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Sample records for relations urban problems

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF TRAFFIC RELATED SHORT TEXTS TO ANALYSE ROAD PROBLEMS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. Saldana-Perez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media’s publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  2. Classification of Traffic Related Short Texts to Analyse Road Problems in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana-Perez, A. M. M.; Moreno-Ibarra, M.; Tores-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI) can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media's publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  3. Urban Environmental Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situma, F.D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid urbanization and resultant heavy concentration of population in urban centres have led to many urban areas failing to provide the necessary infrastructure and amenities as the demands placed on them have overwhelmed their financial and institutional capacities. In many urban areas, the capacity for resource mobilization and delivery of social services has either broken down completely or tethers on breaking point. Although in 1986 the GoK launched a new strategy for the balanced development of rural and urban areas aimed at avoiding excessive concentration of population in urban areas, the fruits of this strategy are yet to be realized. As a result, developments in urban areas have been unsustainable and environmentally unsound. The general quality of the environment has deteriorated so much so that urgent policy intervention is required. Appropriate environmental management measures and practices are needed to address the current trend of spiralling environmental problems in the context of the existing legal and institutional frameworks and makes some proposals for reform to address these problems in order to make urban areas environmentally

  4. Urban diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    It is hoped that urban diffusion models of air pollutants can eventually confidently be used to make major decisions, such as in planning the layout of a new industrial park, determining the effects of a new highway on air quality, or estimating the results of a new automobile emissions exhaust system. The urban diffusion model itself should be able to account for point, line, and area sources, and the local aerodynamic effects of street canyons and building wakes. Removal or transformations due to dry or wet deposition and chemical reactions are often important. It would be best if the model included meteorological parameters such as wind speed and temperature as dependent variables, since these parameters vary significantly when air passes from rural surfaces over urban surfaces

  5. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  6. Urban Planning Problems of Agglomerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenkov, V. D.; Tazeev, N. T.

    2017-11-01

    The article explores the state of the air basin of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration and gives the examples of solutions for the pollution problems from the point of view of city planning. The main features and structure of the modern urban agglomerations are considered, the methods for determining their boundaries are studied and the main problems are identified. The study of the boundaries and territorial structure of the Chelyabinsk urban agglomeration is conducted, and a general description of the territory is given. The data on the change in the volume of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere and the index of atmospheric pollution for the period 2003-2015 are given basing on the annual comprehensive reports regarding the state of the environment. The review of the world experience of city-planning actions on the decision of ecological problems is carried out. The most suitable ways for the ecological problems solving in the Chelyabinsk agglomeration are considered. The authors give recommendations for the ecological situation improving in the territory of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration.

  7. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  8. Application of wind tunnel tests to the development of solutions to problems related to immissions which affect urban climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuttler, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the last two decades urban climatology has developed to a pragmatically oriented field of research. Synthetic-functional maps of the climate and derived maps for town planning have widely been accepted by municipal or communal management. However, there is a disadvantage of the generalized urban-climatic maps because they only show the actual climatic state for stable sunny weather conditions. When future planning is done with due regard to forecasts on possible changes of the climatic or air-hygienic conditions, it is necessary to carry out model calculations and/or wind tunnel experiments. Because of the complexity of urban building structures, it is still difficult to acquire necessary information by numeric models. In most cases wind tunnel measurements will have to be carried out. After having illustrated the methods of wind tunnel experiments, the following paper shows results from measurements carried out for a street canyon with dense traffic in Duesseldorf's northern quarter Moersenbroich. This investigation intended to show how the field of immissions - mainly caused by traffic - changes after the construction of a six-storey office building on a remaining free space. It proved that the planned building wouldn't really lead to a deterioration of the field of the immissive situation. On the contrary, in most cases we could measure a reduced amount of pollution compared to the former building structure with a free spot. Only in few cases, the new building led to increased values in proportion to the given threshold values. (orig.) [de

  9. Associations between poor health and school-related behavior problems at the child and family levels: a cross-sectional study of migrant children and adolescents in southwest urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Li, Ning-Xiu; Liu, Chao-Jie

    2010-06-01

    Due to urbanization in China, the numbers of migrant children and adolescents in urban environments have increased. Previous studies have indicated that children and adolescents are more likely to suffer from health problems and poor school achievement. The present study identified associations between poor health and school-related behavior problems (ie, learning attitudes and learning disabilities [LL], antisocial behavior and risk behavior [AR], and social adaptation and role function [SR]) at the child and family levels. A cross-sectional design was used. Seven hundred and eighty-one participants were recruited in inclusive settings. Correlational analysis was conducted to assess the associations between demographic variables and the primary study variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which study factors were the strongest predictors of general health problems. School-aged migrants who had poorer health tended to be more likely to suffer from school-related behavior problems. Poor health was also found to hinder scholastic achievement in migrant children and adolescents through a higher prevalence of school-related behavior problems, including negative learning attitudes and learning disabilities, antisocial behavior and risk behavior, and social maladjustment. Health risk factors included inappropriate parental education methods, fewer classmates, and less social support. Health and individual risk factors should be explored further to determine their causal role in migrant children and adolescents with school-related behavior problems. These results have implications for future school health education for these students.

  10. Population in urban development and the practical problems of urban planning policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Uyanga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the pattern of recent growth in African towns, examines the population component in this growth process and discusses the attendant urban planning problems. The contention in the study is that there are problems of definition. policy enunciation, and organisational co-ordination in the conceptualization. planning. orchestration and implementation of urban development and service systems. The magnitude of African urban developmental problems, and its multi-faceted nature demands that the latest in scientific knowledge and technological innovations should be integrated and incorporated into the urban planning and implementation processes.

  11. Basic formation and realization problems of urban policy

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    Skiba Alisa Anatol’evna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problems that arise in the process of urban development of areas planning, their solutions (improvement and transformation of settlement system, in which case we should base on the new geopolitical situation in the country, the development and modernization of transport and communication infrastructure, where it is necessary to consider both the internal needs of the state and external ones in order to think about possible ways of problem solutions in major cities, as well as the main directions of urban development reforms. The main objectives of the urban development policy are the development of social and economic level of small towns, activities for the conservation of historical, cultural and natural heritage of Russia, the use of modern theories of urban planning, the development of research in this area (both abstract and applied, conducting statistical base of urban development activities. The authors describe the schemes of entry into long-term ownership of land under the current system of urban regulation and the system based on zoning, which acts in real estate market conditions. Among other things, the article offers an idea of the method of socio-controlled planning, which supposes the development plans of the city's buildings and areas, different urban systems (based on the analysis of the existing problems and the needs that must be met.

  12. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

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    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  13. Students' Preconceptions about Urban Environmental Problems and Solid Waste.

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    Membiela, Pedro; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined students' preconceptions about environmental problems in cities, particularly that of urban disposable waste. They found that students' ideas were dominated by what they perceived, without regard to existing interactions, and that students were unaware of the fundamental role of reuse and recycling in the solution of the disposal of solid…

  14. Nutrition Problems of the Urban Family

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    Manuel Macapinlac

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, there has been a surge of interest in the nutritional metabolic role of the "trace" mineral elements. Part of this interest is due to improved case in the quantitative analyses of these elements by the introduction of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. However, it has been the studies on zinc, in particular, that have fueled much of this interest when it was discovered that naturally-occurring zinc-deficiency could happen in man. It was reported that a syndrome consisting of dwarfism, iron-deficiency, anemia hepato-splenomegaly occurs in poor viIlages in Egypt and Iran. This syndrome was accompanied by low plasma and hair zinc levels, and decreased urinary excretion of zinc. Prior to this report, it has been tacitly assumed that since many of the "trace" elements occur in fairly abundant quantities in food, and because they are present in very small quantities in the tissues of man, dietary deficiency of the trace minerals was unlikely to occur in man. It has become obvious that difficulty in absorption or poor availability of the trace elements from the diet may prove to be an important etiologic mechanism in the causation of deficiencies of these elements. In the case of zinc, a study in the United States reported cases of children with low hair zinc concentration and with low taste acuity (hypogeusia. The condition responded to treatment with zinc supplementation. It was also reported that zinc-deficiency is secondary to intestinal malabsorption. The possibility that zinc-deficiency might accompany protein-calorie malnutritions had been suggested by some investigators who found low plasma zinc levels in children with kwashiorkor. Since protein-calorie malnutrition is a world-wide problem and is particularly common in developing countries, it appears important that in the nutrition research programs of such countries.

  15. Assessment of the environment-related problems and prospects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempted to assess the environment-related problems and prospects of vegetable production in peri – urban areas of Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) farmers were interviewed. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation ...

  16. Urban elders and casino gambling: Are they at risk of a gambling problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaranek, Rochelle R; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gambling among older adults and explored the critical predictors of problem gambling behaviors. Relatively unknown and understudied is the extent, or prevalence, of problem gambling behaviors among urban elders and the factors associated with problem gambling. The sample consisted of 1410 randomly selected participants, aged 60 and older, who reside in the City of Detroit. Mental health, health, demographics, social activities, senior optimism, social support network, and frequency of casino visits were examined in order to predict problem gambling behaviors among elders. The survey implemented the Lie/Bet Questionnaire for Screening Probable pathological Gamblers. The results showed that the prevalence of problem gambling behaviors was 10.4% overall, and 18% of persons reporting any casino visitation. Predictors accounted for 16% of problem gambling behaviors. The findings from this study confirmed that gambling has the potential to become a serious health problem among elders. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainability of urban systems and most important problems related to environmental geological components; Sostenibilita` dei sistemi urbani e principali problematiche geologico-territoriali: L`analisi di dati di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, Francesco; Basili, Mauro; Del Ciello, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The most important aspects of environmental geology, related to the urban syatems are analysed in this paper; the term urban system is here preferred to urban environment, since the second one refers to a part of a complex system, that comprises social, economic, etc. environments. All the possible environmental impacts have been described to evaluate how the urban system is affected by the environmental geological components. They are subdivided into urban impacts on the environment and environmental impacts on the cities. The environmental changes induced by: quarries, natural surfaces waterproofing, drained marshes, subways for transportation networks, bridges and gully-holes, topography changes, natural hollows filling up and ground piles, loss of the natural conditions for river beds, loss of soils, falls in piezometry and connected subsistence phenomena, are classified into the firdt type of impacts, also defined as anthropic risks. The pollution of soils, surface waters (marine and fluvial), groundwater and the impact of watse management and their restorage were also dealth with. The geological risks have also been analyzed as pressure factors from the environmenton the cities. They are generally interrelated and in some cases added up. The main instruments to help monitor and manage the environment are also described. They are monitoring networks that constitute a part of the Informative Environmental Systems. A great relevance is given to the indicators and indexes of the environmental quality, either for the measurement of the quality of life that for the measurement of environmental sustainability of cities. The scientific use of such indicators and indexes is presently a subject of debate world-wide. The authors consider is correct to delineate concise indexes, obtained from state indicators for the quality of life. They are represented by the umber of days/per year in which a service was suspended, or the environment didn`t present the characteristics

  18. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lone; Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . The questionnaire included questions on patients' perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74......% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area....... The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2-4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74...

  19. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bent; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Traction-related problems are poorly described in the existing literature. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe traction-related problems and how patients perceive these problems. The study was a descriptive cohort study and data were collected from questionnaires and patient files. The questionnaire included questions on patients’ perceptions of traction-related problems in the groin area, at the knee and ankle and how patients had coped with these problems. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy filled out the questionnaire. Primary findings of this study were that 74% of patients reported some sort of traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy. About 32% of the patients had problems in the groin area and 49% of the patients complained of symptoms in the knee joint. A total of 37% of the patients had experienced problems from the traction boot in the ankle area. The complications were found to be temporary and disappeared after 2–4 weeks. Five patients still had complaints after 3 months. All five patients had a pre-existing knee injury prior to undergoing hip arthroscopy. Traction-related problems after hip arthroscopy are a challenge and our study showed that 74% of the patients reported traction-related problems. This is significantly higher than previously reported. The present study found a high rate of complaints from the knee and ankle joints that have not previously been reported. The presented data suggest the need for more pre-surgery patient information about possible traction-related problems. PMID:28630721

  20. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  1. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

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    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  2. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  3. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    to nearest major road had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: The cause(s) or exposure(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk were closer related to the degree of urbanization than to the geographical distance to nearest major road. Traffic related exposures might thus be less......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...

  4. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Maarten B; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-12-16

    To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Review. Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. © Jalink et al 2014.

  5. Perceived personal safety in relation to urban woodland vegetation – A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Märit; Fors, Hanna; Lindgren, Therese; Wiström, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Urban woodland vegetation provides people with many aesthetic, ecological and psychological benefits, but can also generate problems concerning people’s perception of safety. This paper reviews existing knowledge about perceived personal safety in relation to vegetation, particularly woodland vegetation, in urban green spaces such as parks and residential areas. Individual and social factors, but also vegetation character, maintenance and design, proved to be important for perceived personal ...

  6. The Burnside problem and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adian, Sergei I

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of results related to the famous Burnside problem on periodic groups. A negative solution of this problem was first published in joint papers of P.S. Novikov and the author in 1968. The theory of transformations of words in free periodic groups that was created in these papers and its various modifications give a very productive approach to the investigation of hard problems in group theory. In 1950 the Burnside problem gave rise to another problem on finite periodic groups, formulated by Magnus and called by him the restricted Burnside problem. Here it is called the Burnside-Magnus problem. In the Burnside problem the question of local finiteness of periodic groups of a given exponent was posed, but the Burnside-Magnus problem is the question of the existence of a maximal finite periodic group R(m,n) of a fixed period n with a given number m of generators. These problems complement each other. The publication in a joint paper by the author and Razborov in 1987 of the first effective proof of the well-known result of Kostrikin on the existence of a maximal group R(m,n) for any prime n, together with an indication of primitive recursive upper bounds for the orders of these groups, stimulated investigations of the Burnside-Magnus problem as well. Very soon other effective proofs appeared, and then Zel'manov extended Kostrikin's result to the case when n is any power of a prime number. These results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Bibliography: 105 titles.

  7. Dispossessing Urbanization: Urban Marxism in the Face of the Problem of Primitive Accumulation

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    Piotr Juskowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is a complex attempt to present the achievements of the broadly understood urban Marxism in the field of reinterpretation of the classic concept from the cards of Capital – “primitive accumulation”. Drawing on theories of such scholars as David Harvey (“accumulation by dispossession” or Saskia Sassen (“expulsions”, the author points to the possible ways to operationalize the concept of “dispossessing urbanization”. Inspired by the theorizations of autonomist Marxists (Antonio Negri, Sandro Mezzadra, Massimo De Angelis, he proposes to see it as a relatively new and increasingly important dispostif that allows not only to improve traditional methods of enclosures and construct entirely new ones, but also to instrumentalize urban cultures which seems unlikely for the historical versions of primitive accumulation. This theoretical inspiration leads him also to highlight another gap in the accumulation by dispossession theory, namely the lack of sufficient reflection on the production of subjectivity processes which seem constitutive for the broad set of dispossessing practices.

  8. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Surface and groundwater chemistry being an important factor in urban ... a network of pipes, conduits, metallic rods, reinforced concrete footings and other ... the WNW running fault belts (Wukro, Mekelle, Chelekot and Felega Mariam) and Rift.

  9. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  10. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  11. Energy problem and harmony in international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Akira

    1975-01-01

    Energy problems and harmony in international relation are closely related with world politics. Oil is destined to remain as the primary energy source for the time being. The situation of oil has different implications to the U.S. and U.S.S.R., oil producing countries, and consumer countries. The hasty attitude in the past to attain energy sufficiency must be avoided by all means. Congenial harmony is to be established in international relation to meet world energy requirement. This also applies to the case of nuclear power in future. (Mori, K.)

  12. Shift work-related health problems in

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    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  13. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

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    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  14. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  15. Problem Solution Project: Transforming Curriculum and Empowering Urban Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga S.; Stenhouse, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings of 6 years of implementing a Problem Solution Project, an assignment influenced by service learning, problem-based learning, critical theory, and critical pedagogy whereby teachers help children tackle real problems. Projects of 135 teachers in an urban certification/master's program were summarized by cohort year…

  16. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    : The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road had a significant effect. The highest risk was found in children living 500-1000 metres from nearest major road (RR=1.30 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.17-1.44). However, when we accounted for the degree of urbanization, the geographical distance...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...

  17. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    extremely low. Surface water and groundwater system is one of the most important influencing factors in foundation engineering and urban development and is required for design of structures. Hence monitoring and conserving this important resource is essential. (Chatterjee et al., 2010). Understanding the hydrogeology of ...

  18. Urban Renewal and Associated Problems in Lagos, 1924 – 1990 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traffic congestion, increase in traffic noise, air pollution, flooding, and decadent infrastructure among others. Urban/municipal infrastructure which involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining several services has never had it so good in Lagos. The coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, ...

  19. Mercury Exposure and Health Problems in Urban Artisanal Gold Mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasriwiani Habo Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban artisanal gold mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been run by a number of urban gold workers with gold jewelry manufacture as its core activity. The wastes generated from goldsmiths’ activities were further processed by the gold smelters to recover fine gold particles. Smelting gold doré, amalgamation, and burning out the amalgam were the mercury-based gold process usually applied in their work. While working the gold workers are, therefore, potentially exposed to a source of mercury pollution that may cause health problems because of working without proper protection. The aims of this research are to characterize the process of urban artisanal gold mining with the potential mercury exposures during the process, and to assess the health of the gold workers. The results showed that the gold workers had a low educational background, but a relatively high income. The total mercury concentration of gold workers was higher than the control group. They were exposed to intoxicatingly high levels of mercury with the average total mercury concentrations of 6.6 and 10.8 µg/g in the hair of indirect and direct exposed workers, respectively. The health assessment showed that 85% of the gold workers suffered neurological symptoms, such as tremors, and 44%–56% of them experienced restricted fields of vision, slow reflexes, sensory disturbances, unbalanced rigidity, and ataxia. The results also showed that the working years have reasonable correlation with the sum of the positive findings in the 10 neurological symptoms.

  20. THE PROBLEM OF URBAN LAND MASS VALUATION OBJECTIVENESS AND WAYS OF SOLVING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAPIKOVSKYI O. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Implementation of prudent investment, urban planning and fiscal policy is possible only if there is knowledge of the real value of land in the entire city, which is obtained by the mass appraisal of urban land. The implementation of this important social function puts strict requirements for urban land mass valuation results objectiveness and comparability, stated in the international sectoral standards and regulations. Purpose. The aim of the article is to determine the basic requirements to urban land mass valuation results objectiveness maintenance and to analyse the compliance of the normative monetary valuation with these requirements. Conclusion. The problem of urban land mass valuation objectiveness can be considered through the prism of the ontological, epistemological and logical aspects, compliance with which allows the anticipation of the expected improvement of this valuation methodological apparatus efficiency.

  1. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. ... Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping ... citizenry has roles to play in adopting more suitable solutions to this problem.

  2. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  3. Problem-solving performance and reproductive success of great tits in urban and forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiszner, Bálint; Papp, Sándor; Pipoly, Ivett; Seress, Gábor; Vincze, Ernő; Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Success in problem solving, a form of innovativeness, can help animals exploit their environments, and recent research suggests that it may correlate with reproductive success. Innovativeness has been proposed to be especially beneficial in urbanized habitats, as suggested by superior problem-solving performance of urban individuals in some species. If there is stronger selection for innovativeness in cities than in natural habitats, we expect problem-solving performance to have a greater positive effect on fitness in more urbanized habitats. We tested this idea in great tits (Parus major) breeding at two urban sites and two forests by measuring their problem-solving performance in an obstacle-removal task and a food-acquisition task. Urban pairs were significantly faster problem-solvers in both tasks. Solving speed in the obstacle-removal task was positively correlated with hatching success and the number of fledglings, whereas performance in the food-acquisition task did not correlate with reproductive success. These relationships did not differ between urban and forest habitats. Neophobia, sensitivity to human disturbance, and risk taking in the presence of a predator did not explain the relationships of problem-solving performance either with habitat type or with reproductive success. Our results suggest that the benefit of innovativeness in terms of reproductive success is similar in urban and natural habitats, implying that problem-solving skills may be enhanced in urban populations by some other benefits (e.g. increased survival) or reduced costs (e.g. more opportunities to gain practice with challenging tasks).

  4. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  5. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  6. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  7. Problems of spatial planning and urban development: social-philosophical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines social and philosophical problems of spatial planning and urban development from the 1920's until the present. From the historical point of view there are three phases: the 1920s, 1930-1980s, 1990-2010s. In the 1920s two approaches were used in the development of the country: technical and economic and personalistics. The first meant not only the development of power engineering but also of the economy in the whole country. The second lies in stimulation of active creative work, disclosure of worker’s personal potential. On the one hand, it was turned to economic and technical modernization on the basis of the State Plan of the Electrification of Russia; on the other, it was relied on "diligent farmer". In the 1930-1980s the technical and economic approach was dominating. In the 1990-2010s the market approach was widely extended. According to the latter, the development of the national economy should be executed depending on the law of demand and supply. In Russia the realization of the market economy based on demand and supply was reduced to development of exclusively highly profitable business. In the article the author uses the methods of historical knowledge, analysis and comparison and provides suggestions on solving problems of spatial planning and urban development. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet experience of the 1920s, when the market relations have not been completely destroyed.

  8. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E macro much larger than M P . We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E macro /N·M P .

  9. Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and

  10. Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavipour, M.; Akhondi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

  11. Marginalization and health service coverage among indigenous, rural, and urban populations: a public health problem in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, José; Álvarez, Marsela; Carrasco, María; Guarneros, Noé; Ledesma, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Chávez, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

      Marginalization is a significant issue in Mexico, involving a lack of access to health services with differential impacts on Indigenous, rural and urban populations. The objective of this study was to understand Mexico’s public health problem across three population areas, Indigenous, rural and urban, in relation to degree of marginalization and health service coverage.   The sampling universe of the study consisted of 107 458 geographic locations in the country. The study was retrospective, comparative and confirmatory. The study applied analysis of variance, parametric and non-parametric, correlation and correspondence analyses.   Significant differences were identified between the Indigenous, rural and urban populations with respect to their level of marginalization and access to health services. The most affected area was Indigenous, followed by rural areas. The sector that was least affected was urban.   Although health coverage is highly concentrated in urban areas in Mexico, shortages are mostly concentrated in rural areas where Indigenous groups represent the extreme end of marginalization and access to medical coverage. Inadequate access to health services in the Indigenous and rural populations throws the gravity of the public health problem into relief.

  12. The Formation of the Urban Environment in the West Siberian Oil and Gas Region: Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N. V.; Speranskaya, N. I.; Shabatura, L. N.; Iatsevich, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the problems faced by the person in relation to the culture of creating a sustainable urban environment. The urban environment is seen as space of human existence, influencing its spiritual and physical health. All the experts involved in the urban environment, think about the culture of its formation, unfortunately, only from a departmental point of view. Differently organized human environment inevitably affects behavior, emotional state of a man, his perception and understanding of space. The cultural heritage of society fits in the space of an artificial environment created by a man, and determines the behavior of people.For the solution of problems of formation of the urban environment, it is necessary to apply a set of interrelated technical, social, environmental, aesthetic and other measures. In this capacity, landscape design as a set of methods has to build a sustainable urban environment to ensure harmonious living.Current trends, methods, and techniques of landscape design are to create sustainable environment for a person - creative, spiritual, comfortable, attractive, safe, harmonious.

  13. Addressing the minimum fleet problem in on-demand urban mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifeh, M M; Santi, P; Resta, G; Strogatz, S H; Ratti, C

    2018-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have opened the way to new solutions for urban mobility that provide better ways to match individuals with on-demand vehicles. However, a fundamental unsolved problem is how best to size and operate a fleet of vehicles, given a certain demand for personal mobility. Previous studies 1-5 either do not provide a scalable solution or require changes in human attitudes towards mobility. Here we provide a network-based solution to the following 'minimum fleet problem', given a collection of trips (specified by origin, destination and start time), of how to determine the minimum number of vehicles needed to serve all the trips without incurring any delay to the passengers. By introducing the notion of a 'vehicle-sharing network', we present an optimal computationally efficient solution to the problem, as well as a nearly optimal solution amenable to real-time implementation. We test both solutions on a dataset of 150 million taxi trips taken in the city of New York over one year 6 . The real-time implementation of the method with near-optimal service levels allows a 30 per cent reduction in fleet size compared to current taxi operation. Although constraints on driver availability and the existence of abnormal trip demands may lead to a relatively larger optimal value for the fleet size than that predicted here, the fleet size remains robust for a wide range of variations in historical trip demand. These predicted reductions in fleet size follow directly from a reorganization of taxi dispatching that could be implemented with a simple urban app; they do not assume ride sharing 7-9 , nor require changes to regulations, business models, or human attitudes towards mobility to become effective. Our results could become even more relevant in the years ahead as fleets of networked, self-driving cars become commonplace 10-14 .

  14. Urban foraging and the relational ecologies of belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Poe; Joyce LeCompte; Rebecca McLain; Patrick T. Hurley

    2014-01-01

    Through a discussion of urban foraging in Seattle, Washington, USA, we examine how people’s plant and mushroom harvesting practices in cities are linked to relationships with species, spaces, and ecologies. Bringing a relational approach to political ecology, we discuss the ways that these particular nature–society relationships are formed, legitimated, and mobilized...

  15. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  16. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    OpenAIRE

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation policy, depending on the orders at hand, pre-announced orders, and stochastic arrivals. We present this problem as a variant of the Delivery Dispatching Problem that includes dispatch windows, and m...

  17. Dispossessing Urbanization: Urban Marxism in the Face of the Problem of Primitive Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Juskowiak

    2015-01-01

    The article is a complex attempt to present the achievements of the broadly understood urban Marxism in the field of reinterpretation of the classic concept from the cards of Capital – “primitive accumulation”. Drawing on theories of such scholars as David Harvey (“accumulation by dispossession”) or Saskia Sassen (“expulsions”), the author points to the possible ways to operationalize the concept of “dispossessing urbanization”. Inspired by the theorizations of autonomist Marxists (Antonio Ne...

  18. Regulatory problems relating to energy in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyi, K.

    2002-01-01

    One of basic problems of the transition in the energy economy is, how far the process of liberalisation and privatisation could go, i.e. to what extent the control of state/government would be given up, and how the breakdown of the commanding positions of the government would be managed. The transition in the energy sector toward a market economy is characterised by restructuring the regulatory framework of the energy industry, changing the operational structure of the sector and profound reshaping of ownership structures of the enterprises. In Hungary the government, being convinced of the importance of the implementation of the market forces, in 1991 made the first step on the way of restructuring the energy sector in order to increase economic efficiency, to enable companies to react to market forces and to privatise them. Parallel and partly after the restructuring, a profound modification of legal and regulatory framework took place and finally a relatively large scale of privatisation has newly emerged, which will continue in future, too. The process of the energy sector liberalisation in Hungary has a stop and go character and the game is not over. The process can be characterised by institutional restructuring in the energy sector (coal, oil/gas, power ), which is the basic condition for market liberalisation and privatisation, and by the creation of an appropriate environment (regulatory framework, pricing policy, etc. ) for the smooth implementation of the liberation process(author)

  19. Anholonomic Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Lie derivative approach to the Cauchy problem in general relativity is applied to the evolution along an arbitrary timelike vector field for the case where the dynamical degrees of freedom are chosen as the (generally anholonomic) metric of the hypersurface elements orthogonal to the vector field. Generalizations of the shear, rotation, and acceleration are given for a nonunit timelike vector field, and applied to the three-plus-one breakup of the Riemann tensor into components parallel and orthogonal to the vector field, resulting in the anholonomic Gauss--Codazzi equations. A similar breakup of the Einstein field equations results in the form of the constraint and evolution equations for the anholonomic case. The results are applied to the case of a space--time with a timelike Killing vector field (stationary field) to demonstrate their utility. Other possible applications, such as in the numerical integration of the field equations, are mentioned. Definitions are given of three-index shear, rotation, and acceleration tensors, and their use in a two-plus-two decomposition of the Riemann tensor and field equations is indicated

  20. An Overview of Problems and Solutions for Urban Freight Transport in Brazilian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise K. Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban freight transport is a challenge for Brazilian cities due to the lack of adequate planning for freight flow movement. Public managers also show negligence and a lack of awareness when dealing with urban logistics. Decision-support data on urban freight transport are still scarce, despite being of fundamental value to economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents problems and solutions regarding urban freight transport in Brazilian cities. Data were obtained through a survey conducted in nine cities and analysed by means of descriptive statistics and the successive intervals method. Additionally, a cluster analysis was performed to identify patterns regarding the typical characteristics of each city in order to compare and generalise the perception of retailers regarding problems and solutions at the national level. The results indicate divergent opinions among retailers from different cities, even from cities with similar socioeconomic profiles and urban dynamics. The municipalities which demonstrated the most similarities were (i Betim and Niteroi, in the Southeast of Brazil; (ii Palmas and Quixada, in the North and Northeast, respectively; and (iii Palmas and Caruaru, also in the North and Northeast. The results reinforce the importance of studying the local context and involving stakeholders in the process of planning urban logistics solutions.

  1. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  2. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Associated Risk Factors among Rural-to-Urban Migrant Children in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming

    2017-11-14

    Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.

  3. The study of urban systems by indicators. State of the art and implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Ciello, R.; Napoleoni, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to define the state of the art about the problem of the indicators and their capability in reading and foreseeing the urban complexity. Therefore, the theoretical elaborations and the suggestions developed in the report try to convert the different contributions in the Italian and international literature in a frame-work, focusing on those arguments which assume a key role in the study of the urban areas: (a) the problematic definition of the administrative, physics and functional boarders of the cities; (b) the selection of the indicators that describe the urban areas; (c) the description and quality of life and of environment quality in the cities; (d) the sustainability in urban areas [it

  4. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Katner, Harold; Banas, Ellen; Kalichman, Moira

    2017-07-01

    AIDS stigmas delay HIV diagnosis, interfere with health care, and contribute to mental health problems among people living with HIV. While there are few studies of the geographical distribution of AIDS stigma, research suggests that AIDS stigmas are differentially experienced in rural and urban areas. We conducted computerized interviews with 696 men and women living with HIV in 113 different zip code areas that were classified as large-urban, small-urban, and rural areas in a southeast US state with high-HIV prevalence. Analyses conducted at the individual level (N = 696) accounting for clustering at the zip code level showed that internalized AIDS-related stigma (e.g., the sense of being inferior to others because of HIV) was experienced with greater magnitude in less densely populated communities. Multilevel models indicated that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, rural communities reported greater internalized AIDS-related stigma compared to large-urban areas and that small-urban areas indicated greater experiences of enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) than large-urban areas. The associations between anticipated AIDS-related stigma (e.g., expecting discrimination) and population density at the community-level were not significant. Results suggest that people living in rural and small-urban settings experience greater AIDS-related internalized and enacted stigma than their counterparts living in large-urban centers. Research is needed to determine whether low-density population areas contribute to or are sought out by people who experienced greater AIDS-related stigma. Regardless of causal directions, interventions are needed to address AIDS-related stigma, especially among people in sparsely populated areas with limited resources.

  5. A Cross-Curricular, Problem-Based Project to Promote Understanding of Poverty in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daniel S.; Tuchman, Ellen; Hawkins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach students about the scope and consequences of urban poverty through an innovative cross-curricular project. We illustrate the process, goals, and tasks of the Community Assessment Project, which incorporates community-level assessment, collection and analysis of public data, and…

  6. Behavioral Problems and Reading Difficulties among Language Minority and Monolingual Urban Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margaret E.; Wechsler-Zimring, Adrianna; Noam, Gil; Wolf, Maryanne; Katzir, Tami

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the potentially compounding effect of language minority (LM) status on problem behaviors among urban second and third grade-level poor readers. Univariate analyses showed that a disproportionate percentage of both LM and English monolingual (L1) poor readers already displayed clinically significant levels of anxiety, social…

  7. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation

  8. Health Problems of the Under-Five Children in an Urban Slum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the health problems common among under-five children in a typical urban slum in Nigeria and assess the treatment patterns commonly offered to these children. Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in May-July 2010. A cluster sampling technique was used to select ...

  9. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongxu; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic) and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination) trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback ...

  10. Computer Use and Vision.Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate. ... of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of ... prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students.

  11. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  12. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  13. Advances in multiphase flow and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, G.

