In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...
This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...... has implications for how tax authorities (and other state authorities) reform their coercive regulation. If they decide to pursue a voluntary based approach where the actions of external partners play a central role, then the analysis helps to show some of the implied challenges and potentials....
Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma
Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…
Full Text Available AIMS – Problem gambling, even if it occurs in leisure time, can cause harm in the workplace. Problem gamblers are preoccupied with gambling and often suffer from psychiatric and psychosomatic symptoms caused by their excessive gambling. This may lead to inefficiency at work and absenteeism. Severe gambling problems typically lead to a constant need for money, which may result in theft of money or goods from the workplace and in embezzlement. This paper outlines measures to prevent and respond to gambling-related harm and crime in the workplace.
Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.
This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on
Brønsted, Lone Bæk
, street worker, social workers) by focusing on how welfare workers form, reform and transform interventions, and thereby instigate the structure of welfare work with social effects. Finally, the paper aims to examine how an inter-professional meeting outside the school environment produces understandings...... of such a preventive work aiming at creating trustful relations between the school and the children and focusing on children’s democracy understandings, experienced discrimination and peer pressure. Furthermore, the school are to activate children’s reflections on existential questions and their empathy with others...... a statutory duty for schools to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. The school and education in general are seen as safe spaces. Notions like “safe space” and school as a “protection factor” reflect an educational discourse that reflect discoursive changes...
Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit
Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit
Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken
This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is consid-ered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or ...
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G
Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health. Developing the empirical nexus between health disparities research and criminological research through this multidimensional framework could fruitfully direct and organize research that contributes to reductions in health inequalities and the prevention of crime during the early life course. We also propose that this unified approach can ultimately enhance public safety policies and attenuate the collateral consequences of incarceration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary
This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…
Full Text Available . suburban parts or the central business districts in urban areas is property- related.(3) Links between land use and crime types became apparent when crime statistics were broken down by location at the local scale. Adirect link between undeveloped... step involves setting the scene and discussing crime, place and crime prevention. Many of the resident community participants have never heard of crime prevention, therefore this introductory step outlines the three factors necessary for a crime...
This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12......-17 year olds, using experimental or quasi-experimental research designs and focusing on effects in terms of disruptive or criminal behavior. The review provides detailed descriptions of all identified studies, and the characteristics and effectiveness of the interventions is analyzed. This report has been...
Валерій Федорович Оболенцев
Full Text Available Activities of the National Crime Prevention is a system object. Therefore, it should be improving on the basis of systems analysis techniques. The practice of systematic approach was realized in the works of N. F. Kuznetsova, A. I. Dolgova, D. O. Li, V. M. Dryomin, O. Y. Manokha, O. G. Frolova. Crime models developed C. Y. Vitsin, Y. D. Bluvshteyn, N. V. Smetanina. We previously disclosed basic principles of system analysis system to prevent crime and its genetic and prognostic aspects, classification features, systemic factors latentyzatsiyi criminogenic factors - object protective activity, the amount of protected public relations. In order to investigate the systemic properties of the system of crime prevention in Ukraine we have defined objectives of the study - to its morphological analysis. Elements of a specialized system of crime prevention - a prosecution, Interior, Security Service, the Military Service of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine, bodies of state border protection agencies revenues and fees, enforcement and penal institutions, remand centers, public financial control, fisheries, the state forest protection. We determined depth analysis of your system functions at the level of law enforcement agencies. Intercom system to prevent crime is information links between elements of the system (transfer of information on crimes and criminals current activity. External relations systems provide processes of interaction with the environment. For crime prevention system external relations are relations of elements (law enforcement society. In the system of crime prevention implemented such coordination links: 1 Departmental coordination meeting of law enforcement agencies; 2 inter-agency coordination meeting of law enforcement agencies (Prosecutor General of Ukraine, the State Border Service of Ukraine and others. 3 mutual exchange of information; 4 order the prosecution, SBU on other agencies
Physics is playing a significant role, particularly in Europe and North America, both as an aid to detect and prevent crime and also to assist in the provision of more precise information about crimes committed. Advances have resulted from fundamental studies in several fields. Among methods described are those of neutron activation analysis and proton microbeam X-ray production which show promise in the field of forensic science where the detection of minute quantities of trace elements may be of significance. (author)
Andrea Díaz Rozas
Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188
Huisman, W.; van Erp, J.
Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT
van Dijk, J.J.M.; de Waard, J.; Crawford, A.
For the past two decades the growth of public policies and strategies aimed at crime prevention and community safety has constituted one of the major innovations in crime control, with significant implications for the manner in which crime and safety are governed. But how has 'the preventive turn'
Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G
Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.
McNulty, Paul J.
Discusses the rise of juvenile crime in the United States, explores the failure of the juvenile justice system to stem the tide of youth crime, and examines the issue of prevention. The author argues the need to always hold youth offenders accountable for the crimes they commit and suggests several means by which restitution may be made. (GR)
Demant, Jakob Johan; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella
In this chapter we present a brief introduction to SCP and ANT, followed by ANT analyses of two crime prevention strategies: Passive Alert Detection (PAD) dogs at music festivals (Case I) and “doorwork” (Case II) at licensed venues. The first case examines the use of PAD, or sniffer, dogs to assist...... police in detecting illicit drugs at music festivals in Australia, whereby police display law enforcement as a strategy to prevent illicit drug use and possession. The case extends the analysis of nightlife spaces into the daytime and rather different venues, recognizing festivals as sites of leisure...... pursuits commonly associated with nightlife. The case examines how the use of PAD dogs at festival entrances influences police, young people, drug use, and the entrance space, such that the agencies and actions of each are transformed. The analysis also highlights the lasting effects of such prevention...
