WorldWideScience

Sample records for relationship objective reading

  1. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  2. The Relationships between Korean University Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangil

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the relationships among L2 readers' reading attitude, reading strategy use, and reading proficiency in order to identify patterns caused by individuals' differences. For this study, 153 Korean university students replied to a reading attitude and reading strategy questionnaire. An ANOVA and frequency analysis were…

  3. The relationship between children's reading motivation and reading competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晴雪

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that motivation is very important to children's reading competence. This paper intended to study intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find their relationship with children's reading competence. In order to do so, previous investigations about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were critically reviewed, and their results were discussed in this paper.

  4. the relationship between .reading and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that reading skills be taught and developed from a transactionist .... skill is liinced to a.n incredibly wide [emphasis added] range of verbal .... determined by features (cues) within the text and also by the situational ... these models by showing that a number of factors, other than textual factors, also play a role in the.

  5. Atopy patch tests in young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and controls: dose-response relationship, objective reading, reproducibility and clinical interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants......-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss...... and erythema, while measurement of capacitance did not distinguish between positive and negative reactions. The results of the present study do not support the routine use of atopy patch tests in the evaluation of adult patients with atopic dermatitis....

  6. The Relationship between Understanding Prepositions and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Charles David

    The major objective of this study was to determine whether understanding prepositions and the relationships they signal is related to reading comprehension. A sample of 127 fourth grade students was selected from three socioeconomic levels of the Columbus, (Ohio) Public Schools using a stratified random sampling technique. The subjects were…

  7. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  8. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise; Mejding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark...... to the other Nordic countries. It is important that national objectives correspond with empirical research on reading instruction and that they are functional and transparent as they set the stage for the actual instruction in class....

  9. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  10. Is There a Bidirectional Relationship between Children's Reading Skills and Reading Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Young children who enjoy reading do it more often and they tend to become skilled at it. Poor readers, by contrast, often display low motivation to read. One possible explanation of this is that reading skill and reading motivation influence each other. 15 studies were reviewed addressing the relationship between young children's reading and…

  11. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  12. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Mejding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of the Nordic countries’ official objectives for reading and analyses of 1005 Nordic teachers’ responses regarding their reading instruction. The specificity and transparency vary greatly in the objectives, from broad outlines in Norway to more specific...... and functional goals in Finland. It appears that the Finnish descriptions are more aligned with current empirical research on reading comprehension. Swedish and Norwegian teachers have the most varied used of both literary and informational text types during a week, whereas Finnish teachers give informational...... texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark...

  13. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Mejding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark...... and functional goals in Finland. It appears that the Finnish descriptions are more aligned with current empirical research on reading comprehension. Swedish and Norwegian teachers have the most varied used of both literary and informational text types during a week, whereas Finnish teachers give informational......This article presents a comparison of the Nordic countries’ official objectives for reading and analyses of 1005 Nordic teachers’ responses regarding their reading instruction. The specificity and transparency vary greatly in the objectives, from broad outlines in Norway to more specific...

  14. Reading Coaches and the Relationship between Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Many educational policy initiatives use instructional coaching to accomplish their goals. Yet we know little about the role of reading coaches in mediating the relationship between policy and teachers' classroom practice. In this article, we investigate the role of reading coaches in mediating the relationship between Reading First policy and…

  15. The Relationship between Good Readers' Attention, Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between fourth-graders' reading fluency, reading comprehension and attention. It was conducted using the relational screening model and included 132 fourth-graders with grade level adequate reading skills. The study results showed that good readers' attention had significant effects on reading speed,…

  16. The Literate Brain: The Relationship between Spelling and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Brenda; Lipka, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an fMRI investigation of the neural bases of written language comprehension (reading) and production (spelling). Both tasks were examined in the same individuals, allowing greater precision in establishing the relationship between the neural underpinnings of these two cognitive functions. Also examined was the relationship between written language substrates and those involved in face and object (house) processing. The results reveal that reading and spelling share specific left hemisphere substrates in the mid-fusiform gyrus and in the inferior frontal gyrus/junction. Furthermore, the results indicate that the left mid-fusiform substrates are specifically involved in lexical orthographic processing. We also find that written language and face processing exhibit largely complementary activation patterns in both the fusiform and the inferior frontal/junction areas, with left and right lateralization, respectively. In sum, these results provide perhaps the strongest evidence to date of components that are shared by written language comprehension (reading) and production (spelling), and they further our understanding of the role of literacy within the larger repertoire of cognitive operations and their neural substrates. PMID:20433242

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  19. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  20. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  1. Relationship between 8th Grade Secondary School Students’ Reading Attitudes and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eyyüp SALLABAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Language has two dimensions and these are comprehension (reading and listening andexpression (speaking and writing. Reading takes place within the comprehensiondimension and it is one of the most influential ways of communication. Attitude isindividual’s response tendency against any phenomenon or object around him. Duringthe process of education and training, students are expected to develop positiveattitudes towards reading effectiveness. In this study it is aimed to determine the effectof student gender in the process of reading comprehension and developing attitudetowards reading. According to the results of this study, it is determined that there is alow level correlation between students’ attitudes towards reading and readingcomprehension skills. Also it is determined that there is a moderate level correlationbetween students’ reading comprehension skills and academic achievement.Furthermore, there is a significant difference between the percentage point of students’reading comprehension and attitudes towards reading in fever of girls.

  2. Reading Relationships: Parents, Adolescents, and Popular Fiction by Stephen King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Describes a collective case study of 12 high school juniors who identified themselves as avid readers of popular fiction. Finds strong reading relationships between parents and high school students. Describes the different roles that parents played in their adolescent children's reading lives. Looks at implications for secondary English classrooms…

  3. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  4. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  5. Is There a Relationship between Literature Reading and Creative Writing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekkamp, Hein; Janssen, Tanja; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be poor readers of literature. Each participant read 4…

  6. Reading Relationships: Parents, Adolescents, and Popular Fiction by Stephen King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Describes a collective case study of 12 high school juniors who identified themselves as avid readers of popular fiction. Finds strong reading relationships between parents and high school students. Describes the different roles that parents played in their adolescent children's reading lives. Looks at implications for secondary English classrooms…

  7. Is There a Relationship between Literature Reading and Creative Writing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekkamp, Hein; Janssen, Tanja; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be poor readers of literature. Each participant read 4…

  8. The Relationship between Young Children's Enjoyment of Learning to Read, Reading Attitudes, Confidence and Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Walker, Jo; Howatson, Kathryn; Stockburn, Ann; Dufton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: While there is a considerable body of research exploring the relationship between older primary school children's reading attitudes, confidence and attainment, there is a noticeable lack of research with younger children. Furthermore, there is relatively little research exploring the extent to which children's reading attitudes,…

  9. Revisiting Assumptions about the Relationship of Fluent Reading to Comprehension: Spanish-Speakers' Text-Reading Fluency in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research investigating the nature of text-reading fluency and its relationship to comprehension among monolingual children, very little is known about text-reading fluency for language minority (LM) learners reading in English. The present study investigated the nature of text-reading fluency--its relationship to…

  10. Understanding the Misunderstanding: An Analysis of the Relationships between Reading Fluency Constructs, Reading Fluency Instruction and Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbs, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…

  11. Objective and Comprehensive Evaluation of Bisulfite Short Read Mapping Tools

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    Hong Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Large-scale bisulfite treatment and short reads sequencing technology allow comprehensive estimation of methylation states of Cs in the genomes of different tissues, cell types, and developmental stages. Accurate characterization of DNA methylation is essential for understanding genotype phenotype association, gene and environment interaction, diseases, and cancer. Aligning bisulfite short reads to a reference genome has been a challenging task. We compared five bisulfite short read mapping tools, BSMAP, Bismark, BS-Seeker, BiSS, and BRAT-BW, representing two classes of mapping algorithms (hash table and suffix/prefix tries. We examined their mapping efficiency (i.e., the percentage of reads that can be mapped to the genomes, usability, running time, and effects of changing default parameter settings using both real and simulated reads. We also investigated how preprocessing data might affect mapping efficiency. Conclusion. Among the five programs compared, in terms of mapping efficiency, Bismark performs the best on the real data, followed by BiSS, BSMAP, and finally BRAT-BW and BS-Seeker with very similar performance. If CPU time is not a constraint, Bismark is a good choice of program for mapping bisulfite treated short reads. Data quality impacts a great deal mapping efficiency. Although increasing the number of mismatches allowed can increase mapping efficiency, it not only significantly slows down the program, but also runs the risk of having increased false positives. Therefore, users should carefully set the related parameters depending on the quality of their sequencing data.

  12. Robust relationship between reading span and speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamela; Arehart, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Working memory refers to a cognitive system that manages information processing and temporary storage. Recent work has demonstrated that individual differences in working memory capacity measured using a reading span task are related to ability to recognize speech in noise. In this project, we investigated whether the specific implementation of the reading span task influenced the strength of the relationship between working memory capacity and speech recognition. The relationship between speech recognition and working memory capacity was examined for two different working memory tests that varied in approach, using a within-subject design. Data consisted of audiometric results along with the two different working memory tests; one speech-in-noise test; and a reading comprehension test. The test group included 94 older adults with varying hearing loss and 30 younger adults with normal hearing. Listeners with poorer working memory capacity had more difficulty understanding speech in noise after accounting for age and degree of hearing loss. That relationship did not differ significantly between the two different implementations of reading span. Our findings suggest that different implementations of a verbal reading span task do not affect the strength of the relationship between working memory capacity and speech recognition.

  13. The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭

    2015-01-01

    Having a large vocabulary is a key in learning a foreign language successfully.The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between depth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension.DVK relates to how well one knows a word and it is the quality of one’s knowledge about a word.It involves a good number of aspects representing

  14. Is there a relationship between literature reading and creative writing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Broekkamp; T. Janssen; H. van den Bergh

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be poo

  15. Is there a relationship between literature reading and creative writing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekkamp, H.; Janssen, T.; van den Bergh, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to reliably measure literature reading and creative writing ability, and subsequently to determine whether a relationship exists between the two abilities. Participants were 19 eleventh-grade students: 11 were known to be good readers of literature, whereas 8 were known to be

  16. Binding Objects to Locations: The Relationship between Object Files and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between object files and visual working memory (VWM) was investigated in a new paradigm combining features of traditional VWM experiments (color change detection) and object-file experiments (memory for the properties of moving objects). Object-file theory was found to account for a key component of object-position binding in VWM:…

  17. Dissociating object familiarity from linguistic properties in mirror word reading

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    Rossi Valentina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that the orthographic properties of linguistic stimuli are processed within the left occipitotemporal cortex at about 150–200 ms. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs to words in standard or mirror orientation to investigate the role of visual word form in reading. Word inversion was performed to determine whether rotated words lose their linguistic properties. Methods About 1300 Italian words and legal pseudo-words were presented to 18 right-handed Italian students engaged in a letter detection task. EEG was recorded from 128 scalp sites. Results ERPs showed an early effect of word orientation at ~150 ms, with larger N1 amplitudes to rotated than to standard words. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA revealed an increase in N1 to rotated words primarily in the right occipital lobe (BA 18, which may indicate an effect of stimulus familiarity. N1 was greater to target than to non-target letters at left lateral occipital sites, thus reflecting the first stage of orthographic processing. LORETA revealed a strong focus of activation for this effect in the left fusiform gyrus (BA 37, which is consistent with the so-called visual word form area (VWFA. Standard words (compared to pseudowords elicited an enhancement of left occipito/temporal negativity at about 250–350 ms, followed by a larger anterior P3, a reduced frontal N400 and a huge late positivity. Lexical effects for rotated strings were delayed by about 100 ms at occipito/temporal sites, and were totally absent at later processing stages. This suggests the presence of implicit reading processes, which were pre-attentive and of perceptual nature for mirror strings. Conclusion The contrast between inverted and standard words did not lead to the identification of a purely linguistic brain region. This finding suggests some caveats in the interpretation of the inversion effect in subtractive paradigms.

  18. Examining the Cross-Lagged Relationships between RAN and Word Reading in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Georgiou, George K.; Deng, Ciping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year longitudinal study was to specify the direction of the relationship between RAN and word reading (accuracy and fluency) in Chinese. This is important in light of arguments that the developmental relationships between RAN and reading can disclose changes in the reading processes underlying reading as development proceeds.…

  19. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  20. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  1. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  2. Exploring Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension amongst English Second Language Readers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Elizabeth J.; Spaull, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English…

  3. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  4. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator experim

  5. Vehicle handling: relationships between subjective and objective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Hogema, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    TNO Human Factors and TNO Automotive are investigating relationships between subjective and objective measures in the area of vehicle handling. This paper presents a driving simulator study and a field experiment in which these relationships were investigated. First, in the driving simulator

  6. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W

    2016-12-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies-French (Study 1, n=1313) or English (Study 2, n=114) in early childhood (grade 2) and middle childhood (grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships among these literacy skills occurred in grades 2 and 5, and longitudinal relationships for each skill with itself from grade 2 to 5; but concurrent relationships were more sizable and longitudinal relationships more variable for English than French especially for word reading to reading comprehension. Results show that, for both morphophonemic orthographies, assessment and instructional practices should be tailored to early or middle childhood, and early childhood reading comprehension may not be related to middle childhood spelling. Also discussed are findings applying only to English, for which word origin is primarily Anglo-Saxon in early childhood, but increasingly French in middle childhood.

  7. Object relations and real life relationships: a cross method assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment.

  8. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  9. The Relationship between EFL Learners’ Emotional Intelligence and Critical Reading

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    Mahnaz Saeidi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the EFL learners’ Emotional Quotient (EQ and Critical Reading (CR ability to identify possible relationships between these two traits. The results show that there exists a significant relationship between students’ EQ and CR and there is no significant difference between females and males’ EQ and CR ability. Finally, only Intrapersonal and Stress Management subscales of EQ can be regarded as predictors of changes in CR scores. The findings of the study suggest that it is necessary to plan and take action for the management of the learners’ emotions and behaviors if pedagogy is going to develop learners’ skill in rational thinking and problem-solving which will be effective not only in instructional settings but also in daily life.

  10. The relationship between children‘s reading ability, verbal and fluid intelligence and measurements of eye movements during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlovska M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify, which of the following two measures: verbal intelligence or measurements of eye movements, is better predictor of reading ability. In addition, the study also investigated the relationships between reading ability, fluid intelligence and measurements of eye movements. Participants of the study (N = 28; mean age = 8.80; SD = .41; 54% boys were assessed in reading with LMST-I Reading achievement test, verbal and fluid intelligence was measured using two scales – Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual reasoning – from Latvian edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC- IV, Latvian version, as well as eye tracking was made during reading. The results show that reading ability is better predicted by fixation duration and fixation count measurements of eye movements for 8-9 old children, whereas verbal ability in general does not predict reading ability. The better link with level of reading is provided by measurements of eye movements, but not so accurately reflected by verbal ability in appropriate age group, when the acquisition of reading ability still continues. No relationships among children‘s fluid intelligence, reading ability and measurements of eye movements were reported.

  11. The Relationship between Reading Attitude, Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies, Personality and Self-Regulation: A Study of Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between reading attitude, personality, self-regulation and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies of secondary school students. In order to carry out the aim four scales were used to 419 high school students in Kirsehir province in Turkey. It was used Lisrel 8.80 and SPSS software to…

  12. Object familiarity modulates the relationship between visual object imagery and haptic shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Flueckiger, Peter; Stilla, Randall; Lava, Michael; Sathian, K

    2010-02-01

    Although visual cortical engagement in haptic shape perception is well established, its relationship with visual imagery remains controversial. We addressed this using functional magnetic resonance imaging during separate visual object imagery and haptic shape perception tasks. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the haptic shape task employed unfamiliar, meaningless objects, whereas familiar objects were used in the second experiment. The activations evoked by visual object imagery overlapped more extensively, and their magnitudes were more correlated, with those evoked during haptic shape perception of familiar, compared to unfamiliar, objects. In the companion paper (Deshpande et al., this issue), we used task-specific functional and effective connectivity analyses to provide convergent evidence: these analyses showed that the neural networks underlying visual imagery were similar to those underlying haptic shape perception of familiar, but not unfamiliar, objects. We conclude that visual object imagery is more closely linked to haptic shape perception when objects are familiar, compared to when they are unfamiliar.

  13. An Examination of the Relationship between Reading Comprehension, Higher-Level and Lower-Level Reading Sub-Skills in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Using a large adult reading database, we examined the relationships between high-level and low-level reading skills and between multiple reading skills, general cognitive ability, and reading comprehension ability. A principal components analysis found partial dissociability between higher-level skills including reading comprehension, vocabulary…

  14. The Relationship between EFL Reading and Existential-Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercanlioglu, Leyla; Akarsu, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews an overall theoretical framework of two major phenomena: reading and existential-phenomenology. Nine different predominant theories in reading education, their attributes, effective reading techniques and educational studies of learners' experiences towards effective reading will be examined with some basic issues to grasp the…

  15. Learning Object Relationships which determine the Outcome of Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John; Kraft, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    and motor programs for the new behaviour; here we focus only on the sensory aspect: learning to recognise situations in which the new behaviour succeeds. We experimented with learning these situations in a realistic physical simulation of a robotic manipulator interacting with various objects, where......Infants extend their repertoire of behaviours from initially simple behaviours with single objects to complex behaviours dealing with spatial relationships among objects. We are interested in the mechanisms underlying this development in order to achieve similar development in artificial systems...

  16. Predicting Growth in Word Level Reading Skills in Children With Developmental Dyslexia Using an Object Rhyming Functional Neuroimaging Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N

    2016-04-01

    An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.

  17. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed.

  18. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically under-studied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children’s literature, and the implications for researchers and Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs are discussed. PMID:25350926

  19. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  20. Relationships between Reading Comprehension and Its Components in Young Chinese-as-a-Second-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Ka

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Simple View of Reading model, this study examines the relationships among Chinese reading comprehension and its two componential processes, Chinese character reading and listening comprehension, in young learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL) using a longitudinal design. Using relevant measures, a sample of 142 senior primary…

  1. The Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Engku Haliza Engku; Sarudin, Isarji; Muhamad, Ainon Jariah

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors that contribute to one's ability to read effectively. Vocabulary size is one important factor that enhances reading comprehension. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between students' reading comprehension skills and their vocabulary size. A total of 129 pre-university students undergoing an intensive…

  2. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  3. Assessing the Relationship between Prosody and Reading Outcomes in Children Using the PEPS-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochrin, Margaret; Arciuli, Joanne; Sharma, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between both receptive and expressive prosody and each of three reading outcomes: accuracy of reading aloud words, accuracy of reading aloud nonwords, and comprehension. Participants were 63 children aged 7 to 12 years. To assess prosody, we used the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech Communication…

  4. The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

  5. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus......, the RAN-reading correlation was partly, but not fully, accounted for by precursors of reading that are currently known....

  6. Does ability to establish sound-symbol pairings mediate the RAN reading relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    -items, so it is unclear whether it is the experience or the ability to take advantage of the experience that is responsible for the correlation between RAN and reading. Paired associate learning tasks have been shown to differentiate dyslexics from controls, and to correlate with reading in unselected...... samples. We tested whether the ability to learn and/or established letter knowledge mediated the correlation between RAN and reading in a sample of preschool beginning readers. Method 105 preschoolers were administered traditional reading, letter knowledge, and RAN tests, and taught novel names...... to learn sound-symbol associations is responsible for the RAN-reading relationship in early reading development....

  7. Reading Processes of University Students with Dyslexia - An Examination of the Relationship between Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henriette Folkmann; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lauridsen, Lene Louise; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of oral reading and how it relates to reading comprehension in students with dyslexia. A group of Danish university students with dyslexia (n = 16) and a comparison group of students with no history of reading problems (n = 16) were assessed on their oral reading performance when reading a complex text. Along with reading speed, we measured not only the number and quality of reading errors but also the extent and semantic nature of the self-corrections during reading. The reading comprehension was measured through aided text retellings. The results showed that, as a group, the dyslexics performed poorer on most measures, but there were notable within-group differences in the reading behaviours and little association between how well university students with dyslexia read aloud and comprehended the text. These findings suggest that many dyslexics in higher education tend to focus their attention on one subcomponent of the reading process, for example, decoding or comprehension, because engaging in both simultaneously may be too demanding for them. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities as Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaarachchi, Thilina Indrajie

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as "prw tasks") in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were…

  9. Multicolored words: Uncovering the relationship between reading mechanisms and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Laura J; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2016-02-01

    Grapheme-color and lexical-color synesthesia, the association of colors with letters and words, respectively, are some of the most commonly studied forms of synesthesia, yet relatively little is known about how synesthesia arises from and interfaces with the reading process. To date, synesthetic experiences in reading have only been reported in relation to a word's graphemes and meaning. We present a case study of WBL, a 21-year old male who experiences synesthetic colors for letters and words. Over 3 months, we obtained nearly 3000 color judgments for visually presented monomorphemic, prefixed, suffixed, and compound words as well as judgments for pseudocompound words (e.g., carpet), and nonwords. In Experiment 1, we show that word color is nearly always determined by the color of the first letter. Furthermore, WBL reported two separate colors for prefixed and compound words approximately 14% of the time, with the additional color determined by the first letter of the second morpheme. In Experiment 2, we further investigated how various morphological factors influenced WBL's percepts using the compound norms of Juhasz, Lai, and Woodcock (2014). In a logistic regression analysis of color judgments for nearly 400 compounds, we observed that the likelihood that WBL would perceive a compound as bearing 1 lexical color or 2 lexical colors was influenced by a variety of factors including stem frequency, compound frequency, and the relationship between the meaning of the compound and the meaning of its stems. This constitutes the first study reporting an effect of morphological structure in synesthesia and demonstrates that synesthetic colors result from a complex interaction of perceptual, graphemic, morphological, and semantic factors.

  10. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.

  11. The Relationship between Reading Response Journals as an Intervention and Reading Achievement of Fourth and Fifth Graders in a Suburban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's students are reading below grade level and schools are investigating methods for increasing student achievement in the area of reading. This mixed method research study investigated the achievement of students who were reading below grade level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between reading response…

  12. A cultural side effect: Learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine eKolinsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene & Cohen, 2007, we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of nonlinguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the nonlinguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age, and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond same to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1 or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2. Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation.

  13. The language-reading relationship in normal and reading-disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L S; Downey, D M

    1991-02-01

    In this study, the word retrieval, phonological awareness, sentence completion, and narrative discourse processing skills of 93 reading-disabled and 93 normally achieving subjects from 8 to 14 years of age were compared. The subjects were matched for age, sex, and neighborhood. Results revealed that the two groups differed significantly on the time and accuracy of word retrieval, their ability to produce a syntactically appropriate structure in a sentence completion task, their retelling of stories that had been read to them, their answers to questions about the stories, and their inferences. Further analysis revealed that the variance in the younger reading-disabled children's reading comprehension scores was best accounted for by their performance on the sentence completion and word retrieval measures; the inferencing skills of the older reading-disabled children best accounted for the variance in their reading comprehension. By contrast, the younger normally achieving children's reading comprehension scores were best accounted for by their sentence completion, the proportion of the stories that they retold, and word retrieval scores. The proportion of stories retold and the phonological awareness score of the older normally achieving children best accounted for the variance in their reading scores. These findings suggest that the oral language skills of normally achieving and reading-disabled children may relate differently to their reading comprehension at different age levels.

  14. The relationship between component skills, reading experience, and reading comprehension in Danish 3rd graders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    data sets were obtained from 179 Danish Grade 3 pupils. Participants were given a standard reading comprehension test requiring multiple-choice answers to six different texts of various length and type. Orthographic and phonological coding, as well as non-verbal problem solving were assessed by means......: path, street, road, river). Results Data analyses showed that in the entire sample, skills of semantic lexical structuring and reading experience made strong contributions to reading comprehension. Analyses of the pupils below the 25%-percentile in reading comprehension revealed that for the vast...

  15. The relationship between multiple intelligence profiles and reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    impact of multiple intelligences and reading strategies on EFL learners' reading ... cognitive psychology, education and philosophy, by embracing the impacts of ... foreign language teaching to isolate themselves from the impact of this revolution. ... intelligence types and learning styles of the students and then teaches them ...

  16. The Relationship between Deliberate Practice and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Sean Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Many students are not prepared to meet the literacy demands of college and career as defined by the Common Core State Standards (2010). Literacy researchers have struggled to define the frequency and type of reading practice necessary to nurture the development of reading ability. The principles of deliberate practice provide a theoretical…

  17. L2 Extensive Reading and Flow: Clarifying the Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Among foreign language educators interest in extensive reading is growing along with questions about learner motivation to read. Maintaining learner motivation over long periods of time is influenced by many variables suggesting that multiple means of stimulating motivation is needed. The psychological theory of flow has been suggested to…

  18. Writing-Reading Relationships: Effectiveness of Writing Activities As Pre-Reading Tasks to Enhance L2 Inferential Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilina Indrajie Wickramaarachchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interaction between reading and writing processes in general and more specifically the impact of pre-reading tasks incorporating writing tasks (referred to as “prw tasks” in helping the development of inferential reading comprehension. A sample of 70 first year ESL students of the University of Kelaniya were initially selected with one group (experimental group engaging in “prw tasks” while the other group (control group performing the tasks without a pre-reading component. The intervention was for 6 sessions (one hour in each session. At the end of each session, the performance of the two groups was measured and the test scores were analyzed using the data analysis package SPSS to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The results indicated that the experimental group had significantly performed better than the control group which indicated the effectiveness of the prw tasks in improving reading comprehension.

  19. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  20. The Relationship among ICT Skills, Traditional Reading Skills and Online Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Fang; Ko, Hwa-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Perspectives from reading and information fields have identified similar skills belong to two different kind of literacy being online reading abilities and ICT skills. It causes a conflict between two research fields and increase difficult of integrating study results. The purpose of this study was to determine which views are suitable for…

  1. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  2. The Structure of an Early Reading Test in Grade 1: In Search of a Relationship with Reading in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the "Tejas LEE or El Inventario de Lectura en Espanol de Tejas" (Grade 1) to determine if a relationship existed between reading comprehension in Spanish and the tested skills on the diagnostic assessment. This quantitative research design evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Tejas LEE and followed customary…

  3. The Structure of an Early Reading Test in Grade 1: In Search of a Relationship with Reading in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the "Tejas LEE or El Inventario de Lectura en Espanol de Tejas" (Grade 1) to determine if a relationship existed between reading comprehension in Spanish and the tested skills on the diagnostic assessment. This quantitative research design evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Tejas LEE and followed customary…

  4. The relationship between phonological awareness and reading: implications for the assessment of phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Tiffany P; Catts, Hugh W; Little, Todd D

    2005-10-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) use phonological awareness assessments in many ways. This study examines the usefulness of these assessments in kindergarten and 2nd grade. Measures of phonological awareness and letter identification were administered in kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, phonetic decoding (i.e., nonword reading), and word reading were administered in 2nd and 4th grades to a sample of 570 children participating in a longitudinal study of reading and language impairments. A path analysis indicated that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and letter identification provided information to the prediction of 2nd-grade reading. In 2nd grade, measures of reading offered information to the prediction of 4th-grade reading. Additionally, a reciprocal relationship was found between phonological awareness and word reading, with kindergarten phonological awareness predicting 2nd-grade word reading and, conversely, 2nd-grade word reading predicting 4th-grade phonological awareness. Phonological awareness assessment provides information about reading in kindergarten but loses its predictive power at 2nd grade. At that time, phonological awareness and word reading become so highly correlated that phonological awareness does not add information to the prediction of 4th-grade reading.