    1986-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop in multiphase flow held at Leesburg, Va. in June 1986 representing a cross-disciplinary approach to theoretical as well as computational problems in multiphase flow. Topics include composites, phase transitions, fluid-particle systems, and bubbly liquids

  14. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  15. The initial value problem as it relates to numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime is foliated by spatial hypersurfaces in the 3+1 split of general relativity. The initial value problem then consists of specifying initial data for all fields on one such a spatial hypersurface, such that the subsequent evolution forward in time is fully determined. On each hypersurface the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature describe the geometry. Together with matter fields such as fluid velocity, energy density and rest mass density, the 3-metric and extrinsic curvature then constitute the initial data. There is a lot of freedom in choosing such initial data. This freedom corresponds to the physical state of the system at the initial time. At the same time the initial data have to satisfy the Hamiltonian and momentum constraint equations of general relativity and can thus not be chosen completely freely. We discuss the conformal transverse traceless and conformal thin sandwich decompositions that are commonly used in the construction of constraint satisfying initial data. These decompositions allow us to specify certain free data that describe the physical nature of the system. The remaining metric fields are then determined by solving elliptic equations derived from the constraint equations. We describe initial data for single black holes and single neutron stars, and how we can use conformal decompositions to construct initial data for binaries made up of black holes or neutron stars. Orbiting binaries will emit gravitational radiation and thus lose energy. Since the emitted radiation tends to circularize the orbits over time, one can thus expect that the objects in a typical binary move on almost circular orbits with slowly shrinking radii. This leads us to the concept of quasi-equilibrium, which essentially assumes that time derivatives are negligible in corotating coordinates for binaries on almost circular orbits. We review how quasi-equilibrium assumptions can be used to make physically well motivated approximations that simplify the elliptic

  16. Ethical Problems Related to Surrogate Motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Aydin

    2006-01-01

    Being unable to have children is an important problem for married couples. At present, new reproduction techniques help these couples while those who can not find any solution try new approaches. One of these is the phenomenon of surrogate motherhood, which is based upon an agreement between the infertile couple and surrogate mother. Surrogate mother may conceive with the sperm of the male of the involved couple as well as by the transfer of the embryo formed by invitro fertilization. Couples...

  17. Ethical Problems Related to Surrogate Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Aydin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Being unable to have children is an important problem for married couples. At present, new reproduction techniques help these couples while those who can not find any solution try new approaches. One of these is the phenomenon of surrogate motherhood, which is based upon an agreement between the infertile couple and surrogate mother. Surrogate mother may conceive with the sperm of the male of the involved couple as well as by the transfer of the embryo formed by invitro fertilization. Couples who choose to have a child born from a pregnancy or to whom they are genetically partially connected rather than adopting a child give rise to the emergence of some ethical problems. Traditional family notion based upon having children after the union of the reproductive cells of the mother and father do not receive the pheneomenon of surrogate mother favourably. Such practices are criticised as they are far from being natural and other ethical problems are faced in the implementation.

  18. Two problems relating to cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needham, T.R.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the First Problem one unambiguous prediction of cosmic censorship is put to the test, namely that it should be impossible to destroy a black hole (i.e., eliminate its horizon) by injecting test particles into it. Several authors have treated this problem and have verified the prediction for various special cases. This author shows that if a general charged spinning particle (with parameters very much smaller than the respective hole parameters) is injected in an arbitrary manner into an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, then cosmic censorship is upheld. He also considers the injection of particles with parameters that are not small compared with those of the hole, for which cosmic censorship is apparently violated. The Second Problem is an investigation of a conjecture by W. Israel. It states, in essence, that collapsing stars will generically form black holes even though naked singularities may also be produced. More precisely, he conjectures that if a trapped surface forms during a collapse then it can be extended toward the future into a spacelike 3-cylinder OMEGA whose sections are trapped surfaces having dimensions that remain bounded above and below.

  19. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF AN INVERSE PROBLEM ORIGINATED IN PHENOMENON OF POLLUTION AIR URBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Coronel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calibration study of a two - dimensional mathematical model for the problem of urban air pollution. It is mainly assumed that air pollution is afected by wind convection, diffusion and chemical reactions of pollutants. Consequently, a convection-diffusion-reaction equation is obtained as a direct problem. In the inverse problem, the determination of the diffusion is analyzed, assuming that one has an observation of the pollutants in a nite time. To solve it numerically the nite volume method is used, the least squares function is considered as cost function and the gradient is calculated with the sensitivity method.

  20. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  1. An Improved Distribution Policy with a Maintenance Aspect for an Urban Logistic Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ndhaief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an improved distribution plan supporting an urban distribution center (UDC to solve the last mile problem of urban freight. This is motivated by the need of UDCs to satisfy daily demand in time under a high service level in allocated urban areas. Moreover, these demands could not be satisfied in individual cases because the delivery rate can be less than daily demand and/or affected by random failure or maintenance actions of vehicles. The scope of our work is to focus on a UDC, which needs to satisfy demands in a finite horizon. To that end, we consider a distribution policy on two sequential plans, a distribution plan correlated to a maintenance plan using a subcontracting strategy with several potential urban distribution centers (UDCs and performing preventive maintenance to ensure deliveries for their allocated urban area. The choice of subcontractor will depend on distance, environmental and availability criteria. In doing so, we define a mathematical model for searching the best distribution and maintenance plans using a subcontracting strategy. Moreover, we consider delay for the next periods with an expensive penalty. Finally, we present a numerical example illustrating the benefits of our approach.

  2. Violência urbana: um problema social Urban violence: a social problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Aquino e Silva Gullo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reúne um conjunto de reflexões sobre diversos aspectos em que se manifesta a violência social. Essas reflexões, apresentadas em momentos diferentes, como aulas, debates e num congresso, foram agrupadas sob o título de Violência Urbana porque concorrem para a compreensão da violência cotidiana enquanto problema da sociedade urbana. Dos cursos regulares, registro a concepção inicial, tomada da antropologia social, que leva à caracterização da violência na sociedade rural para fundamentar a gênese do problema na sociedade contemporânea de classes sociais, focalizado na perspectiva da marginalidade estrutural. Dos debates sucitados por acontecimentos traumáticos envolvendo o aparato policial, resultou uma discussão sobre as causas da violência inerente ao desempenho da função institucional atribuída às polícias militar e civil. Da participação em congresso sobre o novo Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, resultou a parte final deste artigo que discute o papel e, particularmente, o significado dos símbolos sociais divulgados pelos meios de comunicação de massa, como fatores responsáveis pela crescente violência no trânsito.This article contains some reflections on how social violence expresses itself. These reflections, presented in former moments as lectures, public debates and at a congress, have been gathered under the title of Urban Violence because they all try to comprehend everyday violence as a problem of urban society. Based on the lectures I have formulated the first part of this article, which deals with a conception taken from social anthropology: the characterization of violence in rural society under the perspective of structural marginality, in order to explain the genesis of this problem in the actual social class society. The debates, that took place because of traumatic happenings related to the police apparatus, have brought about a discussion of the causes of violence inherent to the

  3. Relational aggression and adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Fredland, Nina; Han, Hae-Ra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Kub, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relational aggression and its relationship with adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban, African American youth. Quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. The sample consisted of 185 predominantly African American (95.1%) seventh-grade students (mean age: 13.0; female: 58%) attending 4 urban middle schools. The Children's Social Behavior Scale and Social Experience Questionnaire were used to measure relational aggression and relational victimization. The Pediatric Symptom Checklist was used to assess psychosocial difficulties, including internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and attention problems. Physical health symptoms were measured with questions about colds/flu, headaches, and stomach aches. 2-way multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences in externalizing behavior, with perpetrators reporting higher levels than nonperpetrators. Victims reported more internalizing behavior than nonvictims; however, this was only significant for males. For females, significant negative effects on health outcomes were found, resulting from the interaction of perpetration and victimization. Findings suggest that relational aggression is a common occurrence among urban, minority adolescents and may result in adverse health outcomes. These results provide several avenues for future research and implications for healthcare practice. Intervention strategies are needed to prevent relational aggression and continual or subsequent adverse health symptoms.

  4. Problems and Issues Related to Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Symposium participants identified policy issues in these areas related to alternative education for at-risk youth: choice, equity, public perception, definition, philosophy, stakeholder involvement, evaluation, staffing, curriculum, governance, and financing. Public discourse and policy discussion were considered essential to implementing…

  5. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...

  6. Child prostitution: magnitude and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, T; Berhane, Y

    2000-07-01

    In Ethiopia, very little is known about prostitution in general and about child prostitution in particular. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of child prostitution and to identify problems associated with it. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. A total of 650 commercial sex workers were interviewed. Eighty eight (13.5%) were below the age of 18 years at the time of data collection. At the time of joining prostitution 268 (41.2%) were under 18 years of age. Poverty, disagreement with family, and peer influence were the major reasons leading to prostitution. Child prostitutes were likely to be victim of physical violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 1.93(1.18,3.15)] and sexual violence [OR = (95% C.I.) = 2.20(1.36,3.35)] compared to adult prostitutes. Child prostitutes were about five times more likely to desire rejoining their family than the adult prostitutes [OR = (95% C.I) = 5.47(3.01;9.93)]. Strategies need to be developed to rescue child prostitutes from on-job violence, and to establish a rehabilitation program for those interested to discontinue prostitution along with efforts to minimize entry into prostitution.

  7. Using mHealth technologies to improve the identification of behavioral health problems in urban primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staeheli, Martha; Aseltine, Robert H; Schilling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Daren; Gould, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral health disorders remain under recognized and under diagnosed among urban primary care patients. Screening patients for such problems is widely recommended, yet is challenging to do in a brief primary care encounter, particularly for this socially and medically complex patient population. In 2013, intervention patients at an urban Connecticut primary clinic were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and risky drinking (n = 146) using an electronic tablet-based screening tool. Screening data were compared to electronic health record data from control patients (n = 129) to assess differences in the prevalence of behavioral health problems, rates of follow-up care, and the rate of newly identified cases in the intervention group. Results from logistic regressions indicated that both groups had similar rates of disorder at baseline. Patients in the intervention group were five times more likely to be identified with depression (p Post-traumatic stress disorder was virtually unrecognized among controls but was observed in 23% of the intervention group (p behavioral health problems identified in the intervention group were new cases. Follow-up rates were significantly higher in the intervention group relative to controls, but were low overall. This tablet-based electronic screening tool identified significantly higher rates of behavioral health disorders than have been previously reported for this patient population. Electronic risk screening using patient-reported outcome measures offers an efficient approach to improving the identification of behavioral health problems and improving rates of follow-up care.

  8. Issues related to the Fermion mass problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz Adam

    1998-09-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. Each illustrates a different aspect of the fermion mass issue in elementary particle physics. In the first part, the possibility of chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of uniform magnetic and electric fields is investigated. The system is studied nonperturbatively with the use of basis functions compatible with the external field configuration, the parabolic cylinder functions. It is found that chiral symmetry, broken by a uniform magnetic field, is restored by electric field. Obtained result is nonperturbative in nature: even the tiniest deviation of the electric field from zero restores chiral symmetry. In the second part, heavy quarkonium systems are investigated. To study these systems, a phenomenological nonrelativistic model is built. Approximate solutions to this model are found with the use of a specially designed Pade approximation and by direct numerical integration of Schrodinger equation. The results are compared with experimental measurements of respective meson masses. Good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results is found. Advantages and shortcommings of the new approximation method are analysed. In the third part, an extension of the standard model of elementary particles is studied. The extension, called the aspon model, was originally introduced to cure the so called strong CP problem. In addition to fulfilling its original purpose, the aspon model modifies the couplings of the standard model quarks to the Z boson. As a result, the decay rates of the Z boson to quarks are altered. By using the recent precise measurements of the decay rates Z → bb and Z /to [/it c/=c], new constraints on the aspon model parameters are found.

  9. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback between upper model and lower model is iterated through OD trips; thus total traffic equilibrium can be simulated.

  10. Hydrogen problems related to reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujor, A.

    1993-09-01

    At reactor accidents, the combustion of hydrogen causes pressure and temperature transients which pose supplementary loads in containment. In certain conditions, they could reach hazardous levels and impair the integrity of the containment and the operability of the safety systems. The mechanisms of chemical reactions specific for the hydrogen-oxygen system are presented. Conditions in which combustion can occur and the various combustion modes, including the transition to detonation are also described. The related safety aspects and mitigation methods are discussed. Examples for particular applications and safety approaches for various types of reactors, included those promoted for the advanced reactors are also given. Presentation of the experimental research completed at AECL-Research, Whiteshell Laboratory is given, where the multi-point ignition effects for constant volume and for vented combustion of dry hydrogen-air mixtures in various geometries have been investigated. Various aspects of modelling and simulation of hydrogen combustion are discussed. The adaptations and the new models implemented in the codes VENT and CONTAIN, aimed to widen the simulation capabilities of hydrogen combustion models are described. The capabilities and limitations of the modelling assumptions of these two codes are also evaluated. (EG) (11 tabs., 39 ills., 82 refs.)

  11. The Role of Human in Relation between Urban Life & Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents show that urban life and urbanization is the first manifestation of complete form of human life, and it seems that most of human thoughts, like philosophies, were shaped in the cities and urbanizations. It means that the urban life is a society which has many social factors like: social classes and groups, economy, political power, organizations, family, cultures and geographical and environmental circumstances, that they cause to form many thoughts like human philosophies, then we see that most of past philosophers were in the cities in where urbanization was formed and thinkers could think by using of elements which are grown in such urbanizations. So, the being of urban life is necessary for making philosophical thoughts, because there are such social factors of urban living, can effect human's thinking and shape his/her worldview. But we can see the role of humankinds as a free existent who has divine position, intellect and freedom, then, he/she can manage, control and change the impacts of urban factors on philosophical thought. It means that effects of urbanizations and cultures as clear manifestation of urban life on philosophies is possible only by using of human‘s will and thinking as the central factor of the urban life and philosophy, while he/she can control and change these impacts. In fact, although human is under the impact of social and urban factors, he/she is not determined absolutely, but has freedom and intellect to control and change them. So, there is no place for absolute determinism due to social forces of urban life, but it seems there is a kind of intermediate state between absolute determinism and libertarianism. In this paper, it is tries to analysis the role of social and urban factors as the most important elements of the urban life on philosophy and philosophical thinking, and to argue that how human can manage this process.

  12. A Selected List of Urban, Environmental and Social Problem Gaming/Simulations. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwachs, Barbara

    This revised list includes games/simulations for all age levels, though often most applicable at the secondary through adult levels. In her reviews of available products, the author limited her listings to those games/simulations which are useful for educational purposes and which focus directly on social concerns relative to urban and…

  13. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  14. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  15. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: j.a.sorialara@uva.nl; Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl; Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  16. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes

  17. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.M.; Geerlings, M.I.; Vivian, L.; Collinson, M.; Robertson, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  18. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan; Geerlings, Mirjan; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were

  19. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa : prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan M.; Geerlings, Mirjan I.; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  20. SLC summer 2010 university - The ocean in the climate-energy problem, urban policies. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the summer 2010 university of the SLC (save the climate) organization on the topics of the ocean in the climate-energy problem, and of the urban policies. Nine presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Biofuels made from micro-algae: stakes and challenges (Olivier Bernard, Comore - INRIA /CNRS/UPMC); 2 - The energy of waves (Alain Clement, Ecole Centrale de Nantes); 3 - The sea, new source of renewable energies? (J.J. Herou, EDF CIH); 4 - Oceans acidification: the other CO 2 problem (James Orr, Pierre Simon Laplace Institute - IPSL, Laboratory of climate and environmental Sciences - LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ); 5 - Oceans and carbon cycle (Laurent Bopp, IPSL/LSCE); 6 - Renewable marine energies (Yann-Herve De Roeck, France Energies Marines); 7 - Energy renovation of buildings (Jean-Claude Terrier, Mesac Europe); 8 - Modevur research project - Modeling of urban development, sketch of a development typology of chinese cities (Clement-Noel Douady); 9 - Urban areas in the fight against climate change: stakes, knowledge and controversies (Francois Menard, PUCA)

  1. Urban forests and green spaces of Tbilisi and ecological problems of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Patarkalashvili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in urbanization is the most dramatic factor in today's world and it did not passed round Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, too. Since the sixties of the 20th century the population of the city nearly doubled and today is about 1.3–1.4 million. Many problems that may not have been so evident in the past, became obvious and dramatic today. These problems concern urban forests and green spaces of the city because they shrank considerably and as the result, deteriorated ecological situation. Today, their role in improvement of city climate is little. In the Soviet period the main polluters of the air considered factories and plants, but today, after breaking of the Soviet Union and closing or destruction of all factories and plants, the increasing number of light vehicles, especially outdated once, manufactured before 1999(67% are the main source of pollution(80%. The article highlights the historical development of Tbilisi urban forests and green spaces and outlines some challenges and prospects of ecological condition of the city.

  2. Evaluation of sleep related breathing problems and sleep disturbances among health related employees at Fayoum University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwa Ahmed Elhefny

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the daytime somnolence is common among health care workers followed by nocturnal sleep problems. Urbanization and large scale of industrialization can explain the incidence of sleep problems among rural living.

  3. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  4. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  5. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  6. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  7. Tourists’ Attitude towards Urban Tourism: Problems and Perspectives of Dhaka City as Tourists’ Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsu Uddin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Like several other sectors, tourism industry in Bangladesh since long past remains unexplored. Bangladesh faces deficit balances of payments every fiscal year. Tourism industry can play a vital role to remedy the deficit. Urban tourism has been a phenomenal growth since 1990 across the globe. Unfortunately Bangladesh is yet to figure prominently in the tourism map. Some of its neighboring countries are earning considerable amount of foreign exchange from tourism industry. The present study could reveal the problems and the prospects of urban (Dhaka City tourism industry measuring the field opinion done by the researcher. This research was a conclusive research. Here participant observations, case study, interview and survey techniques are followed to collect primary data. It can therefore be said that the tourism industry offers greater scope for the development in the areas of economy, society, culture and religion.

  8. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF URBAN MANAGEMENT IN PALMAS (TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Muller Gonçalves Moura

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to meet the urban environmental management in Palmas and establish consistency with the socio-environmental problems and needs and their efficiency in monitoring and controlling the environment. Palmas, the newest planned city in Brazil is facing conflicts that urban planning could not prevent the peripheral expansion and separation of social classes determined the absence or little coverage of basic infrastructure services like water supply, sewerage, collection and disposal of garbage and the deficiency in the management and maintenance of green areas. From this backdrop, we carried out analysis on the institutions and the environmental reality of the city and proposed a model for the municipal environment, based on the Statute of the city, and also suggestions to formulate public policies and proposals for immediate action, aimed at improve the quality of life of Palmas.

  9. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  10. Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan and Isa Baud (2004) Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development? in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Rec

  11. Estimating Rates of Psychosocial Problems in Urban and Poor Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adjustment problems for children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Parents provided information on social, emotional, academic, and family adjustment of 327 children with SCA. Over 25% of children had emotional adjustment problems in form of internalizing symptoms (anxiety and depression); at least 20% had problems related to…

  12. Problem-Solving Methods for the Prospective Development of Urban Power Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article succeeds the former A. P. K nko’ and A. I. Kuzmina’ ubl t on titled "A mathematical model of urban distribution electro-network considering its future development" (electronic scientific and technical magazine "Science and education" No. 5, 2014.The article offers a model of urban power distribution network as a set of transformer and distribution substations and cable lines. All elements of the network and new consumers are determined owing to vectors of parameters consistent with them.A problem of the urban power distribution network design, taking into account a prospective development of the city, is presented as a problem of discrete programming. It is in deciding on the optimal option to connect new consumers to the power supply network, on the number and sites to build new substations, and on the option to include them in the power supply network.Two methods, namely a reduction method for a set the nested tasks of global minimization and a decomposition method are offered to solve the problem.In reduction method the problem of prospective development of power supply network breaks into three subtasks of smaller dimension: a subtask to define the number and sites of new transformer and distribution substations, a subtask to define the option to connect new consumers to the power supply network, and a subtask to include new substations in the power supply network. The vector of the varied parameters is broken into three subvectors consistent with the subtasks. Each subtask is solved using an area of admissible vector values of the varied parameters at the fixed components of the subvectors obtained when solving the higher subtasks.In decomposition method the task is presented as a set of three, similar to reduction method, reductions of subtasks and a problem of coordination. The problem of coordination specifies a sequence of the subtasks solution, defines the moment of calculation termination. Coordination is realized by

  13. The Role of Stakeholders Related to the Management of Ecological Function of Urban Green Open Space. Case Study: City of Depok, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangopa Malik, Andy Anton

    2017-12-01

    Urban green open space is one of the assets that provide substantial benefits to the urban community. One important function of urban green open space is a function of ecology. This study will provide initial explanation on the various studies related to the ecological function of urban green open space. The study of urban space management approach related to ecological function will explain the extent of the role of stakeholders in the urban areas that will further strengthen the importance of the existence of green open space, especially in city of Depok. With so many problems related to the supply and use of green open space in the city of Depok. This approach was originally applied by the private sector and many applications made a great contribution, so it began to be used by the government in managing public assets there. This study will use descriptive method, at the beginning of the study will explain the existence of the reality of urban green open space as part of the urban space by viewing it from theoretical overview of space, function and role of the various problems that occur in it. The results of this study indicate there are six problems in the management of green open spaces in city of Depok. Using the stages in asset management will provide space for participation of existing stakeholders in the management of green open spaces in city of Depok.

  14. The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Yagüe, C.; Schneider, C. M.; Couronné, T.; Smoreda, Z.; Benito, R. M.; Zufiria, P. J.; González, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25 million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive simulation of decentralized search strategies we conclude that urban networks are searchable not through geographical proximity as their country-wide counterparts, but through an homophily-driven community structure. PMID:26035529

  15. Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian – Muslim Relations in Nigeria: The Problems and Prospects. ... Basic findings of this study show that Nigeria.s stability, democracy, and national ... must embrace Inter-religious dialogue which demands religions nurture, faith, trust, ...

  16. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trop J Pharm Res, October 2016; 15(10): 2275. Tropical Journal of ... medication errors in irrational drug use, while patient adherence ..... Drug-related problems identified from geriatric medication safety ... Ann. Pharmacother. 2005; 39:1423-.

  17. Using the internet: skill related problems in users’ online behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the conventional and superficial notion of measuring digital skills by proposing definitions for operational, formal, information and strategic skills. The main purpose was to identify individual skill related problems that users experience when navigating the Internet. In

  18. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, M.; Ropero, M.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs

  19. MULTI-VEHICLE COVERING TOUR PROBLEM: BUILDING ROUTES FOR URBAN PATROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Alves de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we study a particular aspect of the urban community policing: routine patrol route planning. We seek routes that guarantee visibility, as this has a sizable impact on the community perceived safety, allowing quick emergency responses and providing surveillance of selected sites (e.g., hospitals, schools. The planning is restricted to the availability of vehicles and strives to achieve balanced routes. We study an adaptation of the model for the multi-vehicle covering tour problem, in which a set of locations must be visited, whereas another subset must be close enough to the planned routes. It constitutes an NP-complete integer programming problem. Suboptimal solutions are obtained with several heuristics, some adapted from the literature and others developed by us. We solve some adapted instances from TSPLIB and an instance with real data, the former being compared with results from literature, and latter being compared with empirical data.

  20. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  1. Acculturation Stress and Drinking Problems Among Urban Heavy Drinking Latinos in the Northeast

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christina S.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between level of acculturation and acculturation stress, and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of accultura...

  2. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    from various Danish longitudinal registers. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study confirms that people living in more urbanized areas are at a higher risk of suicide than their counterparts in less urbanized areas. However, this excess risk is largely eliminated...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially......BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  3. Urban Agriculture Practices and Health Problems among Farmers Operating on a University Campus in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O.B. Ackerson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture, a world-wide practice, faces both environmental and health challenges. Farmers are susceptible to occupational and other water-related health risks. The research identified health problems related to urban agricultural farming through farmers’ social characteristics and agricultural practices. Thorough interviews, using structured questionnaires, were carried out. Sixty three farmers responded to questions ranging from agricultural practices to health problems encountered. The findings showed that farmers apply both organic and inorganic fertilisers while 97% used pesticides of varying active ingredients at different application rates. Only 10% used personal protective clothing during the application of pesticides. Overhead irrigation was carried out using a watering can. Eighty four percent and 13% of the respondents utilised water from shallow wells and shallow wells mixed with contaminated stream, respectively. Besides schistosomiasis and cholera, other bacterial diseases, nematode infections, malaria, headaches, dermatological, visual, cardiac, and respiratory problems were common health complaints. Headache complaints were the most common (75%.L’agriculture urbaine, une pratique qui a cours dans le monde entier, est confrontée à des défis d’ordre environnemental et sanitaire. Les agriculteurs sont exposés à divers risques professionnels, et notamment à ceux que l'eau peut poser pour leur santé. Cette étude a identifié les problèmes de santé liés à l’agriculture urbaine en fonction des caractéristiques sociales et des pratiques des agriculteurs. Des entretiens approfondis ont été conduits en suivant des questionnaires structurés. Soixante-trois fermiers ont répondu aux questions, qui abordaient leurs pratiques agricoles ainsi que leurs problèmes de santé. Les résultats montrent que les fermiers emploient aussi bien des engrais organiques que non organiques, et que 97 % utilisent des pesticides

  4. Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.

  5. Acculturation stress and drinking problems among urban heavy drinking Latinos in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina S; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the level of acculturation and acculturation stress and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether the levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of the acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for a significant variance in drinking problems, while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers.

  6. Using mHealth technologies to improve the identification of behavioral health problems in urban primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Martha; Aseltine, Robert H; Schilling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Daren; Gould, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral health disorders remain under recognized and under diagnosed among urban primary care patients. Screening patients for such problems is widely recommended, yet is challenging to do in a brief primary care encounter, particularly for this socially and medically complex patient population. Methods: In 2013, intervention patients at an urban Connecticut primary clinic were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and risky drinking (n?=?146) using an elec...

  7. Some human-related problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1980-01-01

    Radiation protection includes both human and source-related problems. The human problems have not only medical but also social aspects, such as labor management. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the subject of radiation protection is not a human being as living thing but as member of society. ICRP recommended that conditions of work can be divided into two classed, working condition A and B, according to annual exposure. This application is of great value to radiation protection practice. Nevertheless the legal regulations do not adopt it yet. The present condition of the medical surveillance of radiation workers is not appropriate from the scientific standpoint. This is the difficult problem which is caused by the delay of the legal application of ICRP recommendation. Compensation for occupational radiation hazards should be overlooked. This problem have been investigated by an authorized committee, but a number of unsolved problems still remain. (author)

  8. From Problems to Potentials—The Urban Energy Transition of Gruž, Dubrovnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy van den Dobbelsteen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge for a sustainable society, carbon-neutrality is a critical objective for all cities in the coming decades. In the EU City-zen project, academic partners collaborate to develop an urban energy transition methodology, which supports cities in making the energy transition to sustainable lifestyles and carbon neutrality. As part of the project, so-called Roadshows are organised in cities that wish to take the first step toward zero-energy living. Each Roadshow is methodologically composed to allow sustainability experts from across Europe to co-create designs, strategies and timelines with local stakeholders in order to reach this vital goal. Following a precursory investigative student workshop (the SWAT Studio, Dubrovnik was the third city to host the Roadshow in November 2016. During these events the characteristics of Dubrovnik, and the district of Gruž in particular, were systematically analysed, leading to useful insights into the current problems and potentials of the city. In close collaboration with local stakeholders, the team proposed a series of interventions, validated by the calculation of carbon emission, to help make Gruž, and in its wake the whole city of Dubrovnik, net zero energy and zero carbon. The vision presented to the inhabitants and its key city decision makers encompassed a path towards an attainable sustainable future. The strategies and solutions proposed for the Dubrovnik district of Gruž were able to reduce the current carbon sequestration compensation of 1200 hectares of forestland to only 67 hectares, an area achievable by urban reforestation projects. This paper presents the City-zen methodology of urban energy transition and that of the City-zen Roadshow, the analysis of the city of Dubrovnik, proposed interventions and the carbon impact, as calculated by means of the carbon accounting method discussed in the paper.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE INTRA-CITY VARIATION OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND AND ITS RELATION TO LAND SURFACE/COVER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gerçek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with urbanization, sealing of vegetated land and evaporation surfaces by impermeable materials, lead to changes in urban climate. This phenomenon is observed as temperatures several degrees higher in densely urbanized areas compared to the rural land at the urban fringe particularly at nights, so-called Urban Heat Island. Urban Heat Island (UHI effect is related with urban form, pattern and building materials so far as it is associated with meteorological conditions, air pollution, excess heat from cooling. UHI effect has negative influences on human health, as well as other environmental problems such as higher energy demand, air pollution, and water shortage. Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has long been studied by observations of air temperature from thermometers. However, with the advent and proliferation of remote sensing technology, synoptic coverage and better representations of spatial variation of surface temperature became possible. This has opened new avenues for the observation capabilities and research of UHIs. In this study, "UHI effect and its relation to factors that cause it" is explored for İzmit city which has been subject to excess urbanization and industrialization during the past decades. Spatial distribution and variation of UHI effect in İzmit is analysed using Landsat 8 and ASTER day & night images of 2015 summer. Surface temperature data derived from thermal bands of the images were analysed for UHI effect. Higher temperatures were classified into 4 grades of UHIs and mapped both for day and night. Inadequate urban form, pattern, density, high buildings and paved surfaces at the expanse of soil ground and vegetation cover are the main factors that cause microclimates giving rise to spatial variations in temperatures across cities. These factors quantified as land surface/cover parameters for the study include vegetation index (NDVI, imperviousness (NDISI, albedo, solar insolation, Sky View Factor (SVF, building

  10. Analysis of the Intra-City Variation of Urban Heat Island and its Relation to Land Surface/cover Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçek, D.; Güven, İ. T.; Oktay, İ. Ç.

    2016-06-01

    Along with urbanization, sealing of vegetated land and evaporation surfaces by impermeable materials, lead to changes in urban climate. This phenomenon is observed as temperatures several degrees higher in densely urbanized areas compared to the rural land at the urban fringe particularly at nights, so-called Urban Heat Island. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is related with urban form, pattern and building materials so far as it is associated with meteorological conditions, air pollution, excess heat from cooling. UHI effect has negative influences on human health, as well as other environmental problems such as higher energy demand, air pollution, and water shortage. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has long been studied by observations of air temperature from thermometers. However, with the advent and proliferation of remote sensing technology, synoptic coverage and better representations of spatial variation of surface temperature became possible. This has opened new avenues for the observation capabilities and research of UHIs. In this study, "UHI effect and its relation to factors that cause it" is explored for İzmit city which has been subject to excess urbanization and industrialization during the past decades. Spatial distribution and variation of UHI effect in İzmit is analysed using Landsat 8 and ASTER day & night images of 2015 summer. Surface temperature data derived from thermal bands of the images were analysed for UHI effect. Higher temperatures were classified into 4 grades of UHIs and mapped both for day and night. Inadequate urban form, pattern, density, high buildings and paved surfaces at the expanse of soil ground and vegetation cover are the main factors that cause microclimates giving rise to spatial variations in temperatures across cities. These factors quantified as land surface/cover parameters for the study include vegetation index (NDVI), imperviousness (NDISI), albedo, solar insolation, Sky View Factor (SVF), building envelope

  11. Press problem related to nuclear energy news reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the subsequent press reports on damage of nuclear power station after it, a stance of media is being questioned. In order to clear this problem, basic organizational structure of the press related to nuclear energy news was analyzed. Local news department, social news department, science news department and economical news department involve in nuclear energy news the accordance with their own situations and concerns. This structure makes problem of nuclear energy news reporting complicated. Changing this system is required but very difficult. It is concluded that the press problem around nuclear energy news is strange. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form for Assessing Behavior in a Sample of Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Thompson, Erin L

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randall J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shao, Xuan-Min [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Keeley R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  14. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document the inte......Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document...... the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug......-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form, and tallied the number of patients they served on another form. Setting. One hundred and sixteen community pharmacies and 12 outpatient hospital pharmacies. Key findings. One problem or more was identified among 2.5 per cent...

  15. Exploring the relation between urbanization and residential CO2 emissions in China: a PTR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zongyi; Tang, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical work suggests that urbanization and residential CO2 emissions are related. This paper investigates the nonlinear impact of urbanization on residential CO2 emissions over the period 1997–2011 in China by applying the Candelon et al. (2012) methodology. The results show that the relationship between urbanization and residential CO2 emissions is negative over the sample which is inconsistent with the previous studies. In addition, we find the absolute difference of the estimated...

  16. Gentrification and urban children's well-being: tipping the scales from problems to promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Diana; N Weber, Rachel; S Atkins, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Gentrification changes the neighborhood and family contexts in which children are socialized-for better and worse-yet little is known about its consequences for youth. This review, drawn from research in urban planning, sociology, and psychology, maps out mechanisms by which gentrification may impact children. We discuss indicators of gentrification and link neighborhood factors, including institutional resources and collective socialization, to family processes more proximally related to child development. Finally, we discuss implications for intervention and public policy recommendations that are intended to tip the scales toward better outcomes for low-income youth in gentrifying areas.

  17. Problems of breast cancer survivors living in an urban area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abja Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems of Nepalese breast cancer survivors living in an urban area who had completed their treatment for at least 6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the problems of breast cancer survivors who were registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group. Fifty-one women who were diagnosed with breast cancer (Stage 0 to III and were currently disease-free were enrolled in the study. They were interviewed using structured interview schedule using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Symptom Scale. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS (version 16. Results: The mean age of the women at the time of enrollment was 47.3 years. The most common modality of treatment they received was the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (84%. Top five symptoms experienced by the survivors on the basis of frequency and severity were tiredness (61%, lack of energy (57%, forgetfulness (57%, lack of interest in sex (52%, general body aches (49%, and feeling of worrisome and anxiousness about future (49%. Women with age <45 years at diagnosis had higher mean rank score in psychological (24.7 and social problems (23.9 in comparison to women aged ≥45 years. There was a significant relationship between severe psychological (34.9 vs. 19.6; P = 0.001 and social problems (29.1 vs. 21.2; P = 0.03, with the time since primary treatment completion of <1 year. Conclusions: Nepalese breast cancer survivors were found to have multiple physical, psychological, and social problems and might require special attention during follow-up visits.