Full Text Available Starting from the definition of sport, the author has presented the possibilities its application in the prevention of crime and delinquency. In that context, the author analyzes the rate of juvenile delinquency in specific countries, such as Canada, and underlines the fact that the classical criminal measures do not give adequate results. The author points out that it is, therefore, necessary to apply some other preventive measures, which embody the application of sports and physical activity. The author provides examples of good practice in the states which has achieved the best results in the development of such programs. Finally, in view of the increasing number of reported criminal offences committed by both juveniles and adults, the author highlights the need for developing such programs in the Republic of Serbia.
Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon
Валерій Федорович Оболенцев
Activities of the National Crime Prevention is a system object. Therefore, it should be improving on the basis of systems analysis techniques. The practice of systematic approach was realized in the works of N. F. Kuznetsova, A. I. Dolgova, D. O. Li, V. M. Dryomin, O. Y. Manokha, O. G. Frolova. Crime models developed C. Y. Vitsin, Y. D. Bluvshteyn, N. V. Smetanina. We previously disclosed basic principles of system analysis system to prevent crime and its genetic and prognostic aspec...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG and an Expert Reference Group (ERG. Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.
Hartel, Pieter H.
Situational crime prevention (SCP) is a criminological theory, proposed by Ronald Clarke in the 1980s and developed over the last 30 years, that focuses on the crime event rather than the criminal. A number of highly effective crime prevention techniques in the physical world have been developed
Electronic Security Systems: Better Ways to Crime Prevention teaches the reader about the application of electronics for security purposes through the use of case histories, analogies, anecdotes, and other related materials. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the concepts behind security systems - its objectives, limitations, and components; the fundamentals of space detection; detection of intruder movement indoors and outdoors; surveillance; and alarm communication and control. Part 2 discusses equipments involved in security systems such as the different types of sensors,
В. В. Голіна
Full Text Available Problem setting. Crime is one of the oldest existing forms of social life, despite the burning desire of human to destroy it. World history persuades explicitly that cruel, inhumane punishment punishments are inefficient to prevent crime. It’s necessary to rebuild human behavior, and this is possible through the elimination of various stimuli that enhance human passions and lead to irrational, destructive behavior. Recent research and publications analysis. Theory of combating crime primarily through its prevention has been substantively enriched during XIX-XXI centuries through scientific works of domestic and foreign criminologists and other researchers, which laid the philosophical, sociological, moral, psychological, social, anthropological, organizational, managerial, economic, educational, penitentiary and other types of crime prevention (Yu. M. Antonyan, A. Herry, A. Quetelet, C. Lombroso, D. Drill, E. Durkheim, G. Tarde, E. Ferry, R. Garofalo, A. Kystyakivskyi, M. Gernet, A. Gertsenzon, E. Sutherland, N. Kuznetsov, V. Kudryavtsev, A. Sakharov, I. Karpets, A. Zelinsky, V. Dryomin, O. Tulyakov, O. Litvinov, A. Zakalyuk, V. Shakun, B. Golovkin etc.. Paper objective is providing a thorough analysis of a range of issues, related to the criminological crime prevention as an essential part of special criminological crime prevention. Paper main body. Crime is a complex social phenomenon whose causes and conditions are usually associated with a genetic predisposition to decline form normal behavior, along with the defects and imperfections of the society. Crime prevention is state social policy aimed at overcoming dangerous criminal contradictions in social relations in order to reach positive resolution and the gradual elimination (so-called general social prevention along with proactive practice of combating criminal offenses at various stages. Crime prevention can be divided into several types: prevention in advance, restrictive prevention
João Trajano Sento-Sé
Full Text Available O artigo estabelece um diálogo entre a criminologia positivista e algumas correntes contemporâneas da prevenção ao crime inspiradas em teorias sociológicas. Através desse exercício, busca-se evidenciar que algumas das formulações focadas no campo da prevenção já aparecem, em estado embrionário, na agenda teórica positivista. Do mesmo modo, torna-se possível explicitar que alguns postulados empíricos e práticos do positivismo são menos estranhos às teorias contemporâneas de prevenção ao crime do que se costuma reconhecer.The article establishes a dialogue between positivist criminology and some contemporary currents on crime prevention inspired in sociological theories. Through this exercise, we seek to highlight that some of the formulations focused in the preventions field appear, in embryonic state, in the positivist theoretical agenda. Likewise, it is possible to explicit that some empirical and practical tenets of positivism are less foreign to contemporary theories of crime prevention than is usually recognized.
