporting medical errors. Improved reporting, in turn, should enhance patient safety. This is the first field study experimentally manipulating aspects of organizational trust within the health care sector. The use of policy-capturing is a unique feature that sheds light into the decision-making of health care workers as to the efficaciousness of particular managerial and organizational characteristics that impact a just and trusting culture.

  13. Enhanced facilitation of spatial attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin M; Nestor, Paul G; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    While attentional functions are usually found to be impaired in schizophrenia, a review of the literature on the orienting of spatial attention in schizophrenia suggested that voluntary attentional orienting in response to a valid cue might be paradoxically enhanced. We tested this hypothesis with orienting tasks involving the cued detection of a laterally presented target stimulus. Subjects were chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ) and matched healthy control subjects (HC). In Experiment 1 (15 SZ, 16 HC), cues were endogenous (arrows) and could be valid (100% predictive) or neutral with respect to the subsequent target position. In Experiment 2 (16 SZ, 16 HC), subjects performed a standard orienting task with unpredictive exogenous cues (brightening of the target boxes). In Experiment 1, SZ showed a larger attentional facilitation effect on reaction time than HC. In Experiment 2, no clear sign of enhanced attentional facilitation was found in SZ. The voluntary, facilitatory shifting of spatial attention may be relatively enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy individuals. This effect bears resemblance to other relative enhancements of information processing in schizophrenia such as saccade speed and semantic priming. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  15. Endogenous fibrinolysis facilitates clot retraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P

    2017-12-07

    Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Facilitating practical knowledge by using ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jentoft

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Practical skills constitute essential knowledge in occupational therapy. The knowledge is situation- and experience-based, generated from within the situation. In a particular program for educating Palestinian Occupational Therapists in Gaza, facilitating such knowledge proved to be difficult. Due to travel restrictions and an unstable political situation, teachers and students were separated. Educational communication technology (ECT like videoconferences, internet and videos became new and necessary tools. This article is based on results from an action research project which followed the process of using flexible forms of learning and developing an internet based learning programme named Ergonet. The learning process of the students using it was examined with the aim of answering the following research question: How can flexible forms of learning be developed and used to facilitate practical knowledge in Occupational Therapy education? The development and implementation of Ergonet as a supporting device in students’ learning of practical skills is described through the experience of the teachers involved. The results indicate how rote-learning and lack of reflective and critical thinking, firmly established among Palestinian students, have been challenged and changed by the didactic use of Ergonet.

  17. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen

    When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.

  19. Human neutrophils facilitate tumor cell transendothelial migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.

  20. Facilitating Group Decision-Making: Facilitator's Subjective Theories on Group Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolbe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287

  1. Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogherty Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    evidenced. Additionally, case documents exposed five other facilitation-related activities, and a combination of external and local facilitation was apparent. Individuals who were involved in the case or group adapting the guideline(s also performed facilitation activities, both formally and informally, in conjunction with or in addition to appointed external and local facilitators. Conclusions Facilitation of evidence-based practice is a multifaceted process and a team effort. Communication and relationship-building are key components. The practical aspects of facilitation explicated in this study validate what has been previously noted in the literature and expand what is known about facilitation process and activity.

  2. Peer Tutoring: A Training and Facilitation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirini, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Students can make huge gains in academic grades and confidence with the help of peer tutoring. This book provides practical, research-based strategies for anyone wanting to run a peer tutoring programme or to improve their own tutoring practice. The book focuses on two key components of tutoring: the tutoring relationship and tutoring tools. The…

  3. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  4. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian W Sanggaard

    Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  5. Facilitating Transition to Team Based Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    profession, but at the same time it becomes very difficult to identify where and how the design is created since form-giving now becomes a group effort. So as a way to ease the transition from highly framed and facilitated high school learning context to university self-driven learning context a small...... given to two set of students; one set that received the survival kit in 2011 and 2012 and one set that did not. The questionnaire inquires the students’ attitude towards 4 aspects: 1.General level of preparedness for team and problem based project work 2.Level of information of expectations from...... supervisors and programme 3.Reflection of the role in a team, problem based project work 4.The level of information of special expectations from the Industrial Design program towards team and problem based project work. Results indicates that Class receiving the “Survival Kit” improved in the calibration...

  6. Molecular Tools for Facilitative Carbohydrate Transporters (Gluts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R

    2017-09-19

    Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  8. Balancing Design Project Supervision and Learning Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2012-01-01

    experiences and expertise to guide the students’ decisions in relation to the design project. This paper focuses on project supervision in the context of design education – and more specifically on how this supervision is unfolded in a Problem Based Learning culture. The paper explores the supervisor......’s balance between the roles: 1) Design Project Supervisor – and 2) Learning Facilitator – with the aim to understand when to apply the different roles, and what to be aware of when doing so. This paper represents the first pilot-study of a larger research effort. It is based on a Lego Serious Play workshop......In design there is a long tradition for apprenticeship, as well as tradition for learning through design projects. Today many design educations are positioned within the University context, and have to be aligned with the learning culture and structure, which they represent. This raises a specific...

  9. [Emergency contraception in Brazil: facilitators and barriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, E; Duarte, G A; Osis, M J; Arce, X E; Possan, M

    2001-01-01

    A multi-centered qualitative study was conducted in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to assess the acceptability of emergency contraception both among potential users and possible providers, authorities, and opinion-makers, and to identify (according to participants' perceptions) factors facilitating or hindering the method's use and the most appropriate strategies to disseminate information and provide the method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, group interviews, and discussion groups, which were tape-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis of this material was conducted. Acceptability of emergency contraception was high among participants, who also felt that there were no barriers towards its acceptance by the population. Participants felt that the method's acceptability would be greater if it were included in reproductive health programs, emphasizing its prescription for emergency situations. Participants highlighted that strategic components in Brazil would be training of providers and inclusion of the method in family planning services.

  10. Facilitating value co-creation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo

    participants in varied ways come to grasp the meaning of networking. The dissertation draws on insights from the Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic to explain how networks can be seen as spheres for value co-creation. Co-creation as a theoretical construct has evolved from varied streams of service marketing...... of networking. The concept of “imaginative value” (Beckert, 2011) is used to explain the oscillating behaviors observed in the two networks. Imaginative value can be defined as symbolic value that actors ascribe to an object, in this case the network. I argue that the group practices in the networks led......The dissertation investigates through two ethnographic case studies how value co-creation takes place in inter-organizational networks that have been facilitated by a municipality. The contribution of the study to business network research is the emphasis on development phases of networks...

  11. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Otto G; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction–diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general. (paper)

  12. Health Sector Coordination in Disasters: Barriers & Facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.

  13. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A facilitator of leisure activities for stress-related growth experience among middle-aged Korean women with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Leisure may serve as a coping resource following negative life events that facilitate positive changes. Previous studies on leisure have mainly focused on stress-related growth among individuals living in Western cultures. This study aimed to capture the role of leisure involvement as a facilitator of stress-related growth among middle-aged Korean women with depression. Three main themes were identified as an outcome of participation in leisure activities: (a) strengthening meaningful relationships, (b) improving positive emotions, and (c) facilitating personal strength. By participating in leisure activities, individuals with depression may develop the ability to cope with stress and experience positive changes.

  15. Barriers and facilitators for breastfeeding among working women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marina L; Esposito, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    To review the literature and describe the barriers and facilitators to the continuation of breastfeeding for at least 6 months by working women in the United States. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, ISI, PsychInfo, and ProQuest. Twenty studies based on the inclusion criteria and published between January 1, 1995, and January 2006. An ecologic framework, which includes the individual (microsystem), social support and relationships (mesosystem), and the workplace environment (exosystem). When working mothers possess certain personal characteristics and develop a strategic plan, breastfeeding is promoted. When social support is available and when support groups are utilized, lactation is also facilitated. Part-time work, lack of long mother-infant separations, supportive work environments and facilities, and child care options facilitate breastfeeding. Health care providers can use the findings of this review to promote breastfeeding among working women by using tactics geared toward the mother, her social network, and the entire community.

  16. Language as a Facilitator of Cultural Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miigis B.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Kellar, Sidnee; Walls, Melissa L.; Greenfield, Brenna L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding culture as a means of preventing or treating health concerns is growing in popularity among social behavioral health scientists. Language is one component of culture and therefore may be a means to improve health among Indigenous populations. This study explores language as a unique aspect of culture through its relationship to other demographic and cultural variables. Participants (n = 218) were adults who self-identified as American Indian, had a type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and were drawn from two Ojibwe communities using health clinic records. We used chi-squared tests to compare language proficiency by demographic groups and ANOVA tests to examine relationships between language and culture. A higher proportion of those living on reservation lands could use the Ojibwe language, and fluent speakers were most notably sixty-five years of age and older. Regarding culture, those with greater participation and value belief in cultural activities reported greater language proficiency. PMID:29782622

  17. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change.

  18. Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by

  19. Influences of peer facilitation in general practice - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2018-01-01

    of the visited practices to gain a more detailed understanding of how peer facilitation influenced practices and how they valued the facilitation. METHODS: The facilitation intervention was conducted in general practice in the Capital Region of Denmark with the purpose of supporting the implementation of chronic...... visits had increased their knowledge and skills as well as their motivation and confidence to change. These positive influences were ascribed to a) the facilitation approach b) the credibility and know-how associated with the facilitators' being peers c) the recurring visits providing protected time...... and invoking a sense of commitment. Despite these positive influences, both the facilitation and the change process were impeded by several challenges, e.g. competing priorities, heavy workload, problems with information technology and in some cases inadequate facilitation. CONCLUSION: Practice facilitation...

  20. The Role of the Facilitator on Total Quality Management Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, William L.

    1993-01-01

    As Total Quality Management teams work to improve organizational processes, several types of facilitators emerge: the director, the workhorse, and the cheerleader. Experience at the University of Kansas illustrates how different facilitator styles can affect team learning. (MSE)

  1. Virtual Research Environments: The role of the facilitator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowers, N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This conference presentation discusses the authors' duties as the facilitators of the POL-SABINA Natural Products Virtual Research Environment. In summary, they facilitated the use and content population of the Natural Products Virtual Research...

  2. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. A Gestalt Point of View on Facilitating Growth in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)

  4. Positive experiences with a specialist as facilitator in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Thorsen, Thorkil

    2012-01-01

    The use of facilitators for quality improvement in general practice has accelerated during the past decade. As general practitioners (GPs) or pharmacists have typically been used as facilitators, there is a lack of knowledge of how other professionals function as facilitators. This article explores...

  5. How outpatient palliative care teleconsultation facilitates empathic patient-professional relationships: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gurp, J.; van Selm, M.; Vissers, K.; van Leeuwen, E.; Hasselaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The problems and needs of advanced cancer patients and proxies normally increase as the disease progresses. Home-based advanced cancer patients and their proxies benefit from collaborations between primary care physicians and hospital-based palliative care specialists when confronted with

  6. Effects of Individualized Education Program Meeting Facilitation on Parent and Educator Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frances Ziehr

    2013-01-01

    For a student with a disability to receive special education services, an IEP team composed of education professionals and the student's parents must reach consensus on eligibility, programming, and placement. Conflict, mistrust, and dissatisfaction contributed to the breakdown in the IEP process. These three factors were examined through a…

  7. The relationship between facilitators' questions and the level of reflection in postsimulation debriefing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Dieckmann, Peter; Rystedt, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Simulation-based education is a learner-active method that may enhance teamwork skills such as leadership and communication. The importance of postsimulation debriefing to promote reflection is well accepted, but many questions concerning whether and how faculty promote reflection remain largely...

  8. Concept Mapping in the Humanities to Facilitate Reflection: Externalizing the Relationship between Public and Personal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiko, Camille; Hay, David; Weller, Saranne

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how mapping techniques were used in university teaching in a humanities subject. The use of concept mapping was expanded as a pedagogical tool, with a focus on reflective learning processes. Data were collected through a longitudinal study of concept mapping in a university-level Classics course. This was used to explore how…

  9. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-06-01

    Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Public school administrators ( N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention. Three main themes arose from the analysis: (1) cyberbullying as a major challenge; (2) facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to preventive action, including parents and technology; and (3) prevention efforts, including unclear jurisdiction for action, primary versus secondary prevention efforts, and technology attributes that facilitate school response to bullying. Although administrators perceive cyberbullying as a major challenge facing their schools, they are often unsure about appropriate primary and secondary prevention efforts. Relationships with parents and police complicate response and prevention as schools attempt to navigate unclear jurisdiction. Additionally, technology presents a challenge to schools because it is seen as an enabler of cyberbullying, a facilitator of prevention, and a necessary part of education efforts. Lack of research on prevention strategies, parents' knowledge and attitudes, and confusion about responsibility for addressing cyberbullying are barriers to action. Findings suggest administrators could benefit from additional clarity on which strategies are most effective for primary prevention of cyberbullying, and that prevention strategies should proactively involve parents to promote effective collaboration with schools.