  18. Access to environmental reward mediates the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol problems and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G

    2018-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Special relativity. An introduction with 200 problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamparlis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity. (orig.)

  20. Special relativity. An introduction with 200 problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsamparlis, Michael [Athens Univ., Zografos (Greece). Dept. of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics

    2010-07-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity. (orig.)

  1. Special Relativity An Introduction with 200 Problems and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamparlis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This textbook develops Special Relativity in a systematic way assuming no prior knowledge of Relativity; however the student is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the standard vector calculus. The approach is structural in the sense that it develops Special Relativity in Minkowski space following the same steps with the development of Newtonian Physics in Euclidian space. A second characteristic of the book is that it discusses the mathematics of the theory independently of the physical principles, so that the reader will appreciate its role in the development of the physical theory. The book is intended to be used both as a text-book for a teaching course in Special Relativity but also as a reference book for the future. In that respect it is linked to an online repository with more than 500 problems, carefully classified according to subject area and solved in detail, providing an independent problem book on Special Relativity.

  2. The problem of non-discrimination in labor relations

    OpenAIRE

    Вишновецька, Світлана Василівна; Національний авіаційний університет; Пінчук, Ольга Борисівна; Національний авіаційний університет

    2015-01-01

    The problem of discrimination on the grounds of gender and age in the field of labor relations are investigated in the article. International and Ukrainian legal regulation of non-discrimination as a guarantee of the right to work was analyzed; solutions to the problem are proposed in the article. The different points of view on the concept of discrimination in labor relations were studied by the authors. It was founded that discrimination by age and gender are the most extended forms of disc...

  3. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  4. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.

  5. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: The materials reviewed in this publication ...

  6. RUSSIAN CORPORATIONS: THE PROBLEM OF INTRACORPORATE RELATIONS AND INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Brizhak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article actualizes the problem of the study of intra-corporate relations and economic interests of the various economic actors involved in the corporate environment of the Russian economy. The author considers the specific conditions of socio-economic and innovative development of Russian big business.

  7. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  8. Drug-related problems in patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug-related problems are especially frequent among patients suffering from non-communicable diseases, like osteoporosis, leading to suboptimal treatment response. The aim of this study was to identify drug-related problems in patients with osteoporosis. Methods. This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in January 2014 on outpatients with osteoporosis from three health facilities in Belgrade, Serbia. The patients included in the study were older than 50 years, and they were offered an anonymous questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results. There were 355 study participants, 329 (92.7% females and 26 (7.3% males. The patients who experienced at least one osteoporotic fracture (n = 208 were significantly less adherent to the therapy, less engaged in sports and regular physical activities, and more prone to nutrition with inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D than patients without fractures (n = 147. Conclusion. The effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment is decreased by several drug-related problems encountered by both physicians and patients. However, the majority of the drug-related problems could be greatly influenced by appropriate educational programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175007

  9. Energy-momentum distribution: A crucial problem in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed to elaborate the problem of energy–momentum in general relativity. In this connection, we use the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau–Lifshitz, Papapetrou and Möller to compute the energy–momentum densities for two exact solutions of Einstein field equations. The space–times under

  10. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  11. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  12. The relation of eating problems and amenorrhea in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Warren, M P; Hamilton, L H

    1987-02-01

    Exercise-induced amenorrhea has received considerable attention in the medical literature. The combination of exercise and low body weight is thought to exert synergistic effects in the pathogenesis of amenorrhea, while the role of dieting and eating problems, another possible causative mechanism, has not been examined. A sample of 55 adult dancers in national and regional classical ballet companies was studied; their mean age was 24.7 yr. Fifty-six percent of the dancers had delayed menarche (age 14 or later) and 19% of the sample were currently amenorrheic (5 months or longer). One-third of the dancers reported having had an eating problem (self-reported anorexia nervosa or bulimia). Amenorrhea and reported eating problems were significantly related: 50% of amenorrheics reported anorexia nervosa while 13% of the normals did. In addition, prolonged amenorrhea was significantly related to dieting (as measured by EAT-26 scales, a measure of dieting behavior). As expected, leanness and absolute weight also were related to prolonged amenorrhea. Amenorrhea in this sample of adult dancers was not related to current activity level or age at which training began. Thus, eating problems may be one factor in the pathogenesis of prolonged amenorrhea in certain athletic groups.

  13. Pharmacists' Intervention to Reduce Drug Related Problems in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite advances in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV/AIDS, drug-related problems (DRPs) still remain an issue, particularly in developing countries. This study evaluated the incidence of DRPs among HIV/AIDS patients in a HIV/AIDS care centre in southern Nigeria and the ...

  14. Characteristics of potential drug-related problems among oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, Arjan; Imholz, Alex L. T.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Jansman, Frank G. A.

    Background Oncology patients are more at risk for drug related problems because of treatment with (combinations of) anticancer drugs, as they have a higher risk for organ failure or altered metabolism with progression of their disease. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and to

  15. Age, pattern of menopause, climacteric symptoms and associated problems among urban population of Hyderabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the physiology of menopause in the context of the age at menopause, its pattern, climacteric symptoms and associated problems of an urban cohort. In total, 800 women of age 45-59 years, who had reached a natural menopause were interviewed. The data were collected by simple random sampling method. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Physical examination including height, weight and blood pressure check was also carried out at the same time. Data were statistically analyzed through software program SPSS 10.0. The mean age at menopause of subjects was 47.16 years. Duration of climacteric ranged from 2 - 36 months in majority of cases. The marked climacteric symptoms were low backache (75%), headache (70.25%), tiredness (67.75%), limb pain (59.25%), sleep disturbance (53.75%), lack of concentration (49.5%), hot flushes (55.5%) and night sweats (45%). Other associated problems were hypertension (31.5%), ischaemic heart disease (22.25%), diabetes mellitus (15.75%), postmenopausal bleeding (10.5%) and vaginitis (4.2%), respectively. (author)

  16. From urban form to urban relations: in search for a new kind of reflexive and critical knowledge in urban geography and city monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernard Racine

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores what unites the social environment the material environment. both the material form, and, jointly, the sensibility that echoes it. .It argues that urban geographers need to develop a research model drawing on urban geography, on urbanism and on land management and capable of integrating the thoughts, the emotions, the affects and the valu-es of city dwellers and citizens and therefore knowledge situated at a micro-social level. However, such research still would need to lead to truly regulatory knowledge. Its translati-on into practical measures needs to be democratically approved, especially by actors who know how to think and act both locally and globally, in relation to multiple and complex territories of affiliation and intervention. This implies a huge effort of the imagination and of construction, both at the theoretical level and at the level of the operational tools needed. Indeed, the concept of “ urban project ”, which has been frequently encountered since the end of the ‘70s and which is supposed finally to supersede functionalist urbanism, cannot be conceived of without taking into consideration the population’s capability to participate and embrace projects or, on the contrary, to oppose them.

  17. Employers’ View on Problems Related to Workforce Skills and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimplová Lenka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study is to reveal employers’ views on problems related to workforce human capital (skills and qualification. Where do employers themselves view the core of difficulties with ensuring adequately skilled workforce? Do they assign them to technological and organizational changes (a functional concept of job-specific human capital obsolescence, or do they see these problems as a result of other circumstances, such as macro-structural conditions or institutional settings? To answer these questions selected employers in mechanical engineering and information technology sectors in the Czech Republic were interviewed. The results show that the employers see the problems: 1 on the side of workforce – insufficient abilities and skills, exaggerated demands and low motivation; 2 as inadequate capacities and capabilities of the organization itself; 3 at macro-level as institutional shortcomings in the initial educational system and social benefits system. The problems related to workforce skills and qualification cannot be, thus, interpreted only in the functionalist view as job-specific human capital obsolescence, but the formulation of the problems is significantly affected by the institutional framework.

  18. The Reading Problem in Urban Schools: Who Has It and What Has Been Done About It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strat, Georgena

    Identification of ingredients of successful urban reading programs in order to effect an increase in reading achievement in urban schools is the purpose of this paper. An historical-sociological framework is established. Pertinent literature which seeks to explain the causes of reading failure in urban schools is reviewed. Among the topics…

  19. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  20. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E; Lin, John C; Bowling, David R; Pataki, Diane E; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E; Stephens, Britton B; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R; Ehleringer, James R

    2018-03-20

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO 2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO 2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah's metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine "excess" CO 2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO 2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO 2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO 2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO 2 , implying a nonlinear relationship with CO 2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO 2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  1. Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Logan E.; Lin, John C.; Bowling, David R.; Pataki, Diane E.; Strong, Courtenay; Schauer, Andrew J.; Bares, Ryan; Bush, Susan E.; Stephens, Britton B.; Mendoza, Daniel; Mallia, Derek; Holland, Lacey; Gurney, Kevin R.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Cities are concentrated areas of CO2 emissions and have become the foci of policies for mitigation actions. However, atmospheric measurement networks suitable for evaluating urban emissions over time are scarce. Here we present a unique long-term (decadal) record of CO2 mole fractions from five sites across Utah’s metropolitan Salt Lake Valley. We examine “excess” CO2 above background conditions resulting from local emissions and meteorological conditions. We ascribe CO2 trends to changes in emissions, since we did not find long-term trends in atmospheric mixing proxies. Three contrasting CO2 trends emerged across urban types: negative trends at a residential-industrial site, positive trends at a site surrounded by rapid suburban growth, and relatively constant CO2 over time at multiple sites in the established, residential, and commercial urban core. Analysis of population within the atmospheric footprints of the different sites reveals approximately equal increases in population influencing the observed CO2, implying a nonlinear relationship with CO2 emissions: Population growth in rural areas that experienced suburban development was associated with increasing emissions while population growth in the developed urban core was associated with stable emissions. Four state-of-the-art global-scale emission inventories also have a nonlinear relationship with population density across the city; however, in contrast to our observations, they all have nearly constant emissions over time. Our results indicate that decadal scale changes in urban CO2 emissions are detectable through monitoring networks and constitute a valuable approach to evaluate emission inventories and studies of urban carbon cycles.

  2. Anxiety and health problems related to air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, I B; Swanson, V; Power, K G; Raeside, F; Dempster, C

    1998-12-01

    A significant proportion of air travelers experience situational anxiety and physical health problems. Take-off and landing are assumed to be stressful, but anxiety related to other aspects of the air travel process, anxiety coping strategies, and in-flight health problems have not previously been investigated. We aimed to investigate frequency of perceived anxiety at procedural stages of air travel, individual strategies used to reduce such anxiety, and frequency of health problems on short-haul and long-haul flights. A questionnaire measuring the occurrence and frequency of the above was administered to two samples of intending travelers during a 3 month period to: (a) 138 travel agency clients, and (b) 100 individuals attending a hospital travel clinic. Of the 238 respondents, two thirds were women. Take-off and landing were a perceived source of anxiety for about 40% of respondents, flight delays for over 50%, and customs and baggage reclaim for a third of individuals. Most frequent anxiety-reduction methods included alcohol and cigarette use, and distraction or relaxation techniques. Physical health problems related to air travel were common, and there was a strong relationship between such problems and frequency of anxiety. Travel agency clients reported more anxiety but not more physical health symptoms overall than travel clinic clients. Women reported greater air-travel anxiety, and more somatic symptoms than men. Significant numbers of air travelers report perceived anxiety related to aspects of travel, and this is associated with health problems during flights. Airlines and travel companies could institute specific measures, including improved information and communication, to reassure clients and thereby diminish anxiety during stages of air-travel. Medical practitioners and travel agencies should also be aware of the potential stresses of air travel and the need for additional information and advice.

  3. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  4. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  5. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  6. The environmental problems in urban communities and the protection of the environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I K

    1994-07-01

    Korea's urban environmental problems, specifically air and water pollution, government environmental policies, and the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in protecting the environment are described and discussed. Korea's rapid industrialization and urbanization between 1961 and 1985 led to an increased volume of waste and air pollution. Automobiles increased in number from 29,234 in 1961 to 1,113,430 in 1985. In the same period, the number of factories with at least five employees rose from 15,204 to 44,037. The volume of chemical materials and agricultural chemicals dramatically increased. Household wastes in urban areas increased from 26,831 tons per day in 1978 to 61,072 tons per day in 1985. Industrial waste rose from 13,130 to 33,349 tons per day in 1985. Respiratory diseases are precipitated by exposure to sulphur dioxide, which is produced during cooking and heating with coal briquets; to nitrogen dioxide from automobile exhaust; and to carbon monoxide from coal briquets. Indoor air pollution from particles such as radon, asbestos, cigarette smoke, fungus, and bacteria also impacts on health. Tolerance limits have been reached or surpassed in many cities, particularly in Seoul. Air pollution is worse during the winter. The poor are particularly affected because of the continued use of coal briquets for heating. Industry contributes to water pollution. The volume of industrial waste water quadrupled between 1980 and 1990. In Seoul, however, population size directly contributes to 64.3% of water pollution, and the remaining 35.2% is from factories. Although livestock contributes to only 0.5% of water pollution, livestock drainage contributes to 36.3% of chemical materials in polluted water. Biological oxygen demand has also exceeded tolerance limits. Water reservoirs contain toxic chemicals such as lead, copper, mercury, arsenic, phenol, phosphorus, and nitrogen, which take a longer time to affect health. The Anti-Pollution Law of 1963 and the

  7. Urbanization Level and Vulnerability to Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2016-12-01

    Although adverse effects of high temperature on mortality have been studied extensively in urban areas, little is known of the heat-mortality associations outside of cities. We investigated whether heat-mortality associations differed between urban and nonurban areas and how urbanicity affected the vulnerability to heat-related mortality. We first analyzed heat-related mortality risk in each of 102 counties in Jiangsu Province, China, during 2009-2013 using a distributed-lag nonlinear model. The county-specific estimates were then pooled for more urban (percentage of urban population ≥ 57.11%) and less urban (percentage of urban population risk comparing the 99th vs. 75th percentiles of temperature was 1.43 [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.36, 1.50] in less urban counties and 1.26 (95% PI: 1.23, 1.30) in more urban counties. The heat effects on cardiorespiratory mortality followed a similar pattern. Higher education level and prevalence of air conditioning were significantly associated with counties having lower risks, whereas percentage of elderly people was significantly associated with increased risks. Our findings reveal that nonurban areas have significant heat-related mortality risks in Jiangsu, China. These results suggest the need for enhanced adaptation planning in Chinese nonurban areas under a changing climate. Citation: Chen K, Zhou L, Chen X, Ma Z, Liu Y, Huang L, Bi J, Kinney PL. 2016. Urbanization level and vulnerability to heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1863-1869; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP204.

  8. Some problems of solar-terrestrial energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevskij, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    Energy aspects of relations of phenomena occurring on the Sun, in the interplanetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere and on the Earth's surface are discussed. Particular attention is given to the energy radiated by the Sun (flares, coronal holes). The problems are considered of the energy transfer and transformation in high-velocity and flare flows of solar wind. Estimates are performed: of densities of various types of energy of the interplanetary space at the Earth's orbit level; energy fluxes incident on the magnetosphere; energy accumulated inside the magnetosphere; a series of energy parameters of magnetic storms. It is pointed out that nowadays one of the main problems of the magnetosphere physics is studying ways of the interplanatary space energy transfer into the magnetosphere. In this connection some problems are investigated: plasma penetration through the dayside magnetopause, solar wind plasma entry into the magnetotail, the electric field effect on transition region plasma penetration into the distant magnetotail

  9. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  10. Public acceptance and public relations. Communication approach to related pre-public relation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y [Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1977-07-01

    A set of problems are discussed, which must be studied before the public relations are dealt with. Firstly, the trade-off between energy and health must be considered. Although the probability of death caused by atomic accidents is very small (one three hundred millionth a year), many peoples hate atomic power and oppose to the construction of nuclear power plants. Four reasons for this are considered: (1) social diffusion of innovation, (2) nuclear allergy, (3) shortage of the conception of risk-benefit, and (4) heterogeneity of the public. According to the investigation of the relationship between electric power and livelihood, carried out by the policyand science research institute in Tokyo, the highly subjective decision for the acceptance of atomic power is independent of the objective knowledge on atomic power.

  11. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M

    2009-02-01

    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  12. Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Effects of the Urban Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...

  13. The problem of time quantum mechanics versus general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon ...

  14. Environmental Health in Relation to Urban Planning and Human Physical Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.H.L.; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Dasimah Omar

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing everyday in a fast pace that makes majority of the urbanized areas becoming more congested and polluted by the development. The planning of the urban world has brought about a great impact towards the environment and health. With the large number of human population, urban areas will have various kinds of activities that contributed to the higher rate of pollutants compared to areas with less development. In a car oriented urban development pattern, majority of the population will choose automobiles as their transportation modes rather than walking or cycling. Due to that, the air emission in urban areas will increase rapidly, and reduce the physical activity. Air pollutants contribute to various health problems, especially respiratory infection. Besides, lacking of physical activities also increase the health risk. However, there is limited study on the relationship between urban land use setting and health in developing country. Thus, a study had been carried out to establish the relationship between urban setting and human health. It involved air quality data collection, observation on land use setting, and questionnaire survey on human health and the lifestyle. Findings from the relationship analysis had been discussed with suitable recommendation and conclusion. (author)

  15. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... Results: Three thousand and twenty-one children were seen during the study period. Out of these, 248 children (8.2%) pre- sented with ear-related problems. Chronic otitis media (30.5%), acute otitis media (29.9%), cerumen auris (11.3%), otitis ex- terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body ...

  16. Dysmenorrhoea in different settings: Are the rural and urban adolescent girls perceiving and managing the dysmenorrhoea problem differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It is well-known that every health problem, not only presents itself with different epidemiological profiles in different population settings, but is also perceived and managed differently. Having knowledge of these variations in its presentations and perceptions in different population settings, for example, in urban and rural settings, will be useful for its successful management. Aim: To study differences in epidemiological profiles, perceptions, socio economic losses, and quality-of-life losses and management of dysmenorrhoea in different settings for effective management. Design and Setting: A comparative cross-sectional study among adolescent school girls (101 girls in urban areas and 79 girls in rural areas in the district of Karimnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a pretested questionnaire was conducted among 180 adolescent girls in urban and rural settings. Statistical Analyses Used: Proportions and X 2 test. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is 54% (53% in girls in urban areas and 56% in girls in rural areas (X 2 df = 0.1, P = 0.05. Sickness absenteeism (28-48%, socio economic losses, and perceived quality of life losses are more prevalent among girls in urban areas than in girls in rural areas. Girls in rural areas resort to physical labor and other natural methods to obtain relief while the girls in urban areas are mainly depending on medications. Conclusions: Dysmenorrhoea can also be managed effectively by natural methods without resorting to medicines, provided one is psychologically prepared to face it without anxiety.

  17. Problem solving of student with visual impairment related to mathematical literacy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, A. R.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Riyadi

    2018-04-01

    The student with visual impairment, total blind category depends on the sense of touch and hearing in obtaining information. In fact, the two senses can receive information less than 20%. Thus, students with visual impairment of the total blind categories in the learning process must have difficulty, including learning mathematics. This study aims to describe the problem-solving process of the student with visual impairment, total blind category on mathematical literacy issues based on Polya phase. This research using test method similar problems mathematical literacy in PISA and in-depth interviews. The subject of this study was a student with visual impairment, total blind category. Based on the result of the research, problem-solving related to mathematical literacy based on Polya phase is quite good. In the phase of understanding the problem, the student read about twice by brushing the text and assisted with information through hearing three times. The student with visual impairment in problem-solving based on the Polya phase, devising a plan by summoning knowledge and experience gained previously. At the phase of carrying out the plan, students with visual impairment implement the plan in accordance with pre-made. In the looking back phase, students with visual impairment need to check the answers three times but have not been able to find a way.

  18. Terrorism-related trauma in Africa, an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Sritharan, Kaji; Mehes, Mira; Abdullah, Fizan; Rasheed, Shahnawaz

    2015-06-01

    Global terrorist activities have increased significantly over the past decade. The impact of terrorism-related trauma on the health of individuals in low- and middle-income countries is under-reported. Trauma management in African countries in particular is uncoordinated, with little or no infrastructure to cater for emergency surgical needs. This article highlights the need for education, training and research to mitigate the problems related to terrorism and surgical public health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Freight distribution problems in congested urban areas : fast and effective solution procedures to time-dependent vehicle routing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Congestion is a common phenomenon in all medium to large cities of the world. Reliability of freight movement in urban areas is an important : issue to manufacturing or service companies whose operation is based in just-in-time approaches. These comp...

  20. The Fertility Problem Inventory: measuring perceived infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C R; Sherrard, W; Glavac, I

    1999-07-01

    To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress. Prospective study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment. None. Participants' infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined. Women described greater global stress than men and higher specific stress in terms of social concerns, sexual concerns, and need for parenthood. Both men and women facing male infertility reported higher global stress and more social and sexual concerns than men and women experiencing female infertility. Social, sexual, and relationship concerns related to infertility were more effective predictors of depression and marital dissatisfaction than expressed needs for parenthood or attitudes toward child-free living. The Fertility Problem Inventory provides a reliable measure of perceived infertility-related stress and specific information on five separate domains of patient concern. Patterns of infertility-related stress differed depending on gender, fertility history, and infertility diagnosis. Among patients receiving treatment, social, sexual, and relationship concerns appear central to current distress. Counseling interventions that target these domains appear likely to offer maximal therapeutic benefit.

  1. Local Management as a Proposal for the Solution of Urban Planning Common Problems in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sánchez García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scene of the majority of Latin American cities is hopeless due the crisis faced by this part of the world. The decisive factor was globalization because it forced an economical restructuring and the implementation of new ways of production. Cities had to reorganize to deal with and adapt to this system through “global cities.” This way, it was possible to strengthen certain groups or population areas while ignoring others. This generated and emphasized poverty, which, at the same time, created social and environmental segregation, insecurity, mobility, lack of housing and utilities, overspend, waste of materials and human resources, as well as other institutional difficulties. These were a constant and limited the equitable access to social opportunities.For this reason, every urban planning and prediction system should take into account realistic circumstances that foster solidarity, participation, consensus, and sustainability as the central concept of the strategy to implement. This is known as “local management.” To manage a city implies working together with public, private, and social sectors in order to solve everyday problems efficiently and wisely. This way, it is possible to prevent and solve the difficulties faced by the community while searching for a common good and the recovery of its citizenship.

  2. Some geomedical problems in relation to soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laag, J.

    1988-01-01

    Geomedicine may be defined as the science dealing with the influence of ordinary environmental factors on geographical distribution of health problems in man and animals. An important group of geomedical problems is connected to nutrition. These problems may either be caused by deficiency or surplus of certain matters. Many questions concerning the pollution of nature are classified under the latter group Radioactive pollutants are regarded as important special occurrences under this group. In order to be able to solve complicated geomedical problems, knowledge is needed on the circulation processes rocks-soils-water-plants-animals-man, and waste products back to the soils. The registration of locations of different radioactive elements can give basic material for special geomedical conclusions. Many chemical reactions in which radioactive matter are involved, depend on properties of the soils. Humus and clay minerals have, generally speaking, a high capacity for the absorbtion of soluble matter, but great variations occur. The reactions of radioactive isotopes supplied from the atmosphere, depend on properties of the soil. Radioactive substances are leached relatively rapidly from a soil with low absorption capacity, and may thus be taken away from the circulation in which terrestrial plants, animals and man take part. If the substances is strongly absorbed (fixed), they can also to some extent be withdrawn from the circulation processes

  3. The nexus between urbanization and PM2.5 related mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Jin, Zhou; Ma, Zongwei; Liu, Xingyu; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Yang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Jinnan; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-08-01

    The launch of China's new national urbanization plan, coupled with increasing concerns about air pollution, calls for better understandings of the nexus between urbanization and the air pollution-related health. Based on refined estimates of PM 2.5 related mortality in China, we developed an Urbanization-Excess Deaths Elasticity (U-EDE) indicator to measure the marginal PM 2.5 related mortality caused by urbanization. We then applied statistical models to estimate U-EDE and examined the modification effects of income on U-EDE. Urbanization in China between 2004 and 2012 led to increased PM 2.5 related mortality. A 1% increase in urbanization was associated with a 0.32%, 0.14%, and 0.50% increase in PM 2.5 related mortality of lung cancer, stroke, and ischemic heart disease. U-EDEs were modified by income with an inverted U curve, i.e., lower marginal impacts at the lowest and highest income levels. In addition, we projected the future U-EDE trend of China as a whole and found that China had experienced the peak of U-EDE and entered the second half of the inverted U-shaped curve. In the near future, national average U-EDE in China will decline along with the improvement of income level if no dramatic changes happen. However, the decreased U-EDE only implies that marginal PM 2.5 -related mortality brought by urbanization would decrease in China. Total health damage of urbanization will keep going up in the predictable future because the U-EDE is always positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Health-related Transportation Barriers in Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Sharp, Lisa K; Syed, Saming T; Bhansari, Shikhi; Gerber, Ben S

    Access to reliable transportation is important for people with chronic diseases considering the need for frequent medical visits and for medications from the pharmacy. Understanding of the extent to which transportation barriers, including lack of transportation, contribute to poor health outcomes has been hindered by a lack of consistency in measuring or operationally defining "transportation barriers." The current study uses the Rasch measurement model to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure designed to capture types of transportation and associated barriers within an urban context. Two hundred forty-four adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from within an academic medical center in Chicago and completed the newly developed transportation questions as part of a larger National Institutes of Health funded study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01498159). Results suggested a two subscale structure that reflected 1) general transportation barriers and 2) public transportation barriers.

  5. Urban development, and emerging relations of informal property and land based authority in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Paul Austin

    2018-01-01

    Rural–urban migration leads to ever increasing numbers of Africans living in informal settlements. In Accra's largest informal settlement, Old Fadama, residents by definition have no statutory rights to the land and their building activities undermine formal state law and state-recognized customary......, building and development in the settlement that involve a variety of local, national and global actors. Their actions show the contemporaneous making and unmaking of different relations of property and land-based control and authority in the densely populated urban site. Important features of urban...

  6. Dispersion Models to Forecast Traffic-related Emissions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Scannapieco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Down the centuries, a direct link had been developed between increase in mobility and increase in wealth. On the other hand, air emission of greenhouse gases (GHG due to vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines can be regarded as a negative pressure over the environment. In the coming decades, road transport is likely to remain a significant contributor to air pollution in cities. Many urban trips cover distances of less than 6 km. Since the effectiveness of catalytic converters in the initial minutes of engine operation is small, the average emission per distance driven is very high in urban areas. Also, poorly maintained vehicles that lack exhaust aftertreatment systems are responsible for a major part of pollutant emissions. Therefore in urban areas, where higher concentrations of vehicles can be easily found, air pollution represents a critical issue, being it related with both environment and human health protection: in truth, research in recent decades consistently indicates the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on human health, and the evidence points to air pollution stemming from transport as an important contributor to these effects. Several institutions (EEA, USEPA, etc. focused their interest in dispersion models because of their potential effectiveness to forecast atmospheric pollution. Furthermore, air micropollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAH and Metallic Trace Elements (MTE are traffic-related and although very low concentrations their dispersion is a serious issue. However, dispersion models are usefully implemented to better manage this estimation problem. Nonetheless, policy makers and land managers have to deal with model selection, taking into account that several dispersion models are available, each one of them focused on specific goals (e.g., wind transport of pollutants, land morphology implementation, evaluation of micropollutants transport, etc.; a further aspect to be considered is

  7. Current problems arising from the new law relating to franchise duties; Aktuelle Probleme des neuen Konzessionsabgabenrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution examines the advantages and drawbacks of the new ordinance in German law relating to payment of franchise duties. The ordinance may bring about new problems if abused as a means of bringing pressure to bear in negotiations for takeover of existing electric or gas supply systems by local governments. The author analyses the legitimation of such exploitation of the franchise duty and in this context the general legal framework. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag untersucht Vor- und Nachteile der neuen Verordnung im Konzessionsabgabenrecht, die im Hinblick auf Auseinandersetzungen um die ``Ubernahme von Strom- oder Gasversorgungssystemen durch Gemeinden neue Probleme mit sich bringen koennte, wenn Konzessionsabgaben als Druckmittel eingesetzt werden. Der Autor analysiert die Zulaessigkeit eines derartigen Einsatzes und in diesem Zusammenhang auch die rechtliche Basis der Konzessionsabgaben. (orig./CB)

  8. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies. (author) [fr

  9. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies

  10. Peer Victimization among Urban, Predominantly African American Youth: Coping with Relational Aggression between Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bagdi, Aparna; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of research documenting the deleterious effect of experiencing relational aggression, few studies have explored how children cope with relational aggression, especially when it occurs between close friends. Moreover, relational aggression is understudied among urban African American children. Using data from a…

  11. Statistics and Corporate Environmental Management: Relations and Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... in the external environment. The nature and extent of the practical use of quantitative techniques in corporate environmental management systems is discussed on the basis of a number of company surveys in four European countries.......Statistical methods have long been used to analyse the macroeconomic consequences of environmentally damaging activities, political actions to control, prevent, or reduce these damages, and environmental problems in the natural environment. Up to now, however, they have had a limited and not very...... specific use in corporate environmental management systems. This paper will address some of the special problems related to the use of statistical techniques in corporate environmental management systems. One important aspect of this is the interaction of internal decisions and activities with conditions...

  12. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are

  13. Traffic-related particulate air pollution exposure in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Costa, A. M.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    In the last years, there has been an increase of scientific studies confirming that long- and short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution leads to adverse health effects. The development of a methodology for the determination of accumulated human exposure in urban areas is the main objective of the current work, combining information on concentrations at different microenvironments and population time-activity pattern data. A link between a mesoscale meteorological and dispersion model and a local scale air quality model was developed to define the boundary conditions for the local scale application. The time-activity pattern of the population was derived from statistical information for different sub-population groups and linked to digital city maps. Finally, the hourly PM 10 concentrations for indoor and outdoor microenvironments were estimated for the Lisbon city centre, which was chosen as the case-study, based on the local scale air quality model application for a selected period. This methodology is a first approach to estimate population exposure, calculated as the total daily values above the thresholds recommended for long- and short-term health effects. Obtained results reveal that in Lisbon city centre a large number of persons are exposed to PM levels exceeding the legislated limit value.

  14. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabrielle Martins-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI, mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  15. Solving local problems through local involvement? Experiences from Danish Urban Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    -down approaches or massive public subsidies, the public regeneration schemes from the last decade have increasingly emphasized the need for involving local actors in the urban regeneration e.g. through partnerships, network building, involvement and participation of local actors and institutions, and financially...... agenda, and what can be learned from the development so far. Although ‘local involvement’ is a commonly used term in various urban regeneration programs, it can have many different meanings and implications. Therefore, the paper will discuss local involvement in the urban regeneration based on four...

  16. The development of the modern environmental thought: Ethical problems, pedagogy and urban life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londono L, Juan Pablo

    2002-01-01

    In this document a brief route next to science and the technology becomes, from remote times like the age of stone, passing by Greece of Platon and Aristoteles, to arriving at the modern time inaugurated by Descartes and Galileo in which the western modern conception of the world is instituted definitively. The great disadvantages are specially that can generate this way to see the world, from the environmental point of view and the behavior of the man in this surroundings of modernity is questioned from the ethics. One considers the necessity to carry out a reconstruction of the different typical ethical and pedagogical concepts from modernity and the exigency to create new ones, based on the logics of the complexity, that trigger a new conception of the relation man-nature based on the respect, that it evaluates the old conceptions based on operate resource. Doubtlessly, the present life is developed in urban means, for that reason it is tried to put in context all this exposition within this means, to include/understand of one better way all the threads that are tiled around the city

  17. Common mental health problems in rural-to-urban migrant workers in Shenzhen, China: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, B L; Liu, T B; Chan, S S M; Jin, D; Hu, C Y; Dai, J; Chiu, H F K

    2018-06-01

    Rural-to-urban migrant workers are a large marginalised population in urban China. Prevalence estimates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in previous studies varied widely and very few studies have investigated migration-related factors of CMHPs in migrant workers. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CMHPs among Chinese migrant workers. A random sample of 3031 migrant workers of ten manufacturing factories in Shenzhen, China, completed a standardised questionnaire containing socio-demographic and migration-related variables and the Chinese 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ-12 score of three or higher was used to denote the presence of CMHPs. The prevalence of CMHPs was 34.4% in Chinese migrant workers. In multiple logistic regression, risk factors for CMHPs included being 16-25 years old (odd ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.12), being 26-35 years old (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.75), low monthly income (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), poor living condition (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.54), physical illness in the past 2 weeks (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43, 2.05), having worked in many cities (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74), infrequently visiting hometown (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22, 1.99), poor Mandarin proficiency (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01), a low level of perceived benefits of migration (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14, 1.55) and working more than 8 h/day (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14, 1.70). CMHPs are very prevalent among Chinese migrant workers. Given the large number of Chinese migrant workers, there is an urgent need to address the mental health burden of China's migrant worker population.