C.R.A. van der Schoot
textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the
Валерій Федорович Оболенцев
Full Text Available Raising of problem. Socio-economic processes in Ukraine in the last years require scientific researches which would become the proper theoretical subsoil of reformation of the law-enforcement system. Actuality of theme. Consider perspective a system method in researches of criminology. The analysis of the systems of law-enforcement sphere to this time remains actually not developed. An analysis of the last publications is in this sphere. Researches, where on principles of system method prevention of criminality would be examined, in domestic criminology relatively a bit. O. E. Manokha in dissertation in criminology did an author expound the analysis of «Systems results it system criminology to the analysis in number high-quality indexes of criminality in Ukraine for period 1972 - 1995 y., showed the system of its connections with practice of prevention of crimes. O. Frolova. on principles of the systems exposed practice of criminal punishments in Ukraine. Author specified that efficiency them separate kinds are not identical and system depends on many social factors. Purpose of the article. The аim of article is to presents the results of a systematic analysis of the formal procedures prevent crime in Ukraine. Exposition of basic material. The purpose of crime prevention as an artificial system is defined as the absence of crime - penal violations of existing social relations, preservation of the latter. Purpose of the system of crime prevention - keeping people from violating the legitimate social relations, blockades or start a potential criminal activity. For a system of crime prevention functions can be considered a means of keeping the population from criminal acts and termination initiated criminal attacks. The problem of crime prevention system - inconsistency functions, parameters and structure of the system to its destination. Context of the system of crime prevention - a modern Ukrainian society. Virtual border crime prevention
South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...
Promoting Partnerships for Crime Prevention between State and Private Security Providers in Southern Africa. Since the 1990s, private security companies (PSCs) have expanded their presence. In many parts of Africa and across the developing world, PSCs provide police-type security services at a scale far surpassing that ...
Although major mental disorders do not have a central position in many criminological theories, there seems to be an evident relationship between these disorders and criminal behavior. In daily practice police officers and mental health care workers work jointly to prevent nuisance and crime and to
Mendelsohn, Harold; O'Keefe, Garrett J.
This summary report highlights the results of a study that examined the effects of the first phase of a nationwide, multimedia, crime prevention campaign featuring a trench-coated, animated dog named McGruff. Following an introduction explaining the purpose of the two surveys that comprised the study, the eight remaining sections of the report…
Giger, P; Merten, T; Merckelbach, H
In the context of criminal forensic evaluations, experts are often confronted with the problem of offenders' claims of crime-related amnesia. Because of the far-reaching legal consequences of the expert opinion, the nature of the suspected memory disorder has to be investigated with special care and due consideration of differential diagnoses. While the diagnosis of organic amnesia is comparatively easy to make, the same is not true for dissociative amnesia. Despite existing theoretical explanations such as stress, peritraumatic dissociation or repression, to date there is no sound, scientifically based and empirically supported explanation for the occurrence of genuine, non-organic crime-related amnesia. In the criminal context of claimed amnesia, secondary gain is usually obvious; thus, possible malingering of memory loss has to be carefully investigated by the forensic expert. To test this hypothesis, the expert has to resort to methods based on a high methodological level. The diagnosis of dissociative amnesia cannot be made by mere exclusion of evidence for organic amnesia; instead, malingering has to be ruled out on an explicit basis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Miguel Quintana Navarrete
Full Text Available This study analyzes the discursive construction of crime prevention in Mexico during the first half of Felipe Calderón's presidency. The characteristics of different subjects and objects — as well as the relations between them— created and represented in the official discourse are distinguished. The analysis reveals the neo-conservative axiological basis of crime prevention, and the way its tenets are "operationalized" in order to articulate them to everyday experience. The findings provide empirical support to contemporary criminological theories and concepts, mainly the notions of "criminologies of the self" and "criminologies of the other", and reveal the discursive construction of a distinct type of crime prevention based on the family.
Zhong, Lena Y; Broadhurst, Roderic G
This article describes a community crime prevention program in China, set against a background of rapid economic development, large internal population migration, and increasing crime rates. Traditional social control in China has been transformed to adapt to the new reform era, yet some mechanisms remain intact. Crime prevention measures and strategies resemble those adopted in the West; however, the differences, constituting the so-called Chinese characteristics with community crime prevention are significant.
Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.
Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…
Cima-Knijff, M.J.; van Oorsouw, K.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims
Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...
Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs.
Brønsted, Lone Bæk
In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between...... students/teachers, student/student and through experiences with diversity. Yet, critical educational research challenges the idea of welfare institutions as a protective factor by demonstrating how institutional practice produces social and cultural categorizations marking what are legitimate...... and illegitimate behaviors. This project explores how state professionals such as teachers, pedagogues, social workers and police officers produce understandings of crime prone young people and their conduct and behavior in a cross-professional meeting. These state professionals are organized in a cross...
A person cannot continue his/her own life without security which is one of the basic needs of the human being, for not only personal security but also the security of the persons’ living environment is of extreme importance. We can talk about the habitability and sustainability of the urban environment so long as the people may, in time and in place, freely select all their activities, such as their residence, work, education, shopping and entertainment options. On the other hand, it is well known that crime in the cities that create insecurity is directly related to urban areas and urban utilization. In the realization of an act of crime, the fact that the victim and the concepts of place are as much impactful as the convict indicates that the place where the crime is committed is, at least, as responsible as the person who commits the crime. Based on this fact, in this article, we shall attempt at identifying the reasons related to place by examining the relation between the factors that bring the crime into being and the urban utilization in the City of Balıkesir. Thus, in the fight against crime, the prevention of crime and/or its avoidance, which is not the duty and under the authority of only the law enforcement agency, the attention and also that of other disciplines (Sociology and Criminology) is invited to be focused on the effectiveness of urban planning.