  10. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Leora; Janssen, Patricia A; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives People of South Asian ethnicity are under-represented in health research studies. The objectives of this scoping review were to examine the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research studies and to describe strategies for improving recruitment. Design Scoping review Methods Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework for scoping reviews, we comprehensively searched electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Studies that identified barriers and facilitators to recruitment, or recruitment strategies for South Asian populations were included. Recruitment barriers, facilitators and strategies were grouped thematically and summarised narratively. Synthesis Of 1846 potentially relevant articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. Multiple facilitators and barriers to enrolment of South Asians in health research studies were identified; these most commonly related to logistical challenges, language and cultural barriers, concerns about adverse consequences of participating and mistrust of research. Several actionable strategies were discussed, the most common being engagement of South Asian communities, demonstration of cultural competency, provision of incentives and benefits, language sensitivity through the use of translators and translated materials and the development of trust and personal relationships. Conclusion There is a growing awareness of the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asian participants to health research studies. Knowledge of effective recruitment strategies and implementation during the grant funding stages may reduce the risk of poor recruitment and representation of South Asians. PMID:28576896

  11. Barriers and facilitators of adherence to antidepressants among outpatients with major depressive disorder: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Siew Ching; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) is patients' non-adherence to medication. This study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of patients' adherence to antidepressants among outpatients with MDD. Semi-structured and individual in-depth interviews were conducted among patients with MDD who were taking antidepressants, in the psychiatric clinic of a government-run hospital in Malaysia. Participants were purposively sampled from different genders and ethnicities. Interviews were conducted using a validated topic guide, and responses were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked, and analyzed using the grounded theory approach. A total of 30 patients were interviewed. Forty different themes and sub-themes were identified which were conceptually divided into two distinct categories related to barriers and facilitators to adherence. The barriers were: patient-specific, medication-specific, healthcare provision and system, social-cultural, and logistics. The facilitators were: having insight, perceived health benefits, regular activities, patient-provider relationship, reminders, and social support networks. Patient-specific barriers and medication side effects were the major challenges for adhering to treatment. Perceived health benefits and having insight on the need for treatment were the most frequently cited facilitators. Targeted interventions should be developed to address the key barriers, and promote measures to facilitate adherence in this group of patients.

  12. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  13. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  15. Teacher as Learning Facilitator in ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Elena Codruta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom is the magic active scenery where many educational things take place simultaneously.Intellectual, emotional, socio-cultural, motivational and curricular factors corroborate their influence onclassroom environments, whether we deal with traditional models of teaching or with the constructivistapproaches. The growing demand for language teachers, English in particular, has determined a new vision oflanguage teaching strategies. The cutting-edge technology has created a fertile ground which successfullyfosters the teacher –student communication, emphasizing the teacher’s role to guide students and to generate achange in their learning approach and in eliciting useable knowledge. This way, the teacher has a larger abilityto convert knowledge into practical information that is of real help and value to students. Students are involvedin a continuous educational scheme and are tested on what they have learned. This ensures they can alwaysenjoy the benefits of active learning from expert teachers. The present paper deals with a brief analysis of therole of teacher as learning facilitator and its importance for student acquisition process, eliciting some strategiesin support of collaborative and student-centered learning.

  16. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  17. Repeated intravenous doxapram induces phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, M S; Lee, K Z; Gonzalez-Rothi, E J; Fuller, D D

    2013-12-01

    Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2mg/kg) at 5min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2mg/kg. At 60min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (Pphrenic response to doxapram (2mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. © 2013.

  18. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper......-­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... for the same reasons – that the growing amount of digitized communication “out there” represents data waiting to be sifted, analyzed and decoded. In this paper “Facebook behavior” refers to a particular behavior characterized by presenting your self and representations of selected self in the hope of getting...

  19. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    “The common good” is a contested concept both presently and historically. The contestation takes place both through definitions and concrete practices of gift-giving at the messy and blurred intersection between state, marked and civil society. From the Danish constitution of 1849 until today......-giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... to trace the networks of concepts and practices of the “common good” in a historical perspective. Second, it presents an empirical analysis of how a corporate philanthropic foundation, the Egmont Foundation from Denmark, through concrete gift-giving practices and concepts plays an important role in shaping...

  20. STAR Algorithm Integration Team - Facilitating operational algorithm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikles, V. J.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Research and Applications (STAR) provides technical support of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) algorithm development and integration tasks. Utilizing data from the S-NPP satellite, JPSS generates over thirty Environmental Data Records (EDRs) and Intermediate Products (IPs) spanning atmospheric, ocean, cryosphere, and land weather disciplines. The Algorithm Integration Team (AIT) brings technical expertise and support to product algorithms, specifically in testing and validating science algorithms in a pre-operational environment. The AIT verifies that new and updated algorithms function in the development environment, enforces established software development standards, and ensures that delivered packages are functional and complete. AIT facilitates the development of new JPSS-1 algorithms by implementing a review approach based on the Enterprise Product Lifecycle (EPL) process. Building on relationships established during the S-NPP algorithm development process and coordinating directly with science algorithm developers, the AIT has implemented structured reviews with self-contained document suites. The process has supported algorithm improvements for products such as ozone, active fire, vegetation index, and temperature and moisture profiles.

  1. Stepping forward together: Could walking facilitate interpersonal conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christine E; Rossignac-Milon, Maya; Higgins, E Tory

    2017-01-01

    Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution. Intrapersonally, walking supports various psychological mechanisms for reconciliation, including creativity, locomotion motivation, and embodied notions of forward progress. Both alone and in combination with its effects on mood and stress, walking can encourage individual mindsets conducive to resolving conflict (e.g., divergent thinking). Interpersonally, walking can allow partners to reap the cognitive, affective, and behavioral advantages of synchronous movement, such as increased positive rapport, empathy, and prosociality. Walking partners naturally adopt cooperative (as opposed to competitive) postural stances, experience shared attention, and can benefit from discussions in novel environments. Overall, despite its prevalence in conflict resolution theory, little is known about how movement influences conflict resolution practice. Such knowledge has direct implications for a range of psychological questions and approaches within negotiation and alternative mediation techniques, clinical settings, and the study of close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Employing external facilitation to implement cognitive behavioral therapy in VA clinics: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although for more than a decade healthcare systems have attempted to provide evidence-based mental health treatments, the availability and use of psychotherapies remains low. A significant need exists to identify simple but effective implementation strategies to adopt complex practices within complex systems of care. Emerging evidence suggests that facilitation may be an effective integrative implementation strategy for adoption of complex practices. The current pilot examined the use of external facilitation for adoption of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in 20 Department of Veteran Affairs (VA clinics. Methods The 20 clinics were paired on facility characteristics, and 23 clinicians from these were trained in CBT. A clinic in each pair was randomly selected to receive external facilitation. Quantitative methods were used to examine the extent of CBT implementation in 10 clinics that received external facilitation compared with 10 clinics that did not, and to better understand the relationship between individual providers' characteristics and attitudes and their CBT use. Costs of external facilitation were assessed by tracking the time spent by the facilitator and therapists in activities related to implementing CBT. Qualitative methods were used to explore contextual and other factors thought to influence implementation. Results Examination of change scores showed that facilitated therapists averaged an increase of 19% [95% CI: (2, 36] in self-reported CBT use from baseline, while control therapists averaged a 4% [95% CI: (-14, 21] increase. Therapists in the facilitated condition who were not providing CBT at baseline showed the greatest increase (35% compared to a control therapist who was not providing CBT at baseline (10% or to therapists in either condition who were providing CBT at baseline (average 3%. Increased CBT use was unrelated to prior CBT training. Barriers to CBT implementation were therapists' lack of

  3. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  4. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eAnthelme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1 the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2 alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and

  5. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  6. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  7. Building Relationships Step by Step: One Teacher Leader's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.

    2010-01-01

    This case describes how Hannah, a new math specialist, strives to create a positive math culture in her elementary school. Along the way, she works to build relationships with the teachers and the school principal. The accompanying teaching notes facilitate analysis of the case from the perspective of professional relationships in schools.

  8. Facilitating neurorehabilitation through principles of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzl, Megan M; Etter, Nicole M; Andreatta, Richard D; Kitzman, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of neurorehabilitation is to guide recovery of functional skills after injury through evidence-based interventions that operate to manipulate the sensorimotor environment of the client. While choice of intervention is an important decision for clinicians, we contend it is only one part of producing optimal activity-dependent neuroplastic changes. A key variable in the rehabilitation equation is engagement. Applying principles of engagement may yield greater neuroplastic changes and functional outcomes for clients. We review the principles of neuroplasticity and engagement and their potential linkage through concepts of attention and motivation and strategies such as mental practice and enriched environments. Clinical applications and challenges for enhancing engagement during rehabilitation are presented. Engagement strategies, such as building trust and rapport, motivational interviewing, enhancing the client education process, and interventions that empower clients, are reviewed. Well-controlled research is needed to test our theoretical framework and suggested outcomes. Clinicians may enhance engagement by investing time and energy in the growth and development of the therapeutic relationship with clients, as this is paramount to maintaining clients' investment in continuing therapy and also may act as a driver of neuroplastic changes.

  9. Facilitators and barriers of implementing and delivering social prescribing services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescheny, Julia Vera; Pappas, Yannis; Randhawa, Gurch

    2018-02-07

    Social Prescribing is a service in primary care that involves the referral of patients with non-clinical needs to local services and activities provided by the third sector (community, voluntary, and social enterprise sector). Social Prescribing aims to promote partnership working between the health and the social sector to address the wider determinants of health. To date, there is a weak evidence base for Social Prescribing services. The objective of the review was to identify factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of SP services based in general practice involving a navigator. We searched eleven databases, the grey literature, and the reference lists of relevant studies to identify the barriers and facilitators to the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services in June and July 2016. Searches were limited to literature written in English. No date restrictions were applied. Findings were synthesised narratively, employing thematic analysis. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool Version 2011 was used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. Eight studies were included in the review. The synthesis identified a range of factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of SP services. Facilitators and barriers were related to: the implementation approach, legal agreements, leadership, management and organisation, staff turnover, staff engagement, relationships and communication between partners and stakeholders, characteristics of general practices, and the local infrastructure. The quality of most included studies was poor and the review identified a lack of published literature on factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services. The review identified a range of factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation and delivery of Social Prescribing services. Findings of this review provide an insight for commissioners, managers, and providers

  10. Streamlining air import operations by trade facilitation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri da Cunha Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global operations are subject to considerable uncertainties. Due to the Trade Facilitation Agreement that became effective in February 2017, the study of measures to streamline customs controls is urgent. This study aims to assess the impact of trade facilitation measures on import flows. An experimental study was performed in the largest cargo airport in South America through discrete-event simulation and design of experiments. Operation impacts of three trade facilitation measures are assessed on import flow by air. We shed light in the following trade facilitation measures: the use of X-ray equipment for physical inspection; increase of the number of qualified companies in the trade facilitation program; performance targets for customs officials. All trade facilitation measures used indicated potential to provide more predictability, cost savings, time reduction, and increase in security in international supply chain.

  11. Is work keeping us from acting healthy? How workplace barriers and facilitators impact nutrition and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Joseph J; Moore, J Taylor; Alexander, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common barriers and facilitators to healthy nutrition and exercise behaviors in the workplace and examine their relationships to those actual daily health behaviors. We utilized a concurrent embedded mixed methods approach to collect data from 93 participants over the span of four days. Participants reported 2.80 nutrition and 3.28 exercise barriers on average over the 4 days, while reporting 2.93 nutrition and 1.98 exercise facilitators in the same timeframe. Results indicated that workload and temptations around the office prevented nutritious eating; exercise behaviors were frequently hindered by workload. The most commonly mentioned eating facilitator was proper planning, while having time to exercise facilitated physical activity. Furthermore, the number of barriers reported negatively related to their respective health behaviors (i.e., more nutrition barriers translated to poorer nutrition habits) and facilitators were positively related to them, both overall and more so on the specific day they were reported. The implications of these finding show the importance of barriers/facilitators in the workplace and aid in the creation of more targeted health promotion that could increase positive employee health behaviors by eliminating common barriers and enhancing facilitators. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A care improvement program acting as a powerful learning environment to support nursing students learning facilitation competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukema, Jan S; Harps-Timmerman, Annelies; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Smits, Carolien H M

    2015-11-01

    Change management is an important area of training in undergraduate nursing education. Successful change management in healthcare aimed at improving practices requires facilitation skills that support teams in attaining the desired change. Developing facilitation skills in nursing students requires formal educational support. A Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program based on a nationwide format of change management in healthcare was designed to act as a Powerful Learning Environment for nursing students developing competencies in facilitating change. This article has two aims: to provide comprehensive insight into the program components and to describe students' learning experiences in developing their facilitation skills. This Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program considers three aspects of a Powerful Learning Environment: self-regulated learning; problem-based learning; and complex, realistic and challenging learning tasks. These three aspects were operationalised in five distinct areas of facilitation: increasing awareness of the need for change; leadership and project management; relationship building and communication; importance of the local context; and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Over a period of 18 months, 42 nursing students, supported by trained lecturer-coaches, took part in nine improvement teams in our Regional Care Improvement Program, executing activities in all five areas of facilitation. Based on the students' experiences, we propose refinements to various components of this program, aimed at strengthenin the learning environment. There is a need for further detailed empirical research to study the impact this kind of learning environment has on students developing facilitation competencies in healthcare improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    OpenAIRE

    Meerkerk, Ingmar; Edelenbos, Jurian

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and organizational literature on facilitative and servant leadership, we examine two potential conditions: a facilitative project management style and executive support. We conducted survey research among p...