  5. Relationships Among Reading Skills of Adults with Low Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane R.; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Scarborough, Hollis S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the Simple View of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the Simple View needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy. PMID:20179307

  6. Language Preference and Its Relationship with Reading Skills in English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Michele H.; Morris, Robin D.; Israelian, Marlyne

    2007-01-01

    A dearth of research has investigated the language preference of bilingual childhood populations and its subsequent relationship to reading skills. The current study evaluated how a sequential bilingual student's choice of language, in a particular environmental context, predicted reading ability in English and Spanish. The participants were…

  7. The Relationship between Language and Reading in Bilingual English-Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Lama K.; Bingham, Gary E.; Matthews, Mona W.

    2012-01-01

    The connection between language and reading is well established across many languages studied to date. Little is known, however, about the role of language in reading in Arabic--a Semitic language characterized by diglossia--in which the oral and written varieties differ across language components. This study examined the relationship among…

  8. The Relationship between Iranian ESP Learners' Translation Ability and Resilience in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekan, Fatemeh; Hajimohammadi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between Iranian ESP Learners' translation ability and resilience in reading comprehension. More specifically, the study aimed to study the resilience cognitive and metacognitive effect on raising L2 reading comprehension through translation. Secondly, the study aimed at pursuing the…

  9. Comprehending Multiple Documents on Scientific Controversies: Effects of Reading Goals and Signaling Rhetorical Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtler, Marc; Scharrer, Lisa; Skodzik, Timo; Bromme, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Understanding conflicts between sources is an inherent part of science text comprehension. We examined whether readers' memories for conflicts and their situational interpretation of conflicts would be affected by reading goals and lexical cue phrases that signal rhetorical relationships. To this end, 198 undergraduates read multiple documents on…

  10. Cross-lagged relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension among Chinese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension using a two-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 male and 69 female. We measured children’s morphological awareness, word reading, and reading comprehension from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between morphological awareness and reading comprehension over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, morphological awareness stably predicted subsequent reading comprehension, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that word reading partially mediated the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  11. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  12. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  13. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  14. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  15. Students' Mind Wandering in Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Textual Narrations and Its Relationship with Their Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate students' mind wandering while reading different types of textual narrations (macroscopic and submicroscopic) in chemistry. Another goal was to determine the relationship between mind wandering and students' reading comprehension. The participants were 65 female ninth grade students in Oman. Using a…

  16. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability and Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Esmaeel Nour; Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Niry, Nasrin Dehghan

    2012-01-01

    The current empirical study aimed to identify those categories of reading strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and compensation) that are mostly used by Iranian EFL learners, and investigate if there is any significant relationship between critical thinking ability and reading strategies used by these learners. It also pursued if there is any…

  17. Corneal refractive index-hydration relationship by objective refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sudi; Alió, Jorge L

    2012-11-01

    To compare an objective (VCH-1) with a manual subjective Abbé refractometer (MSAR) and evaluate the refractive index (RI)-hydration (H) relationship for the corneal stroma. Epithelial and endothelial layers were removed from a fresh postmortem ovine corneal buttons. RI was measured at both surfaces using (i) MSAR then (ii) VCH-1. The sample was weighed, slowly dehydrated under controlled conditions (2 h), and RI measures were repeated. Sample was oven dried (90°C) for 3 d to obtain dry weight and hydration at each episode of RI measurement. Average difference between individual pairs of measurements obtained using the two refractometers (ΔRI) was 0.00071 (standard deviation ± 0.0029, 95% confidence interval ± 0.0058). Root mean square difference between measurements obtained by the refractometers was 0.0024. There was no relationship between ΔRI and the mean of each measurement pair (r = 0.201, n = 40, p = 0.214). Linear regression revealed a significant relationship between RI and reciprocal of H at both surfaces as follows: anterior (i) RI = 1.355 + 0.111/H (r = -0.852, n = 20, p = <0.001), (ii) RI = 1.357 + 0.105/H (r = -0.849, n = 20, p = <0.001) and posterior (i) RI = 1.353 + 0.085/H (r = -0.882, n = 20, p = <0.001), (ii) RI = 1.350 + 0.088/H (r = -0.813, n = 20, p = <0.001). VCH-1 measurements are in good agreement with MSAR. RI at the anterior stroma was consistently higher suggesting hydration is lower by 1.10 units (6%) compared with the posterior stroma. Dehydration increased RI at both surfaces by similar rates. Current hypothetical models are useful for predicting RI from H for the posterior, but not the anterior, stroma.

  18. The Relationship between Fluent Reading Skills and Comprehension Level (Literal and Inferential)

    OpenAIRE

    Baştuğ, Muhammet; KESKİN, Hasan Kağan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the relationship between 5th graders’ fluent reading skills and comprehension level (literal and inferential). Thirty nine fifth graders of different sex, socioeconomic and achievement level participated in the study. The research was conducted in the survey model. In data analysis, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis techniques were employed. The results revealed that there is a positive and medium level relationship between reading skills and comprehensi...

  19. The Relationship between Motivation to Read Chinese and English and Its Impact on the Chinese and English Reading Performance of Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Elizabeth K. Y.; Tse, Shek Kam

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among Hong Kong Chinese students' reading attainment in Chinese and English, their attitudes toward reading, and their self-concept as readers. The sample consisted of 1,232 fourth-grade students from thirty-eight primary schools. Predictably, the students' reading attainment was better when tested in…

  20. Investigation on the Relationship between Information Communication Technology and Reading Literacy for Northeast Asian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yi-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of internet communication technologies (ICT usage and reading literacy of Northeast Asian Students in PISA 2009. ICT was crucial for all governments in the world towards promoting equity. ICT had been considered a low cost opportunity towards equalizing educational systems. A multilevel modelling (MLM was applied to identify at which school-level the largest variations in the three indicators exist in this study. With MLM, it could be examine simultaneously the effects of different hierarchical school-level variables; to take account of possible correlations of students’ reading literacy in this study within higher levels (Urbanization, Total number of students Computers for education which may otherwise lead to incorrect standard errors and inefficient estimates; to treat higher levels as related; and to examine inter-area variations at each level. The empirical results include the different between group components was significant. Self-confidence in ICT high level tasks was positive with students’ reading literacy, and self-confidence in ICT high level tasks was negative with students’ reading literacy. The urbanization of schools’ area and total number of students of schools were positive with students’ reading literacy. The urbanization of schools’ area was negative with the relationship of ICT for school related tasks and students’ reading literacy. Total number of students was negative with the relationship of ICT for school related tasks and students’ reading literacy, and ICT availability in school and students’ reading literacy.

  1. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    for the RAN-reading correlation. One hundred and sixty-nine preschool students were given measures of RAN and additional measures of phonological awareness, lexical search speed, letter knowledge, and paired associate learning. Their reading skills were tested a year later along with speed of processing......It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus...

  2. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Reading Strategy Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapan, Seyit Ahmet; Pektas, Rumeysa

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is a psychological factor commonly associated with such feelings as fear, apprehension and uneasiness. It is an individual's affective reaction to a perceived or a real threat (MacIntyre, 1995). Foreign language reading anxiety (FLRA) refers to one's negative attitudes which may, to some extent, account for the inhibition that s/he suffers…

  3. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khooei Oskooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning. Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  4. The Relationship between Fluent Reading Skills and Comprehension Level (Literal and Inferential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the relationship between 5th graders’ fluent reading skills and comprehension level (literal and inferential. Thirty nine fifth graders of different sex, socioeconomic and achievement level participated in the study. The research was conducted in the survey model. In data analysis, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis techniques were employed. The results revealed that there is a positive and medium level relationship between reading skills and comprehension. In addition, fluent reading skills were found to be correlated at a higher level in comparison with literal comprehension. Moreover, the variables of students’ sex and socioeconomic level were compared in terms of fluent reading skills and comprehension level. The results of this comparison demonstrate that the sex variable did not differ significantly in terms of fluent reading skills and comprehension level. As for comparisons related to fluent reading skills and comprehension level, a significant difference was not observed as well. Apart from this, comparisons of socio-economic level variable showed that students with higher socioeconomic level had higher scores in fluent reading skills and inferential comprehension level. It points to the fact that socioeconomically advantaged students are more successful at fluent reading and comprehension.

  5. Chicken or Egg? Untangling the Relationship between Orthographic Processing Skill and Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Helene; Benere, Jenna; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between orthographic processing skill, or the ability to form, store and access word representations, and reading ability. Empirical research to date has not, however, clarified the direction of this relationship. We examined this question in a three-year longitudinal study of children from Grades 1…

  6. Chicken or Egg? Untangling the Relationship between Orthographic Processing Skill and Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Helene; Benere, Jenna; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between orthographic processing skill, or the ability to form, store and access word representations, and reading ability. Empirical research to date has not, however, clarified the direction of this relationship. We examined this question in a three-year longitudinal study of children from Grades 1…

  7. The relationship between parental literacy involvement, socio-economic status and reading literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerechts, K.; Agirdag, O.; Kavadias, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between parental literacy activities with the child, socio-economic status (SES) and reading literacy. We draw upon the Bourdieusian theory of habitus development to explore this relationship. Multilevel analyses of a survey of 43,870 pupils (with an

  8. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of Hypertext Reading Performance: In-Depth Analysis of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Min-chen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of reading hypertext on EFL learners' reading comprehension and analysis of contributing factors. Eighty-eight students joined the study. They took two reading comprehension tests: Hypertext Version and Printed text Version. After the tests, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire of…

  9. The relationship of global form and motion detection to reading fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A; Palomares, Melanie

    2012-08-15

    Visual motion processing in typical and atypical readers has suggested aspects of reading and motion processing share a common cortical network rooted in dorsal visual areas. Few studies have examined the relationship between reading performance and visual form processing, which is mediated by ventral cortical areas. We investigated whether reading fluency correlates with coherent motion detection thresholds in typically developing children using random dot kinematograms. As a comparison, we also evaluated the correlation between reading fluency and static form detection thresholds. Results show that both dorsal and ventral visual functions correlated with components of reading fluency, but that they have different developmental characteristics. Motion coherence thresholds correlated with reading rate and accuracy, which both improved with chronological age. Interestingly, when controlling for non-verbal abilities and age, reading accuracy significantly correlated with thresholds for coherent form detection but not coherent motion detection in typically developing children. Dorsal visual functions that mediate motion coherence seem to be related maturation of broad cognitive functions including non-verbal abilities and reading fluency. However, ventral visual functions that mediate form coherence seem to be specifically related to accurate reading in typically developing children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reading comprehension and its relationship with working memory capacity when reading horizontally scrolling text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Walker, Robin

    2017-08-02

    The horizontally scrolling format, where text is presented in a single line drifting right to left, is relatively commonly used to display text on digital screens. This format presents a potentially challenging reading situation, as the text must be followed smoothly to the left (to track individual words) whilst rightward eye-movements are made as usual to progress through the text. This conflict may reduce attention allocated to upcoming text. Returning to previously encountered text is also more difficult with this format. Here, a sustained reading comprehension task was used to compare performance with horizontally scrolling and multiline static text formats. Results showed that literal comprehension can be reasonably well-maintained with scrolling text, although small decrements are seen at faster scrolling rates. However, they indicated that this format makes it more difficult to answer questions requiring an inference to be made. The contribution of working memory capacity and the impact of display speed on these effects was considered. These findings have implications for the application of this format in digital media, and also more widely for the conditions required for successful in-depth reading comprehension with any text format.

  11. Object relationship notation (ORN) for database applications enhancing the modeling and implementation of associations

    CERN Document Server

    Ehlmann, Bryon K

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, a database consists of objects and relationships. Object Relationship Notation (ORN) is a simple notation that more precisely defines relationships by combining UML multiplicities with uniquely defined referential actions. ""Object Relationship Notation (ORN) for Database Applications: Enhancing the Modeling and Implementation of Associations"" shows how ORN can be used in UML class diagrams and database definition languages (DDLs) to better model and implement relationships and thus more productively develop database applications. For the database developer, it presents many exa

  12. The Analysis of the Relationship between Primary Learning Styles and Learning Objects in an Online Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Özdemir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationships between the primary learning styles of students and different learning objects presented simultaneously in an online learning environment in the context of the usage levels of these objects. A total of 103 sophomores from a Turkish State University participated in the study. Felder-Solomon Index of Learning-Styles (F-SILS was used to determine the learning styles of the participants. Four different types of learning objects (i.e. video lecturing, audio lecturing, PDF lecturing and subject comprehension tests were prepared for the course ‘Basic database operations with MySQL’. Koper’s (2003 classification model was used in selecting these learning objects. Descriptive analysis methods were used to determine the distribution of the participants according to their learning styles. Independent-Samples T-Test and the Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon test were used to test the differences between learning styles and learning objects. The usage levels of the learning objects were analysed in the context of interdimensional primary learning styles in the scale of the F-SILS. Those with sensory and visual learning styles were in the majority among the primary learning styles of participants. The study did not include the findings of students with other primary learning styles due to their small sample size. The findings of the study on the usage frequencies of subject comprehension tests and the duration of video lectures by primarily visual and sensory students demonstrated a significant difference on behalf of the primary sensory students. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between students with primarily sensory styles and students with primarily visual styles in terms of the reading frequency of PDF lectures and the listening frequency of audio lectures.

  13. Relational Ethnography: Writing and Reading in Research Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces relational ethnography as a form of inquiry which emphasizes reflexive dialogical aspects of research relationships. I have found the use of autoethnography inspiring in speaking from within my practice as a therapist and teacher however it has limited my focus on areas of relationality in research relationships. In developing a relational ethnography, I have been able to show how all areas of ethnographic research involve relationality. I draw on systemic and social c...

  14. The Effect of Individual Differences in the Inner and Outer States of ICT on Engagement in Online Reading Activities and PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: Exploring the Relationship between the Old and New Reading Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Wu, Jiun-Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the prevalence of ICT, the concept of reading literacy has evolved to encompass both online reading and printed texts. This study clarifies the relationship between reading printed texts and online electronic texts from the perspective of individual differences in the inner and outer phases of ICT in a partial mediation model. We used the…

  15. Exploring the relationship between object realism and object-based attention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Nelson; Boot, Walter R

    2015-09-01

    Visual attention prioritizes processing of locations in space, and evidence also suggests that the benefits of attention can be shaped by the presence of objects (object-based attention). However, the prevalence of object-based attention effects has been called into question recently by evidence from a large-sampled study employing classic attention paradigms (Pilz et al., 2012). We conducted two experiments to explore factors that might determine when and if object-based attention effects are observed, focusing on the degree to which the concreteness and realism of objects might contribute to these effects. We adapted the classic attention paradigm first reported by Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) by replacing abstract bar stimuli in some conditions with objects that were more concrete and familiar to participants: items of silverware. Furthermore, we varied the realism of these items of silverware, presenting either cartoon versions or photo-realistic versions. Contrary to predictions, increased realism did not increase the size of object-based effects. In fact, no clear object-based effects were observed in either experiment, consistent with previous failures to replicate these effects in similar paradigms. While object-based attention may exist, and may have important influences on how we parse the visual world, these and other findings suggest that the two-object paradigm typically relied upon to study object-based effects may not be the best paradigm to investigate these issues.

  16. Engagement and Autonomy: Their Relationship and Impact on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article relates aspects of my investigation into the effects of two differing approaches to teaching comprehension of narrative texts on students' task engagement and text enjoyment, and comprehension. The results demonstrate a complex relationship between engagement and comprehension. They highlight that academically weaker students…

  17. Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  18. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  19. The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  20. The Relationship between Reading Beauty and Fashion Magazines and the Use of Pathogenic Dieting Methods among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michelle M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading women's fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among 502 high school females. Reading these magazines does influence a female's decision to restrict calories or take diet pills. Further research is needed to examine factors that are antecedent to reading the magazines to…

  1. The Relationship between Reading Beauty and Fashion Magazines and the Use of Pathogenic Dieting Methods among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michelle M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading women's fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among 502 high school females. Reading these magazines does influence a female's decision to restrict calories or take diet pills. Further research is needed to examine factors that are antecedent to reading the magazines to…

  2. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners across Genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With developments in psychology and cognitive sciences in recent years, the significance of individual differences in L2 pedagogy has been highlighted. One of the outcomes of attending to individual differences is the increased attention to the concept of multiple intelligences and its relationship with language learning and different skills including reading comprehension skill. On the same line, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between multiple intelligences of a group of L2 learners and their reading comprehension ability. To this purpose, 157 medical students studying at the Guilan University of Medical Sciences participated in the study. The instruments utilized were Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS and a reading comprehension test. The findings revealed that among the components of multiple intelligences of the medical students verbal-linguistic intelligence was prevalent. Furthermore, results of Pearson correlation demonstrated a positive but weak relationship between medical students’ MI and their reading comprehension ability. The findings also indicated that there is no difference between male and female medical students except in naturalistic intelligence. These findings further pinpoint the importance of attending to multiple intelligences of L2 learners and devising lessons which take their individual differences into account. Keywords: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, medical students, gender, EFL

  3. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xinchun; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness (MA) and reading comprehension (RC) using a 2-year and four-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 149 Chinese children (80 males and 69 females). We measured children's MA, word reading (WR), and RC from T1 to T4, in addition to phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, and general cognitive ability at T1 as control measures. Four plausible cross-lagged models were assessed and compared to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between MA and RC over time. Results found support for a reciprocal-causation model, that is, MA stably predicted subsequent RC, and the reverse relation was also found. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed that WR partially mediated the relationship between MA and RC in Chinese children. These findings extend our understanding of the relationship between MA and RC. The practical implications for these two developing skills in Chinese children are discussed.

  4. The Cumulative Effect of Hyperactivity and Peer Relationships on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of hyperactivity and peer relationships on academic achievement has long been highlighted in the professional literature. This study highlights how much variation in reading comprehension scores, an indicator of academic achievement, are accounted for by hyperactivity, conduct problems, and peer problems. The participants included 129…

  5. Semantic Categorization and Reading Skill across Dutch Primary Grades: Development Yes, Relationship No

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Ormel, Ellen A.; Hermans, Daan; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, semantic and perceptual) were administered to assess…

  6. Exploring Reading Comprehension Skill Relationships through the G-DINA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    By analysing the test data of 1029 British secondary school students' performance on 20 Programme for International Student Assessment English reading items through the generalised deterministic input, noisy "and" gate (G-DINA) model, the study conducted two investigations on exploring the relationships among the five reading…

  7. Teachers Focus on Motivation for Reading: "It's All about Knowing the Relationship"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrau, Norman; Ragusa, Gisele; Bowers, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on teacher's beliefs about students' motivation for reading and how teachers act on those beliefs in classrooms. After conducting five focus groups of teachers, researchers analyzed and interpreted transcripts to identify major themes. While instructional processes mediated the building of relationships between…

  8. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Students' Attitude toward Leisure Time Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rena, Syahidah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to state the relationship between the parenting style and students' attitude toward leisure reading. A total of 147 (65 male and 82 female) students from two classes (class five, 80 and class six, 67) were participated in the present study. The Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Elementary Reading…

  9. The Relationship between Victimization at School and Achievement: The Cusp Catastrophe Model for Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Faye; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Morgan, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between victimization and academic achievement from a nonlinear perspective using a cusp catastrophe model. Participants were 62 students with identified learning disabilities (LD) using statewide criteria in Greece. Students participated in a 2-year cohort-sequential design. Reading assessments involved measures of…

  10. The Mediating Role of Mind Wandering in the Relationship between Working Memory Capacity and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mind wandering in the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and reading comprehension as predicted by the executive-attention theory of WMC (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). I used a latent-variable, structural-equation-model approach with three WMC span tasks, seven…

  11. Adult Learners: Relationships of Reading, MCAT, and USMLE Step 1 Test Results for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    This study examined the possible relationship between scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (current forms G and H) and performance on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 examination scores. Participants were 730 medical students at a mid-Atlantic university, and for 572…

  12. Exploring Reading Comprehension Skill Relationships through the G-DINA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    By analysing the test data of 1029 British secondary school students' performance on 20 Programme for International Student Assessment English reading items through the generalised deterministic input, noisy "and" gate (G-DINA) model, the study conducted two investigations on exploring the relationships among the five reading…

  13. The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

  14. A Correlational Study: The Relationship between School Climate, Connectedness, and Reading Achievement of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between the quality of school climate and connectedness as perceived by 3rd- to 5th-grade students and their teachers, and the level and of reading achievement of 3rd- to 5th-grade students in one district in the Northwestern United…

  15. Public Pedagogy from the Learner's Perspective: Women Reading Self-Help Relationship Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, Brandi M.; McLean, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of public pedagogy has increasingly influenced the study of continuing education, drawing attention to ways in which adults access resources from popular culture and learn without the involvement of educational institutions. Reading relationship self-help books has become a prominent component of popular culture. There…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Factors of Implementation, Treatment Integrity and Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Kira Liese

    2010-01-01

    Treatment integrity has always had a presence in research, but now more than ever must become a priority owing to the changes in Special Education Law. The present study intends to explore the relationship between factors of implementation, treatment integrity of intervention implementation, and reading fluency. Participants included students in…

  17. Public Pedagogy from the Learner's Perspective: Women Reading Self-Help Relationship Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, Brandi M.; McLean, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of public pedagogy has increasingly influenced the study of continuing education, drawing attention to ways in which adults access resources from popular culture and learn without the involvement of educational institutions. Reading relationship self-help books has become a prominent component of popular culture. There…

  18. Semantic categorization and reading skill across Dutch primary grades: Development yes, relationship no

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsel, M.A.R.; Ormel, E.A.; Hermans, D.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, seman

  19. One without the other: seeing relationships in everyday objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, James A; Oyserman, Daphna; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-09-01

    People often make multiple choices at the same time, choosing a snack and drink or a cell phone and case, only to learn that some of their choices are unavailable. Do they take the available item (or items) or something else entirely? Culture-as-situated-cognition theory predicts that this choice is determined by one's accessible cultural mind-set. An accessible collectivist (vs. individualist) mind-set should heighten sensitivity to an emergent relationship among items chosen together so that having some is not acceptable if not all can be obtained. Indeed, we found that Latinos (but not Anglos) refuse chosen items if not all can be obtained (Study 1a). Further, making a collectivist mind-set accessible reproduces this between-groups difference (Study 1b), increases people's willingness to pay to complete sets (Study 1b), and shifts choice to previously undesired items if no set-completing option is provided (Studies 2-4). Finally, we found that increased sensitivity to an emergent relationship among chosen items mediates these effects (Studies 3 and 4).

  20. Understanding the Reading Attributes and Their Cognitive Relationships on a High-Stakes Biology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlusyk, Kevin James

    Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0

  1. On the relationship between BL Lacertae objects and radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine

    2008-01-01

    We present deep radio images at 1.4 GHz of a large and complete sample of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) selected from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS). We have observed 24 northern sources with the Very Large Array (VLA) in both its A and C configurations and 15 southern sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in its largest configuration. We find that in the DXRBS, as in the 1-Jy survey, which has a radio flux limit roughly ten times higher than the DXRBS, a considerable number (about a third) of BL Lacs can be identified with the relativistically beamed counterparts of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies. We attribute the existence of FR II-BL Lacs, which is not accounted for by current unified schemes, to an inconsistency in our classification scheme for radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). Taking the extended radio power as a suitable measure of intrinsic jet power, we find similar average values for low- (LBL) and high-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBL), contrary to the...

  2. Intrinsic reading motivation of Chinese preschoolers and its relationships with home literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Salili, Farideh

    2008-10-01

    The relationship between intrinsic motivation and home literacy of preschoolers was explored. One hundred and seventy-seven preschool children (3.8 to 6.6 years old) in Mainland China and one of the parents who primarily took care of each child participated in the study. Six indicators were considered as a measure of home literacy. Results showed that after controlling for parents' education level and children's age, three home literacy indicators-parental model of reading behaviour, number of books, and years of character teaching-could explain children's intrinsic reading motivation. Contrary to previous Western studies, Chinese children's freedom of book choice was not related to their intrinsic reading motivation. Results are discussed in the context of culture differences.

  3. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship Between the Clinical Components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns and the Stanford Achievement Test: Validity of the Boder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the concurrent validity of the diagnostic components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns with the reading and spelling measures of the Stanford Achievement Reading Test (SAT) in 87 reading-disabled elementary school students. Results indicated the relationship between the reading components of the Boder and SAT were…

  5. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading Fluency (CBM-R): An Objective Orientated Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima-Farrell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge and practices associated with improved outcomes for readers have yielded converging evidence about practices associated with improved reading outcomes for primary students. This considerable intervention knowledge can be beneficial for English teachers working with struggling secondary readers. Fluency is one critical element that…

  6. The relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide Range Achievement Test—Fourth Edition (Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006) and the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability—Third Edition (Neale, 2007). Parent report data was collected using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales—Second Edition (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005). Participants were 21 children with ASD (6-11 years) and their primary caregivers. Direct assessment of children's reading ability showed that some children with ASD have difficulty learning to read and exhibit particular weaknesses in comprehension. The results revealed positive relationships between Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales scores in the Adaptive Communication domain and direct assessment of children's reading ability across 3 measures of reading (word-level accuracy, passage-level accuracy, and passage-level comprehension). Although literacy levels vary among children with ASD, some clearly struggle with reading. There is a significant relationship between parent self-report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of children's reading ability.

  7. What’s in a name depends on the type of name: The relationships between semantic and phonological access, reading fluency and reading comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study...... examined both components in naming tasks – with isolated letters (phonological) and pictures (semantic). Seventy-five Grade 5 students were administered measures of letter and picture naming speed, word and nonword reading fluency, reading comprehension, together with control measures of vocabulary....... The results showed that letter naming was a unique predictor of word reading fluency, while picture naming was not. Conversely, picture naming speed contributed unique variance to reading comprehension, while letter naming did not. The results indicate that phonological and semantic lexical access speed...

  8. What’s in a name depends on the type of name: The relationships between semantic and phonological access, reading fluency and reading comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between lexical access, reading fluency and comprehension. Two components of speed of lexical access were studied: phonological and semantic. Previous studies have mainly investigated these components of lexical access separately. The present study...... examined both components in naming tasks – with isolated letters (phonological) and pictures (semantic). Seventy-five Grade 5 students were administered measures of letter and picture naming speed, word and nonword reading fluency, reading comprehension, together with control measures of vocabulary....... The results showed that letter naming was a unique predictor of word reading fluency, while picture naming was not. Conversely, picture naming speed contributed unique variance to reading comprehension, while letter naming did not. The results indicate that phonological and semantic lexical access speed...