Tindall, Jenny; Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter
Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol-related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol-related crime reduction strategies. A cross-sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Six hundred ninety-four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol-related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock-out times. Those at-risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm-reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton-McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263-272]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Article 1357 para. (1 Civil Code stipulates that “one that causes harm to another by an unlawful act committed with guilt is obliged to repair it”. In this study, we propose to analyze whether and to what extent, a danger related crime can generate a prejudice, and if for committing such a crime, civil action may be exercised in criminal proceedings.
Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Müller, Maik; Kargl, Frank
Among numerous types of criminal activities, vehicle related crime contributes to personal injury as well as to economic losses. Over the last 10 years vehicle related crime continuously constitutes over 10% of all crime in Germany. However, vehicle related crime is not particularly a German
Full Text Available Criminalistic characteristic of crimes related to prostitution is given (Articles 240, 241 of the RF Criminal Code. Sex industry is represented by three groups of subjects: organizers, perpetrators, services consumers. However, not all these individuals are criminally liable for their actions. Bringing a criminal case is preceded by detection of elements of crime, which is often carried out by a test purchase. Underworld evolution dictates the need for active use of other crime detection actions. The role of rapid and well-coordinated work of the inquiry body, its interaction with the preliminary investigation agency at the stage of detection of these crimes is emphasized. The attributes of these crimes are: advertisements on the recruitment of women to work in the service (leisure sector and personal vehicles drivers; advertisements on the services of an intimate nature; business cards and leaflets advertising the services of an intimate nature (directly or covertly; Internet advertisements offering the services of an intimate nature; groups of girls, constantly residing in baths and saunas, headed by young men or their presence at the same locations along the main streets or busy highways; information received on the law enforcement bodies hotlines; statements and complaints of the people against girls of easy virtue living in adjacent apartments. The issue of the moment of test purchase completion (transfer of money is considered. The problem of proving guilt in cases of reporting involvement in prostitution to the police is analyzed. Information verification is proposed to be implemented by experiment in crime detection.
Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
В. В. Голіна
Problem setting. Crime is one of the oldest existing forms of social life, despite the burning desire of human to destroy it. World history persuades explicitly that cruel, inhumane punishment punishments are inefficient to prevent crime. It’s necessary to rebuild human behavior, and this is possible through the elimination of various stimuli that enhance human passions and lead to irrational, destructive behavior. Recent research and publications analysis. Theory of combating crime primarily...
Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg
In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…
Emilio Jorge Ayos
Full Text Available Any crime prevention strategy implies, explicitly or implicitly, the question about what crime is, the causes of it and how to avert it. In this paper we will focus on set, thru criminological theories, the “concepts” that have been renewal to build different answers to such questions, particularly on crime prevention’s policies in contemporary Argentina. We suggest three axes: first, the criminal positivist sociology of Enrico Ferri, particularly his idea of “ penalties equivalent,”; second, the discussion about crime prevention in the “Chicago School”, specially on Thrasher Frederich’s work; and finally, “multi-agency intervention” idea of the left realist criminology, especially Jock Young, Roger Matthews and John Lea. Such productions have in common the fact that the three have specifically discussed the issue of “crime prevention” on their work. The selection criteria and comparison axis emerges from a broader investigation, which aimed to analyze the modes of way that the association between crime and living conditions is addressed on the social crime prevention policies in Argentina, during the first decade of the new century. Three comparatives dimensions were analyzed: the way social policies appears on crime prevention strategies; the ways the target populations are delimited; and last, the ways the intervention territories are defined, building an specific idea of territory.
Jean Claude Manaliyo
Full Text Available Community participation in crime prevention has been embraced byanti-crime organizations as apanaceaforcrime problems. Thisapproach gained its preeminent status after governments realisedthatlaw enforcement alone cannot reducecrimewithout involvingcommunities.This paper provides insight into challenges facingcommunityparticipationinone of the Cape Town townships. Thestudy employed qualitative method and participants such as ordinarycitizens and representatives of anti-crime organizati ons operating inKhayelitshawere purposively selected. Data was collected using in-depthface-to-faceinterviews. Key findings show that Khayelitsharesidentspatrolstreets during the night undera neighborhood watchproject; and by reporting committed crimes to police or providingpolice with informationon potential crimes, this same communitypatrol helps decrease potential criminal activities.Communityparticipation in Khayelitsha however, faces some impediments suchaspoverty among the community residents, and ineffective policeresponse to crimes.