  14. Facilitation of contrast detection in near-peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Robert G; Soong, Grace P; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2004-12-01

    Foveal detection of a Gabor patch (target) is facilitated by collinear, displaced high-contrast flankers. Polat and Sagi reported that the same phenomenon occurred in the periphery, but no data were presented [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 1206]. Others have found no facilitation in a limited number of conditions tested. To resolve this apparent conflict, we measured lateral facilitation in the near-periphery using a range of stimulus parameters. We found facilitation for a range of target-flanker distances for peripheral eccentricities up to 6 degrees , but the magnitude of the effect was less than found in central vision. Facilitation varied across subjects and with spatial frequency. Flanker contrast had no effect over the range evaluated (10-80%). Equal facilitation was found for two global arrangements of the stimulus pattern. Facilitation was found using a temporal, but not a spatial two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, accounting for the different results among previous studies. This finding supports previous indications of the role of attention in altering such facilitation. The value of facilitation from lateral interactions for persons with central vision impairment, who have to shift their attention to a peripheral locus constantly, needs to be examined.

  15. Psychosocial Needs and Facilitators of Mothers Caring for Children with Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Tibben, Aad

    2018-02-01

    Care guidelines for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) include recommendations for assessment of caregivers of patients with DBMD followed by proactive psychosocial interventions. To inform clinical assessment, this study described appraisals of psychosocial needs and caregiving facilitators of mothers of individuals with DBMD. Two hundred and five mothers completed an online survey. More than 50% endorsed unmet needs for managing uncertainty about the future and managing DBMD fears. Higher levels of unmet need were associated with less disease progression/earlier stage of DBMD (rho = -0.166 p = 0.02). Twenty-one percent regularly used respite care and 57% worried about allowing others to care for their child. Highly-endorsed care facilitators included partner relationships (63%), child's approach to life (59%), and family relationships (49%). Our findings highlight the importance of psychological and social support for caregivers. Starting when children are young, clinicians should assess caregivers' unmet psychological needs, particularly uncertainty and fear. Exploring needs and facilitators may allow clinics to target and customize interventions that build upon existing strengths and supports. Our findings have implications for efforts to promote early diagnosis and newborn screening, in that increased needs in mothers of younger children should be anticipated and built into counseling. Further research can assess whether and how unmet needs change as new therapies become available.

  16. Residents' perceptions of their teachers: facilitative behaviour and the learning value of rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, S B; Simmons, J M; Richards, B F; Roberge, L P

    1993-01-01

    Despite changes in modern medicine the role of the clinical teacher remains central to medical residents' education and rotations continue to be their dominant educational context. Residents have strong positive feelings for clinical teachers who are perceived as interested in teaching and for those rotations that provide a balance of educational opportunities and patient care responsibilities. Research in residency education has focused on teacher behaviours used to teach medical residents clinical information or patient care skills but has neglected teacher behaviours used to facilitate effective learning relationships with residents. To explore the impact of clinical teachers' use of facilitative behaviours on residents' educational experience, we use concepts stemming from the psychologist Carl Rogers' work previously shown to be associated with positive learning outcomes--empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. These constructs are measured by the use of the four scales of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI)--level of regard, unconditionality of regard, congruence and empathy. Our study measures the correlation between residents' perceptions of clinical teachers' use of facilitative behaviours and residents' evaluation of the learning value of rotations. Thirty-three residents completed the BLRI on a different clinical teacher for each of six monthly rotations. A total of 158 surveys were returned. There were strong positive correlations between three of the BLRI variables and residents' perception of the learning value of rotations. Potential uses of these findings are discussed.

  17. Facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention with adolescents: perspectives of HIV-infected parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura L; Reis, Janet S; Weber, Kathleen M

    2013-08-01

    We examined HIV-infected parents' conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Eighty-one percent of parents reported "sometimes" or "often" communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one's child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.

  18. Facilitators and Barriers to Discussing HIV Prevention With Adolescents: Perspectives of HIV-Infected Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390

  19. Factors enabling and inhibiting facilitator development: lessons learned from Essentials of Care in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamera Watling

    2015-11-01

    . Conclusion: Facilitators need to be enabled to access training, practise their skills and learn from more experienced facilitators. There are parallels between the enablers of progress of the implementation of Essentials of Care and those to promote the development of facilitation capacity. Organisational leaders have a significant role in supporting both; it is critical they ensure there is a team of facilitators to share the workload, that time is allocated for facilitators to be released from clinical duties for development opportunities, and that there is time for teams to engage in programme activities. Implications for practice: •\tFindings suggest a relationship between facilitation capacity, context and the progression of practice development-based work. This evaluation offers practical examples that inform how these elements may be enhanced for the successful pursuit of person-centred healthcare practice •\tManagers and those in leadership positions have a key role in overcoming the contextual factors that inhibit facilitator development and programme implementation •\tOrganisational planning and accountability to manage staffing, ensure optimal workloads and promote practice development work as a priority supports the engagement and motivation of staff to participate in programme activities, and therefore the capacity of teams to progress practice development work and transform culture and practice •\tThe engagement of managers and those in leadership positions to clarify roles and responsibilities and establish agreed mechanisms for support of individuals and teams should precede the implementation of practice development programmes •\tTime is a significant resource in the successful advancement of facilitator development and programmes underpinned by practice development. In healthcare contexts, where staff feel time poor in the presence of the increasing demands of patient care, the pressure of multiple improvement programmes and other professional

  20. Birth environment facilitation by midwives assisting in non-hospital births: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiko; Wakita, Mariko; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-07-01

    midwifery homes (similar to birth centres) are rich in midwifery wisdom and skills that differ from those in hospital obstetrical departments, and a certain percentage of pregnant women prefer birth in these settings. This study aimed to understand the organisation of the perinatal environment considered important by independent midwives in non-hospital settings and to clarify the processes involved. semi-structured qualitative interview study and constant comparative analysis. 14 independent midwives assisting at births in midwifery homes in Japan, and six independent midwives assisting at home births. Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Shiga, Japan. midwives assisting at non-hospital births organised the birth environment based on the following four categories: 'an environment where the mother and family are autonomous'; 'a physical environment that facilitates birth'; 'an environment that facilitates the movement of the mother for birth'; and 'scrupulous safety preparation'. These, along with their sub-categories, are presented in this paper. independent midwives considered it important to create a candid relationship between the midwife and the woman/family from the period of pregnancy to facilitate birth in which the woman and her family were autonomous. They also organised a distinctive environment for non-hospital birth, with preparations to guarantee safety. Experiential knowledge and skills played a major part in creating an environment to facilitate birth, and the effectiveness of this needs to be investigated objectively in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Facilitators and barriers to implementation of intercultural health policy in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Camila; Nazar, Gabriela; Cova, Félix

    2016-02-01

    Objective To identify elements that either facilitate or hinder implementation of Chile's intercultural health policy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted with the participation of health services users from the Mapuche ethnic group, biomedical health professionals, intercultural facilitators, and key informants in two health facilities serving towns with a high density of Mapuche population. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews that were analyzed thematically. Results Factors identified as facilitating the implementation of this policy include laws and regulations pertaining to the rights of indigenous peoples, the empowerment of users around their rights, the formation of implementation teams, the presence of professionals of Mapuche origin in health facilities, and the existence of processes for systematization of the work carried out. The asymmetric relationship between the Mapuche people and the state, and between the Mapuche health system and the biomedical model, constitutes a fundamental barrier. Other obstacles include the lack of theoretical and practical clarity around the concept of intercultural health and a lack of resources. Conclusions Despite the facilitators identified and the achievements to date, meaningful progress in implementation of an intercultural health policy is limited by barriers that are hard to change. These include the usual forms of government planning and the hegemony of the biomedical model.

  2. Negotiation Support Systems for Facilitating International Water Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchi, A.; Madani, K.; Rouhani, O. M.

    2011-12-01

    Two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Caspian Sea -the largest inland body of water on earth- continues to be the subject of one of the world's most insurmountable disputes, involving Iran, Russia, and the new sovereign states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. The conflict is over the legal status of this multinational water body, which supplies almost all of the world's black caviar, and holds about 10% and 4% of the world's oil and gas reserves, respectively. Typically, proposed division methods for sharing the Caspian Sea and its valuable resources focus either on the areal shares or on the oil and gas shares of the parties. As such, total gains of littoral states under different division methods have remained unclear. In this study, we have developed the Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System (NSS) to delineate optimal boundaries for sharing the sea. The Caspian Sea NSS facilitates simultaneous consideration of the countries' areal and resource shares from the sea under different sharing methods. The developed model is run under different division scenarios to provide insights into the sensitivity of the countries' gains and locations of nautical boundaries to the proposed division rules and the economic values of the Caspian Sea resources. The results are highly sensitive to the proposed division rules, and there is an indirect relationship between the allocated area and resource shares. The main policy implication of the study is that explicit quantification of the countries' resource and areal gains under any suggested legal regime for governing the Caspian Sea is a precursor the success of the negotiations.

  3. Facilitators and inhibitors in developing professional values in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafakhah, Mahnaz; Molazem, Zahra; Khademi, Mojgan; Sharif, Farkhondeh

    2018-03-01

    Values are the basis of nursing practice, especially in making decisions about complicated ethical issues. Despite their key role in nursing, little information exists on the factors affecting their development and manifestation in nursing students. This study identifies and describes the facilitators and inhibitors of the development and manifestation of professional values based on the experiences of nursing students and instructors and nurses. Data were collected through 29 semi-structured interviews and two focus group interviews in 2013-2015 and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method of Elo and Kyngäs. Participants and research context: In total, 18 nursing undergraduates, five nursing instructors, and five nurses from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and one of the teaching hospitals in Shiraz were selected through purposive sampling. Ethical considerations: The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and the teaching hospital examined. The findings consisted of two categories: personal and environmental factors. Personal factors consisted of the two subcategories of personal stimuli (work experience and past relationships, inner beliefs and acting on values, belief in God and a divine worldview) and personal inhibitors (the lack of professional motivation and enthusiasm, negative emotions). Environmental factors consisted of the two subcategories of environmental stimuli (cooperation, order and discipline) and environmental inhibitors (unfavorable work environment, society's negative attitude toward nursing, the violation of rights). Given the impact of personal and environmental factors on the development and manifestation of professional values in nursing students, it is upon the education authorities to take account of them in their planning, and nursing managers are also recommended to further address these factors in their development of a proper work environment, provision of

  4. Multistudy fine mapping of chromosome 2q identifies XRCC5 as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersh, Craig P; Pillai, Sreekumar G; Zhu, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    to the identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility genes on chromosome 2q. METHODS: Within the chromosome 2q linkage region, 2,843 SNPs were genotyped in 806 COPD cases and 779 control subjects from Norway, and 2,484 SNPs were genotyped in 309 patients with severe COPD from...... the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 330 community control subjects. Significant associations from the combined results across the two case-control studies were followed up in 1,839 individuals from 603 families from the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN) and in 949 individuals from 127 families...

  5. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothee; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA(+)) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA(-)) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We

  6. Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Burren, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) have identified 50 susceptibility regions, finding major pathways contributing to risk, with some loci shared across immune disorders. To make genetic comparisons across autoimmune disorders as informative as possible, a dense genotyping array...... and significantly least similar to ulcerative colitis, and provided support for three additional new T1D risk loci. Using a Bayesian approach, we defined credible sets for the T1D-associated SNPs. The associated SNPs localized to enhancer sequences active in thymus, T and B cells, and CD34(+) stem cells. Enhancer-promoter......, the Immunochip, was developed, from which we identified four new T1D-associated regions (P comparative analysis with 15 immune diseases showed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, significantly most similar to juvenile idiopathic arthritis...

  7. Molecular genetic studies in Fragaria species : agrobacterium-mediated transformation and fine mapping of the Phytophthora fragariae resistance gene Rpfl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fungus Phytophthora fragariae, is able to cause red stele root rot in the strawberry. Symptoms of the disease is discolouration of the stele of the roots, rotting away of the infected roots, dwarfism, wilting, and finally plant death. Chemical control of red stele

  8. Multistudy fine mapping of chromosome 2q identifies XRCC5 as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersh, Craig P; Pillai, Sreekumar G; Zhu, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Several family-based studies have identified genetic linkage for lung function and airflow obstruction to chromosome 2q. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that merging results of high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in four separate populations would lead to the ident......RATIONALE: Several family-based studies have identified genetic linkage for lung function and airflow obstruction to chromosome 2q. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that merging results of high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in four separate populations would lead...... the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 330 community control subjects. Significant associations from the combined results across the two case-control studies were followed up in 1,839 individuals from 603 families from the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN) and in 949 individuals from 127 families...