  9. Your mind wanders weakly, your mind wanders deeply: objective measures reveal mindless reading at different levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Daniel J; Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    When the mind wanders, attention turns away from the external environment and cognitive processing is decoupled from perceptual information. Mind wandering is usually treated as a dichotomy (dichotomy-hypothesis), and is often measured using self-reports. Here, we propose the levels of inattention hypothesis, which postulates attentional decoupling to graded degrees at different hierarchical levels of cognitive processing. To measure graded levels of attentional decoupling during reading we introduce the sustained attention to stimulus task (SAST), which is based on psychophysics of error detection. Under experimental conditions likely to induce mind wandering, we found that subjects were less likely to notice errors that required high-level processing for their detection as opposed to errors that only required low-level processing. Eye tracking revealed that before errors were overlooked influences of high- and low-level linguistic variables on eye fixations were reduced in a graded fashion, indicating episodes of mindless reading at weak and deep levels. Individual fixation durations predicted overlooking of lexical errors 5s before they occurred. Our findings support the levels of inattention hypothesis and suggest that different levels of mindless reading can be measured behaviorally in the SAST. Using eye tracking to detect mind wandering online represents a promising approach for the development of new techniques to study mind wandering and to ameliorate its negative consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 论课内阅读与课外阅读的关系%The Relationship between Inside Reading and Outside Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑福山

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the strong intrusion of non-mainstream culture and national barriers to test-oriented education,teachers often have a headache for the teaching of reading.There is no doubt,to improve their language scores,reading is undoubtedly one important way.So in order to allow effective integration of inside reading and outside reading,inside reading naturally infiltrates outside reading,to attract the interest of students,correctly handle the relationship between inside reading and outside reading is particularly important,this article will describe the problems from three aspects.%面对当前各种非主流文化的强势侵入和本国应试教育的壁垒,教师往往对阅读教学甚感头疼。毋庸置疑,要提高学生的语文成绩,阅读无疑是重要的途径之一。因此,为了让课内外阅读有效融合,课内自然渗透与之相关的课外阅读,以引起学生的兴趣,正确处理好课内阅读与课外阅读的关系显得尤为重要,本文将从三个方面对该问题进行阐述。

  11. An exploratory study of the relationships between reading comprehension competence, reading attitude and the vividness of mental imagery among Turkish fourth-grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOCAARSLAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the possible relationships between reading comprehension competence, reading attitude and the vividness of mental imagery among Turkish fourth-grade students. Participants were fourth grade students, selected using convenience sampling from two different public schools (n=103 in Bartin, Turkey. The research was designed as a correlational study to describe the degree to which two or more quantitative variables are related; this was achieved by using a correlation coefficient. The data gathering tools used in this study were (1: the Reading Comprehension Test (RCT, which was developed by the researcher and which includes both factual and inferential questions; (2 the Vividness of Imagery Questionnaire (VIQ, developed by Sheveland (1992; (3 the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS, developed by McKenna and Kear (1990. Multiple linear regressions were used for data analysis. The analysis revealed that reading attitude and vividness of mental imagery were significant predictors for students’ reading comprehension competencies. In addition, the results indicated that approximately 14% of the variance in reading comprehension competence could be explained by reading attitude and vividness of mental imagery [R=.369, R2=.136, F(2-96=7.578, p<.01].

  12. Relationship between eye preference and binocular rivalry, and between eye-hand preference and reading ability in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, J; Monzalvo-Lopez, K; Mamassian, P

    2008-12-01

    One goal of the experiment presented here was to check, in children, the relationship between eye preference when sighting at different angles and eye dominance in binocular rivalry. In addition, since it is sometimes argued that a crossed pattern of eye-hand preference might put children at risk of difficulties in learning to read, we evaluated the relationship between this pattern and reading achievement in first and sixth graders. Results showed that a majority of children are right-eyed for monosighting, and that intrinsic preference and spatial factor influence the choice of eye. As many children were right- or left-eye dominant, and eye dominance was not related to eye preference. We found no relationship between eye-hand preference and reading proficiency, thus not confirming that a crossed pattern of eye-hand preference might put children at risk of difficulties in learning to read. Consistent handers were more advanced in reading than inconsistent handers.

  13. The relationship between the reading and signing skills of deaf children in bilingual education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Ormel, Ellen; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on one experiment in which we investigated the relationship between reading and signing skills. We administered a vocabulary task and a story comprehension task in Sign Language of the Netherlands and in written Dutch to a group of 87 deaf children from bilingual education programs. We found a strong and positive correlation between the scores obtained in the sign vocabulary task and the reading vocabulary task when age, short-term memory scores, and nonverbal intelligence scores were controlled for. In addition, a correlation was observed between the scores in the story comprehension tasks in Sign Language of the Netherlands and written Dutch but only when vocabulary scores for words and signs were not taken into account. The results are briefly discussed with reference to a model we recently proposed to describe lexical development for deaf children in bilingual education programs (Hermans, D., Knoors, H., Ormel, E., & Verhoeven, L., 2008). In addition, the implications of the results of the present study for previous studies on the relationship between reading and signing skills are discussed.

  14. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara FM Marino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the observation of graspable objects recruits the same motor representations involved in their actual manipulation. Recent evidence suggests that the presentation of nouns referring to graspable objects may exert similar effects. So far, however, it is not clear to what extent the modulation of the motor system during object observation overlaps with that related to noun processing. To address this issue, 2 behavioral experiments were carried out using a go-no go paradigm. Healthy participants were presented with photos and nouns of graspable and non-graspable natural objects. Also scrambled images and pseudowords obtained from the original stimuli were used. At a go-signal onset (150 ms after stimulus presentation participants had to press a key when the stimulus referred to a real object, using their right (Experiment 1 or left (Experiment 2 hand, and refrain from responding when a scrambled image or a pseudoword was presented. Slower responses were found for both photos and nouns of graspable objects as compared to non-graspable objects, independent of the responding hand. These findings suggest that processing seen graspable objects and written nouns referring to graspable objects similarly modulates the motor system.

  15. The relationship between early reading skills and speech and language performance in young children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy L

    2011-05-01

    To examine the early reading skills of young children with cleft lip and palate and to examine the relationship between early reading skills and speech and language performance. A total of 56 children participated in the study: 28 children with cleft lip and palate and 28 noncleft children matched for age (mean age, 5 years 7 months), gender, and months of formal schooling. The two groups of children were compared (t tests) on the Test of Early Reading-3. Pearson product moment correlations were performed to examine separately the relationship between early reading skills and speech production abilities and between early reading skills and receptive and expressive language abilities for the two groups. Statistically significant group differences were noted on the Test of Early Reading-3. The mean score of 99 obtained by the group of children with cleft lip and palate was within normal limits compared with the norms for the Test of Early Reading-3; however, 14% of the children with cleft lip and palate scored outside the normal range on the Test of Early Reading-3. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between early reading skills and speech production abilities and between early reading skills and language abilities. Children with cleft lip and palate differed from noncleft peers in speech and early reading skills. Children with the most severe speech problems were the children with the poorest performance on the Test of Early Reading-3. Management of children with cleft lip and palate should include early identification of and intervention for delays in speech, language, and reading.

  16. Nursing students' reading and English aptitudes and their relationship to discipline-specific formal writing ability: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sarah; Moore, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Formal writing assignments are commonly used in nursing education to develop students' critical thinking skills, as well as to enhance their communication abilities. However, writing apprehension is a common phenomenon among nursing students. It has been suggested that reading and English aptitudes are related to formal writing ability, yet neither the reading nor the English aptitudes of undergraduate nursing students have been described in the literature, and the relationships that reading and English aptitude have with formal writing ability have not been explored. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe writing apprehension and to assess the relationships among reading and English aptitude and discipline-specific formal writing ability among undergraduate nursing students. The study sample consisted of 146 sophomores from one baccalaureate nursing program. The results indicated that both reading and English aptitude were related to students' formal writing ability.

  17. Relationship between Reading Proficiency, Strategic Competence, and Reading Comprehension Test Performance: A Study of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The study scrutinized the interaction between reading proficiency and strategic competence via reading comprehension test performance of Iranian EFL learners. The further concern was to scrutinize the extent to which strategic competence affected the participants' test performance. The participants were 506 postgraduate students who took a reading…

  18. Can We "Read" the Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers? Unraveling the Relationship between Reading Profiles and Processing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Arnout; Mulders, Iris

    2017-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment we examined the risky reading hypothesis, in which long saccades and many regressions are considered to be indicative of a proactive reading style (Rayner et al. in "Psychol Aging" 21(3):448, 2006; "Psychol Aging" 24(3):755, 2009). We did so by presenting short texts--that confirmed or disconfirmed…

  19. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies--French (Study 1, n = 1,313) or English (Study 2, n = 114) in early childhood (Grade 2)and middle childhood (Grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships…

  20. The Analysis of the Relationship between Primary Learning Styles and Learning Objects in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the primary learning styles of students and different learning objects presented simultaneously in an online learning environment in the context of the usage levels of these objects. A total of 103 sophomores from a Turkish State University participated in the study. Felder-Solomon Index of…

  1. "Irreplaceable": Exploring Identity and Relationships through the Discussion of Invaluable Personal Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharp, Kristina M.; Canfield, Clair

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Interpersonal Communication, Family Communication, Relational Communication. Objectives: Students reflect on and discuss how personal objects are connected to their identity and relationships with others. This activity illustrates the ways course concepts such as relational metaphors, stories, rules, rituals, and other patterns of…

  2. Vocal impact of a prolonged reading task at two intensity levels: objective measurements and subjective self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, Angélique; Finck, Camille; Roche, Anne; Morsomme, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Voice modifications accompanying changes in intensity level during prolonged reading tasks are analyzed. Fifty normophonic women undergo two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level of voice varied between 60-65 dB(A) for the first session and 70-75 dB(A) for the second session. The effects of loading on objective data (average fundamental frequency [F0], jitter%, shimmer%, noise-to-harmonic ratio, maximum phonation time, lowest frequency [F-Low], highest frequency [F-High], frequency range [Range], lowest intensity [I-Low] level, and highest intensity level) and self-ratings (voice quality, phonation effort, vocal fatigue, and laryngeal discomfort) are assessed every 30 minutes during the loading tasks. Results indicate that average F0, F-Low, I-Low, maximum phonation time, feeling of phonation effort, vocal fatigue, and laryngeal discomfort increase during prolonged reading, whereas shimmer% and self-rating of voice quality decrease. Average F0, F-High, and Range are the only parameters influenced by the required intensity of vocal load; they are significantly higher in the 70- to 75-dB session compared with the 60- to 65-dB session. Concerning the subjective self-ratings, similar results for the four ratings used suggest that only one would suffice in future studies. These results confirm the importance of both duration and intensity level as loading factors, even if intensity level affects fewer variables than duration. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reading Comprehension Mediates the Relationship between Syntactic Awareness and Writing Composition in Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed to explore the relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition in 129 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children were from a ten-year longitudinal project. At each year, a number of measures were administered. The 129 children's data of nonverbal reasoning at age 4, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge at age 8, reading comprehension at age 12 and syntactic awareness and writing composition skills at ages 11 and 12 were included in this study. Syntactic awareness was longitudinally and uniquely predictive of Chinese children's writing composition, and children's performance in early writing composition was uniquely associated with their later syntactic skills, even when controlling for the contributions from age, nonverbal and verbal abilities, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness. The relationship between syntactic awareness and writing composition was mediated by children's performance in reading comprehension. These findings may suggest a reciprocal relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition, and this association may vary with ability in reading comprehension in Chinese children.

  4. On Mature Reflection: "Strange Objects" and the Cultivation of Reflective Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, Emma

    2000-01-01

    Examines Gary Crew's novel written for a young adult audience, called "Strange Objects," a story containing verifiable historical fact interwoven with elements of fiction and the supernatural. Shows how the numerous genres and viewpoints in the book challenge and contradict one another, forcing young readers to perform resistant readings…

  5. Comparing Effect of 'Summarizing', 'Question-Answer Relationship', and 'Syntactic Structure Identification' on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hemmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the effects of 'question-answer relationship strategy', 'summarizing', and 'syntactic structure identification training'on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were sixty (34 women and 26 men intermediate students who answered an English reading comprehension test consisting of three reading passages as the pretest. During the treatment, the students in the first group were supposed to summarize the passages. The subjects in the second group familiarized with the syntactic structure identification strategy and the ones in the third group were taught the question-answer relationship strategy. At the end of the treatment, an English reading comprehension test similar to the pretest was administered to the groups as a posttest. The results suggested that there is statistically significant difference between the reading comprehension abilities of the three classes. Furthermore the use of QAR strategy led to better comprehension of reading texts with syntactic structure training and summarizing between which there was no significant difference. Keywords: Reading comprehension, summarization, question-answer relationship, syntactic structure

  6. Relationship of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness in Early Reading Development: Implications for the Double-Deficit Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 1,123 children investigated the relationship between naming speed and phonological awareness skills and the implications for the classification of children at risk of reading disability. Results found a positive correlation between naming speed and phonological awareness and indicate this relationship will affect any comparison…

  7. The Relationship between Attention, Executive Functions and Reading Domain Abilities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, Barbara; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disorder (RD) is frequent. The objective of this investigation was to assess the potential uniqueness of co-morbid ADHD + RD and extend existing findings to the Hebrew language. Method: A parallel group design with post-hoc analysis of group differences was…

  8. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, L2 Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Size of Iranian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghazanfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phonological memory (PM is viewed as one of the key elements in language learning. The present study was an effort to investigate the relationship between PM, reading comprehension, and vocabulary size of Iranian high school EFL learners. The participants were 58 high school freshmen and senior students. Administering Oxford Quick Placement Test (QPT, the participants were divided into two groups of proficiency, i.e. elementary and lower intermediate. Afterwards, two measures of PM, namely nonword repetition (NWRP and nonword recognition (NWRC tests, a reading comprehension test, and Schmitt’s vocabulary levels test were administered. The results showed a significant relationship between reading comprehension, vocabulary size, and PM measures at both levels of proficiency. Moreover, the regression analyses showed that NWRC can be a better predictor of L2 learners’ performance on reading comprehension at the lower intermediate level, and NWRC was found to be a better predictor of vocabulary size for both groups of language proficiency.

  9. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists

    OpenAIRE

    Eriko eAiba; Toshie eMatsui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory...

  10. The Effects of Blended Instruction on Oral Reading Performance and their Relationships to a Five-Factor Model of Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Miyaji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, 'Blended Instruction' - an effective method of instructions utilizing e-Learning materials in English education - consists of an individual learning part, a collaborative learning part and a teacher instruction part. In the individual learning, students act out model dialogues in the WBT courseware which incorporated a high quantity of video and sound clips. In the collaborative learning, students perform the dialogues in pairs and assessed each other's performance. Our recent research in a high school showed that the skill of the students' oral reading was improved in most criteria of assessment through blended instruction. However, it is still not clear what kind of relationship exists between the development of the students' oral reading skills and their personalities. With this in mind, the authors have studied the effects of the blended instruction on the junior high school students' oral reading performance and their relationships to the five-factor model of personality. The result of the research shows that the skill of the students' oral reading was improved in most criteria of assessment and the blended instruction was effective for the personality group, 'Introverted unintelligent person' in the most categories of oral reading criteria as well as the personality group, 'Sociable hard-worker'. The important factor for that group in oral reading performance turned out to be 'Sense Reading'.

  11. A study of the relationship of storytelling ability and reading comprehension in fourth and sixth grade African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecan-Aker, J S; Caraway, T H

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation of storytelling skills to achievement in reading comprehension in African-American children. Socioeconomic status (SES), gender and developmental level of children's stories were examined as predictors of reading achievement. A total of 80 children in the fourth and sixth grades served as subjects. Results indicated that correlations of the narrative variables with reading achievement were significant for story level (0.37) and clauses per T-unit (0.33). These results are discussed relative to the effect of oral language on academic achievement and the importance of examining this relationship in culturally and linguistically diverse groups.

  12. The Relationship of Reading Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Opportunity Structure: An Object of Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebody, Peter; Hornibrook, Margery

    2005-01-01

    Eric Hobsbawm, perhaps the preeminent historian writing in English about the 19th and 20th centuries, previewed his encyclopedic account of the last 100 years with descriptions of the organizationally, collectively, and individually brutalizing effects of the intense round of wars, revolutions, and economic fluctuations that were the hallmark of…

  13. The Relationship of Reading Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Opportunity Structure: An Object of Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebody, Peter; Hornibrook, Margery

    2005-01-01

    Eric Hobsbawm, perhaps the preeminent historian writing in English about the 19th and 20th centuries, previewed his encyclopedic account of the last 100 years with descriptions of the organizationally, collectively, and individually brutalizing effects of the intense round of wars, revolutions, and economic fluctuations that were the hallmark of…

  14. Using a Faculty Survey of College-Level Reading and Writing Requirements To Revise Developmental Reading and Writing Objectives. Kellogg Institute Final Report, Practicum 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Kathleen

    The report discusses the findings of a study on the reading and writing demands of college-level courses at Maryland's Charles County Community College (College of Southern Maryland as of July 1, 2000). The Language and Literature Department wanted to determine whether its developmental courses were actually preparing students for the reading and…

  15. The Relationship between the Use of the Accelerated Reader Program and Reading Comprehension Scores for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Dennis Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine demographic and educational variables as well as the variable of number of books read through a motivational reading program, Accelerated Reader, in a residential school for the deaf in the southeast and determine the relationship of these variables to reading comprehension as measured by the STAR Reading…

  16. Exploring the relationship among new literacies, reading, mathematics and science performance of Turkish students in PISA 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan ARIKAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkish students on average had lower scores than OECD countries on mathematics, science, and reading at international assessment programs. As PISA measures the extent to which 15-year-old students are prepared to handle the challenges they may encounter in their future lives, and evaluates students’ ability to reflect and to apply their knowledge and experience to real-life situations, low scores on this assessment should be investigated carefully. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the relationships between new literacy skills, reading, mathematics, and science performance of Turkish students. The results showed that new literacy skills measured in PISA had two dimensional structure including at and outside of school new literacy skills. These new literacy skills were shown to predict reading performance significantly, at school negatively and outside of school positively. It was also shown that reading performance and new literacy skills were effective in the prediction of both mathematics and science performances.

  17. The Relationship among Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension, Pre-Reading Skills, Word Identification Skills, and Reading Comprehension by Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Justin C.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Some researchers (F. R. Vellutino, F. M. Scanlon, & M. S. Tanzman, 1994) have argued that the different domains comprising language (e.g., phonology, semantics, and grammar) may influence reading development in a differential manner and at different developmental periods. The purpose of this study was to examine proposed causal…

  18. The default modes of reading: Modulation of posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex connectivity associated with subjective and objective differences in reading experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eSmallwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a fundamental human capacity and yet it can easily be derailed by the simple act of mind-wandering. A large-scale brain network, referred to as the default mode network (DMN, has been shown to be involved in both mind-wandering and reading, raising the question as to how the same neural system could be implicated in processes with both costs and benefits to narrative comprehension. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to explore whether the intrinsic functional connectivity of the two key midline hubs of the DMN — the posterior cingulate (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC — was predictive of individual differences in reading effectiveness (better comprehension, superior and task focus recorded outside of the scanner. Worse comprehension was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and a region of the ventral striatum. By contrast reports of increasing task focus were associated with functional connectivity from the aMPFC to clusters in the PCC, the left parietal and temporal cortex, and the cerebellum. Our results suggest that the DMN has both costs (such as poor comprehension and benefits to reading (such as an on-task focus because its midline core can couple its activity with other regions to form distinct functional communities that allow seemingly opposing mental states to occur. This flexible coupling allows the DMN to participate in cognitive states that complement the act of reading as well as others that do not.

  19. Relationships of Reading, MCAT, and USMLE Step 1 Test Results for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, Patricia; Walls, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Students (N = 730) took the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (current forms G or H) during orientation to medical school. Stepwise regression analyses showed the Nelson-Denny Reading Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Rate were significant predictors of MCAT (taken prior to admission to medical school) verbal reasoning. Reading Vocabulary was a significant…

  20. The Relationships among Reported Strategy Use, Metacognitive Awareness, and Reading Achievement of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay; Leavell, Alexandra G.; Maher, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The metacognitive awareness and reading strategy use of high school students enrolled in two high schools were investigated. The correlations between reading scores and strategy use were examined as well as the variation in strategy use by self-rated reading proficiency and academic grades. The factor analysis revealed four factors on the…

  1. Independent Reading: The Relationship of Challenge, Non-Fiction and Gender to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2008-01-01

    To explore whether different balances of fiction/non-fiction reading and challenge might help explain differences in reading achievement between genders, data on 45,670 pupils who independently read over 3 million books were analysed. Moderate (rather than high or low) levels of challenge were positively associated with achievement gain, but…

  2. The Relationship between Implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Student Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alison; Buckley, Pamela; Maul, Andrew; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a set of research-based strategies designed to improve reading comprehension, enhance students' content area learning, facilitate access to higher-level texts, and to promote student engagement. The present study examines how fidelity of implementation of CSR is associated with reading outcomes for students…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Middle School Students' Critical Reading Skills, Science Literacy Skills and Attitudes: A Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ersin; Ulucinar, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship between middle school students' critical reading skills, science literacy skills and attitudes towards science literacy with research data according to the default model. Through the structural equation modeling, path analysis has been applied in the study which was designed in…

  4. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  5. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  6. The Relationship between Delivery Models and the Grade-Level Reading Development of Sixth-Grade English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Holly Weber

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…

  7. The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Selected Variables of Productivity-Reading Achievement, Teacher Experience and Teacher Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanley Jeffery

    This study investigated the relationship between organizational climate and selected organizational variables--reading achievement, teacher experience, and teacher attrition. The study sample consisted of the total teaching staffs and 642 randomly selected students from five elementary schools in a metropolitan school district. Data were collected…

  8. The Relationship between Teacher Absenteeism and Student Achievement in Mathematics and Reading in One Suburban Elementary School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticknor, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Although it seems reasonable to assume frequency of teacher absence affects student achievement, research has not consistently supported this assumption. This quantitative, non-experimental study investigated the relationship between teacher absenteeism and student achievement in mathematics and reading in one high-performing suburban elementary…

  9. Constructing Relationship Between Software Metrics and Code Reusability in Object Oriented Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj H.M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of the design pattern in the form of software metric and internal code architecture for object-oriented design plays a critical role in software engineering regarding production cost efficiency. This paper discusses code reusability that is a frequently exercised cost saving methodology in IT production. After reviewing existing literature towards a study on software metrics, we found that very few studies are witnessed to incline towards code reusability. Hence, we developed a simple analytical model that establishes a relationship between the design components of standard software metric and code reusability using case studies of three software projects (Customer Relationship Management project, Supply Chain Management project, and Enterprise Relationship Management project. We also testify our proposal using stochastic based Markov model to find that proposed system can extract significant information of maximized values of code reusability with increasing level of uncertainties of software project methodologies.

  10. The relationship between extrinsic motivation, home literacy, classroom instructional practices, and reading proficiency in second-grade Chinese children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin-kum Law

    2008-01-01

      According to Wigfield (1997), children's reading motivation is multidimensional and extrinsic aspects of reading motivations include reading recognition, reading for grades, competition in reading, social reasons for reading...

  11. Bringing the Simple View of Reading to the clinic: Relationships between oral and written language skills in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M

    2016-01-01

    The Simple View of Reading (SVR) predicts subtypes of reading disorder based on weaknesses in word recognition, listening comprehension, or both. This practice-based research study explores predictions of the SVR within a clinical practice setting. The study is a retrospective analysis of 112 assessment records from school-aged children (aged 6.0-16.7) referred for speech-language evaluation. Available scores within four areas (listening comprehension, word recognition, reading comprehension, and oral expression) were extracted and then converted to composites. Composite scores were used to categorize children into SVR subtypes. We examined the distribution of children across subtypes and the relationships among the four constructs. Children were distributed across all SVR subtypes, but few had impairments only in word recognition. Children with impairments in listening comprehension or word recognition showed poorer reading comprehension than those that did not, but there was imperfect prediction of reading comprehension impairment at an individual level. There were more significant correlations among constructs for younger children. Oral expression and listening comprehension were closely related across analyses. The SVR is a clinically useful model for capturing variation and explaining relationships among oral and written language in school-age children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Unpicking the Developmental Relationship Between Oral Language Skills and Reading Comprehension: It's Simple, But Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervåg, Monica

    2017-06-12

    Listening comprehension and word decoding are the two major determinants of the development of reading comprehension. The relative importance of different language skills for the development of listening and reading comprehension remains unclear. In this 5-year longitudinal study, starting at age 7.5 years (n = 198), it was found that the shared variance between vocabulary, grammar, verbal working memory, and inference skills was a powerful longitudinal predictor of variations in both listening and reading comprehension. In line with the simple view of reading, listening comprehension, and word decoding, together with their interaction and curvilinear effects, explains almost all (96%) variation in early reading comprehension skills. Additionally, listening comprehension was a predictor of both the early and later growth of reading comprehension skills. © 2017 The Authors Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  13. Processing Subject-Object Ambiguities in the L2: A Self-Paced Reading Study With German L2 Learners of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.M.; Roberts, L.; Hout, R.W.N.M. van; Schreuder, R.; Haverkort, M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of two self-paced reading experiments are reported, which investigated the online processing of subject-object ambiguities in Dutch relative clause constructions like Dat is de vrouw die de meisjes heeft/hebben gezien by German advanced second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Native spea

  14. Tracking Students' Eye-Movements When Reading Learning Objects on Mobile Phones: A Discourse Analysis of Luganda Language Teacher-Trainees' Reflective Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabugo, David; Muyinda, Paul B.; Masagazi, Fred. M.; Mugagga, Anthony M.; Mulumba, Mathias B.

    2016-01-01

    Although eye-tracking technologies such as Tobii-T120/TX and Eye-Tribe are steadily becoming ubiquitous, and while their appropriation in education can aid teachers to collect robust information on how students move their eyes when reading and engaging with different learning objects, many teachers of Luganda language are yet to gain experiences…

  15. Cultural differences in sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts: evidence from P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Umla-Runge, Katja; Hofmann, Juliane; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-06-18

    Cross-cultural differences in Easterners and Westerners have been observed in different cognitive domains. Differential sensitivity to the relationship between objects and contexts might be an underlying cognitive mechanism for these differences. Twenty-one Chinese and 22 Germans participated in a three-stimulus event-related potential oddball task. They were instructed to monitor geometrical forms filled in black (targets) that were presented among a series of blank geometrical forms (standards). Novel stimuli were colored images of common objects. Robust novelty P3 and target P3 over the entire scalp were observed in both groups. As compared with the German group, Chinese participants showed larger amplitudes of novelty P3 and target P3 over frontal regions and earlier peak latency for target P3. This indicates a higher sensitivity to the relationship between contexts and objects in the Chinese as compared with the German group, which might be an underlying mechanism for cross-cultural differences reported in many cognitive domains.

  16. Music Memory Following Short-term Practice and Its Relationship with the Sight-reading Abilities of Professional Pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants' responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice.

  17. A Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality Method Combining Deep Learning Object Detection and Spatial Relationships for Geovisualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jinmeng; Qiao, Yanjun; Ren, Fu; Wang, Junxing; Du, Qingyun

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to develop a robust, fast and markerless mobile augmented reality method for registration, geovisualization and interaction in uncontrolled outdoor environments. We propose a lightweight deep-learning-based object detection approach for mobile or embedded devices; the vision-based detection results of this approach are combined with spatial relationships by means of the host device's built-in Global Positioning System receiver, Inertial Measurement Unit and magnetometer. Virtual objects generated based on geospatial information are precisely registered in the real world, and an interaction method based on touch gestures is implemented. The entire method is independent of the network to ensure robustness to poor signal conditions. A prototype system was developed and tested on the Wuhan University campus to evaluate the method and validate its results. The findings demonstrate that our method achieves a high detection accuracy, stable geovisualization results and interaction.

  18. A Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality Method Combining Deep Learning Object Detection and Spatial Relationships for Geovisualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmeng Rao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a robust, fast and markerless mobile augmented reality method for registration, geovisualization and interaction in uncontrolled outdoor environments. We propose a lightweight deep-learning-based object detection approach for mobile or embedded devices; the vision-based detection results of this approach are combined with spatial relationships by means of the host device’s built-in Global Positioning System receiver, Inertial Measurement Unit and magnetometer. Virtual objects generated based on geospatial information are precisely registered in the real world, and an interaction method based on touch gestures is implemented. The entire method is independent of the network to ensure robustness to poor signal conditions. A prototype system was developed and tested on the Wuhan University campus to evaluate the method and validate its results. The findings demonstrate that our method achieves a high detection accuracy, stable geovisualization results and interaction.