Full Text Available Crime and criminality are undisputed socio-legal phenomena, existing in human society since ancient times. Each of us has a social behavior, according to or inconsistent with the general value system imposed by the dominant social group leader. No matter how optimistic we are, no matter how inventive and visionary we become, we must be realistic and objective and realize that the danger of crime will never go away, and that it is our duty to identify the best measures on reducing crime. We must not think that being visionary and shaping a society without crime, a society where the rule of law and the respect of social values are a way of life for us all, is a utopia. A safe society, a higher life quality, should be our target and we should make everything in order to achieve it.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) claims to reduce crime and fear of crime through urban design and planning. If it does, it ought to be part of the sustainable planning and design of cities. This chapter gives an overview of the development of CPTED principles and then uses...
Hollis-Peel, M.; Reynald, D.M.; van Bavel, M.L.; Elffers, H.; Welsh, B.C.
Cohen and Felson's (Cohen and Felson American Sociological Review 44(4):588-608, 1979) routine activity theory posits that for a crime to occur three necessary elements must converge in time and space: motivated offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardianship. Capable guardians
Володимир Васильович Голіна
Full Text Available The author considers criminological policy to be a specific kind of ideology that represents concentrated political will and is being incorporated in state power. The latter impacts directly the concept of crime prevention, its shapes, goals, content and methods, the choice of the most suitable model for crime prevention and the institutional framework for its application. The author argues that despite a wide range of research results, presented by M. Babayev, O. Bandurka, A. Blaha, S. Boskholov, V. Vasylevych, V. Holina, A. Zelinsky, M. Kleymyonov, V. Somyn, O. Lytvak, O. Litvynova, P. Frys et al., Ukraine still lacks integrative efficient criminological policy. From author’s point of view, the independence of criminological policy is not absolute (separate from other branches of state policy in the scope of crime prevention. It has been stated that granting criminology with hyper function had resulted in devaluation for both criminological policy and criminology itself. Crime prevention has to evolve into an obligation for all the branches of executive power, fixed by the supreme public authority – Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. It has been supposed that the criminological policy shall be based on common crime prevention and fundamental criminological knowledge. Considering the numerous complexities of modern Ukrainian society, it has been concluded that criminological policy has to shape up-to-date approaches to crime prevention, contribute to improving the professionalism of public judiciary officials and optimization of national legislative structure in this scope. The substantial involvement of the public constitutes a significant asset to the national system of crime prevention. The importance of carrying out criminological expertise for legal drafting has been underlined.
Mark E. Patalinghug
Full Text Available This study aimed primarily to determine the effectiveness of crime prevention strategies implemented by the Salug Valley Philippine National Police (PNP in terms of Police Integrated Patrol System, Barangay Peacekeeping Operation, Anti - Criminality Operation, Integrated Area Community Public Safety services, Bantay Turista and Scho ol Safety Project as evaluated by 120 inhabitants and 138 PNP officers from four Municipalities of Salug Valley Zamboanga del Sur. Stratified random sampling was utilized in determining the respondents. Index crime rate were correlated with the crime preve ntion strategies of the PNP in town of Salug Valley. A descriptive method of research was applied in this study utilizing self - made questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the main statistical tools like frequency count, percentage, mean com putation, Kruskal Wallis Analysis of Variance and simple correlation. Findings of the study revealed that the crime prevention strategies in four (4 municipalities were “much effective” to include Integrated Patrol System, Barangay Peace Keeping Operation s, Anti - Criminality Operations, Integrated Area Community Public Safety Services, Bantay Turista and School Safety Project in connection to the responses of 158 participants. There is a significant relationship between crime prevention strategies employed and index crime rate.
Svetlana A. Timko
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.
Ennis, Andrew; Cleland, Ian; Patterson, Timothy; Nugent, Chris D; Cruciani, Federico; Paggetti, Cristiano; Morrison, Gareth; Taylor, Richard
Safety and security rank highly in the priorities of older people on both an individual and policy level. Older people are commonly targeted as victims of doorstep crime, as they can be perceived as being vulnerable. As a result, this can have a major effect on the victim's health and wellbeing. There have been numerous prevention strategies implemented in an attempt to combat and reduce the number of doorstep crimes. There is, however, little information available detailing the effectiveness of these strategies and how they impact on the fear of crime, particularly with repeat victims. There is therefore clear merit in the creation and piloting of a technology based solution to combat doorstep crime. This paper presents a developed solution to provide increased security for older people within their home.
Background: It is generally accepted that harms from crime cause a very large part of the total social harm that can be attributed to drug use. For example, crime harms accounted for 70% of the weighting of the British Drug Harm Index in 2004. This paper explores the linkage of criminal harm to drug use and challenges the current overestimation of the proportion of crime that can be causally attributed to drug use. It particularly examines the use of data from arrested drug users to estimate ...
Full Text Available Modern street crime has been increasingly affecting the formation of the criminogenic situation in Russia. The main goal of this paper is exploring the possible application of modern digital technologies in the evaluation and prevention of public crime. The methods presented in this empirical research are: monitoring, statistical methods, modeling and questioning, content analysis, research result processing. As a result of the analysis of the received data, generalized quantitative and qualitative indicators of modern street crime were presented: prevalence of mercenary and violent crimes (61,4% in the current criminal situation in the city streets (structure of street crime; the percentage of street crime in relation to all crime done in public places is 45,0% with the rising tendency of serious crime and latency; places where street crime takes place are empty, open city spaces composing about 12% of all the streets of the city; the prevailing “work schedule” of a street criminal is determined by the time of the year (fallwinter; day of the week (Friday, weekends and holidays and time of day (evening-night; the increase in mobile phone theft from people passing in the streets; a characteristic way of street theft and robbery is their suddenness and unpredictability. The article supports the conclusion that the current system of street crime prevention methods and its practice doesn`t provide salvation from street criminals and thus requires further improvement with the consideration of the rising possibilities of the internet-space, specifically, usage of digital applications and devices.