  9. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williams, H J

    2011-04-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P=1.61 × 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P=9.96 × 10(-9)). In this study we provide additional evidence for association through meta-analysis of a larger data set (schizophrenia\\/schizoaffective disorder N=18 945, schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder N=21 274 and controls N=38 675). We also sought to better localize the association signal using a combination of de novo polymorphism discovery in exons, pooled de novo polymorphism discovery spanning the genomic sequence of the locus and high-density linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. The meta-analysis provided evidence for association between rs1344706 that surpasses widely accepted benchmarks of significance by several orders of magnitude for both schizophrenia (P=2.5 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14) and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder combined (P=4.1 × 10(-13), OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14). After de novo polymorphism discovery and detailed association analysis, rs1344706 remained the most strongly associated marker in the gene. The allelic association at the ZNF804A locus is now one of the most compelling in schizophrenia to date, and supports the accumulating data suggesting overlapping genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  10. Finding causal variants for complex genetic disease : the contribution of statistical methodology to fine-mapping and assay optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Geert Theodoor

    2007-01-01

    Proefschrift bestaande uit een zestal deels eerder gepubliceerde hoofdstukken. Enerzijds is geprobeerd de methoden voor het genetisch fijn-karteren van varianten die bijdragen aan complexe genetische ziekten te verbeteren. Anderzijds is geprobeerd met statistische methoden de laboratorium procedures

  11. Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Dadaev, Tokhir; Hazelett, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated...... identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have...

  12. Refining the accuracy of validated target identification through coding variant fine-mapping in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahajan, Anubha

    2018-01-01

    , compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex...

  13. Fine mapping and candidate gene prediction of a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus for yield-related trait in Zea mays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiang Liu

    Full Text Available The yield of maize grain is a highly complex quantitative trait that is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs with small effects, and is frequently influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Thus, it is challenging to clone a QTL for grain yield in the maize genome. Previously, we identified a major QTL, qKNPR6, for kernel number per row (KNPR across multiple environments, and developed two nearly isogenic lines, SL57-6 and Ye478, which differ only in the allelic constitution at the short segment harboring the QTL. Recently, qKNPR6 was re-evaluated in segregating populations derived from SL57-6×Ye478, and was narrowed down to a 2.8 cM interval, which explained 56.3% of the phenotypic variance of KNPR in 201 F(2∶3 families. The QTL simultaneously affected ear length, kernel weight and grain yield. Furthermore, a large F(2 population with more than 12,800 plants, 191 recombinant chromosomes and 10 overlapping recombinant lines placed qKNPR6 into a 0.91 cM interval corresponding to 198Kb of the B73 reference genome. In this region, six genes with expressed sequence tag (EST evidence were annotated. The expression pattern and DNA diversity of the six genes were assayed in Ye478 and SL57-6. The possible candidate gene and the pathway involved in inflorescence development were discussed.

  14. Fine Mapping of the Pond Snail Left-Right Asymmetry (Chirality) Locus Using RAD-Seq and Fibre-FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Yang, Fengtang; Aboobaker, Aziz; Blaxter, Mark L.; Davison, Angus

    2013-01-01

    The left-right asymmetry of snails, including the direction of shell coiling, is determined by the delayed effect of a maternal gene on the chiral twist that takes place during early embryonic cell divisions. Yet, despite being a well-established classical problem, the identity of the gene and the means by which left-right asymmetry is established in snails remain unknown. We here demonstrate the power of new genomic approaches for identification of the chirality gene, “D”. First, heterozygous (Dd) pond snails Lymnaea stagnalis were self-fertilised or backcrossed, and the genotype of more than six thousand offspring inferred, either dextral (DD/Dd) or sinistral (dd). Then, twenty of the offspring were used for Restriction-site-Associated DNA Sequencing (RAD-Seq) to identify anonymous molecular markers that are linked to the chirality locus. A local genetic map was constructed by genotyping three flanking markers in over three thousand snails. The three markers lie either side of the chirality locus, with one very tightly linked (chirality gene and the variation that underpins sinistral and dextral coiling. More generally, the results also show that combining genomic technologies, such as RAD-Seq and high resolution FISH, is a robust approach for mapping key loci in non-model systems. PMID:23951082

  15. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, W.E.; Kramer, R.A.; Rice, A.; Weldon, W.C.; Niezgoda, M.; Faber, M.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, M.; Visser, T.J.; Jongeneelen, M.; Thijsse, S.; Throsby, M.; Kruif, de J.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Dietzschold, B.; Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, A.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  16. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Milosz; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Meloen, Rob H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Visser, Therese J.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Alexander B. H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  17. High resolution melt-curve analysis to fine map a locus controlling the paternal sorting of mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are required for normal growth and development and play an important role in programmed cell death and aging. The mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. One exception is cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whose mitochondrial DNA is paternally transmit...

  18. Fine mapping and identification of a candidate gene for the barley Un8 true loose smut resistance gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Wen; Eckstein, Peter E; Colin, Mark; Voth, Doug; Himmelbach, Axel; Beier, Sebastian; Stein, Nils; Scoles, Graham J; Beattie, Aaron D

    2015-07-01

    The candidate gene for the barley Un8 true loose smut resistance gene encodes a deduced protein containing two tandem protein kinase domains. In North America, durable resistance against all known isolates of barley true loose smut, caused by the basidiomycete pathogen Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr. (U. nuda), is under the control of the Un8 resistance gene. Previous genetic studies mapped Un8 to the long arm of chromosome 5 (1HL). Here, a population of 4625 lines segregating for Un8 was used to delimit the Un8 gene to a 0.108 cM interval on chromosome arm 1HL, and assign it to fingerprinted contig 546 of the barley physical map. The minimal tilling path was identified for the Un8 locus using two flanking markers and consisted of two overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes. One gene located close to a marker co-segregating with Un8 showed high sequence identity to a disease resistance gene containing two kinase domains. Sequence of the candidate gene from the parents of the segregating population, and in an additional 19 barley lines representing a broader spectrum of diversity, showed there was no intron in alleles present in either resistant or susceptible lines, and fifteen amino acid variations unique to the deduced protein sequence in resistant lines differentiated it from the deduced protein sequences in susceptible lines. Some of these variations were present within putative functional domains which may cause a loss of function in the deduced protein sequences within susceptible lines.

  19. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, H.J.; Norton, N.; Dwyer, S.; Moskvina, V.; Nikolov, I.; Carroll, L.; Georgieva, L.; Williams, N.M.; Morris, D.W.; Quinn, E.M.; Giegling, I.; Ikeda, M.; Wood, J.; Lencz, T.; Hultman, C.; Lichtenstein, P.; Thiselton, D.; Maher, B.S.; Malhotra, A.K.; Riley, B.; Kendler, K.S.; Gill, M.; Sullivan, P.; Sklar, P.; Purcell, S.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Kirov, G.; Holmans, P.; Corvin, A.; Rujescu, D.; Craddock, N.; Owen, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; GROUP investigators, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P = 1.61 x 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P = 9.96 x 10(-9)). In this

  20. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Andrew J; William, H Manilal; Perry, Gregory; Khanal, Raja; Pauls, K Peter; Kelly, James D; Navabi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Alleles at the Co-4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08) where Co-4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co-4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK-4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co-4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases.

  1. Candidate Gene Identification with SNP Marker-Based Fine Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene Co-4 in Common Bean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Burt

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is an important fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Alleles at the Co-4 locus confer resistance to a number of races of C. lindemuthianum. A population of 94 F4:5 recombinant inbred lines of a cross between resistant black bean genotype B09197 and susceptible navy bean cultivar Nautica was used to identify markers associated with resistance in bean chromosome 8 (Pv08 where Co-4 is localized. Three SCAR markers with known linkage to Co-4 and a panel of single nucleotide markers were used for genotyping. A refined physical region on Pv08 with significant association with anthracnose resistance identified by markers was used in BLAST searches with the genomic sequence of common bean accession G19833. Thirty two unique annotated candidate genes were identified that spanned a physical region of 936.46 kb. A majority of the annotated genes identified had functional similarity to leucine rich repeats/receptor like kinase domains. Three annotated genes had similarity to 1, 3-β-glucanase domains. There were sequence similarities between some of the annotated genes found in the study and the genes associated with phosphoinositide-specific phosphilipases C associated with Co-x and the COK-4 loci found in previous studies. It is possible that the Co-4 locus is structured as a group of genes with functional domains dominated by protein tyrosine kinase along with leucine rich repeats/nucleotide binding site, phosphilipases C as well as β-glucanases.

  2. Allelic imbalance and fine mapping of the 17p13.3 subregion in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, C; Mollenhauer, J; Waldau, B

    2001-01-01

    Chromosome arm 17p is frequently altered in a variety of human cancers, especially in breast cancer, and allelic imbalances (AIs) in the region 17p13.1 do not always coincide with mutations in the TP53 gene. A second interval that frequently shows AIs at 17p is the chromosomal band 17p13.3. This ......Chromosome arm 17p is frequently altered in a variety of human cancers, especially in breast cancer, and allelic imbalances (AIs) in the region 17p13.1 do not always coincide with mutations in the TP53 gene. A second interval that frequently shows AIs at 17p is the chromosomal band 17p13...

  3. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  4. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  5. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that...

  6. Fine mapping TaFLW1, a major QTL controlling flag leaf width in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shulin; Xu, Feng; Li, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Musen; Gao, Zhongxia; Su, Xiuhong; Xu, Xiaowu; Jiang, Ge; Zhang, Shuang; Jia, Haiyan; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Lixia; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2013-08-01

    Flag leaf width (FLW) is directly related to photosynthetic capacity and yield potential in wheat. In a previous study, Qflw.nau-5A controlling FLW was detected on chromosome 5A in the interval possessing Fhb5 for type I Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance using a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai. Qflw.nau-5A near-isogenic line (NIL) with the background of Mianyang 99-323 and PH691 was developed and evaluated. FLW inheritance was investigated using two F2 populations developed from crossing the Qflw.nau-5A NILs with their recurrent parents. One hundred ten and 28 recombinants, which included 10 and 5 types of recombinants, were identified from 2816 F2 plants with Mianyang 99-323 background and 1277 F2 plants with PH691 background, respectively, and phenotyped in field trials for FLW and type I FHB resistance. Deletion bin mapping was applied to physically map Qflw.nau-5A. The introduction of Wangshuibai Qflw.nau-5A allele reduced the FLW up to 3 mm. In the F2 populations, Qflw.nau-5A was inherited like a semi-dominant gene, and was therefore designated as TaFLW1. The FLW of the recombinant lines displayed a distinct two-peak distribution. Recombinants with wider leaves commonly have Mianyang 99-323 or PH691 chromatin in the 0.2 cM Xwmc492-Xwmc752 interval that resided in the 5AL12-0.35-0.57 deletion bin, and recombinants with narrow leaves were Wangshuibai genotype in this interval. Phenotypic recombination between FLW and type I FHB resistance was identified, implying TaFLW1 was in close linkage with Fhb5. These results should aid wheat breeders to break the linkage drag through marker-assisted selection and assist in the map-based cloning of TaFLW1.

  7. Fine-mapping additive and dominant SNP effects using group-LASSO and Fractional Resample Model Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jeremy; Nobel, Andrew B.; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    Genomewide association studies sometimes identify loci at which both the number and identities of the underlying causal variants are ambiguous. In such cases, statistical methods that model effects of multiple SNPs simultaneously can help disentangle the observed patterns of association and provide information about how those SNPs could be prioritized for follow-up studies. Current multi-SNP methods, however, tend to assume that SNP effects are well captured by additive genetics; yet when genetic dominance is present, this assumption translates to reduced power and faulty prioritizations. We describe a statistical procedure for prioritizing SNPs at GWAS loci that efficiently models both additive and dominance effects. Our method, LLARRMA-dawg, combines a group LASSO procedure for sparse modeling of multiple SNP effects with a resampling procedure based on fractional observation weights; it estimates for each SNP the robustness of association with the phenotype both to sampling variation and to competing explanations from other SNPs. In producing a SNP prioritization that best identifies underlying true signals, we show that: our method easily outperforms a single marker analysis; when additive-only signals are present, our joint model for additive and dominance is equivalent to or only slightly less powerful than modeling additive-only effects; and, when dominance signals are present, even in combination with substantial additive effects, our joint model is unequivocally more powerful than a model assuming additivity. We also describe how performance can be improved through calibrated randomized penalization, and discuss how dominance in ungenotyped SNPs can be incorporated through either heterozygote dosage or multiple imputation. PMID:25417853

  8. Fine mapping of the human renal oncocytoma-associated translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, RJ; Dijkhuizen, T; Janssen, B; Weghuis, DO; Merkx, G; vandenBerg, E; Schuuring, E; Meloni, AM; deJong, B; vanKessel, AG

    1997-01-01

    Recent cytogenetic analysis of a series of human renal oncocytomas revealed the presence of a recurring chromosomal translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) as sole anomaly in a subset of the tumors. The molecular characterization of this translocation was initiated using two primary t(5;11)-positive renal

  9. Regulating and facilitating: the role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Michael R; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Sherf, Elad N

    2015-05-01

    Although past research has identified the effects of emotional intelligence on numerous employee outcomes, the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity has not been well established. We draw upon affective information processing theory to explain how two facets of emotional intelligence-emotion regulation and emotion facilitation-shape employee creativity. Specifically, we propose that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (PA) when faced with unique knowledge processing requirements, while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their PA to enhance their creativity. We find support for our hypotheses using a multimethod (ability test, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers across a wide range of jobs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Teleworking Technology Adoption in Organizations: Explaining the Role of Social Influence, Motivation and Facilitating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirezaei Alirezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the structural relationship between social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions with the use behaviour of teleworking technology, considering the moderating effect of behavioural intention to utilize teleworking. The research is done according to descriptive method with correlational type. Statistical population is public organizations and the sample was selected using simple random sampling. Data collection tool was questionnaire and experts judged its validity. The reliability of the tool was evaluated using a pre-test of 30 people. The data gathered from a sample of 365 people used to test the hypothesis and conceptual model of the research. By exploratory factor analysis and structural equation model path analysis was done. The results show that social influence, motivation and facilitating conditions have a positive impact on behavioural intention to use teleworking systems and this behavioural intention cause an increase in using behaviour among employees.