  19. Relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and objective measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a Chinese survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ye; PANG Jian; LIU Ming; ZHANG Yao-guang; ZENG Ping; DING Qiang; HUANG Jian; HE Da-lin; SONG Bo; KONG Chui-ze

    2008-01-01

    Background The enlarged prostate leads to obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which comprise frequency, urgency, weak stream, straining and nocturia. This study was conducted in a large series of patients to evaluate the relationship between LUTS as stipulated in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the objective parameters related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods We enrolled 1295 BPH patients from seven centers. The patients were either at first diagnosis of BPH or had discontinued medical treatment for at least 3 months. Those with several other diseases that may be potential risk factors affecting urinary symptoms were excluded from the study. Age, IPSS, prostate volume, peak flow rate, urine volume and post-voiding residual urine volume were measured. The relationship between IPSS and objective parameters were quantified by means of Spearman correlation coefficients. The differences in these parameters between the groups with mild, moderate or severe symptoms were also evaluated.Results Statistically significant correlations were found between IPSS and objective parameters by means of Spearman correlation coefficients. When the patients were divided into three groups with different severities of symptoms,there were significant differences in peak flow rate, urine volume, prostate volume, residue urine volume and quality of life, whereas average age and prostate-specific antigen levels were similar. However, there was evident overlap of these parameters between the groups. The same results were found when the irritative or obstructive subscore of IPSS was considered.Conclusions The correlation between objective parameters of BPH and LUTS is significant. However, it is hard to predict the severity of symptoms by these parameters.

  20. The Relationship of Morphological Analysis and Morphological Decoding to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Tong, Xiuli; Francis, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of children's reading development is the full and fluid understanding of texts. Morphological structure awareness, or children's awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language, has been identified as a key skill influencing reading comprehension. Here, we evaluate the roles of morphological structure awareness and two…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  2. Reading-Writing Relationships in First and Second Language Academic Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, William; Zhang, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Reading and writing relations, as this concept applies to academic learning contexts, whether as a major way to learn language or academic content, is a pervasive issue in English for academic purposes (EAP) contexts. In many cases, this major link between reading/writing and academic learning is true even though explicit discussions of this…

  3. Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading in First Grade Students in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is one of the human's communicative skills. Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming are parts of the person's linguistic knowledge. Research in different languages and communities suggest that there is a relation between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading. To survey these relations in Persian language is the aim of this study.Methods: In this study 130 male students from the first grade were selected at random. They were normal in IQ, visual and hearing status. Language development was also normal in these children. This study was a cross-sectional one. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression test were used to analyze data.Results: The relation between phonological awareness and automatized rapid naming was significant (p<0.0001. Pearson correlation coefficient between phonological awareness and reading was direct (0.86. Pearson correlation coefficient between rapid automatized naming and reading was indirect that equals -0.87. In investigating the relation of two variables simultaneously with reading we concluded that the relation between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading is statistically significant (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this research revealed that in Persian language like other languages there is a relation between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and reading. Reading skills of children could be improved with this exercises.

  4. The Relationship of Morphological Analysis and Morphological Decoding to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Tong, Xiuli; Francis, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of children's reading development is the full and fluid understanding of texts. Morphological structure awareness, or children's awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language, has been identified as a key skill influencing reading comprehension. Here, we evaluate the roles of morphological structure awareness and two…

  5. Relationship between Implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Student Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alison G.; Buckley, Pamela; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Gregory; Scornavacco, Karla; Klingner, Janette K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between the fidelity of implementation of a set of research-based strategies--Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)--and outcomes for students with mild to moderate disabilities using data from two nonoverlapping studies in middle school language arts and reading classrooms (Study 1) and middle school social…

  6. The Relationship between Arithmetic and Reading Achievement and Visual Pattern Recognition in First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragman, Ruth; Hardy, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Results from testing 20 first graders in a remedial class in Maryland indicated that: same pattern recognition was significantly higher than reverse pattern recognition; identical pattern recognition did not affect performance on reading and arithmetic achievement; reverse pattern recognition significantly affected performance on reading and…

  7. Relationships among Music Sight-Reading and Technical Proficiency, Spatial Visualization, and Aural Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Carol M.; Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of music sight-reading ability. The authors hypothesized that speed and accuracy of music sight-reading would be predicted by a combination of aural pattern discrimination, spatial-temporal reasoning, and technical proficiency. Participants (N = 70) were wind players in concert bands at a…

  8. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  9. Relationship between patient-reported and objective measurements of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Günay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA often results in impairments in upper extremities, especially in the small joints of hand. Involvement of hand brings limitations in activities of daily living. However, it is commonly observed that patient-reported functional status of hand does not always corresponds to their actual physical performance in the clinical setting. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the relationship between patient self-reported and objectively measured hand functions in patients with RA. Twenty-six patients (51±13 years with RA diagnosis participated in the study. Hand grip and pinch (lateral, bipod, tripod strengths were measured and Jebsen Hand Function Test (JHFT was performed for objective functional performance. Duruöz Hand Index and Beck Depression Inventory - Turkish version were completed by patients. Grip and all three-pinch strength results significantly correlated with Duruöz Hand Index scores (p<0.05. JHFT results except the sentence writing also correlated with the Duruöz scores (p<0.05. Our results showed that self-reported outcome scales might be used for determining functional level of hand in patients with RA in rheumatology practice. Objective quantitative functional tests are the best methods in evaluating functional level of hand, but require valid and reliable equipment with accurate calibration. Therefore, in case of unavailability of objective assessment tools, patient-reported scales may also reflect the real status of hand functions.

  10. ENGLISH IN INDONESIAN ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION: Examining The Relationship between Performance in The Yes/No Test and Reading Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahiruddin Sahiruddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between performance in the Yes/No test of English recognition vocabulary and reading skills in Indonesian Islamic learners of English as a foreign language (EFL. Participants in the study were 83 Indonesian undergraduate students, comprising an Advanced group (n=41 and Intermediate group (n=42 of EFL learners enrolled in the English department at the State Islamic University (UIN of Malang, Indonesia. All participants completed both tests. The results reveal that the hits accuracy performance between the Advanced EFL group and the Intermediate EFL group was statistically significant, indicating that Yes/No test performance, in context of hits accuracy, did discriminate between levels of English proficiency. However, the differences disappeared with corrected scores since both groups indicated a high false alarm rate. In addition, this study also reveals that there was no evidence of a relationship between Yes/No performance and reading scores. Several pedagogical implications for EFL language teachers are discussed.

  11. A New Thinking of the Objects Served Relationship Management in Complex System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-hai; LIU Yun-qiang; WU Hong-yu; ZHANG Yuan-xin; ZHU Jie; JIA Ke

    2006-01-01

    Take a digital libraries' service system for example, Objects Served Relationship Management (OSRM) in complex systems is proposed firstly as a new concept, and its connotation is explained. The significances and constructions of OSRM are analyzed. Both the fundamental facts and the important natures that the things which are interested by Objects Served (OS) (e. g. publishers and readers) and the server (e. g. digital libraries are the servers of publishers and readers) will not be the same completely although there are a lot of common benefits between OS and servers, are indeed clarified. The valuable information,which should be used by OS and their server, is often hidden behind them. Thus, how to find, manage and control the relationship among OS and their servers is very necessary and important for the common benefits among all of them.(e. g. the three dimensions of OSRM in digital library system and its overall framwork are proposed. The different strategies to different cases in the digital library's multidimensional framework are analyzed.)

  12. Research in anxiety and its relationship with nursing English reading achievement%焦虑与护理英语阅读成绩的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培隆

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解焦虑与护理英语阅读成绩的关系,为民族地区医学院校护理英语阅读课程提供教学参考.方法 采用“护理英语阅读焦虑量表”设计问卷,收集护理英语阅读测试结果数据,对随机抽取的百色市某医学院校261名护生进行问卷调查.结果 护生护理英语阅读的焦虑状况处于高焦虑占19.9%,中焦虑占38.9%,低焦虑占41.2%.焦虑与护理英语阅读测试成绩成显著负相关.汉族和少数民族护生焦虑和护理英语阅读测试成绩比较差异显著.结论 应采取相应策略降低护生阅读焦虑,提高护理英语教学和学习效果.%Objective To find out the relationship between anxiety and nursing English reading achievement,and to provide references for teaching and learning of nursing English reading among ethnic minority region.Methods Nursing English Reading Anxiety Scale and nursing English reading tests were used to collect data,and 261 nursing students were chosen randomly from one of the Medical University in Baise as the research respondents.Results Students' anxiety level of nursing English reading was high (19.9%),medium (38.9%) and low (41.2%).Anxiety and nursing English reading achievement were negatively related.The Han nationality and ethnic minority students had significantly difference in the anxiety and nursing English reading achievement.Conclusions In order to improve the effectiveness of nursing English teaching and learning,the appropriate strategies to reduce the students' anxiety should be carried out.

  13. The relationship between reading and science achievement of fifth grade students as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Charles H.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the reading and science achievement of upper elementary students as assessed by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test in the Region One Educational Service Center area in the 2006 testing cycle. A correlational research design was utilized to study these relationships. The participants were those fifth grade students who had been administered both the English versions of the reading and science TAKS tests (N = 6,281) or both the Spanish versions of the reading and science TAKS tests (N = 491). Bivariate analyses using the Pearson product-moment correlation technique were implemented to determine the strength and direction of the relationship between the reading and science achievements of the study group. To test the first research hypothesis, a Pearson product-correlation technique was used to estimate the relationship between English reading achievement and the English science achievement of the study group. The obtained correlation coefficient of r = + .51 was statistically significant ( p reading achievement and the Spanish science achievement of the study group. The obtained correlation coefficient of r = + .53 was statistically significant (p reading achievement and may not be a valid assessment of their science knowledge but a combination of both their reading and science ability. These results also suggest that to improve the validity of the science TAKS test, it should be modified to include more authentic assessment measures which do not rely so much on reading ability.

  14. The relationship among customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain the relationship between the operation system function goal decision making and customer demand and competition strategy, can better discover and integrate all available resources (including important capital resources to achieve business opportunities, the establishment of sustainable competitive ability. Because, to achieve business development lead policymakers take great uncertainty, which led to the investment behavior required for the operational activities of resources also bear the enormous risks. Design/methodology/approach: Through principal component analysis on the data collected by questionnaires, the manuscript obtains dominant factors for customer demand, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives respectively. By these factors, it tests its three hypotheses with the data from northeast of China and draws some conclusions. Findings: The results show that customer demand have a significant positive effect on competitive strategy; competitive strategy have positive influence on manufacturing system functional objectives; customer demand affect the functional objectives, by competitive strategy. Research limitations/implications: In this research, competitive strategy and manufacturing system functional objectives are influenced by customer demand. The conclusion of the research can provide theoretical guidance for Chinese enterprises which carry out manufacturing system functional objectives. Originality/value: In this research, a new measure questionnaire of competition strategy, customer satisfaction and operating system function goal was used, analyzed the influence factors of time, quality, cost, efficiency, service and environment, on the operation of the system. The study shows that the effect of competition strategy and customer demand has a direct impact on the operating system functions, customer demand through competitive strategy of indirect effects operating system functions.

  15. Relationships among cognitive deficits and component skills of reading in younger and older students with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J

    2013-09-01

    Processing speed deficits along with phonological awareness deficits have been identified as risk factors for dyslexia. This study was designed to examine the behavioral profiles of two groups, a younger (6-8 years) and an older (10-15 years) group of dyslexic children for the purposes of (1) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed deficits occur in the two developmental cohorts; (2) determining the strength of relationships between the groups' respective mean scores on cognitive tasks of phonological awareness and processing speed and their scores on component skills of reading; and (3) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed serve as concurrent predictors of component reading skills for each group. The mean scaled scores for both groups were similar on all but one processing speed task. The older group was significantly more depressed on a visual matching test of attention, scanning, and speed. Correlations between reading skills and the cognitive constructs were very similar for both age-groups. Neither of the two phonological awareness tasks correlated with either of the two processing speed tasks or with any of the three measures of reading. One of the two processing speed measures served as a concurrent predictor of word- and text-level reading in the younger, however, only the rapid naming measure functioned as a concurrent predictor of word reading in the older group. Conversely, phonological processing measures did not serve as concurrent predictors for word-level or text-level reading in either of the groups. Descriptive analyses of individual subjects' deficits in the domains of phonological awareness and processing speed revealed that (1) both linguistic and nonlinguistic processing speed deficits in the younger dyslexic children occurred at higher rates than deficits in phonological awareness and (2) cognitive deficits within and across these two domains were greater in the older

  16. Occupational therapy education: the relationship of purpose, objectives, and teaching models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardelli, C A; Gratz, R R

    1986-02-01

    A clearly stated purpose of basic professional education in occupational therapy provides a base for educational programs to develop learning objectives and identify effective teaching models and behaviors. The primary purpose of professional education should be the development of problem-solving skills, self-awareness, and creative productive thinking, with "hands-on" skills relegated to a secondary purpose. Specific learning objectives and the teaching models that have been developed to meet these objectives are presented. The authors further suggest that there must be a relationship between what occurs in the classroom (implementation of teaching models) and the purpose of professional education. A survey of current occupational therapy faculty members was conducted to identify a) their preparedness in the use of teaching models and b) other factors affecting their classroom behavior (years of experience, educational level, area of concentration). Survey results portray a relatively young faculty in both rank and experience. Other data indicate that although 85% of the respondents had taken at least one education course, only slightly more than half were familiar with teaching models. Most respondents felt that course work in educational methods and models aids in the development of more effective teaching strategies.

  17. The relationship between secondary and high school education in reading and the reading strategy use of freshman students at Middle East Technical University (METU) while reading in English

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references leaves 76-78 The importance o f use o f strategies by the learners in the learning process has been recognized due to the developments in cognitive psychology and the relationship between cognition and language learning. Learning strategies are actions taken by the learners to facilitate learning and make it more...

  18. Relationship between Computer-Based Reading Activities and Reading Achievements among Hong Kong and U.S. Students: A Comparative Study Using PIRLS 2011 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Reading for personal interest and acquiring and using information using various reading processes are important parts of reading literacy that students need to develop in order to progress successfully through their schooling and fully function in the information society. Computer assisted reading instructional activities are assumed useful in…

  19. LEARNING STRATEGIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION——A REPORT ON NON-ENGLISH MAJORS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the relationship between learning strategies and reading comprehension. To establish the variables, a learning strategies’ questionnaire was administered to about 200 students in the second-year of a non-English majors degree course in a university in Changchun. Their learning achievement was established by their scores on a reading comprehension test. The relationship between learning strategies and achievement was then examined through the SPSS 8.0 statistical analysis system. It was found that cognitive strategies were the strongest predictor to reading achievement and four other variables (metacognitive strategies, social-affective strategies, reading habits and examination strategies) also demonstrated a significant relationship with reading achievement to differing degrees. Among these variables, social-affective strategies were the only negative predictor. In addition, a significant difference existed between the high-score group and the low-score group in the use of cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies and examination strategies.

  20. Assessing reading comprehension with narrative and expository texts: Dimensionality and relationship with fluency, vocabulary and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra; Cadime, Irene; Viana, Fernanda L; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; Gayo, Elena; Maia, José; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension assessment should rely on valid instruments that enable adequate conclusions to be taken regarding students' reading comprehension performance. In this article, two studies were conducted to collect validity evidence for the vertically scaled forms of two Tests of Reading Comprehension for Portuguese elementary school students in the second to fourth grades, one with narrative texts (TRC-n) and another with expository ones (TRC-e). Two samples of 950 and 990 students participated in Study 1, the study of the dimensionality of the TRC-n and TRC-e forms, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence of an acceptable fit for the one-factor solution for all test forms. Study 2 included 218 students to collect criterion-related validity. The scores obtained in each of the test forms were significantly correlated with the ones obtained in other reading comprehension measures and with the results obtained in oral reading fluency, vocabulary and working memory tests. Evidence suggests that the test forms are valid measures of reading comprehension. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension.

  2. The social-devaluation effect: Interactive evaluation deteriorates likeability of objects based on daily relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunori eAriga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although previous research has explored the effects of discussion on optimal and collective group outcomes, it is unclear how an individual's preference for an object is modulated by discussion with others. This study investigated the determinants of likeability ratings under two conditions. In Experiment 1, pairs of participants consisting of friends evaluated various photographic images. Under the interactive condition, the participants discussed their impressions of each image for 30 seconds and then independently rated how much they liked it. Under the non-interactive condition, the participants did not interact with each other but instead only thought about their impressions of each image for 30 seconds before rating its likeability. The results indicate that the exchange of impressions between the participants affected the individual likeability ratings of objects. More specifically, the interactive participants generally rated the images as less likeable than did the non-interactive participants (social-devaluation effect. However, in Experiment 2, the effect was eliminated when the pairs consisted of strangers. These findings suggest that shared information modulates individual preferences but only when a daily relationship exists within a group.

  3. The social-devaluation effect: interactive evaluation deteriorates likeability of objects based on daily relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Atsunori

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has explored the effects of discussion on optimal and collective group outcomes, it is unclear how an individual's preference for an object is modulated by discussion with others. This study investigated the determinants of likeability ratings under two conditions. In Experiment 1, pairs of participants consisting of friends evaluated various photographic images. Under the interactive condition, the participants discussed their impressions of each image for 30 s and then independently rated how much they liked it. Under the non-interactive condition, the participants did not interact with each other but instead only thought about their impressions of each image for 30 s before rating its likeability. The results indicate that the exchange of impressions between the participants affected the individual likeability ratings of objects. More specifically, the interactive participants generally rated the images as less likeable than did the non-interactive participants (social-devaluation effect). However, in Experiment 2, the effect was eliminated when the pairs consisted of strangers. These findings suggest that shared information modulates individual preferences but only when a daily relationship exists within a group.

  4. The relationship between Test Takers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on the Reading Sections of TOEFL and IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the hypothetical relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading sections of TOEFL and IELTS. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences suggests that intelligence is not a single and solely inborn capacity, rather a multiple construct which is only partly genetic, and can be crystallized or paralyzed over one’s lifetime. Based on the theory, there are eight types of intelligence: linguistic, mathematical, musical, bodily, spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalist, but the list is not exhaustive. The multiple intelligences of test takers were estimated by means of MIDAS, the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales, developed by Shearer (1994. Subsequently, the bias detection for the reading section of TOEFL was carried out on 90 participants, and this subtest was found to correlate positively with linguistic and logical intelligences. By the same token, 89 out of the 163 participants in the study were included in the analysis of the relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading section of IELTS, and this test proved biased toward linguistic and spatial intelligences. The implications concern the inadequacy of the definition of language proficiency .Moreover, Measurement-Driven Instruction courses and preparatory materials of the two proficiency tests, TOEFL and IELTS, can benefit from the results of the study by being designed in such a way as to represent the intelligences which are positively correlated with performance on the tests in question.

  5. Estimating Premorbid Functioning in Huntington's Disease: The Relationship between Disease Progression and the Wide Range Achievement Test Reading Subtest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Adams, William H.; Duff, Kevin; Byars, Joanne; Nopoulos, Peg; Paulsen, Jane S.; Beglinger, Leigh J.

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of premorbid abilities is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, especially in neurodegenerative conditions. Although word pronunciation tests are one standard method for estimating the premorbid level, research suggests that these tests may not be valid in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study sought to examine two estimates of premorbid intellect, the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Reading subtest and the Barona formula, in 93 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD) to determine their utility and to investigate how these measures relate to signs and symptoms of disease progression. In 89% of participants, WRAT estimates were below the Barona estimates. WRAT estimates were related to worsening memory and motor functioning, whereas the Barona estimates had weaker relationships. Neither estimate was related to depression or functional capacity. Irregular word reading tests appear to decline with HD progression, whereas estimation methods based on demographic factors may be more robust but overestimate premorbid functioning. PMID:21147861

  6. FMRI of phonemic perception and its relationship to reading development in elementary- to middle-school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Lisa L; Liebenthal, Einat; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that categorical perception of speech phonemes in adults is primarily subserved by a pathway from bilateral primary auditory areas to association areas in the left middle superior temporal cortex, but the neural substrates underlying categorical speech perception in children are not yet known. Here, fMRI was used to examine the neural substrates associated with phoneme perception in 7- to 12-year-old children as well as the relationships among level of expertise in phoneme perception, the associated activation, and the development of reading and phonological processing abilities. While multiple regions in left frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex were found to be more responsive to phonemic than nonphonemic sounds, the extent of left lateralization in posterior temporal and parietal regions during phonemic relative to nonphonemic discrimination differed depending on the degree of categorical phoneme perception. In addition, an unexpected finding was that proficiency in categorical perception was strongly related to activation in the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, an area frequently associated with orthographic processing. Furthermore, in children who showed lower proficiency in categorical perception, the level of categorical perception was positively correlated with reading ability and reading and reading-related abilities were inversely correlated with right mid-temporal activation in the phonemic relative to nonphonemic perception contrast. These results suggest that greater specialization of left hemisphere temporal and parietal regions for the categorical perception of phonemes, as well as activation of the region termed the visual word form area, may be important for the optimal developmental refinement of both phoneme perception and reading ability.

  7. The Relationship between Intrinsic Couplings of the Visual Word Form Area with Spoken Language Network and Reading Ability in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Linjun; Xia, Zhichao; Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA) and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA) methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1) the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i.e., the left inferior frontal gyrus/supramarginal gyrus (LIFG/LSMG), was stronger in adults compared with children; (2) the spontaneous functional patterns of connectivity between VWFA and language network were negatively correlated with reading ability in adults but not in children; (3) the causal influence from LIFG to VWFA was negatively correlated with reading ability only in adults but not in children; (4) the RSFCs between left posterior middle frontal gyrus (LpMFG) and VWFA/LIFG were positively correlated with reading ability in both adults and children; and (5) the causal influence from LIFG to LSMG was positively correlated with reading ability in both groups. These findings provide insights into the relationship between VWFA and the language network for reading, and the role of the unique features of Chinese in the neural circuits of reading. PMID:28690507

  8. Can only intelligent children do mind reading: The relationship between intelligence and theory of mind in 8 to 11 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Anoop L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mind reading ability of children has evoked wide interest, but its relationship with general cognitive abilities remains obscure. Methods We studied the relationship between the mind reading ability and general intelligence. Children (N = 105 between 8 to 11 years from educational institutions were assessed for the mind reading ability using Picture Sequencing Task and Unexpected Contents Theory of Mind task. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to rule out psychiatric morbidity. An independent investigator quantified intelligence and adaptive behavior with Binet- Kamat Test of intelligence and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale respectively. We employed bivariate and multivariate statistical tests. Results We demonstrated that mind reading ability was not significantly related to general intelligence or its domains except for the social intelligence after controlling the confounders methodologically and statistically. Conclusion These findings argue that mind reading skill exists as an independent cognitive domain and has clinical, research as well as educational implications.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this end, a TOEFL…

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this end, a TOEFL…

  12. Reading Skill-Fractional Anisotropy Relationships in Visuospatial Tracts Diverge Depending on Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…

  13. Investigating the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Reading Performance: An Assessment Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in the context of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) research to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension in academic settings and to empirically evaluate a test measuring three elements of the depth dimension of vocabulary knowledge, including,…

  14. Reading Skill-Fractional Anisotropy Relationships in Visuospatial Tracts Diverge Depending on Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Booth, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly linked with decreased academic achievement, including lower reading outcomes. Some lower SES children do show skills and scores commensurate with those of their higher SES peers, but whether their abilities stem from the same systems as high SES children or are based on divergent strategies is…

  15. The Development of Creative Thinking and Its Relationship to IQ and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Concetta G.

    1980-01-01

    An eight-week program designed to stimulate fluency, flexibility, and originality proved effective in enhancing the creative thinking skills of 23 fourth grade students. Significant correlations were found to exist between IQ and creativity and between reading achievement and creativity. (GT)

  16. Analogical Reasoning and Reading Comprehension in Grades 4, 5, and 6: A Continuing Study of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Eugene H.

    A study investigated whether students' abilities to solve verbal analogy problems can be increased through teacher-generated direct instruction and whether increased ability in solving verbal analogies is directly related to increased reading comprehension ability. Subjects, 90 children (30 from fourth, fifth, and sixth grades), participated in…

  17. "I Don't Read Fiction": Academic Discourse and the Relationship between Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinning, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between health (H) and physical education (PE) has long been the subject of debate. Recently, however, the obesity crisis has raised this relationship to a new level of attention. At the risk of simplifying things, there are two "positions" that seem to characterize the discourse regarding this new relationship. One…

  18. Time will tell: a retrospective study investigating the relationship between insomnia and objectively defined punctuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Kyle, Simon D; Endres, Dominique; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Primary insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting approximately 3% of the general population. Studies suggest that personality traits such as perfectionism and neuroticism might be implicated in the aetiology of the disorder. However, to date, no study has investigated behavioural indicators of these factors in a hypothesis-driven manner. In the present study, we assessed punctuality as a behavioural indicator of perfectionism and neuroticism in 635 consecutive clinical patients of the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical Center. The primary aim was to compare primary insomnia patients (n = 148) with another group of patients with other sleep-related diagnoses (n = 487). Primary insomnia patients arrived on average 4 min earlier when compared to other patients (P = 0.041). However, this effect failed to reach statistical significance when correcting for the influence of potential confounding variables. Of note, we found a strong relationship between polysomnographic sleep parameters and punctuality. That is, short sleep duration was associated significantly with early arrival times at the sleep laboratory (P = 0.023). These findings support the proposal that personality traits, which we predict underlie obsessive punctuality, may be involved in the aetiology of objectively defined sleep disturbances. Clinical implications of the current results for cognitive behavioural treatments of insomnia are discussed.

  19. Music memory following short-term practice and its relationship with the sight-reading abilities of professional pianists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko eAiba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioural experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice.Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance.There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants’ responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice.

  20. Relationship between the Brazilian version of the Montreal-Toulouse language assessment battery and education, age and reading and writing characteristics. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There is growing concern about understanding how sociodemographic variables may interfere with cognitive functioning, especially with regard to language. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between performance in the Brazilian version of the Montreal-Toulouse language assessment battery (MTL-BR and education, age and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in university and work environments in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.METHOD: The MTL-BR was administered to a group of 233 healthy adults, aged 19 to 75 years (mean = 45.04, standard deviation, SD = 15.47, with at least five years of formal education (mean = 11.47, SD = 4.77.RESULTS: A stepwise multiple linear regression model showed that, for most tasks, the number of years of education, age and FRWH were better predictors of performance when analyzed together rather than separately. In separate analysis, education was the best predictor of performance in language tasks, especially those involving reading and writing abilities.CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the number of years of education, age and FRWH seem to influence performance in the MTL-BR, especially education. These data are important for making diagnoses of greater precision among patients suffering from brain injuries, with the aim of avoiding false positives.

  1. Auditory discrimination of voice-onset time and its relationship with reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Rankine, Tracey; Monaghan, Padraic

    2010-05-01

    The perception of voice-onset time (VOT) during dichotic listening provides unique insight regarding auditory discrimination processes and, as such, an opportunity to learn more about individual differences in reading ability. We analysed the responses elicited by four VOT conditions: short-long pairs (SL), where a syllable with a short VOT was presented to the left ear and a syllable with a long VOT was presented to the right ear, as well as long-short (LS), short-short (SS), and long-long (LL) pairs. Stimuli were presented in three attention conditions, where participants were instructed to attend to either the left or right ear, or received no instruction. By around 9.5 years of age children perform similarly to adults in terms of the size and relative magnitude of the right ear advantage (REA) elicited by each of the four VOT conditions. Overall, SL pairs elicited the largest REA and LS pairs elicited a left ear advantage (LEA), reflecting stimulus-driven bottom-up processes. However, children were less able to modulate their responses according to attention condition, reflecting a lack of top-down control. Effective direction of attention to one ear or the other was related to measures of reading accuracy and comprehension, indicating that reading skill is associated with top-down control of bottom-up perceptual processes.