  18. A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daryl

    After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big

  19. Changes in urban-related precipitation in the summer over three city clusters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Wu, Jian

    2017-09-01

    The impacts of urban surface expansion on the summer precipitations over three city clusters [Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD)] in eastern China under different monsoonal circulation backgrounds were explored using the nested fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 3.7 (MM5 V3.7), including the urban-related thermal and dynamical parameters. Ten-year integrations were performed using satellite image data from 2000 and 2010 to represent the urban surface distributions and expansions in China. Changes in the precipitation revealed obvious subregional characteristics, which could be explained by the influences of the vertical wind velocity and moisture flux. With urban-related warming, vertical wind motion generally intensified over urban surface-expanded areas. Meanwhile, the increase in impervious surface areas induced rapid rainwater runoff into drains, and the Bowen ratio increased over urban areas, which further contributed to changes in the local moisture fluxes in these regions. The intensities of the changes in precipitation were inconsistent over the three city clusters, although the changes in vertical motion and local evaporation were similar, which indicates that the changes in precipitation cannot be solely explained by the changes in the local evaporation-related moisture flux. The changes in precipitation were also influenced by the changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation and the corresponding moisture flux, which are expressed in marked subregional characteristics. Therefore, the influence of urban-related precipitation over the three city clusters in China, for which changes in moisture flux from both the impacted local evaporation and EASM circulation should be considered, varied based on the precipitation changes of only a single city.

  20. Alpha decay and various problems related to it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    On the proton-excessive nucleus side of lanthanide and actinide, alpha decay is the main decay mode. In lanthanide region, alpha decay has been measured to the drip line for most even-even nuclei. In the measurement of alpha decay, emitted energy and life are measured, but the measurement of converted alpha width remains in the limited range. In order to obtain the converted alpha width of high accuracy, the nucleus formation in larger quantity on the drip line and the simultaneous measurement with a multiple detector system including gamma ray and beta ray are required. In this paper, three topics related to alpha cluster and alpha decay and the problems that confront at present are discussed. The continuation to exist of alpha cluster structure to heavy nuclei, the analysis of lanthanide nucleus region by the alpha giant resonance model, and the new data on the alpha ray decaying from the mass of 175, 176 and 177 are reported. In lanthanide nucleus region, remarkable interference was not observed between beta-2 and beta-3 modes in the converted alpha width measured between the ground states. The present problems in alpha decay are enumerated. (K.I.)

  1. The principle of relativity and the problem of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2011-01-01

    This book can be considered as an introduction to some issues on the border between philosophy and science. It is intended for an audience interested in the problems that arise in scientific knowledge about the so-called post-modern era, and willing to study in some detail and depth the physical and mathematical foundations of the theory of relativity, and some of applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It assumes familiarity with the epistemology and other branches of philosophy. The philosophical content, including epistemological, are introduced as needed, starting with the first chapter is intended entirely to them, culminating in the fourteenth chapter, which discusses the structure of the theory of relativity, the theory general physics and cosmology from that point of view. In his chapters describes: the development of ideas in the Newtonian mechanics of particles and the classical theory of fields, including electromagnetism, the crisis in the foundations of nineteenth-century physics, the foundations, limitations and some applications of restricted theory, knowledge of mathematics, calculus of variations, foundations of general relativity theory, applications Schwartzschild solution, applications in astronomy and cosmology, relativistic physics issues and finally, aspects of scientific research work from the point of psychological and sociological

  2. Problems Related to the Translation of Political Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárosi-Márdirosz Krisztina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the problems related to the translation of political texts in the theoretical framework elaborated by the researchers working in the field of translation studies and reflects on the terminological peculiarities of the special language used for this text type. Consideration of the theoretical framework is followed by the analysis of a specific text spoken then written in English and translated into Hungarian and Romanian. The conclusions are intended to highlight the fact that there are no recipes for translating a political speech, because translation is not only a technical process that uses translation procedures and applies transfer operations, but also a matter of understanding cultural, historical and political situations and their significance.

  3. Quantifying the linear and nonlinear relations between the urban form fragmentation and the carbon emission distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S.; Dai, S.; Ren, Y.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically revealing the spatial heterogeneity and the relationship between the fragmentation of urban landscape and the direct carbon emissions are of great significance to land management and urban planning. In fact, the linear and nonlinear effects among the various factors resulted in the carbon emission spatial map. However, there is lack of the studies on the direct and indirect relations between the carbon emission and the city functional spatial form changes, which could not be reflected by the land use change. The linear strength and direction of the single factor could be calculated through the correlation and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis, the nonlinear power of one factor and the interaction power of each two factors could be quantified by the Geodetector analysis. Therefore, we compared the landscape fragmentation metrics of the urban land cover and functional district patches to characterize the landscape form and then revealed the relations between the landscape fragmentation level and the direct the carbon emissions based on the three methods. The results showed that fragmentation decreased and the fragmented patches clustered at the coarser resolution. The direct CO2 emission density and the population density increased when the fragmentation level aggregated. The correlation analysis indicated the weak linear relation between them. The spatial variation of GWR output indicated the fragmentation indicator (MESH) had the positive influence on the carbon emission located in the relatively high emission region, and the negative effects regions accounted for the small part of the area. The Geodetector which explores the nonlinear relation identified the DIVISION and MESH as the most powerful direct factor for the land cover patches, NP and PD for the functional district patches, and the interactions between fragmentation indicator (MESH) and urban sprawl metrics (PUA and DIS) had the greatly increased explanation powers on the

  4. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  5. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. METHODS Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. RESULTS We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25...

  6. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is presently a major problem scientific as well as economic all over the world. For this reason this disease has been studied quite intensely involving not only researchers but also densitometer makers and medicine manufacturers. Many etiologies have been described relating factors which could interfere either in bone formation or bone reabsorption or both. As bone loss along the life is a normal event it is quite understandable that the amount of remaining bone will depend on the amount gained during bone formation. For this reason it is quite important to know the peak of bone mass and the factors that would interfere in the amount of bone formed. It is also very important to define for a certain population its peak of bone mass which would be a valuable guide for future plans of osteoporosis prevention. This project is aimed at defining the peak of bone mass in an urban population which was chosen randomly taken into account the fact that there is a great miscegenation in S.Paulo

  7. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-12-11

    To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25 were murders, 35 were traffic accidents not directly related to work activities, and three were suicides at work. The proportional mortality rate for homicides, traffic accidents, and suicides among fatal work-related accidents was estimated at 30.5%, 42.7%, and 3.7%, respectively. Urban violence accounted for three-fourths of the fatal work-related accidents recorded in the period studied.

  8. Decompensated cirrhosis-related admissions in a large urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Cirrhosis-related complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in areas where its risk factors are endemic. ... prevalence of risk factors. .... Collateral veins. 39 (45.9%). Splenomegaly. 37 (43.5%). Variceal bleeding. 31 (36.5%). Encephalopathy. Grade 1 and 2. 15 (17.6%). Grade 3 and 4. 5 (5.9%).

  9. Intercultural communication problems relating to translation from English into Sesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastacia Sara Motsei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, certain translative communication problems associated with the linguistic and stylistic differences between English and Sesotho are identified and discussed. With a view to help improve translation between the two languages where inaccurate and stilted communication frequently occurs, issues of equivalence, fidelity/faithfulness and the purpose of translation are delved into. It is furthermore argued that in South African multilingual contexts, like legal courts, criminal cases/hearings and hospitals clinics and similar health establishments, inaccurate translation and/or misinterpreting can lead to serious miscarriages of justice and poor service delivery. The reasons for such unfortunate eventualities sometimes relate to the translator-interpreter’s poor understanding of the cultural factors behind the English or Sesotho message. As such, emphasis is lain on the need for a translator-interpreter’s cultural understanding of the source language/text (SL/T and target language/text (TL/T to deliver an accurate version (in the target language or text – TL/T of the original message. It is furthermore shown that one cause of social and legal injustice is closely related to the translator- interpreter’s insufficient knowledge of both the English and Sesotho culture as it exists in grammatical forms, idiomatic structures, collocation patterns and stylistic patterns of the SL/T and the TL/T.

  10. Pediatrician-parent-child communication: problem-related or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van

    2004-01-01

    Pediatricians are generally confronted with a variety of health problems. Each of these problems may benefit from another pattern of healthcare communication. It is unknown whether the communication process during pediatric visits actually differs by the nature of the child's problem. This study

  11. Relation between media and the subcultural expression of urban youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Radomir D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's intention is to investigate the relations of the public media and some issues of youth subculture expression. The author's idea is that the public media are not necessarily in the indirect function of a positive and affirmative presentation of the subcultural sublimation and energy of youth, but are very often in a trivial function and as a factor of distraction, in the purpose of serving the ruling regime and political structures, democratic or nondemocratic.

  12. The problem of popularisation of expert texts: Analysis of media discourses on Ljubljana urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Uršič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period after the post-socialist transition of Slovenia we can notice an increased number of instrumental, marketing oriented public relation (PR activities in expert and popular media from the field of spatial planning. The problem of instrumentalisation of media discourses reflects in exclusion i.e. deficiency of content-argumentative language in public debate. The basic purpose of the article is to analyse and expose some of the relationships and processes that have great influence in the space of the city and its surroundings. The article draws on empirical evidence from quantitative and qualitative analyse of texts and pays attention to some of the actual cases in spatial planning that show hidden contents, explicit and implicit ideological constructions, particularisms of interest groups and strategies of instrumental marketing campaigns.

  13. Alternative Certification: Can the Problems of Urban Education Be Resolved by Traditional Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Martin

    1992-01-01

    To adequately prepare effective teachers for urban schools, traditional university-based programs of teacher education need to make serious structural and content changes. This article offers 16 assertions about specific changes that are needed and maintains that, in many alternative certification programs, most of the 16 assertions are…

  14. Impact of altered land use on urban hydrology and strategic management practices on flooding problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the impact of altered land use on urban flooding in Northwest Indiana over a 10-year time span between 1992 and 2001. The studied watershed, Great Calumet Basin, is located on the south shore of Lake Michigan, which is well known as a highly industrialized area. The flood peaks ...

  15. Application of the urban mixing-depth concept to air pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Summers

    1977-01-01

    A simple urban mixing-depth model is used to develop an indicator of downtown pollution concentrations based on emission strength, rural temperature lapse rate, wind speed, city heat input, and city size. It is shown that the mean annual downtown suspended particulate levels in Canadian cities are proportional to the fifth root of the population. The implications of...

  16. Integration of the Problem of Medical Ecology on the Level of the Highly Urbanized Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Gennadiy S.; Lazareva, Natalya V.; Simonov, Yury V.; Lifirenko, Natalya G.; Sarapultseva, Lilija A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to the study of the basic issues of medical ecology: the dynamics of demographic indicators, the correlation of somatic and reproductive public health, depending on the influence of physical factors of the urban environment on public health on the basis of medical and geographic mapping. The article aims at…

  17. Are Electronic Conferences a Solution in Search of an Urban Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Cari; Clift, Renee; Cheng, Yu-Ming

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly reviews initiatives that have attempted to create communities of educators using Web-based, electronic conferencing. The authors critically analyze the advocacy for electronic communication as a medium for bringing educators together across time and distance with an emphasis on what is known about urban schools, access to…

  18. The Functions and Problems of the Urban University: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Graduate School. Center for European Studies.

    Issues concerning the urban university in Great Britain, France, Sweden, Japan, and West Germany are considered in the five selected conference papers that make up this document. In "Analysis in Politics: The Regionalization of Swedish Higher Education," Rune Premfors discusses how Swedish regionalization of higher education used…

  19. From Problems to Potentials : The Urban Energy Transition of Gruž, Dubrovnik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Martin, C.L.; Keeffe, Greg; Pulselli, Riccardo; Vandevyvere, Han

    2018-01-01

    IIn the challenge for a sustainable society, carbon-neutrality is a critical objective for all cities in the coming decades. In the EU City-zen project, academic partners collaborate to develop an urban energy transition methodology, which supports cities in making the energy transition to

  20. Environment Degradation Cause by Urbanization in Pakistan: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim; Malik Muhammad Anees; Muhammad Usman Ghani; Jahanzaib Malik; Moeen Khalid; Aroj Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas. Urbanization is serious worldwide problems. Urbanization and environmental problems are the recent developmental issues in Pakistan. The study was used Secondary data and information was collected from various publications such as books, journals, magazines, published and unpublished dissertations, newspapers, and internet as well as institutions related to urbanization and Environment.These harms are very composite and their connections are...

  1. Goals and everyday problem solving: examining the link between age-related goals and problem-solving strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-07-01

    Qualitative interviews on family and financial problems from 332 adolescents, young, middle-aged, and older adults, demonstrated that developmentally relevant goals predicted problem-solving strategy use over and above problem domain. Four focal goals concerned autonomy, generativity, maintaining good relationships with others, and changing another person. We examined both self- and other-focused problem-solving strategies. Autonomy goals were associated with self-focused instrumental problem solving and generative goals were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in family and financial problems. Goals of changing another person were related to other-focused instrumental problem solving in the family domain only. The match between goals and strategies, an indicator of problem-solving adaptiveness, showed that young individuals displayed the greatest match between autonomy goals and self-focused problem solving, whereas older adults showed a greater match between generative goals and other-focused problem solving. Findings speak to the importance of considering goals in investigations of age-related differences in everyday problem solving.

  2. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality

  3. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately

  4. Health and health-related indicators in slum, rural, and urban communities: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing U. Mberu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to

  5. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  6. [Stomatological problems related to pregnancy. A statistical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoni, S; Panattoni, E; Rolla, P; Rossi, M; Giuca, M R; Gabriele, M

    1991-12-01

    Pregnancy is related to particular dental issues, such as the increased incidence of diseases( gingivitis, caries, epulis), the fluoride supplementation, and the limits of diagnostics and therapy. Moreover, the mysterious halo surrounding pregnancy often makes the dentist uneasy. In order to objectively evaluate the implications of pregnancy in dentistry, we distributed a form to 100 pregnant women. The results of the form showed that 53 of them had gingival bleeding, 22 had toothache, 19 had caries but that just 12 of them had gone to the dentist because of dental troubles while 54 had not gone at all. Among the pluri-gravidae, all the women with dental diseases in their previous pregnancies had them again in their current pregnancy but nonetheless only some had undergone a dental check-up. The dentists did not show any uneasiness, as they performed tooth extractions in 5 women, endodontics in 2 women and fillings in 11 women. Just 4 out of 100 women had taken a fluoride supplementation. We deem advisable a stronger collaboration between physician, gynecologist and dentist in order to resolve specialist problems and to make pregnant women more aware of the need for dental follow-ups and fluoride supplementations.

  7. Are maternal fertility problems related to childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensel-Moll, H.A. van; Valkenburg, H.A.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Zanen, G.E. van

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Netherlands, from a nationwide register of childhood leukaemia (1973-1980). Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex and place of residence. Information about exposures of the mother to potential risk factors in the year before and during pregnancy was collected via mailed questionnaires. Analyses concerned data on 519 patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia and 507 controls. An association between maternal subfertility and childhood leukaemia might be suggested by several findings. A history of two or more miscarriages (OR 1.6; 95% Cl 1.0-2.7) and fertility problems (OR 6.0; 95% Cl 0.9-38.2) were more frequently reported among mothers of cases. Use of oral contraceptives (OC) was significantly higher (OR 1.3; 95% Cl 1.0-1.8) and the duration between discontinuation of OC and the relevant pregnancy was significantly longer. The OR for threatened abortion during the relevant pregnancy was 1.6 (95% Cl 1.0-2.6) and the related use of 'drugs to maintain pregnancy' was 1.9; 95% Cl 1.0-3.5. Among known risk factors, an increased OR for diagnostic irradiation was confirmed (OR 2.2; 95% Cl 1.2-3.8). No association between childhood leukaemia and prenatal viral infections, smoking and alcohol was found. (author)

  8. Energy use and related risk management problems in CEE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the 'Old Europe'. The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc.. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use. (Authors)

  9. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  10. Some problems relating to application of safeguards in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolchenkov, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    By the end of this century there will have been a considerable increase in the amount of nuclear material and the number of facilities subject to IAEA safeguards. The IAEA will therefore be faced with problems due to the increased volume of safeguards activity, the application of safeguards to new types of facility and to large facilities, the optimization of the existing IAEA safeguards system and so on. The authors analyse the potential growth in the IAEA's safeguards activities up to the year 2000 and consider how to optimize methods for the application of safeguards, taking into account a number of factors relating to a State's nuclear activity, the application of full-scope IAEA safeguards etc. On the basis of a hypothetical model of the nuclear fuel cycle that allows for the factors considered as part of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), the authors assess the possible risk of diversion as a function of a full-scope safeguards effort. They also examine possible conceptual approaches to safeguarding large-scale facilities such as fuel reprocessing and uranium enrichment plants. (author)

  11. The association between self-reported diet quality and health-related quality of life in rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kristy A; Jacka, Felice; Allender, Steven; Kremer, Peter; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; de Silva, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in rural and urban Australian adolescents, and gender differences. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools. 722 rural and 422 urban students from 19 secondary schools. Self-report dietary-related behaviours, demographic information, HRQoL (AQoL-6D) were collected. Healthy and unhealthy diet quality scores were calculated; multiple linear regression investigated associations between diet quality and HRQoL. Compared to urban students, rural students had higher HRQoL, higher healthy diet score, lower unhealthy diet score, consumed less soft drink and less frequently, less takeaway and a higher proportion consumed breakfast (P health problems. Such interventions should consider gender and locality. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Family physicians' attitude and interest toward participation in urban family physician program and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Every family physician has a key role in achieving the goals of the family physician program (FPP. Low satisfaction of physicians in certain areas of Iran and their low maintenance level in the program is quite challenging. The aims of the present study were; (1 to assess the attitude of rural/rural-urban family physicians about FPP and (2 to investigate their interest toward participation in urban FPP and (3 to explore the influencing factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 137 family physicians who were working in rural/rural-urban FPP in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran. A self-designed valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic data and thirty questions on the participants' attitudes toward the FPP in Likert scale were used. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression models using SPSS software. Results: 49.3% of physicians were interested in continuing their cooperation in the urban-FPP. The mean total attitude score was 62.18 out of 100. The highest agreement and positive attitude of physicians were related to achievements of the program goals dimension. Multiple analyses showed that gender (odds ratio [OR] =5.5; male vs. female and employment status (OR = 16.7 and 10.9 for permanent employment and by contract compared to legal obligation, respectively were significantly associated with physicians' willingness toward participation in the urban-FPP. Conclusion: About half of the studied physicians were interested toward participation in the urban-FPP; Male physicians more than females and permanent employees more than others were willing and interested to participate in the urban-FPP.

  13. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  14. Urban Politics: Selected Readings Related to Planning. Exchange Bibliography No. 177.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikoff, Joseph M.

    This bibliography lists books and articles dealing with the structures and processes of local politics in the U.S., especially as they relate to urban planning. The primary intent is to help planners gain the political knowledge and awareness they need to effectively perform their role in the community political process. All publications are…

  15. Health-related fitness of urban children in Suriname : an ethnic variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhain, Fenna; Declerck, Marlies; de Vries, J; Veeger, H.E.J.; Ledebt, A.

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the health-related fitness (HRF) of 11-year-old children living in an urban area in Suriname, taking into account the difference between the five main ethnicities from Suriname. Design and Method: Cross-sectionally, performance on the HRF

  16. The burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide the current burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in urban setting in Cameroon. Methods:We used the WHO STEPS approach for Surveillance of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors to collect data from 2,559 adults aged 15-99 years, residing at Cite des Palmiers in Douala ...

  17. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  18. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.

  19. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  20. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47 in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans.

  1. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  2. Community mobilization and the framing of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  3. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Herd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  4. Theoretical Approaches in the Context of Spatial Planning Decisions and the Relation with Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz; Tüdeş, Şule

    2017-10-01

    The sustainability agenda has maintained its importance since the days, when the production system took its capitalist form, as well as the population in the urban areas started to rise. Increasing number of both goods and the people have caused the degradation of the certain systems, which generate the urban areas. These systems could mainly be classified as social, environmental, physical and economical systems. Today, urban areas still have difficulty to protect those systems, due to the significant demand of the population. Therefore, studies related with the sustainable issues are significant in the sense of continuity of the urban systems. Therefore, in this paper, those studies in the context of the effects of physical decisions taken in the spatial planning process on urban sustainability, will be examined. The components of the physical decisions are limited to land use, density and design. Land use decisions will be examined in the context of mixed land use. On the other hand, decisions related with density will be analyzed in the sense of population density and floor area ratio (FAR). Besides, design decisions will be examined, by linking them with neighborhood design criteria. Additionally, the term of urban sustainability will only be limited to its social and environmental contexts in this study. Briefly stated, studies in the sustainable literature concerned with the effects of land use, density and design decisions taken in the spatial planning process on the social and environmental sustainability will be examined in this paper. After the compilation and the analyze of those studies, a theoretical approach will be proposed to determine social and environmental sustainability in the context of land use, density and design decisions, taken in the spatial planning process.

  5. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Prevalensi kegemukan pada perempuan semakin meningkat terutama di daerahperkotaan yang dapat menyebabkan meningkatnya risiko penyakit kronis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmenganalisis beberapa faktor risiko dominan terhadap obesitas pada wanita usia subur usia yang tinggaldi daerah perkotaan di wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia.Metode: Naskah ini memakai sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 data. Subjek terdiridari 76408 wanita di usia subur (15-49 years tinggal di daerah perkotaan yang dengan status gizi normaldan gemuk yang berasal dari 258366 rumah tangga. Data Riskesdas tentang faktor-faktor sosio-demografidan lainnya dikumpulkan dengan kuesioner. Status gizi diukur dengan menggunakan indeks massa tubuh(IMT yang dikategorikan menjadi normal, (18,5–24,9 dan gemuk (27 atau lebih. Analisis menggunakanregresi Cox dengan waktu yang tetap.Hasil: Pada analisis ini terdapat 18,8% (14357 wanita obese dan 81.2% (62052 normal. Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun memiliki 3,5 kali lipat risiko lebih besar menjadi obese [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 3,49; P= 0,000],dan yang bercerai atau menikah berisiko 2,5 kali lipat lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas (masing-masing RRa =2,58; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 2.62; P = 0,000. Wanita tidak bekerja berisiko lebih tinggi untuk menjadi obese(RRa = 1,06; p = 0,000. Selanjutnya, mengkonsumsi protein berlebih, dan sering makan makanan berlemakmemiliki risiko lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas, (RRa = 1,09; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 1,17; P = 0,000.Kesimpulan: Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun, bercerai atau menikah, pengangguran, mengkonsumsi proteinberlebih, dan sering mengkonsumsi makanan berlemak mempunyai risiko obesitas lebih tinggi. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Kata kunci: obesitas, perkotaan, wanita usia subur AbstractBackground: The prevalence of women suffered from obesity is elevating, mostly in urban areas. Thiscould lead problems especially for chronic diseases. This study aimed to

  6. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...

  7. Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: A problem of the rich or the poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziraba Abdhalah K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a well recognized risk factor for various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to shed light on the patterns of overweight and obesity in sub-Saharan Africa, with special interest in differences between the urban poor and the urban non-poor. The specific goals were to describe trends in overweight and obesity among urban women; and examine how these trends vary by education and household wealth. Methods The paper used Demographic and Health Surveys data from seven African countries where two surveys had been carried out with an interval of at least 10 years between them. Among the countries studied, the earliest survey took place in 1992 and the latest in 2005. The dependent variable was body mass index coded as: Not overweight/obese; Overweight; Obese. The key covariates were time lapse between the two surveys; woman's education; and household wealth. Control variables included working status, age, marital status, parity, and country. Multivariate ordered logistic regression in the context of the partial proportional odds model was used. Results Descriptive results showed that the prevalence of urban overweight/obesity increased by nearly 35% during the period covered. The increase was higher among the poorest (+50% than among the richest (+7%. Importantly, there was an increase of 45-50% among the non-educated and primary-educated women, compared to a drop of 10% among women with secondary education or higher. In the multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of the variable time lapse was 1.05 (p Conclusion Overweight and obesity are on the rise in Africa and might take epidemic proportions in the near future. Like several other public health challenges, overweight and obesity should be tackled and prevented early as envisioned in the WHO Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.

  8. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  9. Effects of exposure to community violence and family violence on school functioning problems among urban youth: The potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia eMcGill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.

  10. Exact methods for time constrained routing and related scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    1995-01-01

    of customers. In the VRPTW customers must be serviced within a given time period - a so called time window. The objective can be to minimize operating costs (e.g. distance travelled), fixed costs (e.g. the number of vehicles needed) or a combination of these component costs. During the last decade optimization......This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set...... of J?rnsten, Madsen and S?rensen (1986), which has been tested computationally by Halse (1992). Both methods decompose the problem into a series of time and capacity constrained shotest path problems. This yields a tight lower bound on the optimal objective, and the dual gap can often be closed...

  11. Hydrogen fluoride damage to vegetation from peri-urban brick kilns in Asia: A growing but unrecognised problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Berg, Leon J.L. van den; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Masood, Tariq; Büker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Ashmore, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The rapid urbanisation of many cities in south and south-east Asia has increased the demand for bricks, which are typically supplied from brick kilns in peri-urban areas. We report visible foliar damage to mango, apricot and plum trees in the vicinity of traditional Bull’s Trench brick kilns in Peshawar, Pakistan. Visible injury symptoms, hydrogen fluoride concentrations in air, and foliar fluoride concentrations were all greater in the vicinity of brick kilns than at more distant sites, indicating that fluoride emissions from brick kilns were the main cause of damage. Interviews with local farmers established the significant impact of this damage on their livelihoods. Since poorly regulated brick kilns are often found close to important peri-urban agricultural areas, we suggest that this may be a growing but unrecognised environmental problem in regions of Asia where emission control in brick kilns has not been improved. - Highlights: ► Demand for bricks is increasing in many parts of Asia. ► Fluoride emissions from brick kilns may pose a threat to peri-urban agriculture. ► We found extensive injury to fruit orchards close to brick kilns in Peshawar. ► Local farmers suffered large economic losses but did not identify brick kilns as a cause of this. ► The extent of crop damage from brick kilns with poor emission control in the region may not be fully recognised. - Hydrogen fluoride emissions from brick kilns may cause extensive but unrecognised damage to peri-urban crops in Asia.

  12. The Problem of Urban Solid Waste in the City of Prishtina (Kosovo) and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadani I.; , Bulliqi S.; , Gashi G.; , Isufi F.; , Ejupi A.; , Bytyqi V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is treated the problem of solid wastes in Prishtina, their origin, treatment and solutions for better management. The problem of wastes is one of the most serious issues facing people in Prishtina and Kosova, especially in last decade. There is a bad management of solid waste in Prishtina city because of the lack of investments in waste treatment, insufficient capacities of existing landfills and poor legal framework. The problem of waste in Prishtina should be approached in man...

  13. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  14. Lifetime Paid Work and Mental Health Problems among Poor Urban 9-to-13-Year-Old Children in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel A. Bordin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To verify if emotional/behavioral problems are associated with lifetime paid work in poor urban children, when taking into account other potential correlates. Methods. Cross-sectional study focused on 9-to-13-year-old children (n=212. In a probabilistic sample of clusters of eligible households (women 15–49 years and son/daughter <18 years, one mother-child pair was randomly selected per household (n=813; response rate = 82.4%. CBCL/6-18 identified child emotional/behavioral problems. Potential correlates include child gender and age, socioeconomic status/SES, maternal education, parental working status, and family social isolation, among others. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between emotional/behavioral problems and lifetime paid work in the presence of significant correlates. Findings. All work activities were non-harmful (e.g., selling fruits, helping parents at their small business, and baby sitting. Children with lower SES and socially isolated were more involved in paid work than less disadvantaged peers. Children ever exposed to paid work were four times more likely to present anxiety/depression symptoms at a clinical level compared to non-exposed children. Multivariate modeling identified three independent correlates: child pure internalizing problems, social isolation, and low SES. Conclusion. There is an association between lifetime exposure to exclusively non-harmful paid work activities and pure internalizing problems even when considering SES variability and family social isolation.

  15. Relative risk of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: a spatial analysis in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. METHODOLOGY: This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412, were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146. The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities.

  16. Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2-4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

  17. Dismantling of nuclear facilities and related problems - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournebize, Frederic; Bordet, Didier; Charlety, Philippe; Gore, Thierry; Estrade, Jerome; Lemaire, Hermine; Ginet, Annick; Fabrier, Lionel; Evrard, Lydie; Furois, Timothee; Butez, Marc; Dutzer, Michel; Faure, Vincent; Billarand, Yann; Menuet, Lise; Lahaye, Thierry; Pin, Alain; Mougnard, Philippe; Charavy, Sylvain; Poncet, Philippe; Moggia, Fabrice; Dochy, Arnaud; Benjamin, Patrick; Poncet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Beneteau, Yannick; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Pellenz, Gilles; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Gerard, Stephane; Denissen, Luc; Davain, Henri; Duveau, Florent; Guyot, Jean-Luc; Ardellier, Luc

    2012-11-01

    The oldest French nuclear facilities, built for some of them in the 1950's for research or power generation purposes, have reached more or less the end of their life. More than 30 facilities have entered the shutdown or dismantling phase, among which 8 reactors of the very first generations of Electricite de France (EdF) reactors. The aim of this two-days conference is to take stock of the present day status and perspectives of the dismantling activity, to approach the question of the management of the wastes produced, and to share experience about large scale operations already carried out. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - the 'Passage' project (F. Tournebize); 2 - CEA-Grenoble: from Louis Neel to key enabling technologies (D. Bordet); 3 - Dismantling actions in France (L. Evrard); 4 - Securing control of long-term charges funding (T. Furois); 5 - Waste disposal projects and their contribution to the management of dismantling wastes (M. Butez); 6 - Specificities linked with dismantling activities (Y. Billarand); 7 - Dismantling safety: the ASN's point of view (L. Evrad); 8 - Labor Ministry viewpoint about the dismantling related questions (T. Lahaye); 9 - Consideration of organizational and human factors in dismantling operations: a new deal in the operators-service providers relation (L. Menuet); 10 - Diploma and training experience (A. Pin); 11 - Glove-boxes dismantling at La Hague plant - status and experience feedback (P. Mougnard); 12 - Dismantling of Siloe reactor (CEA-Grenoble): application of the ALARA approach (P. Charlety); 13 - BR3 - a complex dismantling: the neutron shield tank (NST) in remote operation and indirect vision (L. Denissen); 14 - Cleansing and dismantling of the Phebus PF containment (S. Charavy); 15 - Integration of dismantling at the design and exploitation stages of nuclear facilities (P. Poncet); 16 - Consideration during the design and exploitation stages of dispositions aiming at

  18. Efficient parallel algorithms for string editing and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto; Atallah, Mikhail J.; Larmore, Lawrence; Mcfaddin, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The string editing problem for input strings x and y consists of transforming x into y by performing a series of weighted edit operations on x of overall minimum cost. An edit operation on x can be the deletion of a symbol from x, the insertion of a symbol in x or the substitution of a symbol x with another symbol. This problem has a well known O((absolute value of x)(absolute value of y)) time sequential solution (25). The efficient Program Requirements Analysis Methods (PRAM) parallel algorithms for the string editing problem are given. If m = ((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)) and n = max((absolute value of x),(absolute value of y)), then the CREW bound is O (log m log n) time with O (mn/log m) processors. In all algorithms, space is O (mn).

  19. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem

  20. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  1. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  2. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  3. Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling

  4. Delayed Stochastic Linear-Quadratic Control Problem and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    stochastic differential equations (FBSDEs with Itô’s stochastic delay equations as forward equations and anticipated backward stochastic differential equations as backward equations. Especially, we present the optimal feedback regulator for the time delay system via a new type of Riccati equations and also apply to a population optimal control problem.

  5. Income inequality, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason

    2013-04-01

    We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.

  6. Computer Use and Vision‑Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adjusted OR was calculated using the multiple logistic regression. Results: The ... Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache ... procedure (non-probability sampling) recruiting 250 .... Table 1: Percentage distribution of visual problems among different genders and ethnic groups.

  7. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador. Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants’ mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  8. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Claudia; Otero, Patricia; Bustamante, Byron; Blanco, Vanessa; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2017-05-15

    Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years) were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador). Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants' mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  9. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  10. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  11. The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-Seeking for Perceived Child Behavior Problems in Urban, Low-Income African American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth

    2015-12-01

    Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.

  12. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Background China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investig...

  14. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  15. The Interactive Urban Model: Histories and Legacies Related to Prototyping the Twenty-First Century City

    OpenAIRE

    Verebes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article surveys the theoretical and historical legacies of mass production and standardization, and the cultural issues associated with globalization, in the most prolific era ever of urbanization. Situated at the intersection of scholarly writing on history, current conditions, and a speculative future, this article focuses on themes related to design research on computation, fabrication, and the city. Given the ongoing transition of industrial paradigm from Modernism’s dependency upon ...

  16. The problem of using trade secrets in economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Олефір

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In a market economy and increased competition between enterprises become increasingly important concepts such as business information, trade secrets, know-how, confidential information, the information with restricted access. Given the fact that only one patent protection is unable to meet the needs of researchers, in addition to formal public protection and secured legal means we would like to pay attention at private legal measures, particular, the mode of trade secrets. Recent research and publications analysis. Different aspects of the protection of trade secrets were investigated by specialists such as G. Androschuk, J. Berzhye, I. Davydov, O. Davydyuk, D. Zadyhaylo, P. Kraynov, G. Nikiforov, S. Nikiforov, V. Rubanov, E. Solovyov, L. Hoffman, V. Chaplygin, A. Cherniavsky and others. However, at present there is a lack of comprehensive research of this legal phenomenon, equally useful for innovators and businesses that actively protect corporate security. Paper objective. This article is planned to determine the legal characteristics, structural elements and mechanisms by which the use of trade secrets in business have a positive impact on innovation development and corporate security entities. Paper main body. On the basis of requirements of Art. 505 Civil Code of Ukraine and art. 39 of the TRIPS Agreement we formulated commercial information signs under which it receives legal protection as an object of intellectual property: (1 privacy (real or potential in the sense that it is as a whole or in a precise combination of aggregate and its components are not generally known or available to persons in the circles that normally deal with such information; (2 commercial value (not purely industrial or industrial, due to its secrecy; this information is unknown to others, which is a commercial interest; (3 the lawful holder of the information provides active special measures (technical, organizational, legal to preserve secrecy

  17. Open Problems Related to the Hurwitz Stability of Polynomials Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Aguirre-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of robust stability analysis of linear systems, the development of techniques and methods that help to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions to determine stability of convex combinations of polynomials is paramount. In this paper, knowing that Hurwitz polynomials set is not a convex set, a brief overview of some results and open problems concerning the stability of the convex combinations of Hurwitz polynomials is then provided.