  11. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  12. Can Questions Facilitate Learning from Illustrated Science Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of using questions to facilitate processing of diagrams in science texts. Investigates three different elements in experiments on college students. Finds that questions about illustrations do not facilitate learning. Discusses findings with reference to cognitive load theory, the dual coding perspective, and the…

  13. When and Why Mimicry is Facilitated and Attenuated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Dijk, Eric; van Baaren, Rick B.

    2016-01-01

    Although people tend to mimic others automatically, mimicry is facilitated or attenuated depending on the specific context. In the current paper, the authors discuss when mimicry is facilitated and attenuated depending on characteristics of situations, targets, and observers. On the basis of the

  14. Comparison of educational facilitation approaches for Grade R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Early Childhood Development Manager in Mpumalanga is faced with the problem of providing evidence-based guidance of the best facilitation approach in the Grade R context. An investigation on the effect of facilitation, i.e. play-based or formal instruction, on Grade R performance scores in English Additional ...

  15. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  16. Facilitating creativity in handicapped and non-handicapped children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prime objective of this paper is to create awareness on the presence of the handicapped in Nigeria and the need to facilitate creative potentials in handicapped and non-handicapped children. Various factors that could facilitate creativity and other factors that could inhibit creativity were discussed. The implications for ...

  17. Using Text Mining to Characterize Online Discussion Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…

  18. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  19. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  20. Dipteran larvae and microbes facilitate nutrient sequestration in the Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Weng Ngai; Chong, Kwek Yan; Anand, Ganesh S; Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah

    2017-03-01

    The fluid-containing traps of Nepenthes carnivorous pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) are often inhabited by organisms known as inquilines. Dipteran larvae are key components of such communities and are thought to facilitate pitcher nitrogen sequestration by converting prey protein into inorganic nitrogen, although this has never been demonstrated in Nepenthes Pitcher fluids are also inhabited by microbes, although the relationship(s) between these and the plant is still unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis of digestive mutualism between N. gracilis pitchers and both dipteran larvae and fluid microbes. Using dipteran larvae, prey and fluid volumes mimicking in situ pitcher conditions, we conducted in vitro experiments and measured changes in available fluid nitrogen in response to dipteran larvae and microbe presence. We showed that the presence of dipteran larvae resulted in significantly higher and faster releases of ammonium and soluble protein into fluids in artificial pitchers, and that the presence of fluid microbes did likewise for ammonium. We showed also that niche segregation occurs between phorid and culicid larvae, with the former fragmenting prey carcasses and the latter suppressing fluid microbe levels. These results clarify the relationships between several key pitcher-dwelling organisms, and show that pitcher communities facilitate nutrient sequestration in their host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. How do Australian palliative care nurses address existential and spiritual concerns? Facilitators, barriers and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Robyn; Clayton, Josephine M; Butow, Phyllis

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the facilitators, barriers and strategies that Australian palliative care nurses identify in providing existential and spiritual care for patients with life-limiting illnesses. Palliative care aims to be holistic, incorporating all domains of personhood, but spiritual/existential domain issues are often undertreated. Lack of time and skills and concerns for what you may uncover hamper care provision. A qualitative study through semistructured interviews. We interviewed 20 palliative care nurses from a cross section of area of work, place of work, years of experience, spiritual beliefs and importance of those beliefs within their lives. Questions focused on their current practices of existential and spiritual care, identification of facilitators of, barriers to and strategies for provision of that care. Their responses were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. The nurses' interviews yielded several themes including development of the nurse-patient relationship (14/20 nurses), good communication skills and examples of questions they use to 'create openings' to facilitate care. Barriers were identified as follows: lack of time (11/20 nurses), skills, privacy and fear of what you may uncover, unresolved symptoms and differences in culture or belief. Novel to our study, the nurses offered strategies that included the following: undertaking further education in this area, being self-aware and ensuring the setting is conducive to in-depth conversations and interactions and documentation and/or interdisciplinary sharing for continuity of care. Palliative care nurses are well placed to provide existential and spiritual care to patients with the primary facilitator being the nurse-patient relationship, the primary barrier being lack of time and the primary strategy being undertaking further education in this area. These findings could be used for nurse-support programmes, undergraduate or graduate studies or communication workshop for nurses.

  2. Students as facilitators in a teacher training program: motivation for leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Although students often partake in peer-teaching activities during medical school, they are rarely provided with formal training in teaching. We have previously described our teacher training (TT) program for medical students. The TT program is delivered face-to-face across two sessions. In order to alleviate academic teaching load required to run the course, and at the same time provide our final-year students with practical opportunities to develop their leadership skills, we engaged five senior students as co-facilitators alongside academic staff. By developing an understanding of our students' motivation to participate as facilitators, we may be able to promote an interest within leadership in teaching among other students. Our study sought to examine students' motivation to take part as facilitators in the TT program. Data were collected through a focus group session with the five student facilitators. Self-determination theory, which poses that there are three elements key to intrinsic motivation, including autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was used as a conceptual lens to identify and code recurrent themes in the data. Elements that motivated students to assist in facilitation included an opportunity to review and build on their knowledge and skills in teaching practices; the recognition and acknowledgement received from school staff and fellow students; the opportunity to develop these relationships; and a desire to increase their peer-teaching responsibilities. By actively involving our students in leadership practices, we were able to not only engage the students, but also develop our student community and contribute to the promotion of a culture of excellence in teaching within the hospital.

  3. Ancestral Relationships Using Metafounders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarra, Andres; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2015-01-01

    Recent use of genomic (marker-based) relationships shows that relationships exist within and across base population (breeds or lines). However, current treatment of pedigree relationships is unable to consider relationships within or across base populations, although such relationships must exist...

  4. Atomic-scale investigation of interface-facilitated deformation twinning in severely deformed Ag-Cu nanolamellar composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Liao, X. Z.; Zhu, S. M.; Nie, J. F.; Kawasaki, M.; Ringer, S. P.; Langdon, T. G.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    We report an atomic-scale investigation of interface-facilitated deformation twinning behaviour in Ag-Cu nanolamellar composites. Profuse twinning activities in Ag supply partial dislocations to directly transmit across the Ag-Cu lamellar interface that promotes deformation twinning in the neighbouring Cu lamellae although the interface is severely deformed. The trans-interface twin bands change the local structure at the interface. Our analysis suggests that the orientation relationship and interfacial structure between neighbouring Ag-Cu lamellae play a crucial role in such special interface-facilitated twinning behaviour

  5. With a little help from my goals: integrating intergoal facilitation with the theory of planned behaviour to predict physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Sniehotta, Falko F; Francis, Jill J; Gebhardt, Winifred A

    2010-11-01

    Integration of a multiple goal theory approach into the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate how the perceived facilitating and conflicting relationships in multiple goal pursuit predict performance of a health-related behaviour. Prospective design with 8-week follow-up. At baseline, perceived intergoal facilitation and intergoal conflict were measured using personal projects analysis supplemented with standard TPB measures for physical activity (PA). Self-reported PA was measured at follow-up 8 weeks later. N=137 participants completed measures at both time points (55.4% response rate at follow-up). Hierarchical regression showed that perceived intergoal facilitation, but not intergoal conflict, directly predicted PA beyond intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), accounting for more than 4% of additional variance in PA. Intergoal facilitation had an indirect effect on intention through attitude and PBC, and intention partially mediated the effect of intergoal facilitation on behaviour. The perceived facilitating effect of pursuing other personal goals predicts the performance of a health-related behaviour over and above single behaviour-focused social cognitions.

  6. Germination phenology determines the propensity for facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D

    2017-09-01

    A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Diversity-oriented synthesis-facilitated medicinal chemistry: toward the development of novel antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Eamon; Beaudoin, Jennifer A; Kato, Nobutaka; Fitzgerald, Mark E; Heidebrecht, Richard W; Lee, Maurice duPont; Masi, Daniela; Mercier, Marion; Mulrooney, Carol; Muncipinto, Giovanni; Rowley, Ann; Crespo-Llado, Keila; Serrano, Adelfa E; Lukens, Amanda K; Wiegand, Roger C; Wirth, Dyann F; Palmer, Michelle A; Foley, Michael A; Munoz, Benito; Scherer, Christina A; Duvall, Jeremy R; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2014-10-23

    Here, we describe medicinal chemistry that was accelerated by a diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) pathway, and in vivo studies of our previously reported macrocyclic antimalarial agent that derived from the synthetic pathway. Structure-activity relationships that focused on both appendage and skeletal features yielded a nanomolar inhibitor of P. falciparum asexual blood-stage growth with improved solubility and microsomal stability and reduced hERG binding. The build/couple/pair (B/C/P) synthetic strategy, used in the preparation of the original screening library, facilitated medicinal chemistry optimization of the antimalarial lead.

  8. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed.......The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...

  9. Dynamics of group knowledge production in facilitated modelling workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Franco, L. Alberto

    2015-01-01

    by which models are jointly developed with group members interacting face-to-face, with or without computer support. The models produced are used to inform negotiations about the nature of the issues faced by the group, and how to address them. While the facilitated modelling literature is impressive......, the workshop. Drawing on the knowledge-perspective of group communication, we conducted a micro-level analysis of a transcript of a facilitated modelling workshop held with the management team of an Alternative Food Network in the UK. Our analysis suggests that facilitated modelling interactions can take...

  10. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Farideh; Kamali, Mohammad Bagher

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural development in Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have a better insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as a learning forum for bringing about changes for all participants, they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciative inquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting the facilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors...

  11. Trusting Relationships in the NATO Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    – particularly given the historical (and even current) animosities between some of the member states. How is it that so many states can work together given the structural bias towards distrust in the international system? Given the goal of the papers on this panel to investigate how NATO might in fact facilitate......, in order to reveal the points of intersection that might help us to understand how and why trusting relationships can be formed within the NATO alliance....

  12. ANTECEDENTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleu Daniela

    2015-07-01

    an active role in the relationship with companies. The business must enhance existing capabilities or develop new capabilities in order to meet this challenge. If confirmation of the hypotheses specified relations, the development level of customer relationship management capabilities, managers should invest in interactive technology and human resources to facilitate the adoption of interactive technologies within the organization and customer relationship.

  13. MS in Your Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MS Relationships Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Relationships MS poses additional challenges, but it also enriches ... when it is not. Keeping balance in your relationship When one person in a couple is affected ...

  14. Biometric identification systems: the science of transaction facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert R.

    1994-10-01

    The future ofthe "secure transaction" and the success ofall undertakings that depend on absolute certainty that the individuals involved really are who and what they represent themselves to be is dependent upon the successful development of absolutely accurate, low-cost and easy-to-operate Biometric Identification Systems. Whether these transactions are political, military, financial or administrative (e.g. health cards, drivers licenses, welfare entitlement, national identification cards, credit card transactions, etc.), the need for such secure and positive identification has never been greater -and yet we are only at the beginning ofan era in which we will see the emergence and proliferation of Biometric Identification Systems in nearly every field ofhuman endeavor. Proper application ofthese systems will change the way the world operates, and that is precisely the goal ofComparator Systems Corporation. Just as with the photo-copier 40 years ago and the personal computer 20 years ago, the potential applications for positive personal identification are going to make the Biometric Identification System a commonplace component in the standard practice ofbusiness, and in interhuman relationships ofall kinds. The development of new and specific application hardware, as well as the necessary algorithms and related software required for integration into existing operating procedures and newly developed systems alike, has been a more-than-a-decade-long process at Comparator -and we are now on the verge of delivering these systems to the world markets so urgently in need of them. An individual could feel extremely confident and satisfied ifhe could present his credit, debit, or ATM card at any point of sale and, after inserting his card, could simply place his finger on a glass panel and in less than a second be positively accepted as being the person that the card purported him to be; not to mention the security and satisfaction of the vendor involved in knowing that

  15. Managing Business-to-Business Relationships throughout the E-Commerce Procurement Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Norm; Yuan, Yufei

    2000-01-01

    Since the core of e-commerce is information and communications, support for managing customer relationships is available to those who know how to use it. Discusses how technology can be used to encourage and facilitate customer-business relationships. Shows through a customer relationship life cycle model how the management of related procurement…

  16. Teacher-Student Relationship and Facebook-Mediated Communication: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovzt, Arnon; Forkosh-Baruch, Alona

    2017-01-01

    Student-teacher relationships are vital to successful learning and teaching. Today, communication between students and teachers, a major component through which these relationships are facilitated, is taking place via social networking sites (SNS). In this study, we examined the associations between student-teacher relationship and student-teacher…

  17. Social Media to Facilitate Public Participation in IA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, A.C.; Enserink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Social media are web-based and mobile technologies that facilitate interaction between organizations, communities and individuals. Important characteristics are that the technologies are ubiquitous, communication instantaneous and that they enable the creation and exchange of user-generated content.