  2. The relationship between brain reaction and English reading tests for non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Tian, Yu-Jie; Kuo, Ting-Hua; Sun, Koun-Tem

    2016-07-01

    This research analyzed the brain activity of non-native English speakers while engaged in English reading tests. The brain wave event-related potentials (ERPs) of participants were used to analyze the difference between making correct and incorrect choices on English reading test items. Three English reading tests of differing levels were designed and 20 participants, 10 males and 10 females whose ages ranged from 20 to 24, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Experimental results were analyzed by performing independent t-tests on the ERPs of participants for gender, difficulty level, and correct versus wrong options. Participants who chose incorrect options elicited a larger N600, verifying results found in the literature. Another interesting result was found: For incorrectly answered items, different areas of brain showing a significant difference in ERPs between the chosen and non-chosen options corresponded to gender differences; for males, this area was located in the right hemisphere whereas for females, it was located in the left. Experimental results imply that non-native English speaking males and females employ different areas of the brain to comprehend the meaning of difficult items.

  3. Relationship between Objectively Measured Walkability and Exercise Walking among Adults with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko S. Hosler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between objectively measured walkability and walking for exercise among adults with diabetes. Information regarding walking behavior of adults with diabetes residing in 3 Upstate New York counties was collected through an interview survey. Walkability measures were collected through an environmental audit of a sample of street segments. Overall walkability and 4 subgroup measures of walkability were aggregated at the ZIP level. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. Study participants (n=208 were 61.0% female, 56.7% non-Hispanic White, and 35.1% African-American, with a mean age of 62.0 years. 108 participants (51.9% walked for exercise on community streets, and 62 (29.8% met the expert-recommended level of walking for ≥150 minutes/week. After adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, BMI, physical impairment, and social support for exercise, walking any minutes/week was associated with traffic safety (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.15–1.65. Walking ≥150 minutes/week was associated with overall walkability of the community (2.65, 1.22, and 5.74, as well as sidewalks (1.73, 1.12–2.67, street amenity (2.04, 1.12–3.71, and traffic safety (1.92, 1.02–3.72. This study suggests that walkability of the community should be an integral part of the socioecologic approach to increase physical activity among adults with diabetes.

  4. Contemporary art: what is it about? Notes taken through the reading of the book “The contingent object of contemporary art” written by Martha Buskirk

    OpenAIRE

    Pérola Mathias

    2015-01-01

    What does exactly mean that thing that we use to call “contemporary art” nowadays? Is this expression an aesthetic label, a style, a genre, a historic period or what? Concerning the argument of certain artists that the one who works in your own present time can make contemporary art, this text seeks to explain the complexity of questions about this artistic “paradigm” through the reading of the book “The contingent object of contemporary art” written by Martha Buskirk. The author, besides th...

  5. Contexto alfabetizador familiar: relaciones con la adquisición de habilidades prelectoras y desempeño lector Literacy family context. Relationship between pre-reading skills and successful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Laura Andrés

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Algunas habilidades prelectoras pueden preparar al niño para un desempeño lector exitoso. A su vez, la existencia de un contexto alfabetizador familiar favorece la adquisición de estas habilidades prelectoras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar las relaciones entre contexto alfabetizador familiar y adquisición de habilidades prelectoras, así como el estudio de las relaciones entre estas habilidades y el desempeño posterior de la lectura. Para ello se seleccionó una muestra de 52 participantes de 5 años de edad, de clase social media y a los padres o tutores de los niños y niñas. Se aplicó un cuestionario para explorar el contexto alfabetizador familiar a los padres o tutores, una evaluación de habilidades prelectoras mediante la prueba “Prepárate a leer” y una evaluación de procesos lectores a los mismos niños (PROLEC en el primer curso de educación primaria. Los resultados muestran asociaciones entre el nivel educativo de los padres y la adquisición de habilidades prelectores, así como entre estas y el desempeño lector. La variable con mayor poder explicativo en el desempeño lector fue la conciencia fonológica. There are pre-reading skills that are able to prepare students for successful reading. At the same time a literacy family context would be improve early reading acquisition. The main goal of this study was to explore the relationship between the literacy family context and early pre-reading skills acquisitions. Other target was study the pre-reading skills and reading performance interaction. 52 kindergarten children, 5 years old, and from a middle social class were used in this study. Their parents were interviewed with a specific questionnaire made for this research in order to know the literacy family context. Participants’ pre-reading skills were also assessed by the Spanish version of Get Ready to Read! Screening Tool. And the Spanish version of Reading Processes Assessment Test (PROLEG was used for

  6. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  7. Reading Romance: The Impact Facebook Rituals Can Have On A Romantic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bowe B.A. Mod

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that research has identified intimate relationships as being an important factor in how people look to present themselves on social networking sites, there still remains a lack of research in this domain. By comparing trends inside the rituals of the relationship status, public displays of affection and photographs on Facebook this paper examines how they can impact a relationship in the offline world by discussing the extent to which the design and features of the site can impact the emotional repertoire of its users. Results highlighted that the website has the potential to provide a new focus and channel for a person to depict where their relationship is going, feeling rules can be attached to certain rituals on the website. By focusing on the relationship statusoption and public displays of affection, it was emphasized that these rituals accentuate themes of possession and territory and can be used to configure a couple’s superiority. The discussion on photographs illustrated how the website can bring problems and jealousy to the relationship, particularly when the ‘ex-partner’ was taken into account.

  8. Contemporary art: what is it about? Notes taken through the reading of the book “The contingent object of contemporary art” written by Martha Buskirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérola Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What does exactly mean that thing that we use to call “contemporary art” nowadays? Is this expression an aesthetic label, a style, a genre, a historic period or what? Concerning the argument of certain artists that the one who works in your own present time can make contemporary art, this text seeks to explain the complexity of questions about this artistic “paradigm” through the reading of the book “The contingent object of contemporary art” written by Martha Buskirk. The author, besides the problematization of the contingency of the object, brings questions about authorship, originality and insertion of new production methods and fruition in the world of art.

  9. The relationship between change detection and recognition of centrally attended objects in motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, Bonnie L; Levin, Daniel T; Simons, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    Observers typically detect changes to central objects more readily than changes to marginal objects, but they sometimes miss changes to central, attended objects as well. However, even if observers do not report such changes, they may be able to recognize the changed object. In three experiments we explored change detection and recognition memory for several types of changes to central objects in motion pictures. Observers who failed to detect a change still performed at above chance levels on a recognition task in almost all conditions. In addition, observers who detected the change were no more accurate in their recognition than those who did not detect the change. Despite large differences in the detectability of changes across conditions, those observers who missed the change did not vary in their ability to recognize the changing object.

  10. The Relationship between Field Dependent-Independent Cognitive Style and Understanding of English Text Reading and Academic Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    The learning styles are the distinctive learners' strategies for information processing and discovering new concepts. One of the most important kinds of learning styles is the Witkin's theory of field dependence-independence cognitive style. This study seeks to find the relationship between field dependence -independence cognitive style and English text reading comprehension, learning English as a foreign language, academic achievement and the choice of academic courses. In this study, 305 students (both girls and boys) studying at the junior level at high school in Sari were randomly selected through multistage selection who responded to Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). The data analysis was conducted by using regression analysis which showed that FDI cognitive styles determined the changes in dependant variables of reading comprehension score, learning English and the total average with the respective values of %8.8, %9.2 and %11.6 (p learning English and the more academic achievement will result. The results of this study can help in selecting students' courses and also better directing the learners to improve their learning.

  11. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  12. On the Relationship Between Method and the Object of Study When Studying Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Cameron David

    2014-01-01

    If a discipline is defined by the object of its study, then the definition of the object of study has a priori paramount importance. Studies of the evolution of the study of religion show that researchers have been unable to escape their own socio-political contexts. I begin with a brief consider...

  13. The relationship between objectivity and subjectivity measured activity levels in people with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weering, Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To compare self-report measures of daily activities with objective activity data to determine whether patients with chronic lower back pain report their activity levels as accurately as controls do. - Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients and controls. - Setting: The

  14. The Sequential Relationship between Parent Attentional Cues and Sustained Attention to Objects in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Nicolette Bainbridge; Yoder, Paul J.; Jarzynka, Melanie A.; Tapp, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the sequential relationship between parent attentional cues and sustained attention to objects in young children with autism during a 20 min free-play interaction session. Twenty-five parent-child dyads with a preschool child with autism participated. Results indicated that (a) parent attentional cues that maintained the…

  15. NARCISSISM AND CONCERN: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELF-OBJECT NEEDS AND NARCISSISTIC SYMPTOMS WITH HEALTHY AND PATHOLOGICAL CONCERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Yael; Tolmacz, Rami; Doron, Yonit

    2016-03-01

    While concern and narcissism seem to be contradictory in nature, clinical evidence and theoretical writings on pathological forms of concern--tracing their origin to deficiencies in early relationships with primary caretakers--suggest that the actual relationship between these two characteristics might be much more complicated. We respond to a study aimed to add empirical data to the clinical and theoretical knowledge examined the relationships between self-object functions, types of narcissism and pathological concern. The findings of the study showed that pathological concern was positively associated with self-object needs and that this association was mediated by covert narcissism. Our discussion focuses on the developmental and psychodynamic sources of pathological concern, as well as its significance in the intrapersonal and interpersonal domains.

  16. The Relationship between Time in Computer-Assisted Instruction and the Increase in Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Rene M.

    2013-01-01

    Educational leadership appropriates significant amounts of money for technology in school budgets. Teachers must decide how to use technology to maximize student learning and make the most efficient use of instructional minutes. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine if a relationship existed between the amount of…

  17. Reading visually embodied meaning from the brain: Visually grounded computational models decode visual-object mental imagery induced by written text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Bruni, Elia; Lopopolo, Alessandro; Poesio, Massimo; Baroni, Marco

    2015-10-15

    Embodiment theory predicts that mental imagery of object words recruits neural circuits involved in object perception. The degree of visual imagery present in routine thought and how it is encoded in the brain is largely unknown. We test whether fMRI activity patterns elicited by participants reading objects' names include embodied visual-object representations, and whether we can decode the representations using novel computational image-based semantic models. We first apply the image models in conjunction with text-based semantic models to test predictions of visual-specificity of semantic representations in different brain regions. Representational similarity analysis confirms that fMRI structure within ventral-temporal and lateral-occipital regions correlates most strongly with the image models and conversely text models correlate better with posterior-parietal/lateral-temporal/inferior-frontal regions. We use an unsupervised decoding algorithm that exploits commonalities in representational similarity structure found within both image model and brain data sets to classify embodied visual representations with high accuracy (8/10) and then extend it to exploit model combinations to robustly decode different brain regions in parallel. By capturing latent visual-semantic structure our models provide a route into analyzing neural representations derived from past perceptual experience rather than stimulus-driven brain activity. Our results also verify the benefit of combining multimodal data to model human-like semantic representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane de C; Schmidt, Bianca E; Zinn, Carolina G; Peixoto, Patricia B; Pereira, Luiza D; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    For decades there has been a consensus that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory. A second round of protein synthesis has been described for both extinction and reconsolidation following an unreinforced test session. Recently, it was shown that consolidation and reconsolidation depend not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a major mechanism responsible for protein turnover. However, the involvement of UPS on consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory remains unknown. Here we investigate in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus the involvement of UPS-mediated protein degradation in consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Animals with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, were exposed to an object recognition task. The UPS inhibitor β-Lactacystin did not affect the consolidation and the reconsolidation of object recognition memory at doses known to affect other forms of memory (inhibitory avoidance, spatial learning in a water maze) while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired the consolidation and the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. However, β-Lactacystin was able to reverse the impairment caused by anisomycin on the reconsolidation process in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a direct link between protein degradation and protein synthesis during the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory.

  19. Does skull shape mediate the relationship between objective features and subjective impressions about the face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marečková, Klára; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Huang, Mei; Lawrence, Claire; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce G; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2013-10-01

    In our previous work, we described facial features associated with a successful recognition of the sex of the face (Marečková et al., 2011). These features were based on landmarks placed on the surface of faces reconstructed from magnetic resonance (MR) images; their position was therefore influenced by both soft tissue (fat and muscle) and bone structure of the skull. Here, we ask whether bone structure has dissociable influences on observers' identification of the sex of the face. To answer this question, we used a novel method of studying skull morphology using MR images and explored the relationship between skull features, facial features, and sex recognition in a large sample of adolescents (n=876; including 475 adolescents from our original report). To determine whether skull features mediate the relationship between facial features and identification accuracy, we performed mediation analysis using bootstrapping. In males, skull features mediated fully the relationship between facial features and sex judgments. In females, the skull mediated this relationship only after adjusting facial features for the amount of body fat (estimated with bioimpedance). While body fat had a very slight positive influence on correct sex judgments about male faces, there was a robust negative influence of body fat on the correct sex judgments about female faces. Overall, these results suggest that craniofacial bone structure is essential for correct sex judgments about a male face. In females, body fat influences negatively the accuracy of sex judgments, and craniofacial bone structure alone cannot explain the relationship between facial features and identification of a face as female.

  20. A Complete Review for Metacognitive, Cognitive, and Social/Affective Strategies as Essential Components of Learning strategies and their relationships with EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti Nasab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on how learners' exact attention can be in line with learning  meaningfully and bring about remarkable changes in the learning ability of upper-intermediate EFL learners through employing certain learning strategy items with the aim of enhancing reading scores and consequently injecting into learners a sense of satisfaction with their work. Additionally, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies with EFL learners’ reading comprehension. To this end, the study employed a quasi-experimental design with a placement test as a proficiency test to find the homogeneity of groups. Each group received one main strategy and then, according to Oxford (1990 training model, the students were exposed to those strategies accompanied with reading comprehension texts. Learners’ progress and also the relationship of those strategies with reading comprehension were measured during the sixteen sessions of teaching and employing the strategies. Independent sample T-Test with Pearson correlations indicated that metacognitive group significantly outperformed the other groups, so metacognitive strategies were more in line with EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Keywords: Learning strategy, Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social/Affective strategy, Reading comprehension

  1. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  2. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  3. Relationship between Myers-Briggs psychological traits and use of course objectives in anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P H; Leong, E J; Lucier, G E; Lorscheider, F L

    1996-06-01

    The results from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which identified preferred psychological traits for 131 nursing students, were compared to their usage levels of course objectives in an undergraduate course in anatomy and physiology. The three usage levels (user, occasional user, and nonuser) were also compared to exam scores in the course, overall grade point averages (GPA) in first-year nursing, and the various psychological traits measured by the MBTI. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that users of objectives achieved significantly higher exam scores and maintained a higher GPA than occasional and nonusers. The MANOVA also indicated that users of course objectives preferred a sensing judging modality, whereas nonusers preferred an intuiting perceiving style to guide their studying and learning.

  4. Protean and bounderyless career attitudes: relationships with subjective and objective career success

    OpenAIRE

    Volmer, Judith; Spurk, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    "The protean and boundaryless career attitudes have gained special attention during the past years. A protean career attitude implies that a person strives towards a developmental progression and self-fulfillment; a boundaryless career attitude is characterized by a high physical and/or psychological mobility. The aim of the present paper is twofold: First, we want to empirically investigate the relationship between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective (i.e., career satisf...

  5. Relationship between Manual Preferences for Object Manipulation and Pointing Gestures in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Jacques; Imbault, Juliette

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the pattern of hand preferences for pointing gestures as a function of object-manipulation handedness in 123 infants and toddlers (10-40 months). The results showed that not only right-handers but also left-handers and ambidextrous participants tended to use their right hand for pointing. There was a…

  6. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  7. The Relationship of Fast ForWord Scientific Learning to North Carolina End of Grade Reading Scores at a Middle School in Anson County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Jamie Ledsinger

    2012-01-01

    Anson County School District wished to determine the relationship between Fast ForWord Scientific Learning data and North Carolina End of Grade reading scores at Anson Middle School in Anson County, North Carolina. The specific research questions that guided this study include: 1. How does the literacy intervention, Fast ForWord, affect EOG growth…

  8. Revisiting Sticht: The Changing Nature of the Relationship between Listening Comprehension and Reading Comprehension among Upper Elementary and Middle School Students over the Last 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, Wolfram; Pearce, Daniel L.; Zeng, Guang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between listening comprehension and reading comprehension to determine if environmental factors might be contributing to a possible change in the equalization age for these two comprehension modalities from what was theorized by Thomas Sticht. The study employed a counterbalanced design to measure the…

  9. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  10. Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R.; Nagy, William

    2017-01-01

    Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 (N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior…

  11. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  12. Relationship between the TCAP and the Pearson Benchmark Assessment in Elementary Students' Reading and Math Performance in a Northeastern Tennessee School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger-Roberts, Cherith A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there was a relationship between the TCAP test and Pearson Benchmark assessment in elementary students' reading and language arts and math performance in a northeastern Tennessee school district. This study involved 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grade students. The study focused on the following…

  13. An exploration of the relationship between metacomprehension strategy awareness and reading comprehension performance with narrative and science texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Kathleen Christine

    This mixed method study explored the relationship between metacomprehension strategy awareness and reading comprehension performance with narrative and science texts. Participants, 132 eighth-grade, predominately African American students, attending one middle school in a southeastern state, were administered a narrative and science version of the Metacomprehension Strategy Index (MSI) and asked to identify helpful strategic behaviors from six clustered subcategories (predicting and verifying; previewing; purpose setting; self-questioning; drawing from background knowledge; and summarizing and applying fix-up strategies). Participants also read and answered comprehension questions about narrative and science passages. Findings revealed no statistically significant differences in overall metacomprehension awareness with narrative and science texts. Statistically significant (pmetacomprehension awareness and comprehension performance scores were statistically significantly (pmetacomprehension awareness with narrative and science texts and the comprehension performance of six middle school students, three of whom scored high overall on the narrative and science text comprehension assessments in phase one of the study, and three of whom scored low. A qualitative analysis of multiple sources of data, including video-taped interviews and think-alouds, revealed the three high scoring participants engaged in competent school-based, metacognitive conversations infused with goal, self, and narrative talk and demonstrated multi-strategic engagements with narrative and science texts. In stark contrast, the three low scoring participants engaged in dissonant school-based talk infused with disclaimers, over-generalized, decontextualized, and literalized answers and demonstrated robotic, limited (primarily rereading and restating), and frustrated strategic acts when interacting with both narrative and science texts. The educational implications are discussed. This dissertation

  14. Constructing Relationship Between Software Metrics and Code Reusability in Object Oriented Design

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj H.M; Dr. Nandakumar A.N

    2016-01-01

    The role of the design pattern in the form of software metric and internal code architecture for object-oriented design plays a critical role in software engineering regarding production cost efficiency. This paper discusses code reusability that is a frequently exercised cost saving methodology in IT production. After reviewing existing literature towards a study on software metrics, we found that very few studies are witnessed to incline towards code reusability. Hence, we developed a simpl...

  15. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  16. A systematic review of the relationship between objective measurements of the urban environment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Palmer, Stephen; Gallacher, John; Marsden, Terry; Fone, David

    2016-11-01

    The urban environment has become the main place that people live and work. As a result it can have profound impacts on our health. While much of the literature has focused on physical health, less attention has been paid to the possible psychological impacts of the urban environment. In order to understand the potential relevance and importance of the urban environment to population mental health, we carried out a systematic review to examine the associations between objective measurements of the urban environment and psychological distress, independently of the individual's subjective perceptions of the urban environment. 11 peer-reviewed papers published in English between January 2000 and February 2012 were identified. All studies were cross-sectional. Despite heterogeneity in study design, the overall findings suggested that the urban environment has measurable associations with psychological distress, including housing with deck access, neighbourhood quality, the amount of green space, land-use mix, industry activity and traffic volume. The evidence supports the need for development of interventions to improve mental health through changing the urban environment. We also conclude that new methods for measuring the urban environment objectively are needed which are meaningful to planners. In particular, future work should look at the spatial-temporal dynamic of the urban environment measured in Geographical Information System (GIS) in relation to psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between the objectively-assessed neighborhood area and activity behavior in Swiss youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kriemler, Susi; Mäder, Urs; Dössegger, Alain; Hofmann, Heidi; Puder, Jardena J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Neighborhood attributes are modifiable determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). We tested whether the objectively-assessed built and social environment was associated with PA and SB in Swiss youth and whether sex, age and the socioeconomic position (Swiss-SEP) modified such associations. Methods We combined data of 1742 youth (ages 4 to 17) from seven studies conducted within Switzerland between 2005–2010. All youth provided accelerometer data and a home address, which was linked to objective environmental data and the Swiss-SEP-index. Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were analyzed by multivariable multilevel regression analyses. Results The extent of green areas and building density was positively associated with PA in the total sample (p < 0.05). Factors representing centrally located areas, and more schoolchildren living nearby tended to increase PA in secondary schoolchildren, boys and those from lower-ranked socioeconomic areas. In primary schoolchildren, the extent of green areas was positively associated with PA (p = 0.05). Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were more pronounced in youth from low socioeconomic areas. Conclusions The results indicate that some associations between neighborhood attributes and PA differ by age, sex and socioeconomic area. This should be taken into account when planning interventions to increase childhood PA. PMID:26844034

  18. An assessment of the relationship between the meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies and students\\' achievement in Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Baradaran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving meaningful learning is an important educational goal of medical students. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement more effective methods and strategies to achieve the goal. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies in student and their achievement in Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods : This cross sectional- analytic study was carried out on students of Iran University of Medical Science during the 2012-2013 academic years. Three hundred seventeen students were selected through stratified random sampling from all students studied in basic sciences, physiopathology and clerkship stages of the medical program. The tool used was meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies Inventory (MARSI. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software and Pearson correlation-coefficients, variance analysis tests and independent T-tests were administered. Results: In this study the mean score of medical students' awareness of reading strategies showed optimal situation, the mean score of medical students' awareness of reading strategies and its three categories showed a significant relationship with students' score of academic achievement. Conclusion: Based on our findings it is concluded the medical students awareness of planning strategy and setting the purpose of reading have more influence on academic achievement than meta-cognition strategies, therefore medical education curriculum should be emphasized on these strategies to empower medical students to be independent in learning and to be self-regulating in their learning process .

  19. Relationship between Objective and Subjective Atmospheric Visibility and Its Influence on Willingness to Accept or Pay in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang Yu

    Full Text Available This study is to distinguish the objective and subjective measures of atmospheric visibility, and investigate the relationship between the two measures as well as the effect on the people's behavioral intentions on air pollution in China. A mixed method was adopted in this study combining both lab experiments to measure objective atmospheric visibility and a questionnaire survey to measure subjective atmospheric visibility. The regression results show that: (a The people's perception of atmospheric visibility is based on objective information about the ambient air (Relative Humidity, PM2.5, Atmospheric Visibility and there are some turning points that could enable people to distinguish good and poor air quality; (b The people's perception of visibility has a significant effect on either their willingness-to-accept (WTA the visibility or on their willingness-to-pay (WTP for improving the air quality;

  20. Relationships between event-related potentials and behavioral and scholastic measures of reading ability: A large-scale, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability are, the majority of the time, placed in monolithic groups such as 'normal' and 'dyslexic' (e.g. Araújo et al., 2012) and analyzed only at the group level. This is likely done due to methodological concerns - such as low sample size or a lack of statistical power - that can make it difficult to perform analysis at the individual level. Here, we collected ERPs and behavior from > 100 children in grades pre-K-7, as they read unconnected text silently to themselves. This large sample, combined with the statistical power of the Linear Mixed Effects Regression (LMER) technique, enables us to address individual differences in ERP component effects due to reading ability at an unprecedented level of detail. Results indicate that it is possible to predict reading-related report card scores from ERP component amplitudes - especially that of the N250, a component pertaining to sublexical processing (including phonological decoding). Results also reveal relationships between behavioral measures of reading ability and ERP component effects that have previously been elusive, such as the relationship between vocabulary and N400 mean amplitude (cf. Henderson et al., 2011). We conclude that it is possible to meaningfully examine reading-related ERP effects at the single subject level in developing readers, and that this type of analysis can provide novel insights into both behavior and scholastic achievement.

  1. Quantifying the Relationship between Dynamical Cores and Physical Parameterizations by Object-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgun, M. S.; Rood, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    The behavior of atmospheric models is sensitive to the algorithms that are used to represent the equations of motion. Typically, comprehensive models are conceived in terms of the resolved fluid dynamics (i.e. the dynamical core) and subgrid, unresolved physics represented by parameterizations. Deterministic weather predictions are often validated with feature-by-feature comparison. Probabilistic weather forecasts and climate projects are evaluated with statistical methods. We seek to develop model evaluation strategies that identify like "objects" - coherent systems with an associated set of measurable parameters. This makes it possible to evaluate processes in models without needing to reproduce the time and location of, for example, a particular observed cloud system. Process- and object-based evaluation preserves information in the observations by avoiding the need for extensive spatial and temporal averaging. As a concrete example, we focus on analyzing how the choice of dynamical core impacts the representation of precipitation in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, Western Canada, and Alaska; this brings attention to the interaction of the resolved and the parameterized components of the model. Two dynamical cores are considered within the Community Atmosphere Model. These are the Spectral (Eulerian), which relies on global basis functions and the Finite Volume (FV), which uses only local information. We introduce the concept of "meteorological realism" that is, do local representations of large-scale phenomena, for example, fronts and orographic precipitation, look like the observations? A follow on question is, does the representation of these phenomena improve with resolution? Our approach to quantify meteorological realism starts with identification and isolation of key features of orographic precipitation that are represented differently by Spectral and FV models, using objective pattern recognition methods. Then we aim to quantitatively compare

  2. Is there a relationship between objective and subjective assessment of balance in elderly patients with instability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Santos-Pérez, Sofía; Del-Río-Valeiras, María; Lirola-Delgado, Antonio; Faraldo-García, Ana; Vaamonde-Sánchez-Andrade, Isabel; Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Soto-Varela, Andrés

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether a subjective questionnaire that measures the disability caused by balance disorders in daily life activities is correlated to objective assessment of balance in elderly patients with age-related instability. We included 37 subjects aged 65 years or more who presented balance disorders induced solely by age. Balance assessment was through the sensory organisation test and limits of stability of computerised dynamic posturography, the SwayStar system and the modified timed up and go test. The patients also completed the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) questionnaire. The SwayStar balance control index (BCI) was most significantly correlated to the DHI score and the score of its different scales. When we divided the patients into subgroups according to DHI score, we only found statistically significant differences in the BCI and number of falls. In our population of elderly patients with instability, there is practically no correlation between the DHI and the static balance assessment. However, there is greater correlation with the BCI, which could show that dynamic balance is perceived as more disabling for these patients. In this case, when designing a rehabilitation protocol we should focus more on dynamic activities such as gait.