  18. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  19. Problems of protection of urban ambient air pollution from industrial dust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of large cities accompanied by the development of the industry hashistorically led to the fact that now residential areas are located side by side with the industrial production. For instance, exactly this situation has developed in the city of Volgograd, as well as in other Russian cities, where sometimes the distance from large enterprises to a living area is 100 m or less. In addition, small-scale entrepreneurs usually place their production directly in their past places of residence. As a result, the content of harmful substances in the air of city blocks is much higher than the standards of hygiene require. It is obvious that the current situation can be improved through the use of modern, more advanced technologies. However, increasing the efficiency of air systems to protect the city from pollution and industrial emissions is an urgent task. The authors propose a version of the system layout, designed to reduce dust emissions in urban air.

  20. Generalizable open source urban water portfolio simulation framework demonstrated using a multi-objective risk-based planning benchmark problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    The growing access and reduced cost for computing power in recent years has promoted rapid development and application of multi-objective water supply portfolio planning. As this trend continues there is a pressing need for flexible risk-based simulation frameworks and improved algorithm benchmarking for emerging classes of water supply planning and management problems. This work contributes the Water Utilities Management and Planning (WUMP) model: a generalizable and open source simulation framework designed to capture how water utilities can minimize operational and financial risks by regionally coordinating planning and management choices, i.e. making more efficient and coordinated use of restrictions, water transfers and financial hedging combined with possible construction of new infrastructure. We introduce the WUMP simulation framework as part of a new multi-objective benchmark problem for planning and management of regionally integrated water utility companies. In this problem, a group of fictitious water utilities seek to balance the use of the mentioned reliability driven actions (e.g., restrictions, water transfers and infrastructure pathways) and their inherent financial risks. Several traits of this problem make it ideal for a benchmark problem, namely the presence of (1) strong non-linearities and discontinuities in the Pareto front caused by the step-wise nature of the decision making formulation and by the abrupt addition of storage through infrastructure construction, (2) noise due to the stochastic nature of the streamflows and water demands, and (3) non-separability resulting from the cooperative formulation of the problem, in which decisions made by stakeholder may substantially impact others. Both the open source WUMP simulation framework and its demonstration in a challenging benchmarking example hold value for promoting broader advances in urban water supply portfolio planning for regions confronting change.

  1. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  2. An introduction to the processes, problems, and management of urban lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, L.J.; Averett, R.C.; Ferreira, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    Lakes are bodies of water formed in depressions on the earth's surface, and as such, act as depositories for a variety of chemical and biological materials. The study of lakes has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Lakes are a valuable resource, and their multiple uses have made them susceptible to water-quality problems such as algal blooms, sediment deposition and fish kills. These problems are products of the eutrophication process (enrichment, aging and extinction of lakes), which is often accelerated by man. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the properties and processes of lakes which govern lake enrichment, and the measures available to control enrichment.

  3. Actual problems of accession in relation with library statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Poličnik-Čermelj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accession is the process of recording bibliographic units in an accession register. Typically,library materials are acquired by purchase, exchange, gift or legal deposit. How-ever, COBISS (Cooperative Online Bibliographic System and Services Holdings software module includes some additional methods of acquisition which causes problems in gathering and presenting statistical data on local holdings. The article explains how to record holdings of different types of library materials and how to record retrospective collections. It describes necessary procedures in case the codes that define the publication pattern of the holdings are changed with special attention to integrating resources. Procedures of accession and circulation of bound materials, supplementary materials, teaching sets, multi parts, multimedia and collection level catalogue records are described. The attention is given to errors in recording lost item replacements and to the problems of circulation of certain types of library materials. The author also suggests how to record remote electronic resources. It is recommended to verify holdings data before the accession register is generated. The relevant and credible statistical data on collection development can only be created by librarians with sufficient acquisition and cataloguing skills.

  4. Adoption of HIV-related services among urban US hospitals: 1988 and 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, A J; Hurley, R E

    1995-09-01

    Recent reports document that US hospitals vary considerably, notably by ownership, in the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients they treat. Still, little is known about other types of hospital response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS and the relative strength of ownership as a determining factor. With annual survey data from the American Hospital Association the authors examine the formal adoption of HIV-related services among urban US hospitals at the turn of the decade. Descriptive analyses of 2 years of data (1988 and 1991) are presented. A multivariate logistic regression analysis, conducted on the 1991 data, tests for unique ownership effects on the likelihood that hospitals are heavy investors in HIV-related care. Patterns of service adoption for 1991 strongly resemble those for 1988. Nearly three fourths of urban US hospitals offer general inpatient AIDS care, and over half provide HIV testing. Few urban hospitals offer outpatient services; even fewer operate AIDS units. A substantial minority report no formal adoption of HIV-related services. For-profit hospitals stand out as least likely to formally adopt these HIV-related services. Those adopting a comprehensive set of HIV-related services typically are public or secular, not-for-profit in ownership, large, affiliated with a medical school, and high volume users of Medicaid funding. The logistic regression analysis suggests that public ownership is a key determinant of greater service investment, even after controlling for other explanatory factors. This study appears to mirror a familiar pattern of hospital response to undercompensated care in the United States.

  5. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... bounty of material good, but also of intellectual and cultural capital, an .... of market, increased investment and development of other sectors of the .... battered public image that has had an impinging effect on external relations.

  6. Bibliography on the stochastic processes in plasma and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polovin, R.V.

    1976-01-01

    Stochastic processes in plasma and related matters. The bibliography contains 500 references and was compiled from the open literature only. Some references are annotated or completed with short abstracts. There are subject and authors indexes

  7. Relative information entropy in cosmology: The problem of information entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Mena, Filipe C., E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt [Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2016-07-10

    The necessary information to distinguish a local inhomogeneous mass density field from its spatial average on a compact domain of the universe can be measured by relative information entropy. The Kullback–Leibler (KL) formula arises very naturally in this context, however, it provides a very complicated way to compute the mutual information between spatially separated but causally connected regions of the universe in a realistic, inhomogeneous model. To circumvent this issue, by considering a parametric extension of the KL measure, we develop a simple model to describe the mutual information which is entangled via the gravitational field equations. We show that the Tsallis relative entropy can be a good approximation in the case of small inhomogeneities, and for measuring the independent relative information inside the domain, we propose the Rényi relative entropy formula.

  8. A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Multi-Trip Green Capacitated Arc Routing Problem in the Scope of Urban Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Babaee Tirkolaee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases (GHG are the main reason for the global warming during the past decades. On the other hand, establishing a well-structured transportation system will yield to create least cost-pollution. This paper addresses a novel model for the multi-trip Green Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (G-CARP with the aim of minimizing total cost including the cost of generation and emission of greenhouse gases, the cost of vehicle usage and routing cost. The cost of generation and emission of greenhouse gases is based on the calculation of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from vehicles, which depends on such factors as the vehicle speed, weather conditions, load on the vehicle and traveled distance. The main applications of this problem are in municipalities for urban waste collection, road surface marking and so forth. Due to NP-hardness of the problem, a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA is developed, wherein a heuristic and simulated annealing algorithm are applied to generate initial solutions and a Genetic Algorithm (GA is then used to generate the best possible solution. The obtained numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm could present desirable performance within a suitable computational run time. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is implemented on the maximum available time of the vehicles in order to determine the optimal policy.

  9. Improved interior wall detection using designated dictionaries in compressive urban sensing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, Eva; Amin, Moeness G.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Nájar, Montse

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we address sparsity-based imaging of building interior structures for through-the-wall radar imaging and urban sensing applications. The proposed approach utilizes information about common building construction practices to form an appropriate sparse representation of the building layout. With a ground based SAR system, and considering that interior walls are either parallel or perpendicular to the exterior walls, the antenna at each position would receive reflections from the walls parallel to the radar's scan direction as well as from the corners between two meeting walls. We propose a two-step approach for wall detection and localization. In the first step, a dictionary of possible wall locations is used to recover the positions of both interior and exterior walls that are parallel to the scan direction. A follow-on step uses a dictionary of possible corner reflectors to locate wall-wall junctions along the detected wall segments, thereby determining the true wall extents and detecting walls perpendicular to the scan direction. The utility of the proposed approach is demonstrated using simulated data.

  10. China's tax system relatively benign, but problems remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in China's oil market have reignited the interest of multinational oil and gas companies in China. New onshore and offshore blocks are being granted, and the Tarim basin has been opened to foreign participation for the first time. Foreign participation is also being sought in refining and other downstream areas. Though Chinese officials have long been viewed as difficult negotiators, the tax provisions applicable to oil and gas exploration and production in China are some of the more generous in the area. This article describes some of the relevant features of the system and some of the problem areas. The paper describes production sharing contracts, applicable taxes, gross income determination, taxable income, tax consolidation, overseas charges, and withholding taxes on payments to subcontractors and employees

  11. A RELATIONAL DATABASE APPROACH TO THE JOB SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lindeque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper will attempt to illuminate the advantages of an approach to the job shop scheduling problem using priority based search algorithms and database technology. It will use as basis a system developed for and implemented at a large manufacturing plant. The paper will also attempt to make some predictions as to future developments in these techniques and look at the possibility of including new technologies such as expert systems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die voordele en toepaslikheid van prioriteits-gebaseerde soek-algoritmes en databasisstelsels op die taakwerkswinkelprobleem sal in hierdie artikel uitgelig word. 'n Stelsel wat by 'n groot vervaardigingsonderneming geimplementeer is, sal as uitgangspunt gebruik word. Toekomstige ontwikkelings in bogenoemde tegnieke en die moontlike insluiting van ekspertstelsels sal ook ondersoek word.

  12. Closed orbit related problems: Correction, feedback, and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Orbit correction - moving the orbit to a desired orbit, orbit stability - keeping the orbit on the desired orbit using feedback to filter out unwanted noise, and orbit analysis - to learn more about the model of the machine, are strongly interrelated. They are the three facets of the same problem. The better one knows the model of the machine, the better the predictions that can be made on the behavior of the machine (inverse modeling) and the more accurately one can control the machine. On the other hand, one of the tools to learn more about the machine (modeling) is to study and analyze the orbit response to open-quotes kicks.close quotes

  13. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Environmental problems relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The regulations of the mining and milling of uranium as they relate to the environment are discussed. The industry is primarily under the jurisdiction of the federal government and administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This authority can in some instances be relegated to the states. Certain areas of jurisdiction have been given over to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the courts. The Safe Drinking Water Act is discussed as it relates to in situ leach mining. The role of the Department of Interior in the regulating of uranium mining, as described in the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, is discussed. The requirement for environmental impact statements prior to licensing by the NRC or the individual states is also discussed. Air quality and radioactive waste disposal as they relate to uranium mining are also discussed

  15. Microbial abundance on the eggs of a passerine bird and related fitness consequences between urban and rural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Hyunna; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun; Husby, Magne

    2017-01-01

    Urban environments present novel and challenging habitats to wildlife. In addition to well-known difference in abiotic factors between rural and urban environments, the biotic environment, including microbial fauna, may also differ significantly. In this study, we aimed to compare the change in microbial abundance on eggshells during incubation between urban and rural populations of a passerine bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica), and examine the consequences of any differences in microbial abundances in terms of hatching success and nestling survival. Using real-time PCR, we quantified the abundances of total bacteria, Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., surfactin-producing Bacillus spp. and Candida albicans on the eggshells of magpies. We found that urban magpie eggs harboured greater abundances of E. coli/Shigella spp. and C. albicans before incubation than rural magpie eggs. During incubation, there was an increase in the total bacterial load, but a decrease in C. albicans on urban eggs relative to rural eggs. Rural eggs showed a greater increase in E. coli/Shigella spp. relative to their urban counterpart. Hatching success of the brood was generally lower in urban than rural population. Nestling survival was differentially related with the eggshell microbial abundance between urban and rural populations, which was speculated to be the result of the difference in the strength of the interaction among the microbes. This is the first demonstration that avian clutches in urban and rural populations differ in eggshell microbial abundance, which can be further related to the difference in hatching success and nestling survival in these two types of environments. We suggest that future studies on the eggshell microbes should investigate the interaction among the microbes, because the incubation and/or environmental factors such as urbanization or climate condition can influence the dynamic interactions among the microbes on the eggshells which can further determine the

  16. Hypersomnolence and Sleep-related Complaints in Metropolitan, Urban, and Rural Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michael J.; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Tabassum, Humyra

    2009-01-01

    Persistent daytime hypersomnolence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but its prevalence in the population has been poorly documented. This study sought to characterize the prevalence of persistent daytime hypersomnolence, difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep, unrefreshing sleep, snoring, and the presence of physician-diagnosed sleep disorders in metropolitan, urban, and rural US Georgia populations. Between September 2004 and July 2005, a total of 6,530 randomly selected well and unwell adults, identified by screening interviews of 10,837 households (contacted by random digit dialing), completed a detailed phone interview. Sixteen percent reported persistent problems staying awake during the day; 26% reported persistent problems falling asleep at night; 31% experienced problems sleeping through the night; 34% were bothered by unrefreshing sleep; and 33% reported that they snored. In spite of the high occurrence of reported persistent sleep problems, only 10% of the survey participants reported having been diagnosed with a sleep disorder. These study findings highlight the need for increased public and clinician awareness with respect to proactively indentifying signs and symptoms of sleep disorders, a better understanding of their adverse impact upon morbidity and mortality, and their negative impact upon socioeconomic and academic potential. PMID:19066308

  17. Mental health problems due to community violence exposure in a small urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Studies conducted in large metropolitan inner-city communities with high violent crime rates have demonstrated an association between exposure to violence and mental health problems; therefore the purpose of this study was to determine if similar trends exist in smaller inner-city communities with substantially lower violent crime rates. Methods: One hundred twenty-six children and young adults living in inner-city Omaha, Nebraska, were screened for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms and assessed for community violence exposure (CVE. Pearson’s correlation and analysis of variance were used to determine the relationship between PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms and CVE. Results: A statistically significant relationship was found between CVE and PTSD and anxiety symptoms among participants despite their having lower rates of exposure to violent events in comparison with other studies. No association was found between violence and depression symptoms. Additionally, the presence of anxiety and depression, as well as increased age of participants, was associated with higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: We recommend that health care providers in smaller cities, where the effects of violent crime may be underestimated or overlooked, be informed of the existence of this public health problem within their community and that they screen at-risk patients for mental health problems.

  18. Workers' Education in Industrialised Countries and Its Specific Problems in Relation to Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Examines several problems that need to be addressed concerning world crisis: war, poverty, unemployment, overpopulation, environmental issues, and housing; developed versus developing countries; and social justice. The task for workers' education in relation to these problems is discussed. (CT)

  19. PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS FROM RADIONUCLIDES STRONTIUM-90 AND CAESIUM-137 AFTER TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cheremisina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of decontamination of radionuclides from soils are considered. The literature focuses on fixing radionuclides in soils and creating geochemical barriers that it is prevent the spread of pollution. The main disadvantage of these methods is exclude the possibility of building a territory. It is need to clean up the area to the sanitary and hygienic requirements for further use and then it is desirable to fix the residual activity. Carried out an analysis of forms of radionuclides fixation in soils and mechanics of this fixation, therewith revealed that Cs-137 fixed more strongly on mineral component of soil, than Sr-90, which is mainly in the acid-soluble and exchangeable form, and, as a consequence, passes into the liquid phase during soil deactivation more easily. Contaminated soil deactivation in the urbanized territory is possible by washing it by ferric chloride solution at a concentration 0.02-0.05 M and with an equimolar addition of an ammonium chloride. Therewith most efficient methods, which used in-situ conditions, are heap and convection leaching technologies with treatment degree, which not less than 80%. At the same time, the most efficient methods which used in-situ conditions are heap and the convection leaching. The hardware-technological scheme of a convection leaching is presented. Noted that ammonium salts additions slightly rising coefficient of treatment from Sr-90. Because ammonium salts aren’t expensive, their additions allow to obtain significant economic benefits due to decreasing of ferric chloride consumption, which is more valuable, and waste water volume reduction.

  20. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  1. [Behavioural problems and personality change related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) belongs to the group of amyloidoses that are characterized by the deposition of insoluble and tissue-damaging amyloid proteins. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the common clinical presentation of CAA resulting from the degenerative effect of beta amyloid on the cerebral vascular system. Though CAA is rather a neurological disease psychiatric symptoms can occur and even dominate the clinical picture. A case report is presented in order to illustrate the association between CAA and psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient with radiologic references to a probable CAA and mild cognitive impairment who developed behavioural difficulties and personality change that necessitated a psychiatric treatment. Psychiatric symptoms were most likely due to CAA. CAA can be associated with psychiatric symptoms and hence should be considered in the treatment of elderly patients with behavioural problems or personality changes. Diagnostic neuroimaging and examination of cerebrospinal fluid is recommended. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate-related fire impacts in rural and urban interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Sarah F.; Calef, Monika; Natcher, David; Chapin, F. Stuart; McGuire, A. David; Huntington, Orville; Duffy, Paul A.; Rupp, T. Scott; DeWilde, La'Ona; Kwart, Mary; Fresco, Nancy; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores whether fundamental differences exist between urban and rural vulnerability to climate-induced changes in the fire regime of interior Alaska. We further examine how communities and fire managers have responded to these changes and what additional adaptations could be put in place. We engage a variety of social science methods, including demographic analysis, semi-structured interviews, surveys, workshops and observations of public meetings. This work is part of an interdisciplinary study of feedback and interactions between climate, vegetation, fire and human components of the Boreal forest social–ecological system of interior Alaska. We have learned that although urban and rural communities in interior Alaska face similar increased exposure to wildfire as a result of climate change, important differences exist in their sensitivity to these biophysical, climate-induced changes. In particular, reliance on wild foods, delayed suppression response, financial resources and institutional connections vary between urban and rural communities. These differences depend largely on social, economic and institutional factors, and are not necessarily related to biophysical climate impacts per se. Fire management and suppression action motivated by political, economic or other pressures can serve as unintentional or indirect adaptation to climate change. However, this indirect response alone may not sufficiently reduce vulnerability to a changing fire regime. More deliberate and strategic responses may be required, given the magnitude of the expected climate change and the likelihood of an intensification of the fire regime in interior Alaska.

  3. Some foundational problems in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Attention is drawn to some of the issues of the foundations of special relativity with the aim of contributing possibly to their clarification. Roemer's determination of the velocity of light is reviewed and important issues on the historical development of the theory outlined. The group-theoretical and light-geometrical approaches are discussed and the nature of length contraction considered. (Auth./C.F.)

  4. Relations between urban bird and plant communities and human well-being and connection to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. On a covariant 2+2 formulation of the initial value problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.

    1980-03-01

    The initial value problems in general relativity are considered from a geometrical standpoint with especial reference to the development of a covariant 2+2 formalism in which space-time is foliated by space-like 2-surfaces under the headings; the Cauchy problem in general relativity, the covariant 3+1 formulation of the Cauchy problem, characteristic and mixed initial value problems, on locally imbedding a family of null hypersurfaces, the 2+2 formalism, the 2+2 formulation of the Cauchy problem, the 2+2 formulation of the characteristic and mixed initial value problems, and a covariant Lagrangian 2+2 formulation. (U.K.)

  6. Global assessment of rural-urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Marj; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G.

    2018-06-01

    The rural-urban interface (RUI), known as the area where structures and other human developments meet or intermingle with wildland and rural area, is at present a central focus of wildfire policy and its mapping is crucial for wildfire management. In the Mediterranean Basin, humans cause the vast majority of fires and fire risk is particularly high in the proximity of infrastructure and of rural/wildland areas. RUI's extension changes under the pressure of environmental and anthropogenic factors, such as urban growth, fragmentation of rural areas, deforestation and, more in general, land use/land cover change (LULCC). As with other Mediterranean countries, Portugal has experienced significant LULCC in the last decades in response to migration, rural abandonment, ageing of population and trends associated with the high socioeconomic development. In the present study, we analyzed the LULCC occurring in this country in the 1990-2012 period with the main objective of investigating how these changes affected RUI's evolution. Moreover, we performed a qualitative and quantitative characterization of burnt areas within the RUI in relation to the observed changes. Obtained results disclose important LULCC and reveal their spatial distribution, which is far from uniform within the territory. A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities of the northwest, littoral-central and southern regions, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural and forest areas. Within agricultural areas, heterogeneous patches suffered the greatest changes and were the main contributors to the increase in urban areas; moreover, this land cover class, together with forests, was highly affected by wildfires in terms of burnt area. Finally, from this analysis and during the investigated period, it appears that RUI increased in Portugal by more than two-thirds, while the total

  7. Optimal improvement of graphs related to nuclear safeguards problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, S.E.

    1977-08-01

    This report develops the methodology for optimally improving graphs related to nuclear safeguards issues. In particular, given a fixed number of dollars, the report provides a method for optimally allocating such dollars over the arcs of a weighted graph (the weights vary as a function of dollars spent on arcs) so as to improve the system effectiveness measure which is the shortest of all shortest paths to several targets. Arc weights can be either clock times or detection probabilities and the algorithm does not explicitly consider all paths to the targets

  8. [Trampoline-related injuries in children: an increasing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königshausen, M; Gothner, M; Kruppa, C; Dudda, M; Godry, H; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2014-06-01

    The sales of recreational trampolines have increased during the past few years. Severe injuries are associated in part with trampoline sport in the domestic setting. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis of an increase in trampoline-related injuries in conjunction with the increasing sales of recreational trampolines and to find out what kind of injuries are most frequent in this context. Between 01/1999 and 09/2013 all trampoline-related injuries of children (0-16 years of age) were assessed retrospectively. Only those cases were evaluated which described with certainty a trampoline-associated trauma. The fractures were considered separately and assigned to specific localisations. Additionally, accidents at home were differentiated from institutional accidents. Within the past 13 years and 9 months trampoline-related injuries were seen in 195 infants. Fractures were present in 83 cases (42 %). The average age was 10 ± 3.4 years (range: 2-16 years). Within first half of the observed time period (7½ years; 01/1999 to 06/2006) 73 cases were detected with a significantly increasing number of injuries up to 122 cases between 07/2006 and 09/2013 (7 years, 3 months), which corresponds to an increase of 67 % (p = 0,028). The vast majority of these injuries happened in the domestic setting (90 %, n = 175), whereas only 10 % (n = 20) of the traumas occurred in public institutions. In 102 children (52 %) the lower extremity was affected and in 51 patients (26 %) the upper extremity was involved (head/spine/pelvis: n = 42, 22 %). The upper extremity was primarily affected by fractures and dislocations (n = 38, 76 %). At the upper extremity there were more injuries requiring surgery in contrast to the lower extremity (n = 11) or cervical spine (n = 1). The underlying data show a significant increase of trampoline-related injuries within the past years. The upper extremity is the second most affected

  9. Health problems and the health care provider choices: A comparative study of urban and rural households in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma B. Galal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Urban families have less health complaints than rural; however, rural families recover sooner. Families bypass often public primary health care services. Urban families overuse outpatient clinics in public hospitals.

  10. Love and the commitment problem in romantic relations and friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, G C; Keltner, D; Londahl, E A; Smith, M D

    2001-08-01

    On the basis of the proposition that love promotes commitment, the authors predicted that love would motivate approach, have a distinct signal, and correlate with commitment-enhancing processes when relationships are threatened. The authors studied romantic partners and adolescent opposite-sex friends during interactions that elicited love and threatened the bond. As expected, the experience of love correlated with approach-related states (desire, sympathy). Providing evidence for a nonverbal display of love, four affiliation cues (head nods, Duchenne smiles, gesticulation, forward leans) correlated with self-reports and partner estimates of love. Finally, the experience and display of love correlated with commitment-enhancing processes (e.g., constructive conflict resolution, perceived trust) when the relationship was threatened. Discussion focused on love, positive emotion, and relationships.

  11. Firework-related childhood injuries in Greece: a national problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilia, Konte; Eleni, Petridou; Dimitrios, Trichopoulos

    2004-03-01

    During a 5-year period, out of 110066 children with injuries recorded in the Greek Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS), 91 had firework-related injuries. Descriptive analyses and the Barrell matrix were used to determine risk factors and extrapolated national firework childhood injury figures were calculated. The estimated annual incidence of childhood firework injuries treated in the emergency departments of hospitals countrywide, was 7 per 100000 children years. Seventy percent of injuries concerned older children (10-14 years), mostly boys with self-inflicted injuries, whereas girls suffered injuries as bystanders. A sharp peak in spring was noted, when the Greek Orthodox Easter is celebrated. Illicitly sold fireworks caused most injuries, but in eight instances homemade firecrackers were responsible.

  12. Normative Beliefs, Expectancies, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students; Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnow-Kenny, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Hansen, William B.; Dyreg, Doug; Beau, Dan B.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation (1) examined interrelations among normative beliefs, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related problems, and (2) investigated whether alcohol-related expectancies mediate associations between normative beliefs and alcohol-related problems. Analyses revealed that alcohol expectancies mediate the relationship between normative beliefs…

  13. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  14. Emotional pain: surviving mental health problems related to childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, A L; Bégat, I; Severinsson, E

    2009-09-01

    Emotional pain is described as intense by women who suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a high prevalence of reported childhood abuse was found in the literature and in research. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women suffering from BPD with focus on emotional pain related to childhood. An explorative design was used. Data were collected from in-depth interviews consisting of women suffering from BPD (n = 13) and an interpretive content analysis was used to analyse the text. The findings revealed two main themes: 'Power' and 'Assessment of vulnerability'. The main theme 'Power' resulted in two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being forced' and 'Surviving the feeling of having to assume responsibility'. The other main theme 'Assessment of vulnerability' had two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being victimized' and 'Surviving the feeling of not being loved'. The findings suggest that nursing care need to develop an understanding of how these women endure their emotional pain, and try to survive as fighting spirits and how struggling became their way of life.

  15. Transformation of nitrogen and distribution of nitrogen-related bacteria in a polluted urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y; Jin, W B; Zhao, Q L; Zhang, G D; Yan, Y; Wan, J

    2009-01-01

    Most researchers focused on either nitrogen species or microbial community for polluted urban stream while ignoring the interaction between them and its effect on nitrogen transformation, which restricted the rational selection of an effective and feasible remediation technology. Taking Buji stream in Shenzhen (China) as target stream, the distribution of nitrogen-related bacteria was investigated by most probable number (MPN) besides analysis of nitrogen species etc. The nitrogen-related bacteria in sediment were 10(2) times richer than those in water. Owing to their faster growth, the MPN of ammonifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were 10(5) and 10(2) times higher than those of nitrifying bacteria, respectively. The ammonifying bacteria numbers were significantly related to BOD5 in water, while nitrifying bacteria in sediment correlated well with nitrate in water. Thus, nitrification occurred mainly in sediment surface and was limited by low proportion of nitrifying bacteria. The denitrifying bacteria in sediment had good relationship with BOD5 and nitrite and nitrate in water. Low DO and rich organic compounds were beneficial to denitrification but unfavourable to nitrification. Denitrification was restricted by low nitrite and nitrate concentration. These results could be served as a reference for implementing the remediation scheme of nitrogen polluted urban stream.

  16. Traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease: an update in the context of global urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Christopher; Rider, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    The review aims to give an update on the literature around traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic disease in the context of global urbanization, as the most populous countries in the world face severe TRAP exposure challenges. As research continues to show that gene-environment interactions and epigenetics contribute to the TRAP-allergy link, evidence around the links to climate change grows. Greenspace may provide a buffer to adverse effects of traffic on health, overall, but pose risks in terms of allergic disease. The link between traffic-related pollution and allergy continues to strengthen, in terms of supportive observational findings and mechanistic studies. Levels of TRAP across the world, particularly in Asia, continue to dramatically exceed acceptable levels, suggesting that the related adverse health consequences will accelerate. This could be counterbalanced by primary emission control and urban planning. Attention to combined effects of TRAP and allergen exposure is critical to avoiding misleading inferences drawn though examination only of isolated factors.

  17. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups. PMID:25003173

  18. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  19. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    , Gascon M, Martinez D, Tonne C, Triguero-Mas M, Valentín A, Nieuwenhuijsen M. 2017. Urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: a health impact assessment for cities. Environ Health Perspect 125:89-96; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP220.

  20. Uses of ionizing radiation and medical-care-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation in medicine are currently undergoing changes due to at least four major influences: (1) the constantly changing public perception of the hazards of radiation, (2) continuing technical innovation and development in equipment, (3) the imposition of diagnosis-related group funding by government health-care funding agencies, and (4) an increase in the average age of the U.S. population. The combined effect of these influences will probably result in a major increase in biplanar fluoroscopic examinations to support nonsurgical approaches such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal neuroembolism, and lithotripsy (the fracturing of kidney stones). As some of these examinations can result in 1.5 h of fluoroscopy, major doses to the patient and to the clinical staff can be expected. In addition, improved diagnostic techniques, such as using positron emission tomography (a combination of biochemistry and positron-emitting isotopes), can be expected to increase the number of small cyclotrons installed in medical centers. Counteracting these increases in radiation exposure is the development of digital radiography, which generally results in a lowering of the dose per diagnostic procedure. In the realm of therapeutic uses, one can expect higher-energy treatment accelerators, more patients being released from the hospital on therapeutic doses of isotopes, and a potential acceptance of neutron therapy as a cancer treatment modality. The latter treatment may take the form of boron capture therapy, 252Cf implant therapy, or external beam therapy using high-energy cyclotrons and the p,Be or the d,Be reaction to create the neutrons

  1. A study of selected problems related to accidental process fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drange, Leiv Anfin

    2011-01-15

    predicted a correct flame length, but estimated a slightly shorter lift-off distance; the end part of the KFX-flame was more influenced by buoyancy and deviated some from that of the experiment; the measurements showed more irregular shaped temperature fields compared to the simulated; the measurements showed larger fluctuations in the temperature fields compared to the simulated; the maximum measured radiative heat flux inside the flame was 185kW/m2. The maximum simulated radiative heat flux was 193kW/m2, representing a deviation of 4.3%; the maximum measured total heat flux was 256kW/m2. A steel cylinder of radius 160mm was placed at various positions in the jet, and the relative heat transfer was assessed by means of thermocouples placed radially inside the cylinder. This work showed that: convection is the major contributor to the total heat transfer from a turbulent jet flame to a steel cylinder impinged by the flame; the largest rate of heat transfer is at the side facing the flame, i.e no high levels of turbulence induced thermal loading could be detected at the back; the heat transfer coefficient, h, is a function of the velocity of the gas flow relative to the impinged object The stability of ignited propane gas jets, discharged from circular cross section outlets of varying diameters and inclinations were examined. This resulted in: a model, with an accuracy of 0.89, that predicts the upper and lower blowout limits for propane in gas phase, as well as a critical outlet diameter of 14mm; no observations were made indicating that the outlet inclination has any effect on the blowout limits The heat attenuation in water spray in a full scale offshore flare situation was examined by applying a known model for calculations and comparing with measurements. The result of this work was: the model predictions slightly under estimated the capacity of the water curtain. There were, however, uncertainties regarding the water curtain properties, and more detailed measurements

  2. Assessment of computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaheen Akhtar; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students and to develop a Self Instructional Module for prevention of computer-related health problems in a selected university situated in Delhi. A descriptive survey with co-relational design was adopted. A total of 97 samples were selected from different faculties of Jamia Hamdard by multi stage sampling with systematic random sampling technique. Among post-graduate students, majority of sample subjects had average compliance with computer-related ergonomics principles. As regards computer related health problems, majority of post graduate students had moderate computer-related health problems, Self Instructional Module developed for prevention of computer-related health problems was found to be acceptable by the post-graduate students.