  18. Gender analysis of factors affecting facilitation of agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It ascertained the perception of the gender groups on the organizational, job related and ... and ensure balanced working conditions for both men and women facilitators in the NFDP III. This will help to ultimately improve their job performance.

  19. Facilitation: A Novel Way to Improve Students' Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation...

  20. What Do They Understand? Using Technology to Facilitate Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Carolyn; Jacobbe, Tim; Jacobbe, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Formative assessment is so important to inform teachers' planning. A discussion of the benefits of using technology to facilitate formative assessment explains how four primary school teachers adopted three different apps to make their formative assessment more meaningful and useful.

  1. Evaluation of Eight Case Studies of Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The ability of eight adults with mental retardation (and in some cases cerebral palsy) to communicate using facilitated communication was assessed by a multidisciplinary team. Not one of the subjects demonstrated an ability to communicate using the technique. (JDD)

  2. Getting the Words Out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)

  3. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  4. Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life orientation programmes: ... strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education system. ... and religious backgrounds of learners represented in participating schools.

  5. Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.

  6. Leadership Development Through Peer-Facilitated Simulation in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen M; Rode, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Baccalaureate nursing graduates must possess leadership skills, yet few opportunities exist to cultivate leadership abilities in a clinical environment. Peer-facilitated learning may increase the leadership skills of competence, self-confidence, self-reflection, and role modeling. Facilitating human patient simulation provides opportunities to develop leadership skills. With faculty supervision, senior baccalaureate students led small-group simulation experiences with sophomore and junior peers and then conducted subsequent debriefings. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive data allowed evaluation of students' satisfaction with this teaching innovation and whether the experience affected students' desire to take on leadership roles. Students expressed satisfaction with the peer-facilitated simulation experience and confidence in mastering the content while developing necessary skills for practice. Peer-facilitated simulation provides an opportunity for leadership development and learning. Study results can inform the development of nursing curricula to best develop the leadership skills of nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):53-57.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  8. Encountering Carl Rogers: His Views on Facilitating Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)

  9. Empirical evaluation of a forecasting model for successful facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During 2000 the annual Facilitator Customer Satisfaction Survey was ... the forecasting model is successful concerning the CSI value and a high positive linear ... namely that of human behaviour to incorporate other influences than just the ...

  10. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides Through The Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situ mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment

  11. Barriers and facilitators to the uptake of voluntary medical male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VMMC) among adolescent boys in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa. ... Individual cognitive factors facilitating uptake included the belief that VMMC reduced the risk of HIV infection, led to better hygiene and improvement in sexual desirability and ...

  12. Blissymbol learning as a tool for facilitating language and literacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational Inequality and Academic Achievement in England and. France. ... the process of symbol learning for young children with disabilities. Introduction ... mains an important issue in facilitating integration and participation in society.

  13. Demystifying facilitation of multi-actor learning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perceptions, participation has become a popular means of bringing about social and technical change. Across the globe, whether in agricultural devel...

  14. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments

  15. Disturbance-mediated facilitation by an intertidal ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystem engineers facilitate communities by providing a structural habitat that reduces abiotic stress or predation pressure for associated species. However, disturbance may damage or move the engineer to a more stressful environment, possibly increasing the importance of facilitation for associated communities. In this study, we determined how disturbance to intertidal boulders (i.e., flipping) and the subsequent movement of a structural ecosystem engineer, the tube-forming serpulid worm Galeolaria caespitosa, from the bottom (natural state, low abiotic stress) to the top (disturbed state, high abiotic stress) surface of boulders influenced the importance of facilitation for intertidal communities across two intertidal zones. Theory predicts stronger relative facilitation should occur in the harsher environments of the top of boulders and the high intertidal zone. To test this prediction, we experimentally positioned boulders with the serpulids either face up or face down for 12 months in low and high zones in an intertidal boulder field. There were very different communities associated with the different boulders and serpulids had the strongest facilitative effects on the more stressful top surface of boulders with approximately double the species richness compared to boulders lacking serpulids. Moreover, within the serpulid matrix itself there was also approximately double the species richness (both zones) and abundance (high zone only) of small invertebrates on the top of boulders compared to the bottom. The high relative facilitation on the top of boulders reflected a large reduction in temperature by the serpulid matrix on that surface (up to 10°C) highlighting a key role for modification of the abiotic environment in determining the community-wide facilitation. This study has demonstrated that disturbance and subsequent movement of an ecosystem engineer to a more stressful environment increased the importance of facilitation and allowed species to

  16. Using ontology-based semantic similarity to facilitate the article screening process for systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-05-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) are utilized to summarize evidence from high quality studies and are considered the preferred source of evidence-based practice (EBP). However, conducting SRs can be time and labor intensive due to the high cost of article screening. In previous studies, we demonstrated utilizing established (lexical) article relationships to facilitate the identification of relevant articles in an efficient and effective manner. Here we propose to enhance article relationships with background semantic knowledge derived from Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts and ontologies. We developed a pipelined semantic concepts representation process to represent articles from an SR into an optimized and enriched semantic space of UMLS concepts. Throughout the process, we leveraged concepts and concept relations encoded in biomedical ontologies (SNOMED-CT and MeSH) within the UMLS framework to prompt concept features of each article. Article relationships (similarities) were established and represented as a semantic article network, which was readily applied to assist with the article screening process. We incorporated the concept of active learning to simulate an interactive article recommendation process, and evaluated the performance on 15 completed SRs. We used work saved over sampling at 95% recall (WSS95) as the performance measure. We compared the WSS95 performance of our ontology-based semantic approach to existing lexical feature approaches and corpus-based semantic approaches, and found that we had better WSS95 in most SRs. We also had the highest average WSS95 of 43.81% and the highest total WSS95 of 657.18%. We demonstrated using ontology-based semantics to facilitate the identification of relevant articles for SRs. Effective concepts and concept relations derived from UMLS ontologies can be utilized to establish article semantic relationships. Our approach provided a promising performance and can easily apply to any SR topics in the

  17. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults experience a high level of mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. Research indicates that there are many barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for young people in the general community. However there are limited data available for young elite athletes. This study aims to determine what young elite athletes perceive as the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Fifteen elite athletes aged 16–23 years each participated in one of three focus group discussions. In addition to written data, verbal responses were audio taped, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Participants’ written and verbal data suggested that stigma was the most important perceived barrier to seeking help for young elite athletes. Other notable barriers were a lack of mental health literacy, and negative past experiences of help-seeking. Facilitators to help-seeking were encouragement from others, having an established relationship with a provider, pleasant previous interactions with providers, the positive attitudes of others, especially their coach, and access to the internet. Conclusions Intervention strategies for improving help-seeking in young elite athletes should focus on reducing stigma, increasing mental health literacy, and improving relations with potential providers.

  18. Barriers and Facilitators to Effective Feedback: A Qualitative Analysis of Data From Multispecialty Resident Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Shalini T; Zegarek, Matthew H; Fromme, H Barrett; Ryan, Michael S; Schumann, Sarah-Anne; Harris, Ilene B

    2015-06-01

    Despite the importance of feedback, the literature suggests that there is inadequate feedback in graduate medical education. We explored barriers and facilitators that residents in anesthesiology, emergency medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery experience with giving and receiving feedback during their clinical training. Residents from 3 geographically diverse teaching institutions were recruited to participate in focus groups in 2012. Open-ended questions prompted residents to describe their experiences with giving and receiving feedback, and discuss facilitators and barriers. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with a grounded theory approach. A total of 19 residents participated in 1 of 3 focus groups. Five major themes related to feedback were identified: teacher factors, learner factors, feedback process, feedback content, and educational context. Unapproachable attendings, time pressures due to clinical work, and discomfort with giving negative feedback were cited as major barriers in the feedback process. Learner engagement in the process was a major facilitator in the feedback process. Residents provided insights for improving the feedback process based on their dual roles as teachers and learners. Time pressures in the learning environment may be mitigated by efforts to improve the quality of teacher-learner relationships. Forms for collecting written feedback should be augmented by faculty development to ensure meaningful use. Efforts to improve residents' comfort with giving feedback and encouraging learners to engage in the feedback process may foster an environment conducive to increasing feedback.

  19. Hope for recovery - how clinicians may facilitate this in their work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Mia; Baker, Martyn

    2012-04-01

    The importance of having hope for recovery has been highlighted in numerous qualitative studies of recovery. It is identified as a vital part of this process, and guidelines suggest that service providers should therefore facilitate hope in their clinical work; however, they do not indicate how this guidance can be operationalised. To identify the sources of hope for recovery based on the accounts of people with experience of recovery; to ascertain how these accounts show service providers can facilitate such hope in their therapeutic work. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight people with experience of recovering from mental health problems. A grounded theory analysis was undertaken. A model conceptualising the role of hope in recovery was developed with three categories: "influence of others on hope", "personal hope" and "doing recovery". The model indicates a complex interaction between hope and recovery with an important role for social context and interpersonal relationships, including those with clinicians. Mental health service providers occupy a powerful position in relation to service users' hope, and must carefully consider how they communicate their own hopefulness about clients' recovery. Suggestions are made about facilitating hope for recovery.

  20. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Facilitators and Barriers to Father-Son Sexual Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Schenita D; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-06-01

    African-American males ages 13 through 24 are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), accounting for over half of all HIV infections in this age group in the United States. Clear communication between African-American parents and their youth about sexual health is associated with higher rates of sexual abstinence, condom use, and intent to delay initiation of sexual intercourse. However, little is known about African-American fathers' perceptions of what facilitates and inhibits sexual health communication with their preadolescent and adolescent sons. We conducted focus groups with 29 African-American fathers of sons ages 10-15 to explore perceived facilitators and barriers for father-son communication about sexual health. Participants were recruited from barbershops in metropolitan and rural North Carolina communities highly affected by STIs and HIV, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Three factors facilitated father-son communication: (a) fathers' acceptance of their roles and responsibilities; (b) a positive father-son relationship; and (c) fathers' ability to speak directly to their sons about sex. We also identified three barriers: (a) fathers' difficulty in initiating sexual health discussions with their sons; (b) sons' developmental readiness for sexual health information; and (c) fathers' lack of experience in talking with their own fathers about sex. These findings have implications for father-focused prevention interventions aimed at reducing risky sexual behaviors in adolescent African-American males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita

    2014-08-01

    Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings ("restraint condition"), eat as much as they like ("facilitation condition") or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.

  2. [Facilitators in the implantation of telemedicine services. Perspective of professionals involved in its design and implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscertales, F Roig; Rubió, F Saigí

    2011-01-01

    Given the difficulties encountered by Telemedicine for final incorporation into clinical practice and given the lack of scientific evidence regarding the most appropriate implementation strategies, it is necessary to collect and disseminate lessons gained from experience in its introduction and diffusion in our health system. The aim of this study is to identify the facilitators perceived by professionals who actively participate in the design and implementation of telemedicine projects in the health care system. Qualitative study of data from semi-structured interviews with 17 key informants belonging to different Catalan health organizations. The identified facilitators are grouped in four broad areas: a TM service that meets a need clearly perceived by practitioners; a core leadership with a clinical profile, managing an open, participatory and flexible model that takes into account the needs of professionals; the ability to establish partnerships with different stakeholders beyond the customer-supplier relationship; and the inclusion in the initial design of a strategy for sustainability and normalization. Understanding the facilitators and barriers that appear in the process of implementing TM experiences in health care organizations becomes an item of high value for its final introduction. An approach combining the evidence on clinical effectiveness and cost-benefit with lessons learned about the dynamics of implementation and normalization will allow for a holistic understanding of the adoption of the TM and provide guidance for improving its organizational management.

  3. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  4. Facilitation and interference in naming: A consequence of the same learning process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie W; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2017-08-01

    Our success with naming depends on what we have named previously, a phenomenon thought to reflect learning processes. Repeatedly producing the same name facilitates language production (i.e., repetition priming), whereas producing semantically related names hinders subsequent performance (i.e., semantic interference). Semantic interference is found whether naming categorically related items once (continuous naming) or multiple times (blocked cyclic naming). A computational model suggests that the same learning mechanism responsible for facilitation in repetition creates semantic interference in categorical naming (Oppenheim, Dell, & Schwartz, 2010). Accordingly, we tested the predictions that variability in semantic interference is correlated across categorical naming tasks and is caused by learning, as measured by two repetition priming tasks (picture-picture repetition priming, Exp. 1; definition-picture repetition priming, Exp. 2, e.g., Wheeldon & Monsell, 1992). In Experiment 1 (77 subjects) semantic interference and repetition priming effects were robust, but the results revealed no relationship between semantic interference effects across contexts. Critically, learning (picture-picture repetition priming) did not predict semantic interference effects in either task. We replicated these results in Experiment 2 (81 subjects), finding no relationship between semantic interference effects across tasks or between semantic interference effects and learning (definition-picture repetition priming). We conclude that the changes underlying facilitatory and interfering effects inherent to lexical access are the result of distinct learning processes where multiple mechanisms contribute to semantic interference in naming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Facilitation influences patterns of perennial species abundance and richness in a subtropical dune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalotto, Cecilia E S; Sühs, Rafael B; Dechoum, Michele S; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Peroni, Nivaldo; Castellani, Tânia T

    2018-04-01

    Positive interactions in plant communities are under-reported in subtropical systems most likely because they are not identified as stressful environments. However, environmental factors or disturbance can limit plant growth in any system and lead to stressful conditions. For instance, salinity and low nutrient and water availability generate a gradient of stressful conditions in coastal systems depending on distance to shore. In a tropical coastal system in SE Brazil, we aimed to assess whether Guapira opposita , a shrub common in restinga environments, acted as nurse involved in ecological succession and which factors influenced its facilitation process. We sampled perennial species above 10 cm in height under the canopy of 35 G. opposita individuals and in neighbouring open areas. Shrub height, canopy area and distance to freshwater bodies were measured in the field, and distance to the ocean was obtained from aerial images. In addition, we measured the distance to the closest forest patch as a potential source of seeds. Plant abundance and species richness were higher under the canopy of G. opposita than in open areas. Facilitation by G. opposita was mainly determined by shrub height, which had a positive relationship with woody and bromeliads abundance and species richness while there was no relationship with the other factors. Overall, our data evidence that tropical environments may be highly stressful for plants and that nurse species play a key role in the regeneration of restinga environments, where their presence is critical to maintain ecosystem diversity and function.