  3. Polypharmacy in multiple sclerosis: relationship with fatigue, perceived cognition, and objective cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Joanie M; Lynch, Sharon G; Bruce, Amanda S; Hancock, Laura M; Bruce, Jared M

    2014-05-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly use a variety of medications to slow disease progression, alleviate symptoms, and treat comorbid conditions. Polypharmacy has been linked to adverse outcomes in other patient groups, but has not been studied extensively in MS. We investigated the impact of polypharmacy on fatigue, objective neuropsychological performance, and subjective cognitive impairment in a sample of patients with MS. MS patients (n=85) completed a medication inventory, self-report questionnaires, and a battery of neurocognitive tests. MS patients with polypharmacy were compared to MS patients without polypharmacy, using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). After controlling for disease characteristics, MS patients with polypharmacy (n=28) exhibited prospective memory deficits and reported significantly more fatigue and subjective cognitive problems than MS patients without polypharmacy. Clinicians and patients should carefully weigh the costs and benefits of prescribing multiple medications, as these may contribute to iatrogenic fatigue and cognitive problems in MS. Moreover, researchers should account for polypharmacy when conducting studies examining fatigue and cognition in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between self-reported walking ability and objectively assessed gait performance in persons with late effects of polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Espelund, Christina; Lexell, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Muscle weakness in the lower limbs and impeded gait performance are common in persons with late effects of polio. To assess self-reported walking ability in persons with late effects of polio and determine the relationship with objectively assessed gait performance. One-hundred and twenty-two individuals with prior polio (65 women and 57 men, mean age 65 [SD ± 9] years) participated in the study. The main outcome measures were: Walk-12 (Swedish version) to assess self-reported walking ability, and Timed "Up & Go", Comfortable Gait Speed, Fast Gait Speed and 6-Minute Walk Tests to assess gait performance objectively. More than 50% of the participants reported limitations (moderately or quite a bit) related to standing or walking, climbing stairs, walking speed and distance, concentration and effort, and gait quality aspects. Half of the participants reported no need to use support when walking indoors or outdoors, but 58% reported that their ability to run was extremely limited. Significant correlations (P Walk-12 and the four gait performance tests (rho -0.66 to 0.63). The strength of the relationship implies that Walk-12 reflects broader dimensions than the objective gait performance tests and can be a complement when the walking ability in persons with late effects of polio is evaluated.

  5. Objective and subjective burden in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and its influence on care relationships in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Urzúa, Alfonso; Jamett, Patricio Rojas; Irarrazaval, Matias

    2016-03-30

    This study examined the burden on family members of patients with schizophrenia in a Chilean community. Sixty-five caregivers underwent the Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview. The results showed moderate to high levels of subjective burden and low levels of support from others in providing care. Burden and containment of disturbed behaviour were correlated with worse relationships between patients and caregivers, with the latter spending less time working outside the home. The assessed sample showed a similar pattern of burden to that of caregivers from developed countries; however, the extent of the burden tended to be higher in Chilean caregivers.

  6. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (ALSPAC, UK birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46% or never (range 27–37%. A small minority (7–8% reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%. We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7 during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership.

  7. The inter-relationship between magnification, field of view and contrast reserve: the effect on reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Z; Dickinson, C M

    2000-11-01

    For the reading task, contrast reserve is defined as the ratio of the letter contrast of the printed letters, to the reader's contrast threshold. Acuity reserve is the ratio of the print size used for the reading task, to the reader's visual acuity. The effects of low contrast reserve on reading performance were investigated at various magnifications, ranging from 3x to 7.5x, with the field of view systematically controlled. Eye movements were recorded whilst normally sighted subjects read using the magnifiers. It was shown that with adequate contrast reserve, increasing the field of view improved the reading rate because of the resulting increase in forward saccade length. Conversely, reducing the contrast reserve slowed the reading rate by decreasing the length of forward saccades and increasing the mean fixation duration, suggesting that the perceptual span is reduced at low contrast reserve. This study also shows that when the contrast reserve is low, providing magnification higher than that required for letter recognition (that is, increasing the acuity reserve) will not improve the reading performance. Furthermore, even when the contrast reserve was high, reading rates were lower for the magnifications of 5x and higher, because increases in saccade length do not match those of the retinal image size at these magnifications.

  8. The Relationship between EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension Ability and Their Fluid Intelligence, Crystallized Intelligence, and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebzadeh, Khalil; Tabatabaee Yazdi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of the current study was to clarify the role and estimate the correlation of specific cognitive abilities with Second Language (L2) reading achievement of English Foreign Language (EFL) university students. Since there are not ample available studies about the cognitive correlates of reading comprehension in a second language,…

  9. Relationship between Students' Reading Ability and Their Success in Medical Terminology at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mary Gene

    2011-01-01

    Health sciences faculty members at a two-year college were concerned about the poor pass rates in medical terminology, a gateway course for all students planning to major in health-related fields. Faculty suspected that students coming out of developmental reading might not have adequate reading skills to do well in medical terminology.…

  10. Relationship of Word- and Sentence-Level Working Memory to Reading and Writing in Second, Fourth, and Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Swanson, H. Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Method: Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation…

  11. Relationship between Objective and Subjective Atmospheric Visibility and Its Influence on Willingness to Accept or Pay in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuechong; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe

    2015-01-01

    This study is to distinguish the objective and subjective measures of atmospheric visibility, and investigate the relationship between the two measures as well as the effect on the people’s behavioral intentions on air pollution in China. A mixed method was adopted in this study combining both lab experiments to measure objective atmospheric visibility and a questionnaire survey to measure subjective atmospheric visibility. The regression results show that: (a) The people’s perception of atmospheric visibility is based on objective information about the ambient air (Relative Humidity, PM2.5, Atmospheric Visibility) and there are some turning points that could enable people to distinguish good and poor air quality; (b) The people’s perception of visibility has a significant effect on either their willingness-to-accept (WTA) the visibility or on their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improving the air quality; (c) The subjective atmospheric visibility also mediates the effect of objective measures on WTA or WTP; (d) The higher the level of pro-environmental attitude is, the more people will pay to improve the air quality, and this effect is much stronger than that effect of perception; and (e) The respondents from North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and the relative clean areas have higher level of perception. PMID:26444563

  12. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  13. 老年人述情障碍与读心能力的相关研究%Study of relationship between elderly people's alexithymia and mind-reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝明; 王帆

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study of relationship between elderly people's alexithymia and mind-reading. Methods There were 108 old people over 70 years old, tested by mind-reading,cognitive ability and twenty-item Toronto alexithymia scale. Results There were significant difference in mind-reading(16.00±4.84, 19.36±2.91,t =3.38,P <0.01), memory span(5.80±1.42,7.18±1.13,t =4.28,P <0.01), working memory( t =4.05,P <0.01),processing speed( t =-4.80,P <0.01) between high and low alexithymia groups.Alexithymia scores were negatively related to the scores of mind-reading, memory span,working memory,processing speed,correlation coefficient was 0.227( P <0.05),-0.377( P <0.01),-0.334( P <0.01),-0.470( P <0.01),respectively. With mind-reading,cognitive processing and educational level as independent variables,with total scores, F1, F2, and F3 of TAS as dependent variable,respectively,the regression equation of total scores was significant( F =8.594,P <0.01), and the one of F1 was significant( F =8.796,P <0.01),but the one of F2( F =1.735,P >0.05) and F3( F =1.181,P >0.05) was not significant. Conclusion Elderly people's alexithymia is negatively related to mind-reading and several cognitive abilities. Mind-reading could affect emotional recognition, but not affect emotional description and export-oriented thinking.%目的 研究老年人述情障碍和读心能力的关系.方法 108名70岁以上的老年被试接受读心能力、认知能力测试和多伦多述情障碍量表(TAS-20)调查.结果 述情障碍高分组与低分组在读心能力[(16.00±4.84)分,(19.36±2.91)分,t =3.38,P <0.01]、一般认知能力上差异有显著性[记忆广度上(5.80±1.42)分,(7.18±1.13)分,t =4.28,P <0.01;工作记忆上,t =4.05,P <0.01;加工速度上,t =4.80,P <0.01].述情障碍与读心能力( r =-0.227,P <0.05)、记忆广度( r =-0.377,P <0.01)、工作记忆( r =-0.334,P <0.01)、加工速度( r =-0.470,P <0.01)成绩呈显著负相关.在回归分

  14. The relationship between ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and objectively measured personal UVR exposure dose is modified by season and latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Lucas, R M; Harrison, S; van der Mei, I; Armstrong, B K; Nowak, M; Brodie, A; Kimlin, M G

    2014-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as a proxy measure of personal exposure to UVR, the relationship between the two is not well-defined. This paper examines the effects of season and latitude on the relationship between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure. We used data from the AusD Study, a multi-centre cross-sectional study among Australian adults (18-75 years), where personal UVR exposure was objectively measured using polysulphone dosimeters. Data were analysed for 991 participants from 4 Australian cities of different latitude: Townsville (19.3°S), Brisbane (27.5°S), Canberra (35.3°S) and Hobart (42.8°S). Daily personal UVR exposure varied from 0.01 to 21 Standard Erythemal Doses (median = 1.1, IQR: 0.5-2.1), on average accounting for 5% of the total available ambient dose. There was an overall positive correlation between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure (r = 0.23, p exposure fraction of total available ambient dose was highest in winter (7%) and amongst Hobart participants (7%) and lowest in summer (1%) and in Townsville (4%). These results suggest season and latitude modify the relationship between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure. Ambient UVR may not be a good indicator for personal exposure dose under some circumstances.

  15. The Relationship Between Ethnic Classroom Composition on Turkish-Origin and German Students’ Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sog Yee Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students’ performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students’ performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students’ performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215 extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students’ reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students’ proportion on sense of belonging to school of Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students’ proportion on all students’ performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students’ sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students’ sense of belonging. German students’ sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  16. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  17. Reading Hygiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿一铭

    2006-01-01

    Here are some good points for good eye health that everyone can follow: 1.Rest your eyes before they get tired. Just close your eyes from time to time or look offat some distant object. 2.Do not read in either too dark a light or

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROSODIC READING SKILL AND READING ANXIETY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS / ORTAOKUL ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN PROZODİK OKUMA BECERİLERİ İLE OKUMA KAYGILARI ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİNİN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ATEŞ

    2016-12-01

    of secondary students, defining the reading anxiety levels of the students in the work-group, and revealing the extent of the relationship between these two variables.

  19. A reading in cross-cultural service encounter: Exploring the relationship between cultural intelligence, employee performance and service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Alshaibani, Elham; Bakir, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary reading in cross-cultural service interactions in hospitality and service management literature was undertaken focusing on employee’s attitudes and behaviour that are seen to influence service quality. The interplay of the competing constructs of employee personality, emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence in the service encounter was looked at in relation to employee performance and customer perception of service quality. The reading suggests that cultural inte...

  20. Designing Objective Structured Clinical Examination in Basic Community Pharmacy Clerkship Course and Assessment of Its Relationship with Conventional Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 90% of pharmacy students’ work in pharmacies after graduation which needs both knowledge and skill, thus one of the most essential courses of their education is pharmacy clerkship. An important part of an educational program is the evaluation of the trainees. Different studies show that conventional written exams are not successful in evaluating the skills of the students and can mostly evaluate their knowledge. Thus Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is used to evaluate the students in different aspects.Methods: An OSCE and a conventional test were given to a group of students at the end of basic community pharmacy clerkship course. The OSCE test consisted of six different stations (reading prescriptions, identifying drugs, pharmacist’s recommendation, patient education, drug information resources, and drug usage instructions. Two questions were asked at each station by different examiners. The scores and results of these tests were compared and analyzed.Results: There was no significant correlation between OSCE final scores and written test scores (P: = 0.217. No significant correlation between each station’s score and the written test score was found.Conclusion: The absence of significant correlation between OSCE and conventional exams shows that the skills evaluated by OSCE cannot be evaluated by the best possible written tests. This type of examination is not commonly used in Iran’s pharmacy schools but due to the findings of this study, it seems that this multiform method, despite being more difficult to arrange, can be a more suitable and relevant way to evaluate basic community pharmacy clerkship compared to conventional written tests.

  1. Bullen Reading Attitude Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gertrude F.

    The Bullen Reading Attitude Measure (BRAM) is an instrument that was developed to serve as a diagnostic aid in assessing reading attitudes of elementary school children in grades one through six. The objectives of the test are to measure the subject's attitude toward reading at home or school, visiting the library, owning and buying books,…

  2. Possible relationships between literacy-based instructional coaching and effects on high school teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jessica Lynn

    Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.

  3. So, What's Behind Adult English Second Language Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…

  4. About Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    独行墨客

    2004-01-01

    As for reading and for learning, reading rate (that is, words per minute, WPM) is important, especially for students who have to pass some reading test. How to compute your reading rate? You may know it after reading the following. Reading Rate (WPM) = Total number of words + reading time.

  5. Exploring the association between visual perception abilities and reading of musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Horng-Yih

    2012-06-01

    In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.

  6. Training on the Structural-Functional Relationships of Spelling-To-Sound Correspondences in the Mod 2 Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John, Jr.

    The linear sequencing of correspondence rules in the Mod 2 reading programs creates problems for rule instruction and the efficient application of the rules during word decoding. Training forms are suggested for overriding possible interference brought on by isolating the alternative pronunciations of graphemes. Learning to classify major rule…

  7. The Relationship of Selected Aspects of Reading Comprehension and Cognitive Tasks: Classification Abilities at the Concrete Operations Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Aaron Ross, Jr.

    This study attempted to prove a dichotomy between cognitive processes as measured by Piagetian reasoning tasks and those measured by traditional intelligence tests. A battery of tests (Slosson Intelligence Test, Durrell's Silent Reading and Listening Comprehension Test, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and the Piagetian Measure of Cognitive…

  8. The Development of Antonym Knowledge in American Sign Language (ASL) and Its Relationship to Reading Comprehension in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novogrodsky, Rama; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; Fish, Sarah; Hoffmeister, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown if the developmental path of antonym knowledge in deaf children increases continuously with age and correlates with reading comprehension, as it does in hearing children. In the current study we tested 564 students aged 4-18 on a receptive multiple-choice American Sign Language (ASL) antonym test. A subgroup of 138 students aged 7-18…

  9. The Relationship between Extrinsic Motivation, Home Literacy, Classroom Instructional Practices, and Reading Proficiency in Second-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how students' extrinsic motivation, home literacy and classroom instructional practices were related to the students' reading proficiency of 734 Chinese second-graders (48.2 per cent girls and 51.4 per cent boys) from twenty-two classes in seven primary schools in Hong Kong. The mean student age was 7.5 years. All…

  10. Multi-objective Modeling and Assessment of Partition Properties: A GA-Based Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印春生; 刘新会; 郭卫民; 刘树深; 韩朔暌; 王连生

    2003-01-01

    In this work a multi-objective quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) analysis approach was reported based on the study on three partition properties of 50 aromatic sulfur-containing carboxylates. Here multi-objectives ( properties )were taken as a vector for QSPR modeling. The quantitative correlations for partition properties were developed using a ge-netic algorithm-based variable-selection approach with quantum descriptors, derived from AM1-based calculations.With the QSPR models, the aqueous solubmty, octanol/water partition coefficients and reversed-phase HPLC capacity factors of sulfur-contalning compounds were estimated and predicted.Using GA-based multivariate linear regression with cross-vali-dation procedure, a set of the most promising descriptors was selegted from a pool of 28 quantum chemical semi-empirical de-scriptors, incloding steric and electronic types, to integrally build QSPR models. The selected molecular descriptors includ-ed the net charges on carboxyl group (Qoc), the 2nd power of net ehnrges on nitrogen atoms (QN2), the net atomic charge on the sulfur atoms (Qs), the van der Waals volume of molecule (V), the most positive net atomic charge on hydrogen atoms(QH) and the measure of polarity and polarizability (π),which were main factors affecting the distribution processes of the compounds under study. The statistically best QSPR models of six descriptors were simultaneously obtained by GA-based linear regression analysis. With the selected descriptors and the QSPR equations, mechanisms of partition action of the Sulfur-containing carboxylates were able to be investigated and inter-preted.

  11. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  12. Experiences in Reading Instruction as the Road to Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Donna Jean

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model self-improvement reading course for teachers incorporating the communications model, the skills model, and the sustained silent reading model. Concludes that basic reading skills instruction led to improvement in reading skills and that lesson plans incorporating course objectives were produced. (RS)

  13. Object Oriented Modeling and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Object Oriented Modeling and Design seminar is intended for software professionals and students, it covers the concepts and a language-independent graphical notation that can be used to analyze problem requirements, and design a solution to the problem. The seminar discusses the three kinds of object-oriented models class, state, and interaction. The class model represents the static structure of a system, the state model describes the aspects of a system that change over time as well as control behavior and the interaction model describes how objects collaborate to achieve overall results. Existing knowledge of object oriented programming may benefit the learning of modeling and good design. Specific expectations are: Create a class model, Read, recognize, and describe a class model, Describe association and link, Show abstract classes used with multiple inheritance, Explain metadata, reification and constraints, Group classes into a package, Read, recognize, and describe a state model, Explain states and transitions, Read, recognize, and describe interaction model, Explain Use cases and use case relationships, Show concurrency in activity diagram, Object interactions in sequence diagram.

  14. Prose reading in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  15. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar – but not identical - to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information.To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli (blobs that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject’s ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired stimuli were either followed (CS+ or not followed (CS- by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based and conscious (ratings-based fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization. For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a stimulus as threatening.

  16. Reading faster

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Nation

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  17. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  18. Topographic representations of object size and relationships with numerosity reveal generalized quantity processing in human parietal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, Ben M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318755319; Fracasso, Alessio|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372646905; Petridou, Natalia; Dumoulin, Serge O|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406514

    2015-01-01

    Humans and many animals analyze sensory information to estimate quantities that guide behavior and decisions. These quantities include numerosity (object number) and object size. Having recently demonstrated topographic maps of numerosity, we ask whether the brain also contains maps of object size.

  19. On the Relationship between Right- brain and Left- brain Dominance and Reading Comprehension Test Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of works have been conducted by psycholinguistics to identify hemisphere processing during second/ foreign language learning, or in other words to investigate the role of the brain hemisphere dominance in language performance of learners. Most of these researches have focused on single words and word pairs (e.g., Anaki et al., 1998; Arzouan et. al., 2007; Faust & Mahal, 2007 or simple sentences (Rapp et al., 2007; Kacinik & Chiarello, 2007, and it has been discovered that there is an advantage of right hemisphere for metaphors and an
    advantage of left hemisphere for literal text. But the present research was designed to study Iranian EFL learners' performance in different reading tasks, so there could be differences between the consequences of the former research and the results of the present study due to the context. Here left-brain and right-brain dominance was investigated in 60 individuals (20 right-handed and 10 left-handed male, 20 right-handed and 10 left-handed female via the Edinburg Handedness Questionnaire (EHQ. The research results suggested that the right-handed learners who are supposed to be left-brain outperformed the left-handed ones; and regarding participant's gender, male learners outperformed female learners on reading comprehension test tasks.

  20. On Reading Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long discussion over the construct validity of reading tests. In china's reading tests, multiple choice is the main test method in view of the4 long controversy over the validity of multiple choice, construct validation is called for to empirically test the hypothesized relationships between test scores and abilities. The national CET committee conducted a comprehensive validation study. As part of the project, the specialists studied the reading comprehension test's validity by qualitative means, namely "introspective verbal reports". The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority of the questions items were handled through "expected reading operations".

  1. Clarifying Differences between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter; Pearson, P. David; Paris, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    The terms "reading skill" and "reading strategy" are central to how we conceptualize and teach reading. Despite their importance and widespread use, the terms are not consistently used or understood. This article examines the current and historical uses of the terms, defines them, and describes their differences, similarities, and relationships.…

  2. Decoding and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis to Identify Which Reader and Assessment Characteristics Influence the Strength of the Relationship in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. Ricardo; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relative importance of decoding skills to reading comprehension in reading development and to identify which reader characteristics and reading assessment characteristics contribute to differences in the decoding and reading comprehension correlation. A meta-analysis of 110 studies…

  3. Relationship between the Brazilian version of the Montreal-Toulouse language assessment battery and education, age and reading and writing characteristics. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Gindri, Gigiane; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Parente, Maria Alice Mattos Pimenta; Joanette, Yves; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about understanding how sociodemographic variables may interfere with cognitive functioning, especially with regard to language. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between performance in the Brazilian version of the Montreal-Toulouse language assessment battery (MTL-BR) and education, age and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH). Cross-sectional study conducted in university and work environments in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The MTL-BR was administered to a group of 233 healthy adults, aged 19 to 75 years (mean = 45.04, standard deviation, SD = 15.47), with at least five years of formal education (mean = 11.47, SD = 4.77). A stepwise multiple linear regression model showed that, for most tasks, the number of years of education, age and FRWH were better predictors of performance when analyzed together rather than separately. In separate analysis, education was the best predictor of performance in language tasks, especially those involving reading and writing abilities. The results suggested that the number of years of education, age and FRWH seem to influence performance in the MTL-BR, especially education. These data are important for making diagnoses of greater precision among patients suffering from brain injuries, with the aim of avoiding false positives.

  4. Relationships of Attention and Executive Functions to Oral Language, Reading, and Writing Skills and Systems in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert; Cook, Clayton R; Nagy, William

    Relationships between attention/executive functions and language learning were investigated in students in Grades 4 to 9 ( N = 88) with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in multiword syntax in oral and written language (OWL LD), word reading and spelling (dyslexia), and subword letter writing (dysgraphia). Prior attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis was correlated only with impaired handwriting. Parental ratings of inattention, but not hyperactivity, correlated with measures of written language but not oral language. Sustaining switching attention correlated with writing the alphabet from memory in manuscript or by keyboard and fast copying of a sentence with all the letters of the alphabet. Multiple regressions based on a principal component for composites of multiple levels of language (subword, word, and syntax/text) showed that measures of attention and executive function involving language processing rather than ratings of attention and executive function not specifically related to language accounted for more variance and identified more unique predictors in the composite outcomes for oral language, reading, and writing systems. Inhibition related to focused attention uniquely predicted outcomes for the oral language system. Findings are discussed in reference to implications for assessing and teaching students who are still learning to pay attention to heard and written language and self-regulate their language learning during middle childhood and adolescence.

  5. Objective vs. self-reported physical activity and sedentary time: effects of measurement method on relationships with risk biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Imprecise measurement of physical activity variables might attenuate estimates of the beneficial effects of activity on health-related outcomes. We aimed to compare the cardiometabolic risk factor dose-response relationships for physical activity and sedentary behaviour between accelerometer- and questionnaire-based activity measures. METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed in 317 adults by 7-day accelerometry and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Fasting blood was taken to determine insulin, glucose, triglyceride and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations and homeostasis model-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR. Waist circumference, BMI, body fat percentage and blood pressure were also measured. RESULTS: For both accelerometer-derived sedentary time (50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived measure (p<0.0001 for both interactions. The relationships for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and risk factors were less strong than those observed for sedentary behaviours, but significant negative relationships were observed for both accelerometer and IPAQ MVPA measures with glucose, and insulin and HOMA(IR values (all p<0.05. For accelerometer-derived MVPA only, additional negative relationships were seen with triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat, and a positive relationship was evident with HDL cholesterol (p = 0.0002. Regression coefficients for HOMA(IR, insulin and triglyceride were 43-50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived MVPA measure (all p≤0.01. CONCLUSION: Using the IPAQ to determine sitting time and MVPA reveals some, but not all, relationships between these activity measures and metabolic and vascular disease risk factors. Using this self-report method to quantify activity can therefore underestimate the strength of some

  6. Relationship between English Language Learners' Proficiency in Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking and Proficiency on Maryland School Assessments in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics proficiency of English language learners (ELLs) on the Maryland School Assessments (MSA) for mathematics continues to lag behind the proficiency level of students who are proficient English speakers. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant relationship between English language learner's…

  7. Can You Read My Mind? Age as a Moderator in the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether age moderates the relationship between cognitive factors (theory of mind and attribution of intentions) and relational aggression. Participants (N = 426; 216 boys) between 6 and 9 years of age were asked to complete theory of mind tasks and answer an attribution of intentions questionnaire. Teachers evaluated…

  8. Can You Read My Mind? Age as a Moderator in the Relationship between Theory of Mind and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether age moderates the relationship between cognitive factors (theory of mind and attribution of intentions) and relational aggression. Participants (N = 426; 216 boys) between 6 and 9 years of age were asked to complete theory of mind tasks and answer an attribution of intentions questionnaire. Teachers evaluated…

  9. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  10. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  11. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  12. Research on motivation of object in Chinese labour legal relationship%我国劳动法律关系客体的动因性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯凯盺

    2015-01-01

    社会物质生活条件作为法的动因性渊源对法律的生成具有决定性的意义,所以通过对时代的物质生产方式与劳动法律关系联系的研究,我们会看到劳动法律关系客体在不同的物质生产方式下会出现不同的类型。在计划经济时期劳动法律关系的客体是劳动活动,在社会主义市场经济条件下即市场经济时期劳动法律关系的客体是劳动力。同时,从社会物质生活条件决定主义的视角研究劳动法律关系客体,不仅可以合理认识当代我国劳动法律关系客体,解决对客体认识的争议,而且有利于劳动法律制度建设和劳动法学研究的深化。%Social conditions of material life as the legal motivation origin is decisive for the genera-tion of law.By studying the relationship between the material production mode of the era and labour legal relationship,we could see that the object of labour legal relationship will appear in different types in different material production modes.The object of the legal relationship is labour activities in the Chinese planned economy period,whereas the object of legal relationship is labour force under the condition of socialist market economy or in China’s market economy period.To study the object of the labour legal relationship from the angle that the social conditions of the material life decides the materialism,it can not only lead to a clear understanding of the object of contemporary China’s labour legal relationship to resolve disputes over object recognition,but it can also be favourable for the construction of labour legal system and the deepening studies of labour jurisprudence.

  13. ELL High School Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Nam, Kay

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-­aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-­rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…

  14. Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Motivation, and Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniado, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategies and reading motivation play a significant role in enhancing reading comprehension. In an attempt to prove the foregoing claim in a context where there is no strong culture for reading, this study tries to find out if there is indeed a relationship between and among metacognitive reading strategies, reading…

  15. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  16. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  17. Increased Stroop interference with better second-language reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Wouter; Noppe, Nele; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2011-03-01

    Skilled readers demonstrate remarkable efficiency in processing written words, unlike beginning readers for whom reading occurs more serially and places higher demands on visual attention. In the present study, we used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the relationship between reading skill and automaticity, in individuals learning a second language with a different orthographic system. Prior studies using this paradigm have presented a mixed picture, finding a positive, a negative, or no relationship between the size of Stroop interference and reading skills. Our results show that Stroop interference in the second language was positively related to reading skill (when controlled for interference in the first language). Furthermore, interference was positively related to objective but not subjective indices of the amount of exposure to the second language. We suggest that the lack of consistency in the results of earlier studies may be due, at least in part, to these studies looking at Stroop interference in isolation, rather than comparing interference between languages.

  18. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  19. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)

  20. How you ask matters: an experimental investigation of the influence of mood on memory self-perceptions and their relationship with objective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Brolsma, Jessica W

    2014-01-01

    Stronger relationships often emerge between mood and memory self-efficacy (MSE) than between MSE and memory abilities. We examined how social desirability, mood congruency and framing influence the mood-MSE relationship. Social desirability correlated with all self-report measures, and covarying social desirability diminished the mood-MSE relationship while enhancing the relationship between MSE and objective memory. Participants rated their memory more harshly on positively than neutrally or negatively worded MSE items. Current mood state did not affect MSE overall or when items were worded positively or neutrally. However, on negatively worded items, participants in a negative mood exhibited lower MSE than participants in a positive mood. Thus, both MSE and the mood-MSE relationship depended upon question wording. These results indicate that controlling social desirability and item framing on MSE questionnaires may reduce their confounding influence on memory self-perceptions and the influence of mood on self-reported abilities, allowing subjective memory to more accurately reflect objective memory in healthy and clinical populations.