  3. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  4. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  5. Rural-urban disparity in oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Amal; Galarneau, Chantal; Feine, Jocelyne S; Emami, Elham

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this population-based cross-sectional study was to estimate rural-urban disparity in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the Quebec adult population. A 2-stage sampling design was used to collect data from the 1788 parents/caregivers of schoolchildren living in the 8 regions of the province of Quebec in Canada. Andersen's behavioural model for health services utilization was used as a conceptual framework. Place of residency was defined according to the Statistics Canada Census Metropolitan Area and Census Agglomeration Influenced Zone classification. The outcome of interest was OHRQoL measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 validated questionnaire. Data weighting was applied, and the prevalence, extent and severity of negative oral health impacts were calculated. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of poor oral health-related quality life (OHRQoL) was statistically higher in rural areas than in urban zones (P = .02). Rural residents reported a significantly higher prevalence of negative daily-life impacts in pain, psychological discomfort and social disability OHIP domains (P < .05). Additionally, the rural population showed a greater number of negative oral health impacts (P = .03). There was no significant rural-urban difference in the severity of poor oral health. Logistic regression indicated that the prevalence of poor OHRQoL was significantly related to place of residency (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.5; P = .022), perceived oral health (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = 5.7-15.5; P < .001), dental treatment needs factors (perceived need for dental treatment, pain, dental care seeking) (OR = 8.7; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6; P < .001) and education (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.8-3.9; P < .001). The results of this study suggest a potential difference in OHRQoL of Quebec rural and urban populations, and a need to develop strategies to promote oral health outcomes

  6. Association between urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla, Ihlebæk; Geir, Aamodt; Renata, Aradi; Bjørgulf, Claussen; Halvorsen, Thorén Kine

    2017-10-01

    The need for studies from more countries on the relationship between urban green space and health has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two types of measurement of urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway. Self-reported measures on mental disorders, asthma, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain of 8638 participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) were linked to two types of green space variables: the vegetation cover greenness derived from satellite data, which shows the city's vegetation cover regardless of property boundaries, and the land use greenness derived from municipal plans showing information about publicly accessible vegetation-covered areas. Associations between greenness and health measures were analysed by logistic regression models controlling for possible individual and contextual confounders. Increasing vegetation cover greenness was associated with fewer self-reported mental disorders for both men and women after controlling for possible confounders. The proportion of women who reported high levels of musculoskeletal pain increased with increasing degrees of both of the greenness measurements, but no significant association was observed for men. No association was found for asthma and diabetes type 2 for either men or women. Although there was a positive association between vegetation cover greenness and self-reported mental disorders, the main findings showed mixed results. The lack of clear associations between urban green space and lifestyle-related health disorders in Oslo might have been influenced by a large proportion of the inhabitants having easy access to green areas.

  7. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF LAND USE PLANNING LOCALLY IN TERMS OF NEW LAND RELATIONS AND DECENTRALIZATION OF POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary Fundamental changes of land relations that have been established for the period of land reform in the independent Ukraine and the new socio-economic and environmental problems identified new character and content of the land. During the land reform in Ukraine to land management encountered new challenges that focus on the implementation of land policy and land relations fundamental change. Accordingly, to land management faces new challenges. Today for events to decentralize power facilities, new land - the territory united local communities should determine for whom the prospect of organizing the use and protection of land and other natural resources. However, the current land law the answer to this problem does not. Instead, normalization is an attempt to issues related to improving the quality of drafting documentation spatial planning (urban planning documents establish procedures for integrated development plans of local communities, the introduction of rules regulating local area to establish procedures for planning, construction and other use areas and about objects, improving public hearings to address public interests and relieve tension in the planning and construction of the territories. However, planning documentation does not solve the problems of perspective development of the organization use and protection of land and other natural resources. There is a need to distinguish between objects of regional urban planning and land management. This is because the urban planning regulations covering mainly two categories of land (settlements, industry, transport, communications and other purposes, not including agricultural land, which houses objects of capital construction. However, they make up for Ukraine just 4.2% of the total area. For the remaining seven categories of land (agricultural land, forest and water resources, conservation, recreation, recreational purposes land use planning and their protection should be based on

  8. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  9. Human Performance on the Traveling Salesman and Related Problems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.; Chu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on human performance on the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and related combinatorial optimization problems. We discuss what combinatorial optimization problems are, why they are important, and why they may be of interest to cognitive scientists. We next describe the main characteristics of human…

  10. [Hygienic and environmental problems of energy-saving illumination in urbanization of Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deynego, V N; Elizarov, V B; Kaptsov, V A

    The article considers the problems offloodlights pollution in the territory of Crimea due to the work of illumination led equipment of the key elements of the international transport artery "China-Europe". There was performed a qualitative assessment of characteristics of led floodlights pollution on the example of the sea surface of the transport crossing through the Kerch Strait. Ichthyologists and oceanographers were shown to estimate the amount of phytoplankton biomass based on sunlight illumination. The excess dose of blue light in the spectrum of led lighting was established to have an impact on phytoplankton greater than solar and lunar light, creating preconditions for the increase of biological mass of phytoplankton and consequently to the formation of the "stern stock". Arising from additional phytoplankton biomass can significantly influence on the schedule offish migration in waters of the Kerch Strait, the biomass of mosquitoes and midges, which are prey for amphibians and birds. The decline of the both light pollution and its negative impact on fauna andflora requires the development of semiconductor sources of white light with a biologically adequate spectrum in the framework of the "Lighting of the lighting equipment of Crimea".

  11. Relations and areas of interaction between landowners in a peri-urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardt, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    While land management can be a subject of conflict in places where the composition of landowners is socially and culturally diverse, it also holds the potential of bringing landowners together across social groups. This chapter uses the case of a peri-urban area near Copenhagen, Denmark, to examine...... the relations landowners have through their use and management of land within and across social groups. To elaborate the analysis and discussion of social groups, social coherence and fragmentation, this chapter introduces the concepts of homophily and self-categorisation. Interviews with 40 landowners from two...... parishes addressed four types of land-based relations: (1) exchange of help and services; (2) debate of farming/management; (3) shared interests and (4) friendship. While the pattern of relations overall supported the idea that people interact more with their own social group, the analysis also showed...

  12. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Comiford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. METHODS: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues of intimate partner problem-related suicides. RESULTS: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems.

  13. The urban public space betterment and land use sustainability Under the human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofan; Ji, Yanning

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the differences between Chinese and western public life and environmental behavior habits. Identify specific needs for Chinese urban public Spaces. At the same time, the paper analyzes the problems related to urban construction in China, including micro-land use, transportation and urban pattern. The solution of Chinese urban public space layout is proposed and the prospects of sustainable urban public space. Urban betterment are prospected in the future.

  14. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  15. Solution of Urban Problems by Forming an Environment for the Development of Innovative and Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zhernoklieieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the methods of solving the problems of the modern city by stimulating new forms of innovative small business and youth entrepreneurship, using Kharkov as an example. The formation of the start-up culture of Kharkov and the state of development of co-working zones are analyzed. It was determined that the construction of an effective public-private partnership of local authorities and new forms of entrepreneurship should be based on the possibility of creating co-working zones in the areas that are not used by the city, while stimulating the social responsibility of entrepreneurs through the provision of appropriate financing. Based on the results of a comparative analysis of the number and amount of incomes of freelancers in Kharkiv with the overall data for Ukraine, it is established that Kharkov freelancers are leaders both in terms of total and specific income. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of the revenues of the single social contribution paid by the entrepreneurs of Kharkiv, a conclusion is drawn that it is possible to achieve a sustainable growth in the filling of social insurance funds by increasing the number of freelancers. The peculiarities of the Start-up of the culture of Kharkov have been singled out, namely: the orientation towards a new product, the youth character of projects, understanding of the importance of implementing socially significant projects, the innovative nature of the activity, the priority of participants' self-expression over the financial component of projects, and cooperation with local authorities.

  16. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  17. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy

  18. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: The number and nature of drug-related problems identified in pharmacist-conducted medication reviews. RESULTS: There were 1,038 drug-related problems identified in 234 medication reviews (mean 4.6 (+/-2.2) problems per review). The number of problems was higher (4.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 2...

  19. An exploration of how perceptions of the risk of avian influenza in poultry relate to urbanization in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L; Nghiem, Tuyen; Saksena, Sumeet; Nguyen, Lam; Fox, Jefferson; Spencer, James H; Thau, Trinh Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural values, and traditions that might amplify or attenuate HPAI outbreaks. We also explored conceptualizations of urbanization and its impacts on animal husbandry and disease outbreaks. Qualitative theme analyses identified the key impacts, factors related to HPAI outbreaks, and disease prevention and management strategies. The analyses also highlighted how urbanization improves some aspects of life (e.g., food security, family wealth and health, more employment opportunities, and improved infrastructure), but simultaneously poses significant challenges for poultry farming and disease management. Awareness of qualitative aspects of HPAI risk perceptions and behaviors and how they vary with urbanization processes may help to improve the prevention and management of emerging infectious diseases.

  20. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be

  1. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car battery ... the use of personal protective devices and safety measures should be promoted. Keywords: Prevalence, work-related, battery chargers, occupational health, Nigeria ...

  3. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  4. Problems of Development of the Turkish-Iranian Relations after Islamic Revolution of 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Suleymanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems of development of the Turkish-Iranian relations after Islamic revolution of 1979 are considered in the article. Based on comparative, historical and system methods, the author analyzes in details ideological and political problems of mutual relations of the subsequent periods, their characteristic and distinctive features.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Relations between Family Process and Child Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew; Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Lane, Tonya J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family process variables have been linked to child problem behavior, but recent research suggests that child ethnicity may moderate relations between family process and child outcomes. The current study examined how ethnicity moderates relations between parent conflict, parent-child relationship quality, and internalizing problems.…

  6. Parenting and Children's Adjustment Problems: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Nicos A.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental and personal characteristics on children's internalizing/externalizing problems. Further, this study aimed to examine personal characteristics (self-esteem, peer relations) as mediators in the relation between parenting and internalizing/externalizing problems. In order to address…

  7. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department.

  8. Crime in relation to urban design. Case study: The Greater Cairo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Adel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a part of any social system and known to human communities since its origins. It differs from community to another, even within one community it doesn’t occur equally in all places and nor by the same way. It is also concentrated in some places more than others, sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, etc. Previous researches have proved that crime rate has significant correlation with different social factors: education levels, poverty rates and lack of social organization, while others have drawn the attention to its relation with the built environment. They proposed that crime occurs in places where both opportunities and criminals are available. The role of this paper is to identify urban circumstances related to crime occurrence within the Greater Cairo Region, and to propose different ways to reduce these crimes. Consecutively, agglomeration’s main districts were scrutinized according to social analysis, street-network pattern and land-use.

  9. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  10. The marriage of car sharing and hydrogen economy: A possible solution to the main problems of urban living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriston, Akos; Inzelt, Gyoergy [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Szabo, Tamas [Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics, Institute of Mathematics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/C (Hungary)

    2010-12-15

    The hydrogen economy is seeking its killer application, which can break down the 'chicken and egg problem', i.e., no hydrogen powered car can be sold if it cannot be refueled, and nobody will invest to a hydrogen refueling station if no one has a hydrogen powered vehicle. The applications like material handling, backup-power, and small stationary combined heat and power (CHP) engines are the most promising candidates, which may show financial return in 3-5 years. The replacement of fossil fuel with hydrogen in the automotive industry offers a substantial reduction of the harmful environmental effects, however, it is still the most challenging because of the absence of the hydrogen infrastructure, the price and the lifetime of the fuel cell (FC) engine and the unsuitable regulations, as well. In this work a new possible market was identified and analyzed in different points of view. This market segment is a car-sharing system operating with small urban vehicles, which not only can solve some environmental problems (e.g., air pollution and CO{sub 2} emission), but also helps to reduce congestion, secure energy supply and ease its distribution. First, a sensitivity analysis was done and the key performance indicators of the system were determined. The financial return of a hydrogen-based car-sharing system was examined carefully as a function of the rated power of the fuel cell power train, the way of hydrogen supply, the cost of the hydrogen and the size of the car fleet. Finally, a possible hydrogen-based car-sharing service was designed and optimized to the downtown of Budapest, Hungary. A sustainable system was proposed, which can satisfy the needs of the business (i.e., profitability) and the environment. (author)

  11. The marriage of car sharing and hydrogen economy: A possible solution to the main problems of urban living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriston, Akos; Inzelt, Gyoergy; Szabo, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is seeking its killer application, which can break down the 'chicken and egg problem', i.e., no hydrogen powered car can be sold if it cannot be refueled, and nobody will invest to a hydrogen refueling station if no one has a hydrogen powered vehicle. The applications like material handling, backup-power, and small stationary combined heat and power (CHP) engines are the most promising candidates, which may show financial return in 3-5 years. The replacement of fossil fuel with hydrogen in the automotive industry offers a substantial reduction of the harmful environmental effects, however, it is still the most challenging because of the absence of the hydrogen infrastructure, the price and the lifetime of the fuel cell (FC) engine and the unsuitable regulations, as well. In this work a new possible market was identified and analyzed in different points of view. This market segment is a car-sharing system operating with small urban vehicles, which not only can solve some environmental problems (e.g., air pollution and CO 2 emission), but also helps to reduce congestion, secure energy supply and ease its distribution. First, a sensitivity analysis was done and the key performance indicators of the system were determined. The financial return of a hydrogen-based car-sharing system was examined carefully as a function of the rated power of the fuel cell power train, the way of hydrogen supply, the cost of the hydrogen and the size of the car fleet. Finally, a possible hydrogen-based car-sharing service was designed and optimized to the downtown of Budapest, Hungary. A sustainable system was proposed, which can satisfy the needs of the business (i.e., profitability) and the environment. (author)

  12. Global assessment of rural–urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural–urban interface (RUI, known as the area where structures and other human developments meet or intermingle with wildland and rural area, is at present a central focus of wildfire policy and its mapping is crucial for wildfire management. In the Mediterranean Basin, humans cause the vast majority of fires and fire risk is particularly high in the proximity of infrastructure and of rural/wildland areas. RUI's extension changes under the pressure of environmental and anthropogenic factors, such as urban growth, fragmentation of rural areas, deforestation and, more in general, land use/land cover change (LULCC. As with other Mediterranean countries, Portugal has experienced significant LULCC in the last decades in response to migration, rural abandonment, ageing of population and trends associated with the high socioeconomic development. In the present study, we analyzed the LULCC occurring in this country in the 1990–2012 period with the main objective of investigating how these changes affected RUI's evolution. Moreover, we performed a qualitative and quantitative characterization of burnt areas within the RUI in relation to the observed changes. Obtained results disclose important LULCC and reveal their spatial distribution, which is far from uniform within the territory. A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities of the northwest, littoral-central and southern regions, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural and forest areas. Within agricultural areas, heterogeneous patches suffered the greatest changes and were the main contributors to the increase in urban areas; moreover, this land cover class, together with forests, was highly affected by wildfires in terms of burnt area. Finally, from this analysis and during the investigated period, it appears that RUI increased in Portugal by more than two

  13. Monitoring of urban growth and its related environmental impacts: Niamey case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Spadafora, Francesco; Yadji, Guero; Konaté, Moussa

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution is about a preliminary study of the evolution of Niamey city (Niger) during last decades. Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burkina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. Recent advances in remote sensing, both in satellite hardware technology (i.e. image availability) and image processing algorithm development, provide opportunities for collection and analysis of multitemporal information on urban form and size that can be useful for policy and planning. In spite of these developments, there are also limitations to remote sensing and its application in practice. Some opportunities for, and limitations on, monitoring urban growth using remote sensing data are shown in the present contribution; moreover examples of environmental impacts of urban growth, as monitored with remote sensing, are provided. Niamey is the capital of Niger and is the first city in the country in size and economic importance. Its population increased gradually, from about 3,000 units in 1930 to about 30,000 in 1960, rising to 250,000 in 1980 and, according to estimates, to 800,000 units in 2000. Its patterns of population distribution, livelihoods, and its dominant role within the national economy of Niger make it a good representative case study for West Africa. This case study will consider the recent historical context of continued urban growth and will assess potential future impacts of settlement patterns. The rapid growth of Niamey in the last decades brought relative prosperity but it certainly affected patterns of land use within the city and the emerging urban system. After a preliminary sketch of the georesources in the city (qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates), an analyses of the urban growth and

  14. Bird diversity and distribution in relation to urban landscape types in northern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesire, T; Nsabimana, D; Nyiramana, A; Seburanga, J L; Mirville, M O

    2014-01-01

    Using the point count method, linear mixed models, Shannon's diversity index, and Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, we conducted a study of the effect of urban fabric layout on bird diversity and distribution in northern Rwanda. The results showed a significant effect of city landscapes on bird richness and relative abundance; residential neighborhoods, institutional grounds, and informal settlements had the highest species diversity in comparison to other microlandscape types. Riversides were characterized by specialized bird species, commonly known to be restricted to wetland environments. Built-up areas and open field landscapes had comparable results. One Albertine Rift endemic bird species, the Ruwenzori Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris stuhlmanni), was recorded. Three migratory birds were found in Musanze city for the first time: the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), the Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), and the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus). Two bird species have not been previously reported in Rwanda: the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) and the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The implications of this study are particularly relevant to urban decision makers who should consider the existence of a great diversity of avian fauna when developing and implementing master plans, especially when villages and cities are in proximity of protected areas or natural reserves.

  15. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  16. EXPO 2015 as a Laboratory for Neoliberalization. Great Exhibitions, Urban Value Dispossession and New Labor Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Leonardi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Exhibitions provide analytical lenses whereby capitalist development can be read from material as well as intangible perspectives. Thus, the paper approaches Milan EXPO 2015 through the grid of intelligibility provided by the concept of neoliberalism/neoliberalization, namely as a regulatory experi-ment. EXPO 2015 is first situated against the background of a growing body of literature which interprets mega-events as catalysts of territorial dispossession. Starting from the critical urban theory premise that neoliberalization is necessarily a spatial project, the features of urban space production set in motion by the World Fair are analyzed by paying particular attention to the ways in which social movements framed such transformations and eventually mobilized in reaction to them. Secondly, EXPO 2015 functioned as a laboratory for the implementation of unprecedented labor relations. In particular, the widespread re-course to voluntary or unpaid workforces is in connection with the shift from wage to human capital as the pillar of social mediation between productive subjects

  17. Imprementation of Vgi-Based Geoportal for Empowering Citizen's Geospatial Observatories Related to Urban Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon

    2016-06-01

    The volunteered geospatial information (VGI) will be efficient and cost-effective method for generating and sharing large disasterrelated geospatial data. The national mapping organizations have played the role of major geospatial collector have been moving toward the considering public participation data collecting method. Due to VGI can conduct to encourage public participation and empower citizens, mapping agency could make a partnership with members of the VGI community to help to provide well-structured geospatial data. In order to effectively be understood and sharing the public semantics, datasets and action model of the public participation GeoPortal, the implemented VGI-GeoPortal designated as the basis of ISO 19154, ISO 19101 and OGC Reference Model. The proof of concepts of VGI-GeoPortal has been implemented urban flooding use-case in Republic of Korea to collect from the public, and analyze disaster-related geospatial data including high-disaster potential information such as the location of poor drainage sewer, small signs of occurring landslide, flooding vulnerability of urban structure, and etc.

  18. Urban-Related Environmental Variables and Their Relation with Patterns in Biological Community Structure in the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Evans, Erin E.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to evaluate the influence of urbanization on stream ecosystems. To accomplish this task, invertebrate, fish, stream discharge, habitat, water-chemistry, and land-use data were collected from 13 sites in the Fountain Creek basin from 2003 to 2005. The Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate hydrologic indices known to be related to urbanization. Response of stream hydrology to urbanization was evident among hydrologic variables that described stormflow. These indices included one measurement of high-flow magnitude, two measurements of high-flow frequency, and one measurement of stream flashiness. Habitat and selected nonstormflow water chemistry were characterized at each site. Land-use data were converted to estimates of impervious surface cover and used as the measure of urbanization annually. Correlation analysis (Spearman?s rho) was used to identify a suite of nonredundant streamflow, habitat, and water-chemistry variables that were strongly associated (rho > 0.6) with impervious surface cover but not strongly related to elevation (rho analysis (BIO-ENV, PRIMER ver 6.1, Plymouth, UK) was used to create subsets of eight urban-related environmental variables that described patterns in biological community structure. The strongest and most parsimonious subset of variables describing patterns in invertebrate community structure included high flood pulse count, lower bank capacity, and nutrients. Several other combinations of environmental variables resulted in competing subsets, but these subsets always included the three variables found in the most parsimonious list. This study found that patterns in invertebrate community structure from 2003 to 2005 in the Fountain Creek basin were associated with a variety of environmental characteristics influenced by urbanization. These patterns were explained by a combination of hydrologic, habitat, and water

  19. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  20. High cancer-related mortality in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2013-04-24

    To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.

  1. Cannabis-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Mediational Role of Post-Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2018-01-02

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Post-event processing (PEP, i.e., cognitively reviewing past social interactions/performances) is a social anxiety-related phenomenon that may be one such mechanism. The current study sought to test PEP as a mediator of the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems, adjusting for cannabis use frequency. Cannabis-using (past 3-month) undergraduate students recruited in 2015 (N = 244; 76.2% female; 74.2% Non-Hispanic Caucasian) completed an online survey of cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, social anxiety, and PEP. Bootstrap estimate of the indirect effect of social anxiety through PEP was significant, suggesting PEP is a mediator of the social anxiety-cannabis-related problems relationship. Conclusions/Importance: Treatment and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting PEP among individuals with elevated social anxiety and cannabis-related problems.

  2. The problem of spatial fit in social-ecological systems: detecting mismatches between ecological connectivity and land management in an urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Bergsten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of institutional fit in social-ecological systems has been empirically documented and conceptually discussed for decades, yet there is a shortage of approaches to systematically and quantitatively examine the level of fit. We address this gap, focusing on spatial fit in an urban and peri-urban regional landscape. Such landscapes typically exhibit significant fragmentation of remnant habitats, which can limit critical species dispersal. This may have detrimental effects on species persistence and ecosystem functioning if land use is planned without consideration of the spatial patterns of fragmentation. Managing habitat fragmentation is particularly challenging when the scale of fragmentation reaches beyond the control of single managers, thereby requiring different actors to coordinate their activities to address the problem at the appropriate scale. We present a research approach that maps patterns of collaborations between actors who manage different parts of a landscape, and then relates these patterns to structures of ecological connectivity. We applied our approach to evaluate the fit between a collaborative wetland management network comprising all 26 municipalities in the Stockholm County in Sweden and an ecologically defined network of dispersed but ecologically interconnected wetlands. Many wetlands in this landscape are either intersected by the boundary between two or more municipalities, or are located close to such boundaries, which implies a degree of ecological interconnectedness and a need for intermunicipal coordination related to wetland management across boundaries. We first estimated the level of ecological connectivity between wetlands in neighboring municipalities, and then used this estimate to elaborate the level of social-ecological fit vis-à-vis intermunicipal collaboration. We found that the level of fit was generally weak. Also, we identified critical misalignments of ecological connectivity and

  3. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling.

  4. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia: Review of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Worku; Asfaw, Araya; Gilliland, Frank; Worku, Alemayehu; Wondimagegn, Mehari; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan; Berhane, Kiros

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. The materials reviewed in this publication are published scientific papers from online search engines, unpublished government reports and academic theses/dissertations. In addition, interview data obtained from authorities and experts involved in the management of air quality were analyzed, interpreted and reported in the article. Review of the few studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that average concentrations of PM 2.5 reached as high as 280 µg/m 3 for 24-hour measurements (range: 2,417-12,739 µg/m 3 ). Indoor carbon monoxide (CO) levels were universally higher than regulatory limits for the United States and were found to be much higher among households using traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels. The use of traditional stoves and solid biomass fuels was reported in >95% of the households considered. High average levels of NO 2 (97 ppb) were reported in a large longitudinal study. The ambient PM 10 level was below the WHO guideline values in the majority of the samples. About 50% of the on-road CO samples taken from traffic roads in Addis Ababa were found to be less than the guideline values while the number of motor vehicles in Ethiopia is reported to be increasing by more than 9% per annum. There is a very limited air quality monitoring capacity in the country. The co-ordination between stakeholders in this regard is also inadequate. The limited evidence available on health effects of air pollution indicates that the prevalence of acute respiratory illness among children living in households using crude biomass fuels is significantly higher than the national average figures. The limited evidence reviewed and reported in this article indicates high levels of indoor air pollution and trends of

  5. HIV-Related Stigma and Discriminatory Attitudes among a Semi-Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugova, Halyna; Mon, Aye Aye; Daher, Aqil Mohammad; Suleiman, Adlina

    2015-09-01

    Stigma and discriminatory attitudes (SDAs) have a negative impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, testing, and treatment as well as on family and social networks. There is a lack of understanding about HIV-related SDAs among people living outside large cities. This study is aimed to determine the level of HIV-related SDAs among a semi-urban population in Malaysia and to compare the SDA results among people with different sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 106 respondents was generated by convenience sampling during the screening campaign in Alor Gajah, Malaysia. Data collection was carried out based on a pre-tested questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. More than half of the respondents (62.3%) thought that an HIV-positive teacher should not be allowed to continue teaching at school; 81.1% were unsure or were unwilling to care for their family member with AIDS at home; 81.2% thought children with HIV/AIDS should not continue to be raised in families; and 77.3% thought they would not reveal if a family member had HIV/AIDS. Priority should be given to evidence-based interventions to reduce HIV-related SDAs. This study did not reveal any significant relationship between sociodemographic profiles and HIV-related SDAs. Therefore, further research with a larger sample size is needed to investigate the underlying causes of HIV-related SDAs.

  6. Rural-urban variation in injury-related hospitalisation, health outcomes and treatment cost in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lower, Tony

    2018-04-19

    To compare differences in injury characteristics, health outcomes and treatment costs between urban and rural residents who were hospitalised following an injury. A retrospective examination of injury-linked hospitalisation and mortality data in New South Wales from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2014. Urban (496 325) and rural (213 139) residents who were hospitalised following an injury. Demographic and injury characteristics, injury severity, hospital length of stay, 28-day hospital readmission, 90-day mortality and treatment cost. Rural residents had an increased likelihood of being hospitalised for injuries from motorcycles, vehicles, animate causes, venomous animals or plants and assault compared to urban residents. Rural residents were less likely to be readmitted to hospital within 28 days and had a lower length of stay and age-adjusted length of stay than urban residents. Injury-related hospitalisations for urban and rural residents cost $4.4 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively. Annually, acute injury treatment ($1.1 billion), rehabilitation ($130 million) and subacute non-acute patient care ($57 million) cost $1.3 billion ($990 million for urban and $384 million for rural residents) in New South Wales. Fall-related injuries and transport incidents were the costliest injury mechanisms for both urban and rural residents. Injuries contribute substantially to hospitalised morbidity and its cost. The development and implementation of injury prevention strategies targeting the most common injuries for urban and rural residents will go some way towards reducing hospitalised injury and its cost. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  7. Decomposing the causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality among urban and rural populations in China: a new decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C; Zhao, Hongzhong

    2017-07-18

    In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China. Health status was derived from self-rated health (SRH) scores. The analyses were conducted on urban and rural samples separately. We found that the average level of health status declined from 1989 to 2006 for both urban and rural populations. Average health scores were greater for the rural population compared with those for the urban population. We also found that there exists pro-rich health inequality in China. While income and secondary education were the main factors to reduce health inequality, older people, unhealthy lifestyles and a poor home environment increased inequality. Health insurance had the opposite effects on health inequality for urban and rural populations, resulting in lower inequality for urban populations and higher inequality for their rural counterparts. These findings suggest that an effective way to reduce socioeconomic-related health inequality is not only to increase income and improve access to health care services, but also to focus on improvements in the lifestyles and the home environment. Specifically, for rural populations, it is particularly important to improve the design of health insurance and implement a more comprehensive insurance package that can effectively target the rural poor. Moreover, it is necessary to comprehensively promote the flush toilets and tap water in rural areas. For urban populations, in addition to promoting universal secondary education, healthy lifestyles should be promoted

  8. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  9. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallis, James F; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity......, in an international sample of adults. METHODS: We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic......'s residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4-7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models...

  10. Urban Shelter Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syagga, P.M.; Olima, W.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The central concern for every individual or family is adequate shelter which is more than roof over one's head. Shelter incorporates both housing and the entire environment within which housing must function (Kenya, 1995: 163). adequate shelter means adequate privacy and security including security of tenure, adequate space for socio-economic activities for the advancement of the quality of life physical accessibility and adequate basic infrastructural services (UNCHS, 1996: 26). Shelter provision is, therefore, an important investment to the individual, family and economy as a whole. This is not only determined by the space and facilities it provides, but by other external services it offers such as accessibility to education and health facilities, employment and trade opportunities and public and community services all available in the neighbourhood. The provision of a shelter plays a significant role in the overall national development. For instance, between 1990 and 1994 about 30 percent of the employees in the construction industry were directly engaged in the construction of building of which housing is an important component

  11. Drug related problems with Antiparkinsonian agents: consumer Internet reports versus published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Sabrina; Zöllner, York Francis; Schaefer, Marion

    2007-10-01

    There is currently a lack of detailed information concerning drug related problems in the outpatient treatment of Parkinson's disease. Problems associated with drug treatment communicated anonymously in Parkinson's disease online forums were therefore retrospectively searched and documented for 1 year. Based on postings concerning 12 drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, a total of 238 drug related problems were identified and categorised using the Problem Intervention Documentation (PI-Doc). Of these, 153 were adverse drug reactions. Adverse drug reactions associated with the skin were relatively common, but central effects such as cognitive or psychiatric changes, effects on the sleep/waking system and other problems like headache and dizziness accounted for the highest percentage of adverse events. A comparison with data from scientific literature revealed a number of differences. This means that an analysis of online forums detected a number of drug related problems that were otherwise largely invisible. These were mainly associated with the qualitative aspects of treatment such as medication handling, dosage and individual problems concerning adverse events. In addition, the described method of identifying and classifying drug related problems in Internet forums may also be seen as a contribution to the international discussion about consumer reports and pharmacovigilance. The information about adverse drug reactions given by Internet users can be seen as a valuable adjunct to clinical trial data and as being very timely with regard to the event itself. Online forums may be considered as a suitable source of observational information to complement data from randomised clinical trials.

  12. Relations between transfer matrices and numerical stability analysis to avoid the $\\Omega d$ problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Pernas-Salomón, R.; Velasco, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is usually employed to study problems described by $N$ equations of matrix Sturm-Liouville (MSL) kind. In some cases a numerical degradation (the so called $\\Omega d$ problem) appears thus impairing the performance of the method. We present here a procedure that can overcome this problem in the case of multilayer systems having piecewise constant coefficients. This is performed by studying the relations between the associated transfer matrix and other transfer matri...

  13. On categorical approach to derived preference relations in some decision making problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rozen, Victor V.; Zhitomirski, Grigori

    2005-01-01

    A structure called a decision making problem is considered. The set of outcomes (consequences) is partially ordered according to the decision maker's preferences. The problem is how these preferences affect a decision maker to prefer one of his strategies (or acts) to another, i.e. it is to describe so called derived preference relations. This problem is formalized by using category theory approach and reduced to a pure algebraical question. An effective method is suggested to build all reaso...

  14. Age-related differences in strategic monitoring during arithmetic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Lemaire, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    We examined the role of metacognitive monitoring in strategic behavior during arithmetic problem solving, a process that is expected to shed light on age-related differences in strategy selection. Young and older adults accomplished better strategy-judgment, better strategy-selection, and strategy-execution tasks. Data showed that participants made better strategy judgments when problems were problems with homogeneous unit digits (i.e., problems with both unit digits smaller or larger than 5; 31×62) relative to problems with heterogeneous unit digits (i.e., problems with one unit digit smaller or larger than 5; 31×67) and when the better strategy was cued on rounding-up problems (e.g., 68×23) compared to rounding-down problems (e.g., 36×53). Results also indicated higher rates of better strategy judgment in young than in older adults. These aging effects differed across problem types. Older adults made more accurate judgments on rounding-up problems than on rounding-down problems when the cued strategy was rounding-up, while young adults did not show such problem-related differences. Moreover, strategy selection correlated with strategy judgment, and even more so in older adults than in young adults. To discuss the implications of these findings, we propose a theoretical framework of how strategy judgments occur in young and older adults and discuss how this framework enables to understand relationships between metacognitive monitoring and strategic behaviors when participants solve arithmetic problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Playing-Related Health Problems Among Instrumental Music Students at a University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Karen; Boon, Ong Kuan

    2016-09-01

    Musicians from a wide range of backgrounds experience playing-related health problems including musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and performance anxiety. Few studies have focused specifically on the health concerns of musicians in Malaysia. This study aimed to investigate playing-related health problems among student musicians at a university in Malaysia as well as their knowledge and awareness of playing-related health problems. Instrumental music students enrolled in undergraduate and post-graduate university music courses (n=98) participated in a self-report online survey which addressed aspects such as educational background, playing experience, knowledge and awareness of musicians' health issues, history of physical problems, lifestyle factors, and prevention and management strategies. Of the total participants, 28.9% reported that they were currently experiencing playing-related pain in a body part, and 46.4% had experienced playing-related pain at some time. More than half (56.7%) felt that they have not received enough information or advice on playing-related health during their current studies. Musicians who experienced playing-related pain, tension, and discomfort reported the main problem sites to be the fingers and hands, arms, neck, and shoulders. The study results demonstrate that Malaysian university music students are affected by similar types of playing-related physical problems as their counterparts around the world. A greater awareness and knowledge of injury prevention and management strategies is needed so that these music students can sustain healthy playing careers.