  6. Facilitation influences patterns of perennial species abundance and richness in a subtropical dune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalotto, Cecilia E S; Sühs, Rafael B; Dechoum, Michele S; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Peroni, Nivaldo; Castellani, Tânia T

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Positive interactions in plant communities are under-reported in subtropical systems most likely because they are not identified as stressful environments. However, environmental factors or disturbance can limit plant growth in any system and lead to stressful conditions. For instance, salinity and low nutrient and water availability generate a gradient of stressful conditions in coastal systems depending on distance to shore. In a tropical coastal system in SE Brazil, we aimed to assess whether Guapira opposita, a shrub common in restinga environments, acted as nurse involved in ecological succession and which factors influenced its facilitation process. We sampled perennial species above 10 cm in height under the canopy of 35 G. opposita individuals and in neighbouring open areas. Shrub height, canopy area and distance to freshwater bodies were measured in the field, and distance to the ocean was obtained from aerial images. In addition, we measured the distance to the closest forest patch as a potential source of seeds. Plant abundance and species richness were higher under the canopy of G. opposita than in open areas. Facilitation by G. opposita was mainly determined by shrub height, which had a positive relationship with woody and bromeliads abundance and species richness while there was no relationship with the other factors. Overall, our data evidence that tropical environments may be highly stressful for plants and that nurse species play a key role in the regeneration of restinga environments, where their presence is critical to maintain ecosystem diversity and function. PMID:29644027

  7. Facilitating Wellness in Urban-Dwelling, Low-Income Older Adults Through Community Mobility: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulry, Claire M; Papetti, Christina; De Martinis, Julian; Ravinsky, Mark

    Community participation is integral to wellness. This study examined the outcomes of Let's Go, a program designed to facilitate community participation of urban-dwelling, low-income older adults. Fifty-two older adults participated in a mixed-methods, single-group pretest-posttest study. The Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire, participant surveys, and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate self-reported participation in community-based occupations, confidence, isolation, frequency of community trips, autonomy outdoors, and satisfaction with social life and relationships. Significant improvement was found in participation, confidence, frequency of community trips, autonomy outdoors, and satisfaction with social life and relationships at 4 wk and 6 mo. Qualitative themes were decreased isolation, importance of peer and community support, increased knowledge of mobility options, and a shift from fear to confidence. Community mobility programming can facilitate the participation of marginalized older adults in community-based occupations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers and facilitators of mental health screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Heaman, Maureen; McDonald, Sheila; Lasiuk, Gerri; Sword, Wendy; Giallo, Rebecca; Hegadoren, Kathy; Vermeyden, Lydia; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kingston, Joshua; Jarema, Karly; Biringer, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Access to mental health services during pregnancy is most commonly mobilized through formal mental health screening. However, few studies to date have identified barriers and facilitators that affect pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators that influence pregnant women's responses to the screening process and factors associated with their identification. This multi-site, cross-sectional survey recruited pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English in Alberta, Canada. Main outcomes were barriers and facilitators of mental health screening. Descriptive statistics were generated to identify the most common barriers and facilitators and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to determine factors associated with barriers and facilitators. Study participation rate was 92% (460/500). Women's most common barriers were: significant others normalizing their emotional difficulties; desiring to handle mental health problems on their own; preferring to discuss feelings with significant others; and not knowing what emotions were 'normal'. Women who identified these barriers were more likely not to have been treated previously for mental illness, were primiparous, and could not be completely honest with their provider. Main facilitators were provider characteristics (sensitive, interested), reassurance that mental healthcare is a part of routine prenatal care, hearing that other women have emotional problems during pregnancy and knowing that help was available. The sample comprised largely Caucasian, well-educated, and partnered women, which limits generalizability of the findings. Personal and stigma-related barriers influence pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. Efforts to minimize barriers and enhance facilitators should be explored as potential strategies for optimizing prenatal mental health screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  11. Barriers and facilitators of medication reconciliation processes for recently discharged patients from community pharmacists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelty, Korey A; Chewning, Betty; Wise, Meg; Kind, Amy; Roberts, Tonya; Kreling, David

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a vital part in reconciling medications for patients transitioning from hospital to community care, yet their roles have not been fully examined in the extant literature. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the barriers and facilitators community pharmacists face when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients; and 2) identify pharmacists' preferred content and modes of information transfer regarding updated medication information for recently discharged patients. Community pharmacists were purposively and conveniently sampled from the Wisconsin (U.S. state) pharmacist-based research network, Pharmacy Practice Enhancement and Action Research Link (PEARL Rx). Community pharmacists were interviewed face-to-face, and transcriptions from audio recordings were analyzed using directed content analysis. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) guided the development of questions for the semi-structured interviews. Interviewed community pharmacists (N = 10) described the medication reconciliation process to be difficult and time-consuming for recently discharged patients. In the context of the TPB, more barriers than facilitators of reconciling medications were revealed. Themes were categorized as organizational and individual-level themes. Major organizational-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacy resources, discharge communication, and hospital resources. Major individual-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacists' perceived responsibility, relationships, patient perception of pharmacist, and patient characteristics. Interviewed pharmacists consistently responded that several pieces of information items would be helpful when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients, including the hospital medication discharge list and stop-orders for discontinued medications. The TPB was useful for identifying barriers and facilitators of

  12. Making cognitive decision support work: Facilitating adoption, knowledge and behavior change through QI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene; Brunker, Cherie; Butler, Jorie; Supiano, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    This paper evaluates the role of facilitation in the successful implementation of Computerized Decision Support (CDS). Facilitation processes include education, specialized computerized decision support, and work process reengineering. These techniques, as well as modeling and feedback enhance self-efficacy, which we propose is one of the factors that mediate the effectiveness of any CDS. In this study, outpatient clinics implemented quality improvement (QI) projects focused on improving geriatric care. Quality Improvement is the systematic process of improving quality through continuous measurement and targeted actions. The program, entitled "Advancing Geriatric Education through Quality Improvement" (AGE QI), consisted of a 6-month, QI based, intervention: (1) 2h didactic session, (2) 1h QI planning session, (3) computerized decision support design and implementation, (4) QI facilitation activities, (5) outcome feedback, and (6) 20h of CME. Specifically, we examined the impact of the QI based program on clinician's perceived self-efficacy in caring for older adults and the relationship of implementation support and facilitation on perceived success. The intervention was implemented at 3 institutions, 27 community healthcare system clinics, and 134 providers. This study reports the results of pre/post surveys for the forty-nine clinicians who completed the full CME program. Self-efficacy ratings for specific clinical behaviors related to care of older adults were assessed using a Likert based instrument. Self-ratings of efficacy improved across the following domains (depression, falls, end-of-life, functional status and medication management) and specifically in QI targeted domains and were associated with overall clinic improvements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Facilitation of self-transcendence in a breast cancer support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, D D

    1998-01-01

    To examine the feasibility and patterns of effectiveness of a breast cancer support group intervention specifically designed to facilitate self-transcendence views and perspectives that would enhance emotional and physical well-being. Pre-experimental design pilot intervention study with a quantitative approach to data analysis. Survivor-established breast cancer resource center in Austin, TX. Women with recently diagnosed breast cancer (N = 16) participating in 90-minute support group sessions that met weekly for eight weeks. Theory-driven support group intervention facilitated by an oncology clinical nurse specialist, a psychotherapist, and a breast cancer survivor. Activities planned for individual sessions were based on self-transcendence theory, cancer support group literature, and the facilitators' extensive previous support group experience. Self-transcendence, emotional well-being, physical well-being. Good networking, coordination, and follow-up were essential for participant recruitment and retention throughout the intervention period. Although specific theory-driven activities were planned for group sessions, facilitators maintained flexibility in meeting immediate concerns of the participants. Relationships among participants' scores on study variables indicated an association between self-transcendence and emotional well-being. Scores on self-transcendence and well-being variables at the end of the intervention increased from baseline, but only functional performance status, mood state, and satisfaction with life reached statistical significance. The pilot study was invaluable in providing direction for the conduct of future experimental studies. Provides preliminary support for the use of theory-driven activities for promotion of self-transcendence views and behaviors within a cancer support group setting.

  14. Flowing like a river: facilitation in practice development and the evolution of critical-creative companionship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Titchen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginnings: Using a river landscape metaphor, the purpose of this paper is to locate critical creativity in the evolution of practice development in the UK and show how it can be facilitated through critical-creative companionship. Critical creativity is a new landscape for practice development that has evolved through three decades of a deepening understanding of: the philosophical foundations of practice development (bedrocks; paradigms (landscapes; projects/studies (gardens; and practice development/research roles, relationships and skills (gardeners. As a practice development practitioner, facilitator and researcher, I have helped shape the course of the river, peaking with the slow-burn, yet intense, co-creation of critical creativity. Panorama, flow and transformation: A panoramic view of the river is offered as it changes over time. This view includes the river’s changes of flow and direction, powered by different philosophical and theoretical influences and resultant transformations in practice development practice/research and facilitation. Unfolding: I telescope in on the critical creativity landscape, showing how it is a synthesis of previous influences and how the critical companionship of my earlier work flowed gently into critical-creative companionship. I show broad-brush how critical-creative companions help people to use the philosophical, theoretical and methodological mandalas of critical creativity, not only in their practice development, but also in their own being and becoming critical-creative companions. Conclusion and implications for practice development and inquiry: Critical-creative companions help people to work in the gardens of critical creativity to embody and live what might seem difficult, complex and mysterious. Becoming a critical-creative companion takes time. It requires a scholarly approach to practice and the development of enabling facilitation skills and experiential and theoretical understanding

  15. The impact of leader-member exchange (LMX) on work-family interference and work-family facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars; Bronkhorst, Babette

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Purpose – We analyze the effects of leadership on work-family spillovers. Specifically, we analyze the relationships between leadership (leader-member exchange, LMX) with one negative work-family spillover effect (work-family interference) and one positive work-family spillover effect (work-family facilitation). We hypothesize that LMX influences work-family spillover via different mediators, rather than one all-encompassing mediator, such as empowerment. Design/m...

  16. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  18. From purists to players? How service industry professionals develop social skills for informal client relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Y.T.A.; Ferguson, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Developing informal client relationships is an essential social skill for service industry professionals, such as accountants. This skill can be considered a form of 'social knowledge', a key enabler in facilitating communications, and helping professionals distinguish themselves from competitors.

  19. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  20. Semantic Ambiguity: Do Multiple Meanings Inhibit or Facilitate Word Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Juan; Ferré, Pilar

    2018-06-01

    It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these inconsistent findings may be due to the approach employed to select ambiguous words across studies. To address this issue, we conducted three LDT experiments in which we varied the measure used to classify ambiguous and unambiguous words. The results suggest that multiple unrelated meanings facilitate word recognition. In addition, we observed that the approach employed to select ambiguous words may affect the pattern of experimental results. This evidence has relevant implications for theoretical accounts of ambiguous words processing and representation.

  1. Shared learning in general practice--facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mortel, Thea; Silberberg, Peter; Ahern, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Capacity for teaching in general practice clinics is limited. Shared learning sessions are one form of vertically integrated teaching that may ameliorate capacity constraints. This study sought to understand the perceptions of general practitioner supervisors, learners and practice staff of the facilitators of shared learning in general practice clinics. Using a grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted and analysed to generate a theory about the topic. Thirty-five stakeholders from nine general practices participated. Facilitators of shared learning included enabling factors such as small group facilitation skills, space, administrative support and technological resources; reinforcing factors such as targeted funding, and predisposing factors such as participant attributes. Views from multiple stakeholders suggest that the implementation of shared learning in general practice clinics would be supported by an ecological approach that addresses all these factors.

  2. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  3. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eItskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  4. Facilitated Articulation of Implicit Knowledge in Textile Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2009-01-01

    This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire...... of (experiential, implicit and tacit) textile design knowledge should facilitate the articulation process. The paper specifically draws on a series of workshops conducted within the collaborating company inviting all employees to participate. The series of workshops were based on a game-like setting and introduced...... - being a textile designer herself, who functioned as the facilitator. This paper uses two examples from the series of workshops to exemplify a facilitated articulation of implicit knowledge in textile design. From the examples the following themes are synthesised as being important for articulation...