  1. Adult Basic Education: Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    This book is designed to provide practical suggestions and teaching approaches for both administrators and instructors involved in teaching reading to adults. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Overview"; (2) "Diagnosing Learner Characteristics"; (3) "Goals and Objectives"; (4) "Planning…

  2. Objective Structures and Symbolic Violence in the Immigrant Family and School Relationships: Study of Two Cases in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen Cornejo Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical trend of migration processes in Chile faces a challenge given the incremental growth of immigration during recent years. This study focuses on the relationship between family and school, distinguishing within it the particular relationship between immigrant families and school agents. The qualitative approach applied here enabled a focus on the effect of the cultural diversity that immigration produces, including the configuration of conflicts between immigrant families and the school institution. The main issues discussed in this article concern the approach and the nature of interaction between schools and immigrant families. This approach is articulated with the observed emergence of symbolic violence. The characterization of the conflict of expectations among immigrant families and schools is also described, suggesting the need to rethink the practices associated with an inclusive education that allows the integration of immigrant families.

  3. Radiometric temperature reading of a hot ellipsoidal object inside the oral cavity by a shielded microwave antenna put flush to the cheek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-05-01

    A new scheme for detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children has recently been proposed in the literature. The idea is to warm bladder urine via microwave exposure to at least fever temperatures and observe potential urine reflux from the bladder back to the kidney(s) by medical radiometry. As a preliminary step toward realization of this detection device, we present non-invasive temperature monitoring by use of microwave radiometry in adults to observe temperature dynamics in vivo of a water-filled balloon placed within the oral cavity. The relevance of the approach with respect to detection of VUR in children is motivated by comparing the oral cavity and cheek tissue with axial CT images of young children in the bladder region. Both anatomical locations reveal a triple-layered tissue structure consisting of skin-fat-muscle with a total thickness of about 8-10 mm. In order to mimic variations in urine temperature, the target balloon was flushed with water coupled to a heat exchanger, that was moved between water baths of different temperatures, to induce measurable temperature gradients. The applied radiometer has a center frequency of 3.5 GHz and provides a sensitivity (accuracy) of 0.03 °C for a data acquisition time of 2 s. Three different scenarios were tested and included observation through the cheek tissue with and without an intervening water bolus compartment present. In all cases, radiometric readings observed over a time span of 900 s were shown to be highly correlated (R ˜ 0.93) with in situ temperatures obtained by fiberoptic probes.

  4. Objective vs. self-reported physical activity and sedentary time: effects of measurement method on relationships with risk biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañez, Luis; Salas, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E S; Gill, Jason M R

    2012-01-01

    Imprecise measurement of physical activity variables might attenuate estimates of the beneficial effects of activity on health-related outcomes. We aimed to compare the cardiometabolic risk factor dose-response relationships for physical activity and sedentary behaviour between accelerometer- and questionnaire-based activity measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were assessed in 317 adults by 7-day accelerometry and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Fasting blood was taken to determine insulin, glucose, triglyceride and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations and homeostasis model-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)). Waist circumference, BMI, body fat percentage and blood pressure were also measured. For both accelerometer-derived sedentary time (50% lower for the IPAQ-reported compared to the accelerometer-derived measure (pphysical activity (MVPA) and risk factors were less strong than those observed for sedentary behaviours, but significant negative relationships were observed for both accelerometer and IPAQ MVPA measures with glucose, and insulin and HOMA(IR) values (all pactivity measures and metabolic and vascular disease risk factors. Using this self-report method to quantify activity can therefore underestimate the strength of some relationships with risk factors.

  5. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  6. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  7. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  8. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  9. [The relationship between the contents and the level of achievement of objectives in an occupational health nursing practicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Junko; Hara, Yoshiko; Ikeda, Tomoko; Ishihara, Itsuko

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the program and teaching methods of the occupational health nursing practicum in order to enforce students' learning experience in the clinical practice. Self-evaluation sheets graded from levels 1 to 4 were from 63 students, and statistical analysis was performed in relation to their performance levels. The results of the analysis of 63 students' performance sheets indicated that the students achieved 3 points above average in all 14 course objectives. Scales analysis of the students' evaluation sheets also revealed that students' achievement levels were lower at the Industrial Health Organization in comparison with those at the industrial enterprises. To make students' practice more valuable, students' assessment skills of the workers and working environment should be emphasized in the classroom teaching and experience of learning at the laboratory. Moreover, the course objectives should be sufficiently linked to the practice areas in order to differentiate between the features of the Health organizations and enterprises.

  10. Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses on the WISC-V, DAS-II, and KABC-II and Their Relationship to Students' Errors in Oral Language, Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Kristina C.; Avitia, Maria; Koriakin, Taylor; Bray, Melissa A.; DeBiase, Emily; Courville, Troy; Pan, Xingyu; Witholt, Thomas; Grossman, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between specific cognitive patterns of strengths and weaknesses and the errors children make on oral language, reading, writing, spelling, and math subtests from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants with scores from the KTEA-3 and either the Wechsler Intelligence…

  11. The relationship between diet and perceived and objective access to supermarkets among low-income housing residents

    OpenAIRE

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S., supermarkets serve as an important source of year-round produce (Chung & Myers, 1999), and yet access to supermarkets may be scarce in “food deserts,” or poor, urban areas that lack sources of healthy, affordable food (Cummins & Macintyre, 2002). This study examined objective distance to the nearest supermarket and participant-report of supermarket access in relation to fruit and vegetable intake. Street-network distance to the closest supermarket was calculated using GIS mapping...

  12. 文学经典阅读与学生和谐人格养成新探%Explorations on the Relationship of Literary Classics Reading and Students’ Harmonious Personality Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤银

    2015-01-01

    培养学生健全和谐的人格是学校教育的目标。文学经典阅读在个体和谐人格构建中发挥着重要的特殊的作用。立足于和谐人格养成的阅读教学必须重构文学经典的阅读理念、阅读功能、阅读目标和阅读策略。在对话式阅读教学中,学生通过对民族文学经典的传承与创新、对外国文学经典的借鉴与整合,完成和谐人格的建构和优化。本文着力探讨文学经典阅读对学生人格培养的理论建构和现实实践。%Training students' healthy and harmonious personality is the goal of school education. Literary classics reading plays an important role in the process of building one’s harmonious personality. Reading teaching, based on the harmonious personality cultivation, is necessary to reconstruct the reading of literary classics philosophy, reading function, reading goals and reading strategies. In the dialogue type reading teaching, the students complete the construction of their harmonious personalities and optimize through the inheritance and innovation of national literature classic and the reference of foreign literature classic and integration. The article focuses on the theory construction and the practice of the relationship of literary classics reading and students’ personality formation.

  13. 初中语文阅读教学中落实三维目标的策略研究%Strategies for the Implementation of Three-dimensional Object in Junior High School Language Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立萍

    2016-01-01

    In new textbooks Chinese reading teaching, the curriculum is based on the knowledge and capability goals, proces-ses and methods, attitudes and values of the three dimensions of design, three-dimensional object can be said is the core design of the new curriculum standards, but also improve students' language literacy effective ways and means. This paper mainly fo-cus on junior high school language teachers how to effectively use existing resources, to strengthen the reach and integration of three-dimensional object to explore in order to improve the effectiveness of the new curriculum teaching of Chinese reading, and comprehensively improve the students' language literacy.%在新教材语文阅读教学中,课程目标是依据知识和能力、过程和方法、情感态度和价值观这三个维度设计的,可以说三维目标是新课程标准设计的核心,也是全面提高学生语文素养的有效的方法和途径。本文主要围绕初中语文教师如何有效地利用现有资源,加强对三维目标的达成与整合进行探究,以期有效提高新课程语文阅读教学的效果,全面提高学生的语文素养。

  14. Relação entre consciência morfológica e leitura contextual medida pelo teste de Cloze The relationship between morphological awareness and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta habilidade está associada à leitura e escrita e parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre a consciência morfológica e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda parte, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação. Os resultados mostram que a consciência morfológica está associada à leitura contextual no português e que, até certo ponto, essa contribuição é independente do processamento fonológico.Morphological awareness is the awareness of the morphemes of the words. This ability is related to spelling, reading and it seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading. In this kind of reading besides phonological information, syntactic-semantic information is required as well. This study intends to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension measured by the Cloze Test. In the first part of the study the relationship between the Cloze test scores and morphological awareness are explored by simple correlations. In the second part, the specificity of this relationship is further explored. The results showed that to some extent this relationship is independent of phonological awareness.

  15. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  16. [Relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and professional quality of life with the achievement of occupational objectives in the costa del sol primary health care district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Reading Self-Efficacy Predicts Word Reading But Not Comprehension in Both Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julia M.; Fox, Amy C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child’s perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures. PMID:28144223

  18. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  20. Linking School Libraries and Literacy: Young People's Reading Habits and Attitudes to Their School Library, and an Exploration of the Relationship between School Library Use and School Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents additional information from the authors' 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing--for more information see their forthcoming report Clark and Douglas (2010) "Young People's Reading and Writing: An in-depth study focusing on enjoyment, behaviour, attitudes and attainment." To support the School Library Commission's…

  1. Relationships between Event-Related Potentials and Behavioral and Scholastic Measures of Reading Ability: A Large-Scale, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Negin; Stites, Mallory C.; Laszlo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In the cognitive, computational, neuropsychological, and educational literatures, it is established that children approach text in unique ways, and that even adult readers can differ in the strategies they bring to reading. In the developmental event-related potential (ERP) literature, however, children with differing degrees of reading ability…

  2. Public Libraries and Literacy: Young People's Reading Habits and Attitudes to Public Libraries, and an Exploration of the Relationship between Public Library Use and School Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina; Hawkins, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents additional information from the 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing. The authors conducted an online survey of 17,089 pupils aged 8 to 16 from 112 schools, conducted in November-December 2009, which consisted of 32 questions exploring young people's background, reading and writing behaviour, perceived ability and…

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  4. Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Kenya: Reading Acquisition in a Multilingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Schroeder, Leila; Trudell, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Reading research has shown that variable relationships exist between measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension, depending on whether the language of the text is the reader's first language or an additional language. This paper explores this phenomenon, using reading assessment data for 2,000 Kenyan children in two or three…

  5. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Carreteiro, Rui; Justo, João; Figueira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children’s language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent–child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the ef...

  6. Compensatory Reading among ESL Learners: A Reading Strategy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Petras, Yusof Ede; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain an insight to the relationship of two different concepts about reading comprehension, namely, the linear model of comprehension and the interactive compensatory theory. Drawing on both the above concepts, a heuristic was constructed about three different reading strategies determined by the specific ways the literal,…

  7. Word Reading and Reading Comprehension: Stability, Overlap and Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Defries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal twin data were analyzed to investigate the etiology of the stability of genetic and environmental influences on word reading and reading comprehension, as well as the stability of those influences on their relationship. Participating twin pairs were initially tested at a mean age of 10.3 years, and retested approximately five years…

  8. LA RELACIÓN COMO OBJETO DE LA CIENCIA DEL DERECHO PENAL The relationship as a scientific object of criminal law science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Carrasco Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Por regla general, la "relación" como categoría central ha sido desestimada tanto por la filosofía como por la ciencia del derecho, cuestión que sin duda repercute en la ciencia del derecho penal. El presente artículo tiene por fin denotar este vacío, y presentar algunas claves por las que podría centrarse el estudio de la ciencia penal en la relación en cuanto objeto científico. Para ello, en primer lugar, se hará un estado de la cuestión en la tratativa de la relación por la filosofía y por la ciencia del derecho, para, en segundo lugar, centrarnos en las posibilidades de entender la relación como objeto de la ciencia del derecho penal.As a general rule, the "relationship" as a central theme has been overlooked as much by the field of philosophy as by legal science, which, without doubt, has repercussions on criminal justice science. This article will demonstrate this gap, and present some key points to show that the study of criminal law science of the relationship as a scientific object. Thus, in the first instance this article will explain the state of this matter (how "the relation" has been overlooked in relation to philosophy and legal science; and in the second instance, it will concentrate on the possibilities of understanding this relationship as a scientific object of criminal law science.

  9. The Relationship between Retail Merchandising in the Content Area and Its Effect on Comprehension and Reading Rate as Measured by Retail Merchandising Reading Tests Given to Selected Secondary School Students in Metropolitan Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane

    A total of 99 students from a Toronto secondary vocational school participated in a study to determine whether students who studied retail merchandising differed significantly in comprehension and reading rate from students who did not study retail merchandising. An experimental group composed of 50 merchandising students and a control group of 49…

  10. Alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric Rapid Automatized Naming in children with reading and/or spelling difficulties and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Monika; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Slot, Esther; Van Viersen, Sietske; De Bree, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Although poor Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is a risk factor for reading and/or spelling difficulties (RSD) as well as for mathematical difficulties (MD), many questions surround this relationship. The main objective of the present study was to obtain insight in the relationship between alphanumeri

  11. Schema Theory and English Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ming

    2015-01-01

    The development of reading ability has always been one of the primary objectives in English language teaching ,so the schema theory in English reading teaching has been drawn an increasingly attention.

  12. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  13. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  14. Quantifying relationships between selected work-related risk factors and back pain: a systematic review of objective biomechanical measures and cost-related health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nancy A; Hughes, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to use published literature to demonstrate that specific changes in workplace biomechanical exposure levels can predict reductions in back injuries. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify epidemiologic studies which could be used to quantify relationships between several well-recognized biomechanical measures of back stress and economically relevant outcome measures. Eighteen publications, describing 15 research studies, which fulfilled search criteria were found. Quantitative associations were observed between back injuries and measures of spinal compression, lifting, lifting ratios, postures, and combinations thereof. Results were intended to provide safety practitioners with information that could be applied to their own work situations to estimate costs and benefits of ergonomic intervention strategies before they are implemented.

  15. Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  16. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  17. Reading Remixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  18. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses ...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  19. Relationships between subjective or objective symptoms and mortality in schizophrenia: a prospective study on 310 schizophrenic patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Yon, Valérie; Maréchal, Virginie; Dècle, Pénélope

    2011-01-30

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between subjective or objective symptoms and mortality in schizophrenia. 310 subjects meeting the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia were included in the study between 1998 and 2000. At the initial assessment the following variables were respectively assessed to evaluate subjective and objective symptoms: the Frankfurt Complaints Questionnaire (FCQ) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In May 2008, information about the subjects were collected in order to know if they are alive or not and if they are deceased to know the date and the causes of their death. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. A multivariate Cox regression was done to detect predictive factors associated with mortality. Absolute mortality rates were 10.01%, 4.46% and 5.42% for overall mortality, unnatural causes and natural causes, respectively. SMR for overall mortality was 4.73. Cox regression analyses showed that elevated scores of FCQ was significant predictor of deaths from unnatural causes. High levels of subjective symptoms, as rated by the FCQ were independent predictor of mortality by unnatural causes in schizophrenic subjects. There were several limitations: The causes of death were not determined by autopsy and secondly, the duration of the study could be insufficient to detect significant associations between clinical variables and mortality.

  20. Learning to Read with Augustine of Hippo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, C. Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The confessions of Augustine of Hippo can be read as a lesson in reading, one in which Augustine teaches by example as well as precept. Throughout this work, the relationship between faith and reading is clearly on Augustine's mind, as is his desire to teach others what he has learned. As we consider our own approaches to the confluence of faith,…

  1. The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

  2. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  3. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  4. Developing Critical Reading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Romy J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of dominant notions of background knowledge (BGK) as neutral information and objective knowledge and of the reading techniques that accompany these notions. The article argues that the notion of BGK should be broadened to include awareness of the social processes of production and interpretation of text. (26 references)…

  5. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  6. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  7. The Role of Visual Processing Speed in Reading Speed Development

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Lobier; Matthieu Dubois; Sylviane Valdois

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading s...

  8. Studying relationships between environment and malaria incidence in Camopi (French Guiana through the objective selection of buffer-based landscape characterisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Aurélia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major health problem in French Guiana, with a mean of 3800 cases each year. A previous study in Camopi, an Amerindian village on the Oyapock River, highlighted the major contribution of environmental features to the incidence of malaria attacks. We propose a method for the objective selection of the best multivariate peridomestic landscape characterisation that maximises the chances of identifying relationships between environmental features and malaria incidence, statistically significant and meaningful from an epidemiological point of view. Methods A land-cover map, the hydrological network and the geolocalised inhabited houses were used to characterise the peridomestic landscape in eleven discoid buffers with radii of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 metres. Buffer-based landscape characterisations were first compared in terms of their capacity to discriminate between sites within the geographic space and of their effective multidimensionality in variable space. The Akaike information criterion (AIC was then used to select the landscape model best explaining the incidences of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Finally, we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for the relationships between environmental variables and malaria incidence, by species, for the more relevant buffers. Results The optimal buffers for environmental characterisation had radii of 100 m around houses for P. vivax and 400 m around houses for P. falciparum. The incidence of P. falciparum malaria seemed to be more strongly linked to environmental features than that of P. vivax malaria, within these buffers. The incidence of P. falciparum malaria in children was strongly correlated with proportions of bare soil (r = -0.69, land under high vegetation (r = 0.68 and primary forest (r = 0.54, landscape division (r = 0.48 and the number of inhabited houses (r = -0.60. The incidence of P. vivax malaria was

  9. Poor Comprehenders in the Classroom: Teacher Ratings of Behavior in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension and Its Relationship with Individual Differences in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Differing etiological explanations have been proposed to account for poor comprehenders' difficulties with reading comprehension, with some researchers emphasizing working memory deficits and others arguing for oral language weaknesses playing a key causal role. The authors contrasted these two theoretical accounts using data obtained from direct…

  10. Poor Comprehenders in the Classroom: Teacher Ratings of Behavior in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension and Its Relationship with Individual Differences in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Differing etiological explanations have been proposed to account for poor comprehenders' difficulties with reading comprehension, with some researchers emphasizing working memory deficits and others arguing for oral language weaknesses playing a key causal role. The authors contrasted these two theoretical accounts using data obtained from direct…

  11. Comprehension of Discourse Markers and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    According to many research findings, the presence of discourse markers (DMs) enhances readers' comprehension of the texts they read. However, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between knowledge of DMs and reading comprehension (RC) and the present study explores the relationship between them. Knowledge of DMs is measured through…

  12. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  13. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  14. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  15. Reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J; Williams, Heather M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of reading motivation and amount of reading in which deaf adults engage? Assessments of 30 hearing and 24 deaf adults showed that deaf participants reported significantly higher levels of reading motivation despite having been found to read at less than a sixth-grade level. No significant difference in the amount of reading between hearing and deaf adults was found. Amount of reading for personal reasons was found to be the best predictor of text comprehension in the deaf participants, and intrinsic motivation was found to be the best predictor of amount of reading in the deaf participants.

  16. 关于高一年级语文阅读教学中写作目标落实的可行性研究%Research on the Feasibility of Implementing Writing Ob-jectives in Senior Grade One Chinese Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文结合自身教育教学实践,从高一年级写作教学现状和阅读现状这一背景入手,力求总结出在阅读教学中完成部分写作目标的可行性方法,进而提高语文阅读课堂教学效率。%Combining with the writer's own education and teach-ing practice, from the present situation of senior Grade One writ-ing teaching and reading, this paper tries to summarize the feasi-bility of implementing writing objectives in reading teaching, so as to improve the efficiency of Chinese reading teaching.

  17. The importance of cultivating Metaphoric Competence in Teaching Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小瑶

    2015-01-01

    Metaphor is outstanding in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching.Based on discussing the reading model in reading teaching and the relationship between the metaphoric competence and reading comprehension,this paper advocated that teachers should cultivate students’ metaphoric competence to improve students’ reading proficiency.

  18. The Effect of Pleasure Reading on Japanese University EFL Learners' Reading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan; Kite, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    Few second-language (L2) reading studies have examined the relationship between reading large amounts of text and fluency, and those studies that have tend to be problematic in terms of their designs and/or analyses. In order to address this lack of empirical L2 reading fluency research, this study investigates the effects of a 1-year pleasure…

  19. Structures of Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use for Reading Comprehension of Geometry Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored the structural relationship between the students' perceived use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies (CMRS) and their reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP), and we also examined the differences in students' perceived use of reading strategies among the poor, moderate and good comprehenders. A sample…

  20. Learning to Love Reading: A Self-Study on Fostering Students' Reading Motivation in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…

  1. Reading Motivation, Reading Amount, and Text Comprehension in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J.; Williams, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of…

  2. Girls, Boys and Early Reading: Parents' Gendered Views about Literacy and Children's Attitudes towards Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Gulsah; Hill, Susan; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between children's attitudes towards reading and their parents' gendered views about literacy (GVL). It was assumed that parents may have GVL by favouring girls in reading activities, which could limit boys' enjoyment in reading activities. This study was conducted with 31 five-year-old children in first…

  3. Gender Differences in Online Reading Engagement, Metacognitive Strategies, Navigation Skills and Reading Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J-Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how knowledge of metacognitive strategies and navigation skills mediate the relationship between online reading activities and printed reading assessment (PRA) and electronic reading assessment (ERA) across 19 countries using the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 database. Participants were 34?104…

  4. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  5. Relationship between Reading Attitude, Achievement and Learners' Attitude toward Cooperative Learning Model --Based on Reading Teaching of Jigsaw II Model%阅读态度、阅读成绩及学习者对合作学习模式认识的关系——一项基于Jigsaw Ⅱ模式的阅读教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宪礼

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between reading attitude, achievement, and learners' attitude toward Jigsaw II cooperative learning. Sixty four non-English college students from Guangdong Pharmaceutical University participated in the study. Results show that achievement is positively correlated with reading attitude while no correlation is between achievement and their attitude toward Jigsaw II cooperative learning. Also, the data analysis indicates that there are significant differences between high and low achievers, between male and female learners across the variables such as reading attitude, achievement and attitude toward Jigsaw II cooperative learning.%本研究调查了阅读态度、阅读成绩及学习者对JigsawII合作学习过程的认识之间的关系。64名大学生参与了本项研究。调查结果表明,阅读态度与阅读成绩之间有积极的内部相关性,但是与JigsawII合作学习过程的认识没有相关性。统计分析表明,高、低成绩者和男、女生之间在阅读态度、阅读成绩及JigsawII合作学习过程的认识上都有显著性的差异。

  6. Reading Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Reading Columns are twin permanent public sculptures commissioned as part of a £245m scheme for the redevelopment of the Chatham Place area in Reading. Dimensions: 3.5m high x 1.3m diameter each Field of knowledge: The work consists of twin bespoke columns of stainless steel and glass over digital colour transparencies. The piece revisits and reworks the idea of the Morris Column, a 19th C feature characteristic of major European metropolitan centres. A wraparound image on each of ...

  7. The Level of Prediction of Reading Comprehension by Fluent Reading Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine whether there is a relationship between reading comprehension and fluent reading skills of primary school students (2nd-5th graders and their reading comprehension is predicted by their fluent reading skills. This study had a survey design and was conducted in Kulu, Konya, Turkey. The sample consisted of totally 72 students of whom 18 were selected for each grade level who vary from each other in terms of gender and academic performance. Data were collected through “The Prosodic Reading Scale” and “Comprehension Tests”. Besides, the data related to students’ reading fluency and reading rate were rated through the scales regarding video records. Correlational and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that reading fluency, reading rate, and prosody are found to be significantly interrelated. According to the correlational results, prosodic skills and reading rate were found to be closely related. Fluent reading skills and comprehension were also found to be interrelated. The most significant factor that is related to reading comprehension was found to be prosody as one of fluent reading skills. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, fluent reading skills were found to significantly predict reading comprehension. The factor that best predicts reading comprehension was found to be prosody.

  8. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  9. Bidirectional relations between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper primary school grades: A longitudinal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and f

  10. A Comparison of Reading Rates, Comprehension, and Stamina in Oral and Silent Reading of Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…

  11. Internet mediated adolescent relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute towards the comprehension of the adhesion of adolescent to digital technologies and their usage in the search for or consolidation of relationships with their peers. The objective was to analyze the role of blogs in the maintenance and establishment of relationships among adolescents from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Three boys’ blogs and three girls’ blogs were selected, and five pages of each blog were selected, in a total of 30 pages. Categories were elaborated from reading the posts left at the 30 pages and subsequently used to classify and quantify the posts. Messages and comments left at the blogs had a positive affective connotation, in search for approximation and contact with the blog owner. Messages were also noted for gender differences. It was concluded that some determined patterns of offline interaction guided the establishment of online relationships.

  12. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.

  13. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  14. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  15. WHAT IS READING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Reading is enjoying,entertaining and ent ightening Reading is listening,speaking and writingReading is talking and discussing,with yourself with the author and with the others Reading is exploring,investigating and guessing. Reading is traveling backward and forward,historically and geographically. Reading is thinking in your own language,and/or in the other language. Reading is encoding and decoding. Reading is civilizing,rationalizing and intellectualizing. Reading is assimilating,associating,accumula...

  16. Technological Transformations of Reading Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

    The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p...... culture from a perspective on reading as a social and material practice, exploring readers’ articulations of their engagement with book objects on the social websites Twitter and Goodreads....

  17. The relationship between phonological processing and reading ability: evidence from Down syndrome and Williams syndrome / A relação entre o processamento fonológico e a habilidade de leitura: evidência da síndrome de Down e da síndrome de Williams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cardoso-Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents a review of studies which investigated the relationship between phonological processing skills and the ability to read words in two developmental disorders: Down syndrome (DS and Williams syndrome (WS. Results suggest that, like children without developmental disorders, individuals with DS and individuals with WS learn to read by processing and remembering letter-sound relations in words. It is nonetheless possible that non-phonological processes play a more important role in reading skills among individuals with DS and WS than among typically developed children. As discussed in the text, there is evidence that variations in non-verbal abilities are more strongly correlated with reading ability in DS and WS than among children with typical reading development.