Full Text Available Minimum rates of applying article 149 of the RF Criminal Code, caused by crime categorization errors and technical and legal defects of article’s structure are stated. The elements of crime under this article include violating the constitutional right to freedom of meetings as a result of preventing mass actions. The commission of unlawful act by an official should be categorized as a crime according to article 149 when using prevention means stipulated in objective side of this act. Improper use of official position for illegal prevention and use of violence to people form a cumulative crime (articles 149 and 286 of the RF Criminal Code. Signs of violence and threats to use violence, specified by corpus delicti, draw a question on the amount of damage to health which does not demand additional categorization. Damage limits implies beating and slight damage to health. More serious damage forms a cumulative crime. Any threats to use violence are included in the elements of crime under study. Thus, illegal prevention of conducting public mass action can be categorized as a cumulative crime. Gross violation of public order which expresses contempt against public (committed by using means, specified in Art. 213 of the FR Criminal Code and simultaneously prevents conducting a rally, meeting, demonstration, march, picketing or participating in them (ideal cumulative crime complicates the categorization. If such prevention is accompanied with gross violation of public order, the act should be categorized as a cumulative crime according to articles 149 and 213.
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) 101 applies to both new and existing schools and is built on three simple concepts: natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality. If a school's layout seems unsafe, adopting a few CPTED fundamentals may help make it significantly safer. This paper offers some tips for making…
Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez
Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…
Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Christian, Hayley; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie
Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have investigated the premise that the perception of crime will cause residents to constrain their walking; however the findings to date are inconclusive. In contrast, few longitudinal or prospective studies have examined the impact of crime-related safety on residents walking behaviours. This study used longitudinal data to test whether there is a causal relationship between crime-related safety and walking in the local neighbourhood. Methods Parti...
Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.
Christoffersen, Mogens; Joshi, Heather
Geoffrey Rose’s prevention paradox obtains when the majority of cases with an adverse outcome come from a population of low or moderate risk, and only a few from a minority ‘high risk’ group. Preventive treatment is then better targeted widely than on the ‘high risk’ minority. This study tests wh...
Full Text Available The process of globalization is affecting all areas of social life, and thus no exception crime. Its effect is most evident in the development of new forms of crime that transcends national borders and states receive a supranational character. This primarily refers to the various forms of organized crime, but also in certain of its forms, which are a kind of state violence and the consequences of which are reflected in the systematic violation of human rights. Also, the process of globalization of crime has caused the formation of international organizations aimed at combating of crime which transcends national boundaries. New forms of crime are conditioned by globalization demanded a new approach to their study. Existing criminological theories have proven inadequate in explaining all the causes that lead to crime. It was necessary to create new theories and new doctrines about the causes of crime. In the continuous process of development of criminology, in constant search for new explanations of the causes of crime, within the sociological theories have emerged and globalization theories of criminality, which the authors in their work special attention. The focus of the globalization theory on crime just on its prevention, to reduce the risk of its occurrence. This is certainly a positive step because it shifts the focus of criminologists with immediate causes of crime and focus on the study of their interactions, which is largely socially conditioned, which is especially prominent in the work. The aim of this paper is to point out that globalization theories should not be viewed in isolation from other criminological theories and doctrines, but that one, although relatively new, contribute to the creation of complete systems of criminological doctrines in order to find the optimal social response to crime.
Ragozina I. G.
Full Text Available The article deals with the criminal law norms related to the crime provided for by Article 135 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The authors estimate judicial practice and outline disputable issues of correlation of the given norms and offer the criteria to distinguish lewd and lascivious acts from related crimes
Objectives: To test the “Trump Hypothesis”: whether immigrants are responsible for higher levels of violent and drug-related crime in the United States, as asserted by Donald Trump in his 2015 presidential campaign announcement. This is achieved using recent crime and immigration data, thus testing the common public perception linking immigrants to crime, and providing an updated assessment of the immigrant-crime nexus. Methods: Rates of violent crime and drug arrests by state are pooled for ...
Toumbourou, J W; Hemphill, S A; Tresidder, J; Humphreys, C; Edwards, J; Murray, D
Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse and child health problems. Interventions that address underlying determinants of low SES show strong efficacy in decreasing adolescent crime and violence and effectiveness in improving child health outcomes. Although there is limited efficacy evidence that substance abuse prevention can be effectively addressed by targeting low SES, programs designed to improve educational pathways show some efficacy in reducing aspects of adolescent substance use. Mental health promotion strategies can draw on the approaches outlined here that are associated with the prevention of child and adolescent problems within low SES communities. Alternatively, such interventions could be supported in mental health promotion policy as they may assist in preventing related problems that undermine mental health.