  16. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wright, Jim [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Aondoakaa, Stephen [Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria); School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hossain, Rifat [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartram, Jamie, E-mail: jbartram@unc.edu [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  17. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  18. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  19. Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…

  20. Bidirectional Associations between Peer Relations and Attention Problems from 9 to 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Linqin; Pan, Bin; Zhang, Wenxin; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2018-05-12

    We examined the bidirectional relations between peer relations and attention problems from middle childhood through adolescence. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Chinese Children and Adolescents (LSCCA, N = 2157, 51.9% male), three key aspects of peer relations (acceptance, rejection, and victimization) were assessed annually from 9 to 16 years of age. Attention problems were assessed at 9 and 15 years. Latent growth modeling indicated that greater attention problems at age 9 were linked with a lower intercept for peer acceptance, and higher intercepts for rejection and victimization. Also, prior lower acceptance and greater rejection and victimization, along with a higher increase over time in rejection and lower decrease over time in victimization, predicted attention problems at age 15. Cross-lagged analysis showed that attention problems were associated with less subsequent peer acceptance and greater subsequent rejection and victimization. Only peer rejection (but neither victimization nor acceptance) predicted more subsequent attention problems. Findings point to bidirectional associations between attention problems and peer relations in the developmental transition across adolescence. Evidence for differential bidirectionality of attention problems with the multiple peer experience (group versus dyadic; good versus bad) emerged, and future replications are needed.

  1. Secondary Teachers’ Mathematics-related Beliefs and Knowledge about Mathematical Problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Siswono, T. Y.; Kohar, A. W.; Hartono, S.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates secondary teachers’ belief about the three mathematics-related beliefs, i.e. nature of mathematics, teaching mathematics, learning mathematics, and knowledge about mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered through a set of task-based semi-structured interviews of three selected teachers with different philosophical views of teaching mathematics, i.e. instrumental, platonist, and problem solving. Those teachers were selected from an interview using a belief-related task from purposively selected teachers in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. While the interviews about knowledge examine teachers’ problem solving content and pedagogical knowledge, the interviews about beliefs examine their views on several cases extracted from each of such mathematics-related beliefs. Analysis included the categorization and comparison on each of beliefs and knowledge as well as their interaction. Results indicate that all the teachers did not show a high consistency in responding views of their mathematics-related beliefs, while they showed weaknesses primarily on problem solving content knowledge. Findings also point out that teachers’ beliefs have a strong relationship with teachers’ knowledge about problem solving. In particular, the instrumental teacher’s beliefs were consistent with his insufficient knowledge about problem-solving, while both platonist and problem-solving teacher’s beliefs were consistent with their sufficient knowledge of either content or pedagogical problem solving.

  2. Obstacles Related to Structuring for Mathematization Encountered by Students when Solving Physics Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the cognitive obstacles related to one aspect of mathematization in physics problem-solving, namely, what might be called structuring for mathematization, where the problem situation is structured in such a way that a translation to a mathematical universe can be done. We report...

  3. Implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation in terms of quantum white noise derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Un Cig; Obata, Nobuaki

    2010-01-01

    The implementation problem for the canonical commutation relation is reduced to a system of differential equations for Fock space operators containing new type of derivatives. We solve these differential equations systematically by means of quantum white noise calculus, and obtain the solution to the implementation problem.

  4. the urban jungle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most significant problems facing urban communities today is the ... attempts to address such an ethic. THE URBAN ... (a) picture building; (b) problem solving; and (c) action taking. ... need to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The urban ... environment is regarded as important by the school, and ...

  5. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2015-11-23

    Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. This study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1993-2009 with a sample of 9616 children under the age of 18. We compute height-for-age z-score and weight-for-age z-score for children. We use both descriptive statistics and multiple regression techniques to study the levels and significance of the association between child nutrition-related health outcomes and hukou type. Children with urban hukou have 0.25 (P system exacerbates urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes independent of the well-known disparity stemming from urban-rural residence. Fortunately, however, child health disparities due to hukou have been declining since 2000.

  6. Eddy covariance measurements and parameterisation of traffic related particle emissions in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Mårtensson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban aerosol sources are important due to the health effects of particles and their potential impact on climate. Our aim has been to quantify and parameterise the urban aerosol source number flux F (particles m−2 s−1, in order to help improve how this source is represented in air quality and climate models. We applied an aerosol eddy covariance flux system 118.0 m above the city of Stockholm. This allowed us to measure the aerosol number flux for particles with diameters >11 nm. Upward source fluxes dominated completely over deposition fluxes in the collected dataset. Therefore, the measured fluxes were regarded as a good approximation of the aerosol surface sources. Upward fluxes were parameterised using a traffic activity (TA database, which is based on traffic intensity measurements. The footprint (area on the surface from which sources and sinks affect flux measurements, located at one point in space of the eddy system covered road and building construction areas, forests and residential areas, as well as roads with high traffic density and smaller streets. We found pronounced diurnal cycles in the particle flux data, which were well correlated with the diurnal cycles in traffic activities, strongly supporting the conclusion that the major part of the aerosol fluxes was due to traffic emissions. The emission factor for the fleet mix in the measurement area EFfm=1.4±0.1×1014 veh−1 km−1 was deduced. This agrees fairly well with other studies, although this study has an advantage of representing the actual effective emission from a mixed vehicle fleet. Emission from other sources, not traffic related, account for a F0=15±18×106 m−2 s−1. The urban aerosol source flux can then be written as F=EFfmTA+F0. In a second attempt to find a parameterisation, the friction velocity U* normalised with the average friction velocity has been included, F=EF . This parameterisation results in a somewhat reduced emission factor, 1.3×1014 veh

  7. Loss of urban forest canopy and the related effects on soundscape and human directed attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverne, Robert James Paul

    The specific questions addressed in this research are: Will the loss of trees in residential neighborhoods result in a change to the local soundscape? The investigation of this question leads to a related inquiry: Do the sounds of the environment in which a person is present affect their directed attention?. An invasive insect pest, the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis ), is killing millions of ash trees (genus Fraxinus) throughout North America. As the loss of tree canopy occurs, urban ecosystems change (including higher summer temperatures, more stormwater runoff, and poorer air quality) causing associated changes to human physical and mental health. Previous studies suggest that conditions in urban environments can result in chronic stress in humans and fatigue to directed attention, which is the ability to focus on tasks and to pay attention. Access to nature in cities can help refresh directed attention. The sights and sounds associated with parks, open spaces, and trees can serve as beneficial counterbalances to the irritating conditions associated with cities. This research examines changes to the quantity and quality of sounds in Arlington Heights, Illinois. A series of before-and-after sound recordings were gathered as trees died and were removed between 2013 and 2015. Comparison of recordings using the Raven sound analysis program revealed significant differences in some, but not all measures of sound attributes as tree canopy decreased. In general, more human-produced mechanical sounds (anthrophony) and fewer sounds associated with weather (geophony) were detected. Changes in sounds associated with animals (biophony) varied seasonally. Monitoring changes in the proportions of anthrophony, biophony and geophony can provide insight into changes in biodiversity, environmental health, and quality of life for humans. Before-tree-removal and after-tree-removal sound recordings served as the independent variable for randomly-assigned human volunteers as

  8. Relation Decomposing between Urbanization and Consumption of Water-Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, J., , Dr; Jiang, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Water resources and energy, important subsystems of city, are the basic guarantee for the normal operation of city, which play an important role to brace the urbanization. The interdependence between them are increasing along with the rapid development of China's economy. The relationship between urbanization and consumption of energy and water have become the focal point of the scholars, but the research have more attention to the impact of urbanization on two subsystems separately, and do not reveal the effects of urbanization on the water-energy nexus. Thus, there is little consideration upon the different characteristics of China's several regions in water and energy consumption in urbanization. In this paper, the STIRPAT model is built to reveal the relationship between urbanization and the consumption of water and energy. Also, the influence of urbanization on different main body of water and energy consumption are discussed. The different regional main factors of water and energy in the process of urbanization are identified through water and energy panel data of China's thirty provinces. Finally, through the regression analysis of total water consumption data of agriculture, industry, service industry with total energy consumption data, the relationship of water and energy in the process of urban development are analyzed.

  9. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): Leaf traits and litter decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Suvi; Vapaavuori, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku

    2010-01-01

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. - Urbanization can modify leaf traits of aspen and accelerate litter decomposition through changes in litter traits as well as in environmental conditions at the decomposition site.

  10. Inappropriate prescribing and prescribing omissions among drug-related problems using STOPP-START criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoorn, M.A.; Kwint, H.-F.; Faber, A.; L. Bouvy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Medication review has been suggested as a way to prevent drug related problems (DRPs). Screening tools have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) respectively called Screening Tool of Older

  11. Applications of Desensitization Procedures for School-Related Problems; A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, H. Thompson; Harvey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of desensitization and counterconditioning procedures have been utilized to deal with school-related problems. These procedures are reviewed with respect to applications for treating school phobia, test anxiety, and other academic anxieties. (Author)

  12. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Kathrin M; Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Pobese (Pobesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  13. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Staelens, Jeroen; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet

    2018-02-12

    The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM 10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM 10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout) and a rural background location (Houtem) in Flanders (Belgium). To characterize the toxic potential of PM 10 , airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells) were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability) and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP) of PM 10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM 10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM 10 toxicity were seen. PM 10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (-0.46 biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were associated with altered cellular responses and increased mutagenic activity. These findings may indicate a role of

  14. Mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh-Rangi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Driving crash is one of major concerns in all countries. Mental workload reflects the level of attention resources required to meet both objec­tive and subjective performance criteria, which may be affected by task demand, external support, and past experience. Mental workload has been commonly cited as a major cause of workplace and transportation accidents. The objective of this study was assessment of mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, the NASA-TLX workload scale and the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were completed by 194 professional bus drivers. Descriptive statistics as well as correlation and regression analysis were performed for data processing. Results: The total mental workload had highest correlation with the physical demand(r=0.73, p<0.001, the mental demand (r=0.68, p<0.001 and the time pressure (r=0.58, p<0.001. The total fatigue perceived by bus driver had highest correlation with the frustration level (r=0.42, p<0.001, the time pressure (r=0.24, p<0.001 and the mental workload (r=0.21, p<0.001. Conclusion: Mental workload, physical workload and time pressure are important determinants of the total mental workload and fatigue perceived by urban bus drivers. A comprehensive intervention program, include work turnover, trip and work-rest scheduling as well as smoking cessation, was recommended to improve mental workload and fatigue. 

  15. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-02-05

    China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Zhang, Haizhen

    2018-05-24

    Heavy metal contamination in roadside soil due to traffic emission has been recognized for a long time. However, seldom has been reported regarding identification of critical factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in urban roadside soils due to the frequent disturbances such as the repair of damaged roads and green belt maintanance. Heavy metals in the roadside soils of 45 roads in Xihu district, Hangzhou city were investigated. Results suggested the accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn in roadside soil was affected by human activity. However, only two sites had Pb and Zn excessing the standards for residential areas, respectively, according to Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for soils. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly and positively correlated to soil pH and organic matter. An insignificant correlation between the age of the roads or vegetation cover types and the concentration of heavy metals was found although they were reported closely relating to the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils of highways. The highest Pb, Cd, and Cr taking place in sites with heavy traffic and significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn among the different categories of roads suggested the contribution of traffic intensity. However, it was difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between traffic intensity and the concentrations of heavy metals in the roadside soil. It could be concluded that impaction of traffic emission on the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils in urban area was slight and soil properties such as pH and organic matters were critical factors influencing the retention of heavy metals in soils.

  17. Decreased waterborne pathogenic bacteria in an urban aquifer related to intense shallow geothermal exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Gasco-Cavero, Samanta; Garrido, Eduardo; Mejías, Miguel; Epting, Jannis; Navarro-Elipe, Mercedes; Alejandre, Carmen; Sevilla-Alcaine, Elena

    2018-08-15

    The implications of intensive use of shallow geothermal energy resources in shallow urban aquifers are still not known for waterborne pathogens relevant to human health. Firstly, we hypothesized that waterborne enteric pathogens would be relatively increased in heated groundwater plumes. To prove this, microbiological sampling of 31 piezometers covering the domain of an urban groundwater body affected by microbiological contamination and energetically exploited by 70 groundwater heat pump systems was performed. Mean differences of pathogenic bacteria contents between impacted and non-impacted monitoring points were assessed with a two-tailed independent Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Surprisingly, the results obtained revealed a significant and generalized decrease in waterborne pathogen contents in thermally impacted piezometers compared to that of non-impacted piezometers. This decrease is hypothesized to be caused by a heat shock to bacteria within the heat exchangers. The statistically significant negative correlations obtained between waterborne pathogen counts and temperature could be explained by the spatial distribution of the bacteria, finding that bacteria start to recover with increasing distance from the injection point. Also, different behavior groups fitting exponential regression models were found for the bacteria species studied, justified by the different presence and influence of several aquifer parameters and major, minor and trace elements studied, as well as the coexistence with other bacteria species. The results obtained from this work reinforce the concept of shallow geothermal resources as a clean energy source, as they could also provide the basis to control the pathogenic bacteria contents in groundwater bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Kind of Nonlinear Programming Problem Based on Mixed Fuzzy Relation Equations Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinquan; Feng, Shuang; Mi, Honghai

    In this work, a kind of nonlinear programming problem with non-differential objective function and under the constraints expressed by a system of mixed fuzzy relation equations is investigated. First, some properties of this kind of optimization problem are obtained. Then, a polynomial-time algorithm for this kind of optimization problem is proposed based on these properties. Furthermore, we show that this algorithm is optimal for the considered optimization problem in this paper. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate our algorithms.

  19. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...

  20. On the brink: how business owners experience business-related and other legal problems

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, N. J.; Pleasence, P.

    2017-01-01

    New analysis of LAW Survey data has identified three distinct groups among business owners according to their likelihood of experiencing business-related and other types of legal problems ‒ ‘normal’, ‘highly elevated’ and ‘extreme’. As is the case with individuals, a relatively small proportion of business owners account for the bulk of problems. Targeted legal assistance services are needed for this group.

  1. Mapping of Junior High School Students’ Social Relation Problem and the Needed Assisting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin Janu Setiyowati; Marthen Pali; Bambang Budi Wiyono; Triyono

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe Junior High School students’ social relation problem and the needed assisting model. This research used descriptive design with survey method. The subjects of this research were Junior High School students in the three cities in East Java. This research used purposive sampling as well. The data was collected by using questionnaire. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. This research found that Junior High School students’ social relation problems includ...

  2. A Hard Road: Driving Local Action against Alcohol Related Problems in a Rural Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julaine Allan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Context is important in developing strategies to address alcohol related violence. Knowledge of local conditions is critical to action in rural areas. The aim of this study was to gather information about context specific alcohol related problems experienced by frontline workers in a regional centre to inform the local alcohol action plan. Frontline workers were invited to participate in one of five focus group discussions that investigated problems experienced as a result of other people’s alcohol use. Alcohol related problems were more frequently associated with time periods than any single group in the community. Social media was used to incite arguments between groups in different venues during the lock-out periods. The focus groups identified that the location of licensed premises and a taxi rank; and previous relationships between protagonists were the key contextual factors causing alcohol related problems. A second taxi rank was identified as a useful local management strategy. Supply reduction was suggested as a key factor in long term solutions to alcohol related problems in rural towns. The local liquor accord did not want to reduce supply of alcohol by closing late night venues earlier. Local action to reduce alcohol related problems will be limited to pragmatic solutions because supply reduction is unacceptable to those in the business of selling alcohol.

  3. [The current problems and cross-cultural perspectives of patient-doctor relation: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Eckhardt; Turgut, Tolga

    2004-01-01

    The success of the treatment in medicine, especially in psychiatry is based on the form and the strength of the patient-doctor relation. This complex and dynamic relation is changing in accordance with the social and technological development of the society. The context of the patient-doctor relation is determined by the present day culture as well as the traditional background. An overview of current patient-doctor relation and of problems that physicians and in particular psychiatrists meet is presented. Physicians have responsibilities in building patient-doctor relation. The ethical and legal aspects of these responsibilities are presented. The former paternalistic type of patient-doctor relation is evolving into a more equal and democratic relation. New problems are being encountered continuously in the changing process. Beside the of the process itself, the effects of progress in medical technology and communication systems on patient-doctor relation and the pressure, put from the insurance companies and/or authorities on physicians, which impair the trust between the physician and his patient, are making the process more difficult. The issues of compliance, sexual harassment and unique problems of patient-doctor relations in psychiatry are the other subtopics in the article. The cross-cultural aspects of patient-doctor relations and encountered clinical problems are discussed with case examples particularly about Turkish immigrants, who live in Germany. Suggestions for psychiatrists in Germany to work out the challenges facing them are presented in the conclusion.

  4. The relation between land-cover and the urban heat island in northeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J.R. Murphy; Myrna Hall; Charles Hall; Gordon Heisler; Steve Stehman

    2007-01-01

    As development continues in Puerto Rico, forests and grasslands are being converted to impervious cover, changing the magnitude and geographic range of the Urban Heat Island (UHI). As part of the U.S. National Science Foundation Long Term Ecological Research Program, this study aims to quantify the various meteorological effects that urbanization may be imparting on...

  5. Age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving: The role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, T; Lemaire, P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of how age-related changes in executive control influence aging effects in arithmetic processing. More specifically, we consider the role of executive control in strategic variations with age during arithmetic problem solving. Previous studies found that age-related differences in arithmetic performance are associated with strategic variations. That is, when they accomplish arithmetic problem-solving tasks, older adults use fewer strategies than young adults, use strategies in different proportions, and select and execute strategies less efficiently. Here, we review recent evidence, suggesting that age-related changes in inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory processes underlie age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving. We discuss both behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes in these executive control processes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. RESULTS: Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated......OBJECTIVES: Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet...... communication are associated with young people's social relations. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89 %, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming...

  7. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  8. Building Maintenance in Old Buildings Conservation Approach: An Overview of Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Kayan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance in conservation of old buildings is one of the approaches applied within the built environment of Malaysia. For instance, it is realised that these old buildings contribute an important significance to our nation's priceless heritage and unique historical development. However, most of these buildings' maintenance is influenced by related problems that affect the overall building conservation approach. Therefore, these old buildings face problems which greatly affect their overall condition and performance: building structure; building appearance and aesthetic; building materials and building character. In most critical situations, there is a greater possibility that we could lose the cultural significance and heritage values of these old buildings through ignoring the related problems. This paper tries to identify the related problems, reveal the findings and discuss suitable approaches to conserving these old buildings.

  9. RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE DENSITY ESTIMATES OF LAND PLANARIANS (PLATYHELMINTHES, TRICLADIDA IN URBAN RAINFOREST PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO CARBAYO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land planarians (Platyhelminthes are likely important components of the soil cryptofauna, although relevant aspects of their ecology such as their density remain largely unstudied. We investigated absolute and relative densities of flatworms in three patches of secondary Brazilian Atlantic rainforest in an urban environment. Two methods of sampling were carried out, one consisting of 90 hours of active search in delimited plots covering 6,000 m² over a year, and the other consisting of leaf litter extraction from a 60 m² soil area, totaling 480-600 l leaf litter. We found 288 specimens of 16 species belonging to the genera Geobia, Geoplana, Issoca, Luteostriata, Obama, Paraba, Pasipha, Rhynchodemus, Xerapoa, and the exotic species Bipalium kewense and Dolichoplana striata. Specimens up to 10 mm long were mostly sampled only with the leaf litter extraction method. Absolute densities, calculated from data obtained with leaf litter extraction, ranged between 1.25 and 2.10 individuals m-2. These values are 30 to 161 times higher than relative densities, calculated from data obtained by active search. Since most common sampling method used in land planarian studies on species composition and faunal inventories is active search for a few hours in a locality, our results suggest that small species might be overlooked. It remains to be tested whether similar densities of this cryptofauna are also found in primary forests.

  10. Discrimination and alcohol-related problems among college students: a prospective examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  12. Study over problems related to fuel and ash handling systems; Probleminventering braensle- och askhantering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njurell, Rolf; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    There have been a lot of problems related to fuel and ash handling systems since the combustion of different types of biofuels started in the 70s. Many measures have been taken to solve some of the problems, but others have become part of the daily work. The purpose of this study has been to do a compilation of the fuel and ash handling problems that exist at different types of heat and power plants. The study over problems related to fuel and ash handling systems has been carried out through a questionnaire via the Internet. Directors at about 150 energy production plants were contacted by phone or e-mail in the beginning of the project and asked to participate in the study. 72 of these plants accepted to fill in the questionnaire. After several reminders by e-mails and phone calls there were in the end 32 plants that completed the form. Together they reported about 25 problems related to fuel handling and 27 problems related to ash handling. In general each of the plants reported one problem of each kind. Even if the material from the questionnaire is not enough to make statistical analysis a few conclusions can be made about the most common problems, the cause of the problems and where they appear. Fuel handling problems that occur at several plants are stoppage in the conveying equipment, bridging in the boiler silo or the tipping bunker and problems with the sieve for separation. The distribution of the fuel handling problems is almost equal for all equipment parts (receiving, separation, transport etc.). For the ash handling systems problems with transport of dry bottom ash dominate, followed by and the moistening of fly ash and transport of wet bottom ash. Most of the problems related to fuel handling are caused by the fuel quality. For example several plants have reported that bark is a fuel that is hard to handle. Nevertheless the quality for a specific fuel is not always bad when it is delivered to the plant but the fuel quality might change during

  13. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Association between chronic conditions and health-related quality of life: differences by level of urbanization in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Abbs, Elizabeth Sarah; Lazo-Porras, Maria; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the role of urbanization as an effect modifier for the association between specific chronic conditions and number of conditions with health-related quality of life (QOL). We analyzed cross-sectional data from the CRONICAS Cohort Study conducted in Lima (highly urbanized), Tumbes (semi-urban), as well as rural and urban sites in Puno. Exposures of interest were chronic bronchitis, depressive mood, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and a composite variable aggregating the number of chronic conditions (the four exposures plus heart disease and stroke). QOL outcomes were assessed with EuroQol's EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). We fitted linear regressions with robust variance to evaluate the associations of interest. Study site was assessed as a potential effect modifier using the likelihood-ratio (LR) test. We evaluated data on 2433 subjects: 51.3% were female, mean age was 57.2 years. Study site was found to be an effect modifier only for the association between depressive mood and EQ-VAS score (LR test p < 0.001). Compared to those without depressive mood, participants with depressive mood scored -13.7 points on the EQ-VAS in Lima, -7.9 in urban Puno, -11.0 in semi-urban Tumbes, and -2.7 in rural Puno. Study site was not found to be an effect modifier for the association between the number of chronic conditions and EQ-VAS (LR test p = 0.64). The impact of depressive mood on EQ-VAS was larger in urban than in rural sites, while site was not an effect modifier for the remaining associations.

  15. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagangatharathilagar, M.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C.; Dwivedi, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  16. On the relative importance of vegetation terms in computational fluid dynamics on flow and Dispersion in the urban environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of vegetation terms was analysed for flow and dispersion in an urban street canyon with avenue-trees. To this end, simulations with three k-e turbulence models and different approaches to model vegetation were performed. The different approaches resulted in rather slight

  17. Ecological sustainability and urban form

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Muñiz; Anna Galindo

    2001-01-01

    One controversial idea present in the debate on urban sustainability is that urban sprawl is an ecological stressing problem. We have tested this popular assumption by measuring the ecological footprint of commuting and housing of the 163 municipalities of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region and by relating the estimated values with residential density and accessibility, the fundamental determinant of residential density according to the Monocentric City Model.

  18. Emotion dysregulation and peer drinking norms uniquely predict alcohol-related problems via motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Processing of Words Related to the Demands of a Previously Solved Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research by the author brought about findings suggesting that people in a special way process words related to demands of a problem they previously solved, even when they do not consciously notice this relationship. The findings concerned interference in the task in which the words appeared, a shift in affective responses to them that depended on sex of the participants, and impaired memory of the words. The aim of this study was to replicate these effects and to find out whether they are related to working memory (WM span of the participants, taken as a measure of the individual’s ability to control attention. Participants in the experimental group solved a divergent problem, then performed an ostensibly unrelated speeded affective classification task concerning each of a series of nouns, and then performed an unexpected cued recall task for the nouns. Afterwards, a task measuring WM span was administered. In the control group there was no problem-solving phase. Response latencies for words immediately following problem-related words in the classification task were longer in the experimental than in the control group, but there was no relationship between this effect and WM span. Solving the problem, in interaction with sex of the participants and, independently, with their WM span, influenced affective responses to problem-related words. Recall of these words, however, was not impaired in the experimental group.

  20. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Nielsen, Line; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-02-01

    Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet communication are associated with young people's social relations. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89%, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated with almost all aspects of poor social relations among boys. Among girls, an association was only seen for bullying. For both boys and girls, perceived problems related to Internet use were associated with bullying only. Although the study is cross-sectional, the findings suggest that computer gaming and Internet use may be harmful to young people's social relations.

  1. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  2. Solving Relational Database Problems with ORDBMS in an Advanced Database Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) to solve relational database (RDB) problems in an advanced database course. The purpose of the paper is to provide a guideline for database instructors who desire to incorporate the ORDB technology in their traditional database courses. The paper presents…

  3. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  4. The study of urban systems by indicators. State of the art and implementation problems; Lo studio dei sistemi urbani attraverso indicatori. Stato dell'arte e problematiche operative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ciello, R; Napoleoni, S [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to define the state of the art about the problem of the indicators and their capability in reading and foreseeing the urban complexity. Therefore, the theoretical elaborations and the suggestions developed in the report try to convert the different contributions in the Italian and international literature in a frame-work, focusing on those arguments which assume a key role in the study of the urban areas: (a) the problematic definition of the administrative, physics and functional boarders of the cities; (b) the selection of the indicators that describe the urban areas; (c) the description and quality of life and of environment quality in the cities; (d) the sustainability in urban areas. [Italian] Il lavoro si propone di delineare lo stato dell'arte sul problema degli indicatori e sulla loro capacita' di leggere e prevedere la complessita' urbana. Le elaborazioni teoriche e i suggerimenti metodologici sviluppati nel rapporto tentano dunque di tradurre in protocolli di lavoro i diversi contributi prodotti negli ultimi anni nella letteratura italiana e internazionale concentrando in particolare l'attenzione su quei temi che all'interno dello studio dei sistemi urbani assumono un ruolo chiave: (a) la problematica definizione dei confini amministrativi, fisici e funzionali delle citta'; (b) la selezione degli indicatori che descrivono con piu' efficacia il sistema urbano; (c) le dimensioni e la misura della qualita' della vita e dell'ambiente nelle citta'; (d) la sostenibilita' all'interno dei sistemi urbani.

  5. Loess relief degradation in urban peripheries and selected problems with land management (case study: Lipniak Gully, Lublin, E Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuraw, Beata; Rodzik, Jan; Sosnowska, Małgorzata; Podsiedlik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The research was conducted in the peripheral area of a relatively large city (350 thousand residents) in its major part located on a loess plateau. The study object was a neglected road gully dissecting a dry valley. Soil and sediment sampling permitted the reconstruction of the development of its relief from the Late Glacial, with particular consideration of anthropogenic changes. The history of land use was reconstructed based on archival maps and documentation. Plant associations were also identified. Land management was proposed in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. The studied landform was determined to originally constitute an erosional-denudational valley with asymmetric slopes, developed during the last phases of the Late Glacial. In the Holocene, the relief was strengthened by a oak-hornbean forest, where deep Luvisols developed. In the 19th century, the forest was gradually cleared, and the land was cultivated. A ground road was made along the valley floor. A road gully developed over a century of its use, with a depth of up to 4 m. Soil erosion on the slopes, uneven due to varied use, changed the direction of their asymmetry. In the 2nd half of the 20th century, low urban development reached the gully's vicinity, because the gully was designated the boundary of Lublin. Currently, the area is located within the city boundaries. The valley-gully system Lipniak, however, is wasteland along its considerable section. Plant succession occurred towards natural and ruderal associations. Neglecting the gully favours its inhabitancy by animals (among others foxes). Unfortunately, it also contributes to its littering. The local community has expressed the need for the management and ordering of the area to make it available for recreation with the maintenance of its natural values. In response to such needs, a project was prepared involving the construction of a walking-cycling path along the gully, connecting the nearby residential

  6. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Demmler

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD, typically associated with high body mass index (BMI, is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now.This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG, blood pressure (BP, and the metabolic syndrome.This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality.Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2 (P<0.01 and an increased probability (+ 20 percentage points of being overweight or obese (P<0.01. Purchasing food in supermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L (P<0.01 and a higher likelihood (+ 16 percentage points of suffering from pre-diabetes (P<0.01 and the metabolic syndrome (+ 7 percentage points (P<0.01. Effects on BP could not be observed.Supermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  7. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Background While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people’s health have not been analyzed up till now. Objective This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people’s BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. Design This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Results Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Psupermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L) (PSupermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people’s health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people’s food choices. PMID:28934333

  8. Information on actual medication use and drug-related problems in older patients: questionnaire or interview?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, Floor; Grundeken, Lucienne H; van den Eijkel, Lisanne P; Schellevis, François G; Elders, Petra J M; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2016-04-01

    Information on medication use and drug-related problems is important in the preparation of clinical medication reviews. Critical information can only be provided by patients themselves, but interviewing patients is time-consuming. Alternatively, patient information could be obtained with a questionnaire. In this study the agreement between patient information on medication use and drug-related problems in older patients obtained with a questionnaire was compared with information obtained during an interview. General practice in The Netherlands. A questionnaire was developed to obtain information on actual medication use and drug-related problems. Two patient groups ≥65 years were selected based on general practitioner electronic medical records in nine practices; I. polypharmacy and II. ≥1 predefined general geriatric problems. Eligible patients were asked to complete the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. Agreement on information on medication use and drug-related problems collected with the questionnaire and interview was calculated. Ninety-seven patients participated. Of all medications used, 87.6 % (95 % CI 84.7-90.5) was reported identically in the questionnaire and interview. Agreement for the complete medication list was found for 45.4 % (95 % CI 35.8-55.3) of the patients. On drug-related problem level, agreement between questionnaire and interview was 75 %. Agreement tended to be lower in vulnerable patients characterized by ≥4 chronic diseases, ≥10 medications used and low health literacy. Information from a questionnaire showed reasonable agreement compared with interviewing. The patients reported more medications and drug-related problems in the interview than the questionnaire. Taking the limitations into account, a questionnaire seems a suitable tool for medication reviews that may replace an interview for most patients.

  9. Changes in Body Mass Index and Stoma Related Problems in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeps, Raymond; McMullen, Carmit K.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Bulkley, Joanna; Grant, Marcia; Mohler, Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Weight gain can cause retraction of an intestinal stoma, possibly resulting in difficulty with wafer and pouch fit, daily care challenges, and discomfort. This cross-sectional study examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and ostomy-related problems among long-term (>5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Materials and Methods CRC survivors from three Kaiser Permanente Regions completed a mailed survey. The response rate for those with an ostomy was 53% (283/529). Questions included stoma-related problems and time to conduct daily ostomy care. Poisson regression evaluated associations between report of problems and change in BMI. Our analysis sample included 235 survivors. Results Sample was 76% ≥65 years of age. Since their surgeries, BMI remained stable in 44% (ST), decreased in 20% (DE), and increased in 35% (IN) of survivors. Compared to ST, male IN (RR 2.15 [1.09–4.25]) and female DE (RR 5.06 [1.26–25.0]) were more likely to spend more than 30 minutes per day on stoma care. IN (vs. ST) were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.51 [1.06–2.17]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 2.32 [1.30–4.14]). Survivors who were obese at time of survey were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.88 [1.38–2.56]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 1.68 [1.07–2.65]). Conclusion A change in BMI is associated with ostomy-related problems among long-term CRC survivors. Equipment and care practices may need to be adapted for changes in abdominal shape. Health care providers should caution that a significant increase or decrease in BMI may cause ostomy-related problems. PMID:24071496

  10. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  11. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansa, D.

    2003-01-01

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  12. Urban-Rural Relations in the Central Region of Mexico: A Viewpoint from Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosales Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 90’s there was an important expansion of outsourcing industries all around the country and particularly on central region of Mexico, which enhanced an industrial diffusion that transformed the relation between rural an urban areas of the region. Labor and social practices around the textile industry on the region and particularly on the Tlaxcala state, enhanced the organization of a complex local-global network that was built on the context of the Nafta Agreement. Now a day, the local-global network around the textile industry has fall down due to the growing Chinese textile goods on the local and national market. The answer to this economic change has generated a wide range of changes among the different social actors that participated on the local-global network created by de textile industry during the golden years of the Nafta Agreement. Our research analyze the experience and strategies of a group of families from Tlaxcala, organized around the mixture of agricultural, manufacturing and service activities in order to reorganize the economic activities of their localities.

  13. Urban air pollution in school-related microenvironments in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Franco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle-related pollution (PM10, PM2.5 and soot was measured in both indoor and outdoor microenvironments at four public elementary schools in Bogota, Colombia. Three of these schools were located alongside major urban roads in which different types of public transit systems are used (bus rapid transit system and conventional transit buses. The fourth school was located on a non-congested road (background school. Pollutant levels at schools situated on major-roads were higher than those found at the low-congestion-road school. Outdoor black carbon daily mean concentrations at the schools located near major roads were up to six times higher than those recorded at the background school. Mean particulate matter concentrations at schools near major roads were above international standards, suggesting that school-age children in Bogota are exposed to pollution levels that are considered to be harmful by environmental and public health authorities. Elevated indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations documented in this study suggested that traffic has a direct impact on air quality regarding the schools’ characterised microenvironments.