  18. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  19. Relationship between open reading frame 26 subtypes in human herpesvirns-8 and Kaposi's sarcoma%人类疱疹病毒8型ORF26基因亚型与Kaposi肉瘤的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀娟; 普雄明; 吴卫东

    2008-01-01

    Objective To learn the subtypes of open reading frame 26 (ORF26) of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, and to evaluate the relationship of ORF26 subtypes to clinical types and invasiveness of Kaposi's sarcoma. Methods Thirty-two paraffin-embeded tissue speci-mens of Kaposi's sarcoma were collected in the Department of Dermatology, People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, from 1996 to 2007. DNA was extracted from these specimens, nested-PCR was used to amplify HHV-8 DNA. PCR products were subjected to bi-directional sequencing after extraction from agarose gels. Phylogenetic analysis was carded out by using the software DNAStar, program Clustal W and PHYLIP package for the determination of ORF26 subtype. Fisher's exact test was performed to evaluate the relationship of ORF26 subtypes to clinical types and invasiveness of Kaposi's sarcoma. Results Of the 32 specimens, 30 were positive for HHV-8 DNA with a positivity rate of 93.75%, and 6 specimens of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma were all positive. ORF26 A subtype was detected in the HHV-8 DNA of 17 posi-tive specimens, and C subtype in that of other 13 specimens. Neither the incidence of mucosal lesions nor the distribution of clinical subtypes was of significant difference between patients with ORF26 A subtype and those with ORF26 C subtype (both P > 0.05). Conclusions A and C may be the predominate subtypes of ORF 26 in HHV-8 of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, and the ORF26 subtype is unrelated to the presence of mucosal lesions in or the clinical types of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.%目的 明确Kaposi肉瘤患者感染的人类疱疹病毒8型(HHV-8)ORF26基因亚型分类,初步探讨其与Kaposi肉瘤不同临床分型及侵袭性的相关性.方法 对32例Kaposi肉瘤石蜡包埋组织进行HHV-8 DNA抽提、扩增、双向测序,使用DNAStar软件、Clustal W软件和PHYLIP软件包对测序结果进行系统发生学分析,从而确定HHV-8 ORF26基因亚型,

  20. The relationship between auditory-visual speech perception and language-specific speech perception at the onset of reading instruction in English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Doğu; Burnham, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Speech perception is auditory-visual, but relatively little is known about auditory-visual compared with auditory-only speech perception. One avenue for further understanding is via developmental studies. In a recent study, Sekiyama and Burnham (2008) found that English speakers significantly increase their use of visual speech information between 6 and 8 years of age but that this development does not appear to be universal across languages. Here, the possible bases for this language-specific increase among English speakers were investigated. Four groups of English-language children (5, 6, 7, and 8 years) and a group of adults were tested on auditory-visual, auditory-only, and visual-only speech perception; language-specific speech perception with native and non-native speech sounds; articulation; and reading. Results showed that language-specific speech perception and lip-reading ability reliably predicted auditory-visual speech perception in children but that adult auditory-visual speech perception was predicted by auditory-only speech perception. The implications are discussed in terms of both auditory-visual speech perception and language development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 汉语阅读障碍儿童脑血流改变与阅读技能测试的关系%Relationship between the change of brain blood flow and reading skill test in children with Chinese reading disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永刚; 马琦琳; 杨志伟; 何建军; 刘国锋; 支科

    2005-01-01

    交界区>颞叶>顶叶>丘脑>其他(小脑、脑干、基底节);阅读障碍组阅读技能总粗分与全脑血流量呈明显正相关(r=0.651,P<0.05).结论:阅读障碍儿童存在脑血流代谢降低,单光子发射计算机断层摄影术脑血流显像及阅读技能诊断测试均能够客观评价其病变的严重程度,评价患儿的脑功能变化,以期对阅读障碍患儿进行早期干预,改善其远期生活质量.%BACKGROUND: Reading disorder is the main obstacle in children, but its etiology and pathogenesis are still uncovered.OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between brain blood flow (BBF)and scores for children reading skill detecting test (CRSDT), in order to provide theoretical references for earlier intervention and functional monitoring for children with reading disorder(RD).DESIGN: Comparative observation study with RD children as subjects and normal children as controlSETTING: Nuclear medicine and psychological-health institute of a university.PARTICIPANTS: This study was carried out in Nuclear Medicine and Psychological-health Institute of Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. Between August 1998 and August 1999, 25 children with RD were screened out from the students from grade 3 to grade 6 in two Changsha civic elementary schools, including 15 males and 10 females aged(10±1)teacher lasted for more than one year and began from the earlier stage of school age(before grade three), with their achievement ranked last or often failed in examinations, even stay in the same grade due to learning disorder;and teacher or investigation of their homework accorded to the ICD-10 didiseases. Meanwhile 20 healthy children with normal intelligence were randomly selected as control group from the same class of RD children,including 12 males and 8 females with age of (10 ± 1 )years.METHODS: Non blood sampling-SPECT images was used for detecting cerebral blood flow(CBF), as well as right and left CBF and regional CBF (r

  2. RELACIONES ENTRE LAS DIFICULTADES DEL LENGUAJE ORAL A LOS 5 Y 6 AÑOS Y LOS PROCESOS DE LECTURA A LOS 8 Y 9 AÑOS Relationships between difficulties of oral language at 5 and 6 years old and reading processes at 8 and 9 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Lara-Díaz

    2010-07-01

    reading difficulties. Most of these investigations have been conducted in languages with opaque orthographies such as English and their results cannot be completely extended to Spanish. Objective. To describes the relationship between oral language difficulties and reading process in Spanish as a language of shallow orthography in a sample of school children. Materials and methods. 58 children participated in two different measurement times: an initial oral language assessment was performed by applying the Preschool Language Scale (PSL-3 when the children were five to six years old, The second one was carried out three years later, using the Reading Processes Evaluation- PROLEC. Results. A causal relationship was observed between the assessed oral language variables (auditory comprehension and expressive communication and the reading variables (decoding and comprehension. Reading performance in children identified as with presence of language delay differs significantly from the children without any delay, especially in regards to the decoding process. In the same way, a differential developmental rhythm was observed between those two groups coherently with the illusory recovery hypothesis. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that oral language delay in Spanish can impact not only the decoding process but also the comprehension processes too. The relevance of this study consists on allowing new ways to explaining and linking components of oral language and reading, which favors the processes of diagnosis and intervention in speech and language therapy in both clinical and educational contexts

  3. Four Schools of Philosophical Thought and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper considers the role of realism, idealism, experimentalism, and existentialism in the teaching of reading. The paper first discusses realism, noting that reading specialists who are realists desire to have objectives stated in measurable terms--in state mandated tests the tests are to be aligned with the stated objectives. In idealism,…

  4. The Use of Pre-Reading Activities in Reading Skills Achievement in Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah

    2016-01-01

    Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  6. Reading skill and structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Suzanne M; Lebel, Catherine; Katzir, Tami; Manis, Franklin R; Kan, Eric; Rodriguez, Genevieve G; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2014-03-26

    Reading is a learned skill that is likely influenced by both brain maturation and experience. Functional imaging studies have identified brain regions important for skilled reading, but the structural brain changes that co-occur with reading acquisition remain largely unknown. We investigated maturational volume changes in brain reading regions and their association with performance on reading measures. Sixteen typically developing children (5-15 years old, eight boys, mean age of sample=10.06 ± 3.29) received two MRI scans (mean interscan interval=2.19 years), and were administered a battery of cognitive measures. Volume changes between time points in five bilateral cortical regions of interest were measured, and assessed for relationships to three measures of reading. Better baseline performances on measures of word reading, fluency, and rapid naming, independent of age and total cortical gray matter volume change, were associated with volume decrease in the left inferior parietal cortex. Better baseline performance on a rapid naming measure was associated with volume decrease in the left inferior frontal region. These results suggest that children who are better readers, and who perhaps read more than less skilled readers, exhibit different development trajectories in brain reading regions. Understanding relationships between reading performance, reading experience, and brain maturation trajectories may help with the development and evaluation of targeted interventions.

  7. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  8. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  9. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  10. Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Mackenzie, Genevieve

    2015-03-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate reading comprehension in youth with and without a prior diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first goal was to determine whether youth with and without ADHD matched in word reading ability exhibited differences in reading comprehension proficiency. The next goal was to determine whether good and poor comprehenders within the ADHD subgroup differed from each other on language and academic achievement measures. The third objective was to examine whether word recognition or oral vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of ADHD symptoms on reading comprehension performance. Youth with ADHD scored significantly lower than the comparison youth on a standardized measure of reading comprehension. Relative to good comprehenders with ADHD, poor comprehenders with ADHD exhibited weaknesses in expressive vocabulary, mathematical reasoning, written expression, and exhibited more executive function (EF) difficulties as reported by the teacher. Expressive vocabulary and word reading, but not teacher EF ratings, accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension performance and mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and reading comprehension. Implications for further research and educational practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Concerning crime object and the relationship of target crime%论犯罪客体与犯罪对象的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕敬

    2014-01-01

    Object of a crime and crime content object is very similar to the concept of the two , although the crime distinguish between objects and object of the crime , but is very close contact , often in the study constitute a crime , the two indispensable is an organic whole .Uncertain object of the crime only to determine the object of crime , then the whole case will seem too theoretical and practice of life can not be linked , but not fully understanding the case;the other hand is the object of crime , the criminal object and ignore the nature of the case can not be determined , so the twoare complementary and indispensable .%犯罪客体与犯罪对象是两个联系紧密又难于区分的概念,在考察犯罪构成时,二者是一个有机的整体,缺一不可。只确定犯罪客体不确定犯罪对象,则整个案件会显得过于理论化不能与实践生活相联系,更不能全面的了解案情;反之只是研究犯罪对象而忽略犯罪客体则不能确定案件的性质,所以二者是相辅相成缺一不可的。

  12. Reading comprehension in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Brown, Heather; Main, Elizabeth

    Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, contrary to prediction, received no advantage from printed sentences compared to spoken sentences, despite the lower memory load. Reading comprehension was associated with listening comprehension, word reading and phonological awareness in DS. Vocabulary knowledge was also associated with reading comprehension, mediated by word reading and nonverbal cognitive abilities. Study 2 investigated the longitudinal relationships between reading and language measures in the readers with DS over around 22 months. Time 1 listening comprehension and phonological awareness predicted Time 2 reading comprehension but there was no evidence that reading or reading comprehension predicted Time 2 language scores or phonological awareness, and no evidence that readers had acquired greater depth of vocabulary.

  13. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  14. A Psychoanalytical Reading of the Relationship between the Father Fig-ure and the Commons in the Three Parts of Henry VI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Lin-han

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to give a psychoanalytical study of the relationship between the ruling class and civilians. First it will analyse the‘miracle of St Albans’;second it will investigate into the Cade’s scenes. Finally it will conclude by arguing that the common’s need for self-expression is fully revealed in the trilogy.

  15. Exploring Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation among Very Good and Very Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Norgate, Roger; Warhurst, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research examining the relationship between reading skill and reading motivation has typically been carried out among children with a wide range of reading abilities. There is less research focusing on children who excel in reading or who are attaining very low reading scores. Purpose: To examine whether there were differences between…

  16. Exploring Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation among Very Good and Very Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Norgate, Roger; Warhurst, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research examining the relationship between reading skill and reading motivation has typically been carried out among children with a wide range of reading abilities. There is less research focusing on children who excel in reading or who are attaining very low reading scores. Purpose: To examine whether there were differences between…

  17. Integration of Reading and Writing Strategies To Improve Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Susan

    A program was developed for improving the reading of second-grade students in a progressive suburban community in northern Illinois. The problem was originally noted by an increase in the need for support services and low standardized test scores. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students lacked knowledge of the relationship between…

  18. Reading depends on writing, in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A; Eden, Guinevere F; Perfetti, Charles A; Siok, Wai Ting

    2005-06-14

    Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that behavioral remediation using strategies addressing phonological awareness alleviates reading difficulties in dyslexics. The prevailing view of the central role of phonological awareness in reading development is largely based on studies using Western (alphabetic) languages, which are based on phonology. The Chinese language provides a unique medium for testing this notion, because logographic characters in Chinese are based on meaning rather than phonology. Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters. These findings yield a unique insight into how cognitive systems responsible for reading development and reading disability interact, and they challenge the prominent phonological awareness view.

  19. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  20. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  1. Reading-Writing Connections: Discourse-Oriented Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…

  2. Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.; Chard, David J.

    2005-01-01

    A deep, developmental construct and definition of fluency, in which fluency and reading comprehension have a reciprocal relationship, is explicated and contrasted with superficial approaches to that construct. The historical development of fluency is outlined, along with conclusions of the U.S. National Reading Panel, to explore why fluency has…

  3. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  4. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  5. Noticeable Focuses in Reading a Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between commanding those basic information contained in a text and the final p urpose of comprehending in a text-reading process. By using the main topic and the central meaning that all texts have as two main examples, the author mainly illustrates what a reader should pay attention to in reading a text.

  6. Association between Criminal Thinking and Reading Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintschel, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze a relationship between adult, male inmate's criminal attitudes and reading level. Data is derived from the secondary assessments, Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) and the reading scores from the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE). The sample size is 112 adult, males incarcerated at California…

  7. Mining Texts in Reading to Write.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stuart

    1992-01-01

    Proposes a set of strategies for connecting reading and writing, placing the discussion in the context of other pedagogical approaches designed to exploit the relationship between reading and writing. Explores ways in which students employ the strategies involved in "mining" a text--reconstructing context, inferring or imposing structure, and…

  8. Blood Lead and Reading Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of Maryland School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, evaluated the relationship between reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, RI, and state health department records of blood lead levels (BLLs.

  9. Language development and reading disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter deals with the relationship between language development and reading disabilities. When describing the language development in children, we assume that there is continuity between the development of speech and writing skills. In the first years of life, the emphasis is on the developmen

  10. XII Elkonin Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugrimenko E.A.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the reader the main content of report presented at the XII Elkonin Readings (4th March, 2016. Elkonin Readings takes place each 2 years in Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of education. This year they are focused on the problem of “Mediation and development”. Speakers from different institutions presented their approaches to solving these problems. The theoretical foundation of the new understanding of the relationship of functional genesis and ontogenesis, buildings mediation activities, proximal development areas have been disclosed in the articles of V.V. Rubtsov, D.B. Elkonin, P.G. Nezhnov. The new conditions for mediation were created on the basis of the different materials (games, reading, and spatial image of “self” according to an experimental practice of teaching and correction of self- development. Developing of creative ways of mediation were mentioned in the articles of L.I. Elkoninov, E.O. Smirnov, E.A. Abdulaeva, E.A. Bugrimenko, N.U. Mangutov, that meet actual problems for modern children.

  11. Tactile Perception and Reading: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradtmueller, Weldon; Harodon, Holly

    1976-01-01

    Examines the concept that all perceptual development seems to involve the tactile or sense of feel and attempts to comprehend this relationship. Its implications for teaching reading and for developing instructional techniques are also considered. (Author/RK)

  12. Tactile Perception and Reading: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradtmueller, Weldon; Harodon, Holly

    1976-01-01

    Examines the concept that all perceptual development seems to involve the tactile or sense of feel and attempts to comprehend this relationship. Its implications for teaching reading and for developing instructional techniques are also considered. (Author/RK)

  13. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  14. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  15. A Derivation of the Analytical Relationship between the Projected Albedo-Area Product of a Space Object and its Aggregate Photometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    is the small purple sphere, the solar panel is the green square, and the body is the blue cube . The vector is normal to the orbital plane of the...Fig. 3-1. Space Object Angles of Observation (not to scale)1. The blue cube represents the body and the green square represents the solar panel ...foundations. Then we derive, for the specific case of a three-axis stabilized satellite with a nadir-pointing body and articulating solar panels

  16. Reading Instruction Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    1979-01-01

    Describes current achievement in the areas of reading theory and reading instruction. Reviews reading research in the fields of educational and cognitive psychology. Considers the overall role of formal education in the development of literacy. (GC)

  17. A Point Neighborhood Model:Description of Three Dimensional Topological Relationships between Complex Volume Objects%复杂体目标之间三维拓扑关系描述模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雪峰

    2013-01-01

    三维空间拓扑关系是空间关系研究领域的重要问题.该文分析了三维空间拓扑关系的研究进展和存在的问题,以点集拓扑理论为基础,提出用于描述复杂体目标之间三维拓扑关系的点邻域模型,以15种点邻域结构涵盖三维空间中两个体目标之间任意一点的归属关系,基于点邻域结构设计了描述体目标之间三维拓扑关系的编码.典型三维拓扑关系实例的比较分析表明,对于9IM模型所能区分的三维拓扑关系,点邻域模型均可区分;对于一些复杂的9IM模型无法区分的三维拓扑关系,点邻域模型仍然给出了唯一的描述结果.因此,点邻域模型区分出的复杂体目标之间拓扑关系的种类更多,对三维拓扑关系的描述更加精确.%Three dimensional spatial topological relationships is one important issue in the spatial relationship research. After a discussion of some recent studies focusing around three dimensional spatial topological relationships, the Point Neighborhood Model(PNM) is presented for the description of three dimensional topological relationships between complex volume objects, which is based on the Point-Set Topological theory. In this model, there are 15 neighborhood structures which are possible for any point in R3 where two volumes are embedded. As a result,based on neighborhood structure, the topological relationship encoding for two volume objects have been defined. The comparison on classical 3D topology shows that, these topological relationships that 9IM models can classified and identified have been distinguished, while these topological relationships that 9IM models can not distinguished have been classified and identified clearly by PNM model. PNM model is more powerful than 9IM based models in terms of differentiating topological relationships between two volume objects,especially complex volumes.

  18. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  19. Literary Theory and the Reading Process: A Meeting of Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between current concepts of reading processes and contemporary theories of literary response. Argues that text-based reading theories are isomorphic with the New Criticism, and that reader-based theories of reading are isomorphic with reader-response criticism. Maintains that literary theory ignores interactive…

  20. Three Reading Comprehension Strategies: TELLS, Story Mapping, and QARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Adrian L.

    1990-01-01

    Three reading comprehension strategies are presented to assist learning-disabled students: an advance organizer technique called "TELLS Fact or Fiction" used before reading a passage, a schema-based technique called "Story Mapping" used while reading, and a postreading method of categorizing questions called "Question-Answer Relationships." (JDD)

  1. Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…

  2. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  3. The Measurement of Internal (Intra-Article) Reading Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Earl F.; Hess, Allen K.

    The effects of training on internal reading flexibility (intra-article flexibility) and the relationships between such flexibility and overall reading speed, reading comprehension, anxiety level, and introversion-extraversion were investigated. Flexibility coefficients were computed before and after training for the total group of 255 college…

  4. Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Acquisition in the Spanish Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Gonzalez, Maria del Rosario Ortiz

    2000-01-01

    Investigated metalinguistic awareness in learning to read Spanish, focusing on print awareness, phonological awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension. Studies of 136 preliterate Spanish children indicated a relationship between phonological awareness and reading and revealed the importance of syllabic awareness in developing other levels of…

  5. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  6. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai

    2013-01-01

    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  7. Early Precursor of Reading: Acquisition of Phonological Awareness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Figen; Gul, Gozde

    2008-01-01

    Phonological awareness skills begin to develop at preschool ages and support reading skills during school ages. Studies on phonological awareness show great relationship with reading skills development. Since literacy talents such as phonological awareness and vocabulary represent future success in reading, assisting literacy skills during…

  8. Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Acquisition in the Spanish Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Gonzalez, Maria del Rosario Ortiz

    2000-01-01

    Investigated metalinguistic awareness in learning to read Spanish, focusing on print awareness, phonological awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension. Studies of 136 preliterate Spanish children indicated a relationship between phonological awareness and reading and revealed the importance of syllabic awareness in developing other levels of…

  9. Teacher Perceptions Affect Boys' and Girls' Reading Motivation Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher perceptions and children's reading motivation, with specific attention to gender differences. The reading self-concept, task value, and attitude of 160 fifth and sixth graders were measured. Teachers rated each student's reading comprehension. Results showed that for boys,…

  10. Reading Ability Is Negatively Related to Stroop Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Archonti, Anastasia; Skaloumbakas, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Stroop interference is often taken as evidence for reading automaticity even though young and poor readers, who presumably lack reading automaticity, present strong interference. Here the relationship between reading skills and Stroop interference was studied in a 7th-grade sample. Greater interference was observed in children diagnosed with…

  11. SDR (Systems Directed Reading): An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugo Community Schools, Elkhart, IN.

    The objective of this project for kindergarten through fifth grade is to interest public and private educational institutions in the systematization of elementary school reading programs. Facets of Systems Directed Reading (SDR) include the use of a differentiated staffing pattern; experienced language arts unit leaders guiding and directing all…

  12. Reasons for Reading: Why Literature Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Recent research in England suggests that opportunities for children's and young people's reading for pleasure may have been curtailed as a result of other curriculum imperatives. Under pressure to raise standards, there has been a strong emphasis on meeting objectives and managing the curriculum, but reasons for reading in the first place appear…

  13. Elementary Reading Guide, Level 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverna Independent School District, Horse Cave, KY.

    This elementary reading curriculum guide is designed to provide a well-rounded program of reading instruction and includes the following components: a philosophy of elementary education, behavioral objectives, and characteristics of children of age 5 through age 15. The bulk of the document consists of plans which describe appropriate activities…

  14. Reading(s) in the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David

    1997-01-01

    Interrogates the reading/writing connection by evaluating how three essays by published writers affected the attitude and writing practices of university students in a course on the personal essay. Describes the course. Suggests what findings imply for current rationales about the reading/writing connection and for the use of anthology readings in…

  15. Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

  16. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  17. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  18. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  19. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  20. Still Reading Edward P. Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hernández Sandoica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the final decades of the 20th century, the reading of the works of E.P. Thompson was a necessary exercise for many historians. The object of these reflections, starting from the changes occurred in historiography, is to assert its force as a historian and to reiterate its status of “classic”.

  1. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  2. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions....... In particular, it emphasises the understanding of a product by relating and changing perspectives, and takes into account context of use and diverse social settings....

  3. Do Specific Classroom Reading Activities Predict English Language Learners' Later Reading Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Kudo, Milagros Fatima

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between elementary classroom (N = 50) reading activities in Year 1 and reading performance (i.e., passage comprehension, letter-word identification, and word attack) 1 year later for English language learners (ELLs; N = 270). A cross-classification hierarchical model indicated that compared to other reading…

  4. The Impact of a Reading Initiative on Students' Early Reading Development K-3: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Iline P.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the relationship of the Reading First Initiative (RFI) in terms of its impact on students' early reading development K-3 and teachers' delivery of instruction. Extant test data were used to establish quantitative data. Direct observation utilizing a checklist consisting of five categories--management, environment, setting…

  5. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  6. Analisis Tata Letak Fasilitas Proyek Menggunakan Activity Relationship Chart dan Multi-Objectives Function pada Proyek Pembangunan Apartemen De Papilio Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pradana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Setiap proyek konstruksi selalu menggunakan site facility untuk menunjang kinerja dalam proyek. Site facility merupakan fasilitas penunjang yang selalu ada dalam setiap proyek dan memiliki fungsi yang berbeda untuk masing-masing fasilitas tersebut. Perencanaan tata letak site facilities yang baik dapat meningkatkan produktivitas kerja di lapangan. Dalam menentukan tata letak site facilities, digunakan variabel fungsi objektif Traveling Distance (TD dan Safety Index (SI. Letak site facilities yang optimal dapat dicari dengan meminimalkan jarak antar fasilitas (TD dan juga meminimalkan resiko kecelakaan (SI. Activity Relationship Chart (ARC merupakan gambaran hubungan kedekatan antar fasilitas yang digunakan sebagai pedoman dalam melakukan pemindahan tata letak. Pemindahan tata letak dilakukan sebanyak lima skenario, dengan masing-masing skenario dicari nilai TD dan SI nya serta menggunakan ARC sebagai alasan dilakukannya pemindahan. Dari kelima skenario, didapatkan hasil nilai traveling distance paling minimum terletak pada skenario 0 (kondisi eksisting sebesar 5210,4 meter dan nilai safety index paling minimum terletak pada skenario 1 sebesar 1315 atau mengalami penurunan sebesar 11,51 % dari kondisi eksisting.

  7. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  8. Using Television Commercials to Develop Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James D.; Bowman, S. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that teachers can use reluctant readers' sensitivity to and sophistication with "musicomedy" to both assess and develop reading comprehension. Discusses several class activities using the musical and humorous expressions in television commercials for fulfilling this objective. (RS)

  9. Social Studies and Reading: Congruent Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rober M.

    1973-01-01

    Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,'' the social studies inquiry model, reading comprehension skills, and the law-focused education case study methods can be seen as functionally related. (Author)

  10. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  11. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  12. 思想政治教育主客体关系新探索%Exploration of Subject and Object Relationship of Ideological and Political Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程泓钦

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, along with social progress and the awakening of People's subject consciousness, the excessive respect of Subjectivity in the ideological and political education is facing a deep dilemma. Inter subjectivity is the transcendence of subjectivity , its use in the ideological and political education will make the relations of subject and object in ideological and political education to reach a new situation. How to generate inter subjectivity? Ideological and political education must improve itself from the educators, the educated and the educational environment.%近年来,随着社会的进步和人主体意识的觉醒,对主体性的过度推崇在思想政治教育领域面临着深深的困境.主体间性是对主体性的超越,其在思想政治教育领域的使用会使思想政治教育主客体关系走向一个崭新的局面.如何生成主体间性,思想政治教育须从教育者、受教育者和教育环境方面着手.

  13. On Efficient Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟平

    2003-01-01

    Time is limited for each reader,but many readers waste a lot oftime on unimportant things, and they read everything at the same speed and in the same way. As a result, they often fail to understand the word and the sentence; they don't know how one sentence relates to another, and how the whole text fixes together. They are not reading efficiently. It is high time that we held a discussion on efficient reading. The author states that efficient reading involves adequate comprehension with appropriate reading rate. Pointing out the factors that influence reading rate and comprehension, this article put forward some suggestions on efficient reading.

  14. For an interactive reading of the territory and the city spaces, relationships, urban morphology, cultural patterns and forms of economic and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serena Sanseviero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In  this paper we emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to support the urban and territorial research;  it can contribute to the knowledge of the area and city with the aim of direct transformations and future development. Therefore, we need to acquire sophisticated tools and talk simpler language and insightful in order to respond to the social demand for local knowledge. We have to study a new paradigm to understand social phenomena; the old perspectives of urban sociology, but also planning and analysis of territorial systems, is today replaced by an integrated view in which we do not evaluate and not only analyze the more specific objects of the individual disciplines but a number of variables and components in synergy.   Per una lettura interattiva del territorio e della città: spazi, relazioni, morfologia urbana, modelli culturali e forme di potere economico e politico In questo lavoro si sottolinea la necessità di un approccio multidisciplinare integrato in grado di supportare la ricerca in campo urbano e territoriale e che possa concorrere alla conoscenza del territorio e della città per orientarne trasformazioni e sviluppo  futuro. Si palesa attraverso le molteplici riflessioni la necessità di dover acquisire strumenti sofisticati e parlare, sia pure ciascuno per le proprie competenze, linguaggi più semplici e penetranti al fine di poter rispondere alla domanda sociale di conoscenza del territorio. La verifica quindi di un nuovo paradigma conoscitivo ed interpretativo dei fenomeni sociali si pone con forza, dacché alle vecchie prospettive della sociologia urbana, ma anche dell'urbanistica e dell'analisi dei sistemi territoriali, si va oggi sostituendo una visione integrata, nella quale non si valutano e non si analizzano più soltanto gli oggetti più specifici delle singole discipline ma una serie di variabili e componenti in sinergia. Parole Chiave: Città; territorio; rappresentazione e modelli; relazioni

  15. Genetic Covariance Structure of Reading, Intelligence and Memory in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Peper, Jiska S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained

  16. Spiritual Reading and Its Effects on Human Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James C.

    This research study sought to explore the relationship between spiritual reading and its effects on human growth. The emphasis of the study was how participants felt they had grown in their relationship with God through reading. Participants were clergypersons in the Tidewater, Virginia area. The 30 pastors interviewed for this study indicated…

  17. Genetic Covariance Structure of Reading, Intelligence and Memory in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Peper, Jiska S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    This study investigates the genetic relationship among reading performance, IQ, verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) in a sample of 112, 9-year-old twin pairs and their older siblings. The relationship between reading performance and the other traits was explained

  18. The influence of morphological awareness on reading and writing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ainoã Athaide Macedo; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira

    2017-02-16

    this study aimed to perform a systematic review of national and international studies about the relationship between morphological awareness, reading/writing, reading comprehension, and spelling. a search for national and international literature was carried out using databases Medline (via PubMed) and Portal de Periódicos da Capes (Eric, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO) from August to September 2015. the inclusion criteria were: studies that answered the guiding question and addressed the subject matter established by the descriptors and keywords. Studies with animals, laboratories, opinion/expert pieces, case series, case reports and review studies were excluded. the following markers were considered: type and objective of the study, the skills related to morphological awareness (reading, writing, reading comprehension and spelling), tests performed, and their main results. the search carried out in the pre-established databases with descriptors and free terms resulted in 203 articles. The search in PubMed resulted in 81 studies, and in Portal de Periódicos Capes, 122. Of the total, 154 were excluded according to the title and abstract, whereas 39 were excluded upon reading the full text. This allowed for the analysis of 10 articles. children with better scores in the morphological awareness test show better results in reading and writing across all school grades.

  19. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  20. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    . The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...