  5. Barriers and facilitators to exchanging health information: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Karen B; Totten, Annette M; Kassakian, Steven Z; Gorman, Paul N; McDonagh, Marian S; Devine, Beth; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Woods, Susan; Hersh, William R

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing facilitators and barriers to use of health information exchange (HIE). We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases between January 1990 and February 2015 using terms related to HIE. English-language studies that identified barriers and facilitators of actual HIE were included. Data on study design, risk of bias, setting, geographic location, characteristics of the HIE, perceived barriers and facilitators to use were extracted and confirmed. Ten cross-sectional, seven multiple-site case studies, and two before-after studies that included data from several sources (surveys, interviews, focus groups, and observations of users) evaluated perceived barriers and facilitators to HIE use. The most commonly cited barriers to HIE use were incomplete information, inefficient workflow, and reports that the exchanged information that did not meet the needs of users. The review identified several facilitators to use. Incomplete patient information was consistently mentioned in the studies conducted in the US but not mentioned in the few studies conducted outside of the US that take a collective approach toward healthcare. Individual patients and practices in the US may exercise the right to participate (or not) in HIE which effects the completeness of patient information available to be exchanged. Workflow structure and user roles are key but understudied. We identified several facilitators in the studies that showed promise in promoting electronic health data exchange: obtaining more complete patient information; thoughtful workflow that folds in HIE; and inclusion of users early in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  7. An epistemology of facilitation: A Julian M�ller story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elmo Pienaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.

  8. Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  9. Customer relationship management

    OpenAIRE

    Gudeliūnas, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    My name is Mindaugas Gudeliūnas. My bachelors thesis topic is "Customer Relationship Management". The main goal of my work was to investigate customers relationship management and to create modern system, which is fast, easy to use and made for small business. Customer relationship management is really beneficial for a lot of companies. It can make your relationships with a customer more reliable and loyal, it can automate a lot of processes, which are related to customer management, human re...

  10. Facilitating Attitudinal Learning in an Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…

  11. A Well Designed School Environment Facilitates Brain Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung; Petrie, Garth

    2000-01-01

    Examines how school design facilitates learning by complementing how the brain learns. How the brain learns is discussed and how an artistic environment, spaciousness in the learning areas, color and lighting, and optimal thermal and acoustical environments aid student learning. School design suggestions conclude the article. (GR)

  12. Facilitating Navigation in Quality Manuals by Providing Bookmarks or Similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharum bin Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia level quality manuals need to be shared with all divisions. A manual is usually distributed in the form of an electronic document that contains all procedures. Navigation from one heading or procedure to another should be facilitated by providing bookmarks or similar. This paper shows how to do it for Microsoft Word and PDF documents. (author)

  13. Facilitating small groups: how to encourage student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  14. A Constructivist Model of Mentoring, Coaching, and Facilitating Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen L.; Mahoney, Sue E.; Chen, Chun-Ying; Mendoza-Diaz, Noemi V.; Yang, Xiaobing

    2005-01-01

    This case study of an online graduate course determines the message characteristics of the instructor, volunteer teaching assistants, and students in online discussions, and proposes a mentoring, coaching, and facilitating model for online discussions. The researchers developed a coding system based on the literature of mentoring, coaching, and…

  15. Collaboration around Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Role of Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…

  16. Nanoparticle Facilitated Extracellular Electron Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-13

    harvestingelectrical power directly from waste and renewable biomass and thus represent a promising technology for sustainable energy production.1−5 Central...cell membrane (Figure 3e), serving as a porous semiconducting “ shell ” to facilitate the charge transport at bacteria/electrode or bacteria/bacteria

  17. The development of a strategy for the facilitation of income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a strategy for the facilitation of income-generating projects in rural communities: an insider account. ... helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...

  18. Teacher’s action zone in facilitating group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Gałajda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As believed by many researchers (Dörnyei & Murphey 2003, Hadfield 1992, classroom climate is strongly determined by the dynamics of the learning group and its development over time. For this reason, the role of the teacher in facilitating group processes seems to be of primary importance since it is the teacher who has long been regarded as the group leader in both teacher-centred and learner-centred classrooms.The presentation focuses not only on positive but also on negative forms of classroom dynamics together with management techniques for dealing with conflicts, educational alienation and psychological defensiveness. This, in turn, leads to the concept of facilitator style based on Heron’s (2006 model of facilitation, which consists of six dimensions and three modes. In the paper particular emphasis is placed on the presentation and comparison of various theories of leadership, namely Heron’s system of facilitation, Hersey and Blanchard’s situational-leadership theory (1982 and Bass and Avolio’s transactional versus transformational leadership theory (1984.

  19. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data ...

  20. Challenge Course Facilitator Technical Skills Assessment Tool Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, William Quinn

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a technical skills assessment tool for the training and development of challenge course facilitators. Researchers accessed two professional on-line listserves to collect a sample size of twenty-seven currently used technical skills assessment tools. The assessment tools were critically analysed by three independent…

  1. Facilitating Online Counseling: Perspectives from Counselors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberstroh, Shane; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta; Morgan-Fleming, Barbara; Gee, Robert

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for research regarding online counseling, the authors explore the experiences of 4 female and 2 male Caucasian counseling students who facilitated 5 chat-based online counseling sessions. Conducting semistructured interviews based in grounded theory methods, the authors discuss technological barriers, counseling without visual…

  2. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  3. Nurse educatorsํ perceptions on facilitating reflective thinking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to publish the results of nurse educators with regard to how reflective thinking of learners can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. The results were obtained through a perception survey using an agenda focus group in the second phase of an original study whose aim was to develop a model to ...

  4. Thoughts & Views on the Gulf War. Facilitators Notes and Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Rick; Berghoff, Beth K.

    This document presents a workbook and facilitator's notes designed for use with small groups or with individual students in secondary schools to help them cope with troubling events related to the Gulf War. The material contained in the workbook is designed to help students deal with each of seven stages that the mastery model sees individuals…

  5. Model of facilitation of emotional intelligence to promote wholeness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The facilitation of inherent affective and mental resourcefulness and resilience was the main concept of the model. Step two comprised the definition and classification of central and related concepts. Step three provides a description of the model. The model operates in three phases namely the dependent phase, partially ...

  6. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  7. FACILITATING RADICAL FRONT-END INNOVATION THROUGH TARGETED HR PRACTICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case ...

  8. Intellectual property liability of consumers, facilitators, and intermediaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, C.; Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    With reports from all major jurisdictions where the responsibility of facilitators and intermediaries for copyright and trade mark infringement have been litigated, this very useful book is the first comprehensive global survey of the liability regime that intermediaries may face when assisting

  9. Visual form predictions facilitate auditory processing at the N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2017-02-20

    Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Strong facilitation in mild environments: the stress gradient hypothesis revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Scheffer, M.

    2010-01-01

    1. The idea that the role of facilitative interactions increases as environmental conditions become more stressful has become a ruling paradigm in ecology. Here, we review three reasons why positive interactions may actually be more prominent than generally thought under moderately stressful rather

  11. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  12. Whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by a causal structure intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Simon; Feeney, Aidan

    2015-02-01

    People often struggle when making Bayesian probabilistic estimates on the basis of competing sources of statistical evidence. Recently, Krynski and Tenenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 430-450, 2007) proposed that a causal Bayesian framework accounts for peoples' errors in Bayesian reasoning and showed that, by clarifying the causal relations among the pieces of evidence, judgments on a classic statistical reasoning problem could be significantly improved. We aimed to understand whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by the causal structure intervention. In Experiment 1, although we observed causal facilitation effects overall, the effect was confined to participants high in numeracy. We did not find an overall facilitation effect in Experiment 2 but did replicate the earlier interaction between numerical ability and the presence or absence of causal content. This effect held when we controlled for general cognitive ability and thinking disposition. Our results suggest that clarifying causal structure facilitates Bayesian judgments, but only for participants with sufficient understanding of basic concepts in probability and statistics.

  13. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailey, Emily L; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward

    2014-06-27

    The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children's activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home.

  14. Facilitation of responses by task-irrelevant complex deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2014-05-01

    Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Facilitating Change in Secondary Schools--Myths and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Shirley M.

    1989-01-01

    Based on a study of change facilitation in eight high schools, this article debunks three common myths concerning administrative organization as an obstacle to managing high school change. Tentative guidelines are provided to help determined managers cure stagnation and thwart bureaucratic intransigency. (MLH)

  16. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annemie

    teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). .... vidual's well-being, it is the individual's responsi- bility to steer towards, and make good use of these .... Formal ID diagnosis; Financial disadvantage (Mother unemployed with ID);.

  17. Systems design and engineering : facilitating multidisciplinary development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Veenvliet, Karel; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    As its name implies, the aim of Systems Design and Engineering: Facilitating Multidisciplinary Development Projects is to help systems engineers develop the skills and thought processes needed to successfully develop and implement engineered systems. Such expertise typically does not come through

  18. Facilitating investment in affordable housing : Towards an Australian model. Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by

  19. Can augmented force feedback facilitate virtual target acquisition tasks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.; Keuning - van Oirschot, H.; Westwood, J.D.; Haluck, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates facilitation of a manual target acquisition task by the application of appropriate force feedback through the control device (e.g., mouse, joystick, trackball). Typical manual movements with these devices were measured, and models of such movements were used to predict an

  20. Reviewing a Reading Program: Professional Development Module. Facilitator's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovich, Marcia; Jordan, Georgia; Arndt, Elissa; VanSciver, Mary; Wahl, Michelle; Rissman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This "Facilitator's Guide" has been prepared for presenters of the Reviewing a Reading Program professional development training. It is one of three pieces comprising a suite of materials on reviewing reading programs: this "Guide", the "Reviewing a Reading Program Participant's Guide" and the "Reviewing a Reading Program" Professional Development…

  1. School psychologists' views on challenges in facilitating school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School psychologists' views on challenges in facilitating school development through intersectoral collaboration. ... In the Western Cape, the context of this study, school psychologists are assigned to circuit teams, where they are expected to work collaboratively with other professionals to provide support to schools.

  2. Transcription and the IELTS Speaking Test: Facilitating Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…

  3. The facilitation of professional values amongst student nurses in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to formulate guidelines to facilitate the internalisation of professional values in student nurses in order to enable them to become caring registered nurses. To realise this goal, the researcher followed a quantitative, qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual approach. In Phase One of ...

  4. Whole-community facilitation regulates biodiversity on Patagonian rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Silliman

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.

  5. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...

  6. A Case Study: Follow-Up Assessment of Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…

  7. Peers for Promotion: Achieving Academic Advancement through Facilitated Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K.; Milner, Robert J.; Thorndyke, Luanne E.; Congdon, John; Cain, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    The promotion process is challenging, particularly for non-tenure track faculty in academic medicine. To address this challenge, we implemented a facilitated peer mentoring program that included a structured curriculum with regular meetings, guided by two senior faculty mentors. Participants expressed satisfaction with the program, showed…

  8. Facilitating design and innovation workshops using the Value Design Canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atasoy, P.; Bekker, M.M.; Lu, Y.; Brombacher, A.C.; Eggen, J.H.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Design and innovation workshops are common practices to match diverse stakeholders to initiate collaboration for innovation. Due to the complex and multi-faceted processes in such a collaboration workshop, not only the toolkits but also the facilitation of the process needs to be taken into account.

  9. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  10. Action Research Facilitated by University-School Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While Action Research (AR) is promoted as a powerful route for teachers' professional development, different contextual challenges may arise during the process; teachers may be helped to overcome these challenges with the guidance of external facilitators. Drawing on data from interviews and the teachers' AR reports, this article explores how two…

  11. Do Facilitated Online Dual Credit Classes Result in Deep Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark Education Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…

  12. A conceptual framework to facilitate clinical judgement in nursing: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To accommodate these needs, SANC in line with the SAQA Act, advocated the development of teaching and learning strategies to balance theory and practice opportunities together with an outcome-based, studentcentred approach and appropriate clinical supervision. This resulted in a positive outcome to facilitate the ...

  13. Counselling for Facilitating Learning for the Attention – Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey. The area of the ...

  14. The facilitation of important personal goals through exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Maes, Stan; Garnefski, Nadia; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Kraaij, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    In a sample of 1,287 adolescents, it appeared that weekly exercise facilitates a variety of goals; particularly those related to being or remaining healthy, feeling relaxed, not being bored, feeling physically good, not being stressed, and attaining high achievements were endorsed. Sedentary and

  15. Facilitating new ways of learning in dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald Beckers; Theo van der Voordt

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of

  16. Facilitating new ways of learning in Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that ‘new ways of learning’ cause a shift in learning settings with a growing attention to facilitating autonomy, interaction and knowledge exploration anytime, anywhere. These trends show evident similarities with developments in office environments known for as ‘new ways of

  17. Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…

  18. Factors facilitating dementia case management : Results of online focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J. de Lange; E. Deusing; I.F.M. van Asch; J. Peeters; M. Zwaanswijk; A.M. Pot; A.L. Francke

    2016-01-01

    To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis.

  19. Instant messenger-facilitated knowledge sharing and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.; Leung, D.

    2014-01-01

    The instant messenger (IM) is frequently encountered as a facilitator of communication in both social and working contexts. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the extent to which IMs bring organizational benefits, thereby overcoming interruptions to work. In this study, we focus on how IM tools

  20. Mind Maps as Facilitative Tools in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…