  14. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosette Van Den Heuvel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout and a rural background location (Houtem in Flanders (Belgium. To characterize the toxic potential of PM10, airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP of PM10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM10 toxicity were seen. PM10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (−0.46 < rs < −0.35, p < 0.01 and IL-8 induction (−0.62 < rs < −0.67, p < 0.01 were associated with all markers for biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were

  15. Temperature and Relative Humidity Vertical Profiles within Planetary Boundary Layer in Winter Urban Airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jan; Hovorka, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is a dynamic system with turbulent flow where horizontal and vertical air mixing depends mainly on the weather conditions and geomorphology. Normally, air temperature from the Earth surface decreases with height but inversion situation may occur, mainly during winter. Pollutant dispersion is poor during inversions so air pollutant concentration can quickly rise, especially in urban closed valleys. Air pollution was evaluated by WHO as a human carcinogen (mostly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and health effects are obvious. Knowledge about inversion layer height is important for estimation of the pollution impact and it can give us also information about the air pollution sources. Temperature and relative humidity vertical profiles complement ground measurements. Ground measurements were conducted to characterize comprehensively urban airshed in Svermov, residential district of the city of Kladno, about 30 km NW of Prague, from the 2nd Feb. to the 3rd of March 2016. The Svermov is an air pollution hot-spot for long time benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) limit exceedances, reaching the highest B[a]P annual concentration in Bohemia - west part of the Czech Republic. Since the Svermov sits in a shallow valley, frequent vertical temperature inversion in winter and low emission heights of pollution sources prevent pollutant dispersal off the valley. Such orography is common to numerous small settlements in the Czech Republic. Ground measurements at the sports field in the Svermov were complemented by temperature and humidity vertical profiles acquired by a Vaisala radiosonde positioned at tethered He-filled balloon. Total number of 53 series of vertical profiles up to the height of 300 m was conducted. Meteorology parameters were acquired with 4 Hz frequency. The measurements confirmed frequent early-morning and night formation of temperature inversion within boundary layer up to the height of 50 m. This rather shallow inversion had significant

  16. Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Katsunori

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence.

  17. Computation of optimal transport and related hedging problems via penalization and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Stephan; Kupper, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a widely applicable approach to solving (multi-marginal, martingale) optimal transport and related problems via neural networks. The core idea is to penalize the optimization problem in its dual formulation and reduce it to a finite dimensional one which corresponds to optimizing a neural network with smooth objective function. We present numerical examples from optimal transport, martingale optimal transport, portfolio optimization under uncertainty and generative adversa...

  18. A selection of problems related to safe working conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two representative examples were chosen to demonstrate that the problems related to safe working conditions can be solved with work being prepared extensively and in detail taking into consideration radiation protection and conventional job safety measures and with qualified staff. Most of the job safety problems in nuclear power plants are pretty much the same as in conventional plants. Despite successful implementation of employment and radiation protection in nuclear power plants, improvements in detail are possible and make sense. (orig.) [de

  19. Students’ Relational Understanding in Quadrilateral Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A. N.; Juniati, D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    The type of research is qualitative approach which aims to describe how students’ relational understanding of solving mathematic problem that was seen from Adversity Quotient aspect. Research subjects were three 7th grade students of Junior High School. They were taken by category of Adversity Quotient (AQ) such quitter, camper, and climber. Data collected based on problem solving and interview. The research result showed that (1) at the stage of understanding the problem, the subjects were able to state and write down what is known and asked, and able to mention the concepts associated with the quadrilateral problem. (2) The three subjects devise a plan by linking concepts relating to quadrilateral problems. (3) The three subjects were able to solve the problem. (4) The three subjects were able to look back the answers. The three subjects were able to understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan and look back. However, the quitter and camper subjects have not been able to give a reason for the steps they have taken.

  20. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  1. Workshop report of problems relating to multi-electron excited ions in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Toshinobu; Koike, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Koji.

    1979-08-01

    A workshop was held to discuss the problems relating to multiple electron-excited ions in plasma. The first part of this report deals with the problems of satellite lines. The satellite lines from laser plasma and vacuum sparks are discussed. Review papers on satellite lines and bielectronic recombination are also presented. The second part of this report deals with the problems of autoionization. Theory, comment on the compound state, observation of autoionization and resonance scattering, excitation cross-section, inner shell ionization, excitation through autoionization, and the bielectronic recombination of helium-like ions are discussed. (Kato, T.)

  2. Substance-related health problems during rave parties in The Netherlands (1997-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krul

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe a 12-year (1997-2008 observation of substance-related incidents occurring at rave parties in the Netherlands, including length of visits to first-aid stations, substances used, and severity of the incidents. During rave parties, specifically trained medical and paramedical personnel staffed first aid stations. Visitors were diagnosed and treated, and their data were recorded using standardized methods. During the 12-year period with 249 rave parties involving about 3,800,000 visitors, 27,897 people visited a first aid station, of whom 10,100 reported having a substance-related problem. The mean age of these people was 22.3+/-5.4 years; 52.4% of them were male. Most (66.7% substance-related problems were associated with ecstasy or alcohol use or both. Among 10,100 substance-related cases, 515 required professional medical care, and 16 of these cases were life threatening. People with a substance-related problem stayed 20 min at the first aid station, which was significantly longer than the 5 min that those without a substance-related health problem stayed. These unique data from the Netherlands identify a variety of acute health problems related to the use of alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and GHB. Although most problems were minor, people using GHB more often required professional medical care those using the other substances. We recommended adherence to harm and risk reduction policy, and the use of first aid stations with specially trained staff for both minor and serious incidents.

  3. Students’ Relational Thinking of Impulsive and Reflective in Solving Mathematical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriawan, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive research which qualitatively investigates students’ relational thinking of impulsive and reflective cognitive style in solving mathematical problem. The method used in this research are test and interview. The data analyzed by reducing, presenting and concluding the data. The results of research show that the students’ reflective cognitive style can possibly help to find out important elements in understanding a problem. Reading more than one is useful to identify what is being questioned and write the information which is known, building relation in every element and connecting information with arithmetic operation, connecting between what is being questioned with known information, making equation model to find out the value by using substitution, and building a connection on re-checking, re-reading, and re-counting. The impulsive students’ cognitive style supports important elements in understanding problems, building a connection in every element, connecting information with arithmetic operation, building a relation about a problem comprehensively by connecting between what is being questioned with known information, finding out the unknown value by using arithmetic operation without making any equation model. The result of re-checking problem solving, impulsive student was only reading at glance without re-counting the result of problem solving.

  4. Patients' attitudes and experiences of relational continuity in semi-urban general practices in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Ramadhani, Ruqaiya; Al-Rawahi, Nada; Al-Shafee, Kawther; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Relational continuity is a cornerstone of primary care. In developing countries, however, little research has been conducted to determine the perception and experiences of patients in view of relational continuity in primary care. To study the role of relational continuity in primary care settings and its effect on patients' perceptions and experiences. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted at eight primary care health centres (PCHCs) in Al-Seeb province, Muscat, the capital city of Oman. All Omani patients aged 18 years and above attending their PCHCs during the study period were invited to participate in the study. From a total of 1300 patients invited, 958 Omani patients agreed to participate in the study (response rate = 74%). More than half of the patients (61%) expressed the preference of consulting the same primary care physician (PCP) to whom they were accustomed. This increased to 69% if the patients had psychosocial problems and to 71% if the patients had chronic medical conditions. A significant proportion of the respondents (72%) felt comfortable and relaxed when consulting the same PCP and 67% expressed an interest in maintaining continuity with the same PCP. The general perspective held by the majority of the studied patients (61%) indicated that relational continuity improved both the patients' medical conditions (51%) and the quality of services (61%). In actuality, however, only 18% experienced relational continuity in their PCHCs. The preference for relational continuity was significantly increased among patients who identified a favourite PCP (P = 0.029) and among educated patients (P = 0.023). Although it is relatively difficult to consult with the same PCP, the majority of Omani patients have experienced several benefits from relational continuity within the context of patient-physician relationship. The preference for relational continuity was highly expressed by patients with chronic or psychosocial problems, patients who were educated

  5. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  6. Associations between butane hash oil use and cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H

    2017-10-01

    High-potency cannabis concentrates are increasingly popular in the United States, and there is concern that use of high-potency cannabis might increase risk for cannabis-related problems. However, little is known about the potential negative consequences of concentrate use. This study reports on associations between past-year use of a high-potency cannabis concentrate, known as butane hash oil (BHO), and cannabis-related problems. A sample of 821 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who had used cannabis in the past year (33%, n=273) completed questions about their cannabis use, including their use of BHO and cannabis-related problems in eight domains: physical dependence, impaired control, academic-occupational problems, social-interpersonal problems, self-care problems, self-perception, risk behavior, and blackouts. Approximately 44% (n=121) of past-year cannabis users had used BHO in the past year. More frequent BHO use was associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.8, pcannabis-related academic/occupational problems (RR=1.5, p=0.004), poor self-care (RR=1.3, p=0.002), and cannabis-related risk behavior (RR=1.2, p=0.001). After accounting for sociodemographic factors, age of onset of cannabis use, sensation seeking, overall frequency of cannabis use, and frequency of other substance use, BHO use was still associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.2, p=0.014). BHO use is associated with greater physiological dependence on cannabis, even after accounting for potential confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if cannabis users with higher levels of physiological dependence seek out BHO and/or if BHO use increases risk for physiological dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935

  8. Subjective Identity of Kaunas Cityscape: Research Results and Their Relation with Objective Indicators of Urban Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribelytė-Knistautienė, Rūta; Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, Jūratė

    2017-01-01

    Kaunas city identity formants were recently identified preparing Kaunas City Master Plan in 2013. They are divided into four groups: natural, functional, iconic, and conventional symbols. Designation of symbols depicting urban identity is inseparable from the city's history, its culture, and urban development. Due to associativity characteristic to human thinking, history of the specific locality is understood through its inherent natural environment, objects created by human, and culture or ...

  9. The Interaction Between Landscape Architecture and Urban Development. Do we Have a Common Goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiva Deveikienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of the relationship and interaction between urban design and landscape architecture. This refers to the period of the modern city from the late nineteenth century to the present day. There are presented and discussed urbanization processes and examples of solutions with emphasis on problems arising from the relationship between a city and nature as well as those related to urban landscape and sustainability of urban landscaping in the twentieth century.

  10. Park system concept for environmental sustainabilityin urban spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniaty, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Urban Park System is an integrated concept between nature system and urban life. The problems caused by urban population activity resulted in the need to increase the balance between two systems. Establishment of urban park system is a response to the need for resilience of urban space structures. As an ideal requirement it needs to be built integration between the ecological, social, economic, aesthetic aspects of urban landscape architecture. The methodology was developed based on an approach to issues affecting the conditions due to urban issues and its relation to the development efforts of urban park system; Observation of Jakarta problem was obtained based on published studies and data, literature, characteristic and potential analyzes, local physical, from limited field observations. Both are simple methods aimed to describe the nature of a condition as well as form characteristics of problems in controlling the development of region, to examine the causes and symptoms. This method try to assess an object study compared between the conditions before and after. The benefits of urban park system development will not only improve the urban environment, but the value of urban pride, identity and control urban growth in line with efforts to improve the balance between conservation and development. Integrated urban park system will enhance the multifunctional role, connectivity, habitability, durability, identity and investment.

  11. Reshaping Spaces and Relations: Urban Gardening in a Time of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Cangelosi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article studies urban gardening as a form of social resilience. It analyses its role and impact on society in a context of social and financial crisis through the lens of the debate about the commons on the basis of three case studies conducted in Brussels in 2013. The study connects the specificities of the current social and economic context with the new wave of urban gardening from a people-centred perspective. Both the motivations and the outcomes of this form of activism are analysed and led to the conclusion that being involved in urban gardening represents not only a way to cope with economic and social threats but also a tool to rebuild and reshape social bonds. The paper aims to contribute to the current debate about the commons, intended as a form of resilience and a tool of social change rather than a simple alternative economic model. It aims to do so through the analysis of urban gardening practices, which are more commonly studied from the perspective of urban agriculture, food production, access to land and urbanism.

  12. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  13. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2017-05-04

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  14. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  15. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  16. [Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Wells, Jonathan C K; Smeeth, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru.

  17. Qualitative relation between heavy metal concentration in soil and agricultural products: a Chinese peri-urban case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Dinis Ferreira, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    A peri-urban area refers to a transition or interaction zone, where urban and rural activities are juxtaposed, and landscape features are subject to rapid modifications, mainly due to human activities. It is reported that peri-urban areas which might include valuable protected areas (e.g. forested hills, preserved woodlands, prime agricultural lands, etc.) can provide essential life support services for urban residents. A peri-urban area is not only a zone experiencing the immediate impacts of land demands from urban growth and pollution, but it is also a wider market-related zone of influence, recognized for the supply of agricultural and natural resource products. It is reported that China's environmental crisis is one of the most pressing challenges to emerge from the country's rapid industrialization; therefore a field study was carried out to investigate the qualitative relation of soil property with vegetable agricultural products in the Chinese peri-urban area located in Luoyang city (34°37'N and 112°27'E). Soil, water and plant (e.g. squash, Cucurbita maxima) samples were taken over the study site, and heavy metal concentrations were analyzed. All the soil samples showed Cd concentrations exceeded the permissible level established by Chinese guidelines for soil quality (0.3 mg/kg). The contents of Zn, Pb and Cu also surpassed the Chinese guideline levels (Zn = 250 mg/kg, Pb = 50 mg/kg and Cu = 100 mg/kg) in several soil samples. Although the sampled plants contained some degree of all the heavy metals, only the Al concentration was high in the Cucurbita maxima samples (317 mg/kg), which is a specie of cultivated squash. Considering the world market and the global trade of agricultural products, it can be said that the food risk associated with farm products containing Al is not local but global. It is concluded that an environmental contamination of the peri-urban areas may lead to the threat to food security.

  18. Dealing with Multi-Level Governance and Wicked Problems in Urban Transportation Systems: The Case of Palermo Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Noto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian New Public Management (NPM has been mainly characterized by a political orientation toward power decentralization to local governments and privatization of public companies. Nowadays, local utilities in Italy are often run by joint stock companies controlled by public agencies such as Regional and Municipal Administrations. Due to this transformation, these companies must comply with a set of diverse expectations coming from a wide range of stakeholders, related to their financial, competitive and social performance. Such fragmented governance increases the presence of “wicked” problems in the decision-making sphere of these entities. Given this multi-level governance structure, how do these agents influence public services performance? In recent years, coordination and inter-institutional joint action have been identified as possible approaches for dealing with governance fragmentation and wicked problems deriving from it. How can we adapt a performance management perspective in order to help us reform the system and so have a better collaboration between the stakeholders involved? In order to address and discuss these research questions, a case study will be developed. The case concerns AMAT, the local utility providing the public transportation service in the Municipality of Palermo (Italy. The result of this study is a dynamic model including a set of performance indicators that help us in understanding the impact of the governing structure on the system’s performance.

  19. The Urban Exploitation Platform - An instrument for the global provision of indicators related to sustainable cities and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Thomas; Asamer, Hubert; Hirner, Andreas; Marconcini, Mattia; Metz, Annekatrin; Uereyen, Soner; Zeidler, Julian; Boettcher, Martin; Permana, Hans; Boissier, Enguerran; Mathot, Emmanuel; Soukop, Tomas; Balhar, Jakub; Svaton, Vaclav; Kuchar, Stepan

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel fleet will provide a so-far unique coverage with Earth Observation (EO) data and therewith new opportunities for the implementation of methodologies to generate innovative geo-information products and services supporting the SDG targets. It is here where the TEP Urban project is supposed to initiate a step change by providing an open and participatory platform that allows any interested user to easily exploit large-volume EO data pools, in particular those of the European Sentinel and the US Landsat missions, and derive thematic geo-information, metrics and indicators related to the status and development of the built environment. Key component of TEP Urban initiative is the implementation of a web-based platform (https://urban-tep.eo.esa.int) employing distributed high-level computing infrastructures and providing key functionalities for i) high-performance access to satellite imagery and other data sources such as statistics or topographic data, ii) state-of-the-art pre-processing, analysis, and visualization techniques, iii) customized development and dissemination of algorithms, products and services, and iv) networking and communication. This contribution introduces the main facts about the TEP Urban platform, including a description of the general objectives, the platform systems design and functionalities, and the available portfolio of products and services that can directly serve the global provision of indicators for SDG targets, in particular related to SDG 11.

  20. Promoting Effective Parenting Practices and Preventing Child Behavior Problems in School among Ethnically Diverse Families from Underserved, Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of "ParentCorps" among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. "ParentCorps" includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health…

  1. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    Poor bone mass is a major public health problem of worldwide concern. Obviously the main reason for this concern is the fact that the decreasing bone mass is directly related to bone fragility, osteoporosis and increased incidence of fractures affecting mainly elder people. The problems originated from the bone fractures involved areas as economy, social and scientific. Such is the importance of this problem that the Scientific Advisory Committee of the World Health Organization selected osteoporosis as one of the four priority research areas being developed by the Program for Research on Aging. The project on osteoporosis is a crossnational study which will try to explain the differences in hip fractures in countries around the world disclosing the risk and protective factors which will help developing etiologic hypotheses and planning specific preventive interventions. One of the primary objectives is to determine the age range over which peak bone mass (BMD) is maintained which is a valuable guide for plans of osteoporosis prevention. This project is aimed at defining the peak bone mass as well as the period it lasts before the non-nal decrease with aging

  2. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  4. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  5. Monitoring Urbanization-Related Land Cover Change on the U.S. Great Plains and Impacts on Remotely Sensed Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Jackson, T.; Henebry, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is currently in an era of rapid urban growth with >50% of global population living in urban areas. Urbanization occurs alongside urban population growth, as cities expand to meet the demands of increasing population. Consequently, there is a need for remote sensing research to detect, monitor, and measure urbanization and its impacts on the biosphere. Here we used MODIS and Landsat data products to (1) detect urbanization-related land cover changes, (2) investigate urbanization-related impacts on land surface phenology (LSP) across rural to urban gradients and (3) explore fractional vegetation and impervious surface area regionally across the US Great Plains and within 14 cities in this region. We used the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) and Land Cover Type (LCT) products from 2001, 2006, and 2011 for 30m classification of the peri-urban environment. We investigated the impacts of urbanization-related land cover change on urban LSP at 30m resolution using the NDVI product from Web Enabled Landsat Data (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov) with accumulated growing degree-days calculated from first-order weather stations. We fitted convex quadratic LSP models to a decade (2003-2012) of observations to yield these phenometrics: modeled peak NDVI, time (thermal and calendar) to modeled peak, duration of season (DOS), and model fit. We compared our results to NDVI from MODIS NBAR (500m) and we explored the utility of 4 μm radiance (MODIS band 23) at 1 km resolution to characterize fractional vegetation dynamics in and around urbanized areas. Across all 14 cities we found increases in urbanized area (>25 %ISA) exceeding 10% from 2001-2011. Using LSP phenometrics, we were able to detect changes from cropland to suburban LCTs. In general we found negative relationships between DOS and distance from city center. We found a distinct seasonal cycle of MIR radiance over cropland LCTs due to the spectral contrast between bare soils and green vegetation.

  6. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    of Chapter 1 ’problem and research questions’, Chapter 2 ’place, discourse and planning as a theoretical framework’ and Chapter 3 ’research design’. Part 2 ’urban practice locally, nationally and globally’ consisting of Chapter 4 ’background and context, urban trans- formations in Aalborg from 1950 to 2013...... of Chapter 9 with the same name. The analysis results and thus the conclusions are at 3 levels of knowledge: Historically specific development in terms of urban planning practices respectively in Aalborg and natio- nally/internationally The tools here have been a focus on different rationales or urban...... projects as a strategic tool in urban policy, development of place perceptions, the use of narratives in the planning processes, the functions of representations as discursive devised imagined realities, power structures and planning approaches - knowledge that can be used in the future practice of other...

  7. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Some applications of the moving finite element method to fluid flow and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.A.; Williamson, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Moving Finite Element (MFE) method is applied to one-dimensional, nonlinear wave type partial differential equations which are characteristics of fluid dynamic and related flow phenomena problems. These equation systems tend to be difficult to solve because their transient solutions exhibit a spacial stiffness property, i.e., they represent physical phenomena of widely disparate length scales which must be resolved simultaneously. With the MFE method the node points automatically move (in theory) to optimal locations giving a much better approximation than can be obtained with fixed mesh methods (with a reasonable number of nodes) and with significantly reduced artificial viscosity or diffusion content. Three applications are considered. In order of increasing complexity they are: (1) a thermal quench problem, (2) an underwater explosion problem, and (3) a gas dynamics shock tube problem. The results are briefly shown

  10. Acute health problems due to recreational drug use in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakoni, Evangelia; Dolder, Patrick C; Rentsch, Katharina; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    To describe acute toxicity of recreational drugs including novel psychoactive substances. We included all cases presenting at the emergency department (ED) of the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, between October 2013 and September 2014 with acute toxicity due to self-reported recreational drug use or with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity. Isolated ethanol intoxications were excluded. Intoxications were confirmed with immunoassays and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which also detected novel psychoactive substances. Among the 47,767 attendances at the ED, 216 were directly related to acute toxicity of recreational drugs. The mean patient age was 31 years and 69% were male. Analytical drug confirmation was available in 180 cases. Most presentations were related to cocaine (36%), cannabis (31%), opioids (13%), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, 9%), other amphetamines (7%), benzodiazepines (7%), and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, 5%). The substances most commonly detected analytically were cannabis (37%), cocaine (33%), opioids (29%), benzodiazepines (21%), and amphetamines including MDMA (13%). Notably, there were only two cases of novel psychoactive substances (2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine [2C-B] and pentylone). The most frequent symptoms were tachycardia (31%), anxiety (27%), nausea or vomiting (23%), and agitation (22%). Severe complications included myocardial infarction (2), psychosis (10), seizures (10), and 1 fatality. Most patients were discharged home (68%), 8% were admitted to intensive care and 9% were referred to psychiatric care. Medical problems related to illicit drugs mostly concerned cocaine and cannabis and mainly involved sympathomimetic toxicity and/or psychiatric disorders. ED presentations associated with novel psychoactive substances appeared to be relatively rare.

  11. Ostomy-related problems and their impact on quality of life of colorectal cancer ostomates: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylvia M. Vonk-Klaassen; Hilde M. de Vocht; Erik Hans Eddes; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Marjolein E.M. den Ouden

    2016-01-01

    Aim Many long-term ostomates are ‘out-of-sight’ of healthcare, and it is unknown how ostomates deal with ostomy- related problems and how these problems affect their quality of life (QOL). The aim is to examine patient-related studies describing ostomy-related problems and their impact on the

  12. Ostomy-related problems and their impact on quality of life of colorectal cancer ostomates : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk-Klaassen, Sylvia M.; de Vocht, Hilde M.; den Ouden, Marjolein E M; Eddes, Eric Hans; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Many long-term ostomates are ‘out-of-sight’ of healthcare, and it is unknown how ostomates deal with ostomy-related problems and how these problems affect their quality of life (QOL). The aim is to examine patient-related studies describing ostomy-related problems and their impact on the

  13. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Distinct patterns of Internet and smartphone-related problems among adolescents by gender: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Donghwan; Nam, Cho Rong; Kim, Da Yea; Park, Sera; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-05-23

    Background and objectives The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ 2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups. Results In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and "healthy" users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females. Conclusions An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

  15. Health related quality of life in pregeriatric patients with chronic diseases at urban, public supported clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding health-related quality of life (HRQOL leads to more effective and focused healthcare. America's growing health disparities makes it is increasingly necessary to understand the HRQOL of pregeriatric individuals who are now 55–64 years old, i.e. before they are eligible for federally mandated health care at age 65. Our study measured the self-perceived HRQOL of pregeriatric, poor patients with multiple chronic diseases treated at 2 public clinics. Methods Consecutive patients aged 55–64 years, many with multiple chronic diseases, responded in an interview to the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF–36 as a general measure of HRQOL during a regular visit to one of two university-staffed urban public clinics. Results The perceived physical and mental functioning of 316 pregeriatric patients was tabulated from SF–36 scores to yield their HRQOL. Their scores were statistically significantly lower than those of the general US pregeriatric population and lower than averages for US patients with multiple chronic diseases. All eight subscale scores of SF–36 were 16% to 36% lower compared with the averages of the general US pregeriatric population. Further, as the number of chronic diseases increased, the lower was the HRQOL. Lower physical and mental scores were associated with a lower income, unemployment, and higher numbers of multiple chronic diseases. Conclusion Chronic diseases have a powerful negative impact on perceived mental and physical functioning in pregeriatric patients. HRQOL information can assist health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their pregeriatric patients' health.

  16. Observations of black carbon aerosols characteristics over an urban environment: Radiative forcing and related implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera; Rahman, Said

    2017-12-15

    With observations of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations, optical and radiative properties were obtained over the urban city of Karachi during the period of March 2006-December 2008. BC concentrations were continuously measured using an Aethalometer, while optical and radiative properties were estimated through the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and Santa Barbra DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) models, respectively. For the study period, the measured BC concentrations were higher during January, February and November, while lower during May, June, July and August. A maximum peak value was observed during January 2007 while the minimum value was observed during June 2006. The Short Wave (SW) BC Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) both at Top of the Atmosphere (ToA) and within ATMOSphere (ATMOS) were positive during all the months, whereas negative SW BC ARF was found at the SurFaCe (SFC). Overall, SW BC ARF was higher during January, February and November, while relatively lower ARF was found during May, June, July and August. Conversely, the Long Wave (LW) BC ARF at ToA and SFC remained positive, whereas within ATMOS it shifted towards positive values (heating effect) during June-August. Finally, the net (SW+LW) BC ARF were found to be positive at ToA and in ATMOS, while negative at SFC. Moreover, a systematic increase in Atmospheric Heating Rate (AHR) was found during October to January. Additionally, we found highest correlation between Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD abs ) and SW BC ARF within ATMOS followed by SFC and ToA. Overall, the contribution of BC to the total ARF was found to greater than 84% for the whole observational period while contributing up to 93% during January 2007. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in urban soils: analysis, concentrations, and relation to other persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Some of the first data on polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in soils are presented from a rural-urban-industrial gradient. - We determined the concentrations of 35 PCNs, 12 PCBs, and 20 PAHs in 49 urban topsoils under different land use (house garden, roadside grassland, alluvial grassland, park areas, industrial sites, agricultural sites) and in nine rural topsoils. The sums of concentrations of 35 PCNs (Σ35 PCNs) were -1 in urban soils and -1 in rural soils. The PCN, PCB, and PAH concentrations were highest at industrial sites and in house gardens. While rural soils receive PCNs, PCBs, and PAHs by common atmospheric deposition, there are site-specific sources of PCNs, PCBs, and PAHs for urban soils such as deposition of contaminated technogenic materials. The PCN, PCB, and PAH concentrations decreased from the central urban to the rural area. In the same order the contribution of lower chlorinated PCNs and PCBs increased because they are more volatile and subject to increased atmospheric transport. The PCNs 52+60, and 73 were more abundant in soil samples than in Halowax mixtures, indicating that combustion contributed to the PCN contamination of the soils

  18. Lagrangian relative equilibria for a gyrostat in the three-body problem: bifurcations and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirao, Juan L G; Vera, Juan A, E-mail: juan.garcia@upct.e, E-mail: juanantonio.vera@upct.e [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Hospital de Marina, 30203 Cartagena, Region de Murcia (Spain)

    2010-05-14

    In this paper we consider the non-canonical Hamiltonian dynamics of a gyrostat in the frame of the three-body problem. Using geometric/mechanic methods we study the approximate dynamics of the truncated Legendre series representation of the potential of an arbitrary order. Working in the reduced problem, we study the existence of relative equilibria that we refer to as Lagrange type following the analogy with the standard techniques. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear stability of Lagrangian relative equilibria if the gyrostat morphology form is close to a sphere. Thus, we generalize the classical results on equilibria of the three-body problem and many results on them obtained by the classic approach for the case of rigid bodies.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Blow, Frederic C; Ilgen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=801,M age=45.8) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) for chronic pain at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed baseline measures of cannabis use, sleep, pain, and other related constructs. Over half of the sample (59%) met criteria for past 1-month sleep disturbance, defined as at least one sleep problem occurring on 15 or more nights in the past month. Most participants (86%) reported that sleep problems were due to their current pain. Approximately 80% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months to improve sleep and, among these participants, cannabis was rated as helpful for improving sleep. Sleep-related cannabis side effects were rare (35%), but sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms were relatively common (65%). Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a) being female, b) being white, c) being on disability, d) not having a medical cannabis card, and e) frequency of using cannabis to help sleep. Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown. The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  1. Social inequalities and gender differences in the experience of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals' education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.

  2. Green's functions and trace formulas for generalized Sturm-Liouville problems related by Darboux transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We study Green's functions of the generalized Sturm-Liouville problems that are related to each other by Darboux -equivalently, supersymmetrical - transformations. We establish an explicit relation between the corresponding Green's functions and derive a simple formula for their trace. The class of equations considered here includes the conventional Schroedinger equation and generalizations, such as for position-dependent mass and with linearly energy-dependent potential, as well as the stationary Fokker-Planck equation.

  3. Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate

    OpenAIRE

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology we...

  4. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  5. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  6. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  7. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  9. Health related quality of life, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C.M.J.; Kooloos, V.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Kolk, A.M.; van der Laan, I.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Egeler, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive functioning and behaviour problems of children with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Furthermore, we investigated which medical determinants and social demographic

  10. [Analysis of drug-related problems in a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, Olivia; Casañ, Borja; Grau, Santiago; Louro, Javier; Salas, Esther; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2018-05-07

    To describe drug-related problems identified in hospitalized patients and to assess physicians' acceptance rate of pharmacists' recommendations. Retrospective observational study that included all drug-related problems detected in hospitalized patients during 2014-2015. Statistical analysis included a descriptive analysis of the data and a multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between pharmacists' recommendation acceptance rate and the variable of interest. During the study period 4587 drug-related problems were identified in 44,870 hospitalized patients. Main drug-related problems were prescription errors due to incorrect use of the computerized physician order entry (18.1%), inappropriate drug-drug combination (13.3%) and dose adjustment by renal and/or hepatic function (11.5%). Acceptance rate of pharmacist therapy advice in evaluable cases was 81.0%. Medical versus surgical admitting department, specific types of intervention (addition of a new drug, drug discontinuation and correction of a prescription error) and oral communication of the recommendation were associated with a higher acceptance rate. The results of this study allow areas to be identified on which to implement optimization strategies. These include training courses for physicians on the computerized physician order entry, on drugs that need dose adjustment with renal impairment, and on relevant drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal Relations among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…

  12. Internet skill-related problems in accessing online health information and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite the amount of health information available online, there are several barriers that limit the Internet from being adopted as a source of health information. The purpose of this study was to identify individual skill-related problems that users experience when accessing the Internet

  13. Aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary related to problem solving and Nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirza Pavan Sorpreso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to put in evidence some aspects of the future Physics teachers imaginary when they are is related to work with problem solving and with Nuclear Physics inclusion in High School. We show that this imaginary is evidenced and suffers displacements from specific conditions of production.

  14. How Are Traits Related to Problem Behavior in Preschoolers? Similarities and Contrasts between Temperament and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of empirical research relating temperament models and personality hinders conceptual integration and holds back research linking childhood traits to problem behavior or maladjustment. This study evaluates, within a sample of 443 preschoolers, the relationships between children's maladaptation and traits measured by three temperament…

  15. The development of personality extremity from childhood to adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Prinzie, P.; Deković, M.; de Haan, A.D.; Asscher, J.J.; Widiger, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of personality extremity (deviation of an average midpoint of all 5 personality dimensions together) across childhood and adolescence, as well as relations between personality extremity and adjustment problems. For 598 children (mean age at Time 1 = 7.5

  16. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking

  17. [22q11.2 deletion: handicap-related problems and coping strategies of primary caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schneider, Marco; Schwab, K Otfried

    2009-11-01

    To investigate handicap-related problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and their primary caregivers' coping strategies. Primary caregivers of 153 subjects aged 2-16 years were anonymously asked to fill out questionnaires, e.g., the Handicap Related Problems for Parents Inventory. Primary caregivers of 96 subjects (53 males, 43 females; mean age: 7;0 [2;1-16;11] years) sent back questionnaires. Patient's behaviour and discipline were the most important handicap-related problems. Significant correlations could be found between the patient's age and his/her relationship with the primary caregiver (rho=0.228; p=.029) and other family members (rho=0.293; p=.004). Compared to other parents of physically handicapped children or those with multiple handicaps, these parents did not experience increased stress. The more the coping strategies "self-fulfillment" and "intensification of partnership" were used, the lower parental stress was (p=.012, p=.025, respectively). "Focusing on the handicapped child" was positively correlated with high parental stress (p=.000). With regard to parental stress and coping strategies, primary caregivers of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion do not significantly differ from other parents of physically handicapped children. As handicap-related family problems increase with the patient's age, a growing need for counseling, especially for aspects of parenting and discipline, and for treatment can be presumed.

  18. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  19. Stackel spaces of an electrovacuum with isotropic complete sets. Formulation of problem and basic relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Evseevich, A.A.; Obukhov, V.V.; Osetrin, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of the classification of the Stackel spaces of the electrovacuum with isotropic complete sets. The metrics of the spaces are represented in a form that is convenient for their investigation. We obtain necessary relations for the construction of the field equations

  20. A free-boundary value problem related to auto ignition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examine a free boundary value problem related to auto ignition of combustible fluid in insulation materials. The criteria for the existence of similarity solution of the model equations are established. The conditions for the existence of unique solution are also stated. The numerical results which show the influence of ...