Full Text Available Due to the significant impact of criminality on the quality of life in a particular territory, criminality is attracting more and more attention from local authorities which are trying to reduce it. In this respect, the concept of CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design which is quite often used outside of Slovakia and is based on prevention of criminality through the appropriate design of urban environments, seems to be useful. The study offers the characteristics of CPTED principles and also suggests possibilities for its application within innercity criminality on model territories of the city of Prešov (Slovakia as an usable way of reducing crime in other mainly East-central European cities.
Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.
Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez; Marileydis Pino Rosa
Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important ...
Full Text Available Crime is a part of any social system and known to human communities since its origins. It differs from community to another, even within one community it doesn’t occur equally in all places and nor by the same way. It is also concentrated in some places more than others, sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, etc. Previous researches have proved that crime rate has significant correlation with different social factors: education levels, poverty rates and lack of social organization, while others have drawn the attention to its relation with the built environment. They proposed that crime occurs in places where both opportunities and criminals are available. The role of this paper is to identify urban circumstances related to crime occurrence within the Greater Cairo Region, and to propose different ways to reduce these crimes. Consecutively, agglomeration’s main districts were scrutinized according to social analysis, street-network pattern and land-use.
Kuoppamäki, Sanna-Mari; Kääriäinen, Juha; Lind, Kalle
The aim of this study is to examine the connection between gambling and criminal activity in the National Finnish Police Register. First, a method was created that enabled the search for gambling-related police reports in the National Finnish Police Register. The method is based on finding gambling-related police reports by using gambling-related headwords. Second, all police reports from 2011 that included any mention of gambling were read through (n = 2,233). Suspected gambling-related of crimes (n = 737) were selected from these reports. Those suspected gambling-related crimes were then described and categorized into six different categories: suspected online-related crimes; suspected crimes that were related to lifestyle-gaming; suspected crimes that involved a gambler as a victim of a crime; criminal activity related to problem gambling; casino-connected crimes, and intimate partnership violence resulting from gambling problems. This study, being the first in Finland, generated information on the connection between gambling and criminal activity from the perspective of police reports. Moreover, the study highlights methodological issues that are involved in studying police reports.
Morad Ali Zareipour
Full Text Available Background: The mental health of female prisoners as a high-risk group is very important. Evaluating their health needs has been neglected in most societies. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the relation between the type of crime committed and the mental health status of the female prisoners in Urmia province, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 150 female prisoners in 2016. The standard questionnaire of general health with 28 questions and also a questionnaire including demographic information, the type of crime, and the conviction period were used in order to evaluate the mental health status. The collected information was analysed through SPSS16 and by using chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The results showed that 74% of the female prisoners were suspected to have mental disorder and the least of it was depression with 20.4 per cent being affected by it and the most severe mental disorder pertaining to social function with 78% being affected. Also, the prisoner who had committed murder or had been accomplices for murder, and those sentenced to death had the worst mental health. The statistical relation between mental health and the type of crime and the length of the sentence was significant and the odds ratio of mental disorders among women who were sentenced for murder and for being accomplices to murder was 2.4 times that of women who were convicted for crimes related to drugs. Conclusion: Considering the poor mental health of female prisoners and its relationship with the severity of the crime and the conviction period, it is necessary to make policies to promote mental health in prisoners in order to promote the other aspects of prisoners’ health and also to prevent the recurrence of crime after the discharge from prison.
... Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998..., correct the hotel address line in ADDRESSES to read: 300 East Travis. Dated: April 10, 2012. Gary S...
Amosun, Peter Adewale; Ige, Olugbenga Adedayo; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond
Nigeria is considered by many to be a cyber crime hot spot, and is often ranked among the world's top cyber crime committing countries (e.g. advanced fee fraud is also known as Nigerian scams and 419 scams--419 is a section under the Nigerian Criminal Code Act that prohibits obtaining goods by false pretences). We designed a cyber crime prevention…
White, Jennifer; Stoneman, Lorinda
In this article, we have traced some of the dominant cultural narratives shaping current understandings of youth crime and suicide. We have aimed to show some of the ways that our received understandings of what the problem is and what should be done about it are social constructions that privilege a certain kind of scientific explanation. By…
Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia has introduced special circumstances for the determination of sentence for hate crime in the Criminal Code amended in December 2012. If a criminal offence is committed through hate based on race or religion, national or ethnic affiliation, sex, sexual orientation or gender identity of another, the court shall consider any aggravating factors except when it is not stipulated as a feature of the criminal offence. However, the State still neglects to consider mitigating factors. Moreover, it does not pay sufficient attention to eliminating verbal expressions of hatred and discrimination that often precede crimes motivated by hate. The paper discusses the possibility of improving education and coordinated activities of the State, particularly of courts, prosecutors, police and local self-governments, to combat hate speech and hate crimes. The aim of the paper is to present mechanisms of improving institutional capacities to prevent these phenomena that have been implemented within the project “Implementation of Anti-Discrimination Policies in Serbia” financed by the European Union. The paper concludes that central to the success of this process are the education of state actors, and the development of a value system based on equality and acceptance of diversity.
Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important the intervention of criminology.
Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi
Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:492-501]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available In the paper the author proposes that effectively and efficiently addressing cyber crime requires a shift in paradigm. For businesses and government departments alike the focus should be on prevention, rather than the prosecution of cyber criminals. The Defence in Depth strategy poses a practical solution for achieving Information Assurance in todayâ€™s highly networked environments. In a world where â€œabsolute securityâ€ is an unachievable goal, the concept of Information Assurance poses significant benefits to securing one of an organizationâ€™s most valuable assets: Information. It will be argued that the approach of achieving Information Assurance within an organisation, coupled with the implementation of a Defence in Depth strategy can ensure that information is kept secure and readily available and provides a competitive advantage to those willing to invest and maintain such a strategy.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author points out to the important role of the Serbian State Audit Institution in prevention of corruptive practices, felonies and white-collar crime in the public sector in the Republic of Serbia. Although the activity of supreme state auditors is not primarily aimed at detecting criminal offences in the public sector, their efforts and results in this area are by no means insignificant. This is due to the fact that state auditors are well-trained to interpret and apply the legal provisions from the area of public finance, public procurements and accountancy, regulating the budget system of revenues and expenditures whose violation may constitute a criminal offence within the scope of white-collar crime. Considering the fact that it is an independent and autonomous state authority, the Serbian Supreme Audit Institution should play a very important role in reducing 'the dark figures of white-collar crime'. In many cases, the fear of crime detection as well as the fear of being punished are sufficient to exert the preventive effect on the potential perpetrators of white-collar crimes. However, we have to bear in mind that the prevention of corruption and other felonies which are qualified as white-collar crime calls for a joint effort of all state institutions and citizens alike. Another fact which is very important for improving the operative quality of the Supreme Audit Institution is its membership in the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions and cooperation with the Supreme Audit Institutions in other countries.
Full Text Available Knowledge and learning are important in combating financial crime generallyand white-collar crime in particular. The purpose of this research is to generateinsights into prevention approaches in practice that may reflect on acontingent approach. The five hundred largest business companies in termsof annual turnover were identified in Norway for our empirical study of whitecollarcrime. A paper letter was mailed to the chief financial officer (CFOasking him or her to fill in the questionnaire to be found on a web site usinga password found in the letter. The open-ended question in the questionnaireto CFOs about prevention of white-collar crime was formulated as follows:How can white-collar crime best be prevented in your company? Survey resultsindicate an even distribution of respondents emphasizing control and respondentsemphasizing influence. This empirical research steps back from manybest practice articles and provides insights into preferences of chief financialofficers on how to prevent white-collar crime in the company.
Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323040969
In the framework of intergroup threat theory, it is routinely assumed that the presence of immigrant groups in a local community could contribute to fear of crime among the majority population. This could be explained by a direct relation between ethnic diversity and some forms of crime, but it can
Gerdes, Anne; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Rouces, Jacobo
This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats...... privacy all through the system design process....
Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A
Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available centre to monitor cash delivery vehicles and respond to attacks is in place. Crime statistics Crime figures in South Africa are currently in a bit of a mess. An example can be borrowed from the US. The New York Times released an interactive... statistics and safety levels for every city in the US where enough crime data to report is present. The application even takes it a step further to provide safety levels (safe, moderate, dangerous) for every zip code in select major cities. As long...
Full Text Available the article substantiates the need to develop a basic methodology for investigating crimes related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs due to the fact that these crimes are inextricably linked, interdependent and can not be carried out separately from each other in principle. The existing separate private methods develop recommendations for the investigation of specific types of crimes, for example, only smuggling of these funds or their sale and they are not connected with each other. In this regard, it is not possible to trace the whole cycle of criminal activity from the introduction of controlled means to illicit trafficking prior to their sale. Therefore, the basic methodology for investigating such crimes will allow us to trace the whole chain of criminal acts and to reveal all the circumstances that affect the full and objective investigation of such crimes.
Full Text Available The article covers journalism-related crimes as a relatively distinct category of offences. The importance and purpose of isolating the concept of journalistic criminality under conditions of globalization in the modern theory of legal thought, the rapid development of the information society, and the embodied increase of the role of information and knowledge in human life are emphasized. Attention is paid to the factors affecting the dynamics and development of crimes in the area of professional activities of journalists, which primarily includes the environment of hybrid war. The destructive impact of the social consequences of journalistic crimes on society is evident in the case of Ukraine, which has suffered in the past and to this day experiences the latest information manifestations of hybrid war. The proposition to criminalize the intentional spreading of false information in the media by journalists is discussed. The reasons, basis and conditions for such criminalization are analysed. The existence of criminalization grounds for such an offence is substantiated in the article. However, conclusions are drawn on the inappropriateness of such criminalization due to its non-correspondence with certain conditions associated with difficulties in adjudication and with the problem of proving this type of behaviour. Other means of counteracting the deliberate dissemination of false information are considered.
Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.
D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž
Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
INTERNET AND COMPUTER CRIME (SUMMARY) The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to the basic problems of Internet and computer crime (furthermore also "cyber crime"), which is a type of crime that is still relatively new, but fast developing in a similar pace as the information technologies. The thesis contains seven substantial chapters. First chapter is an introduction of this thesis, which focuses on its structure and summary of the content. Second chapter presents the most ...
This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...
Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)
The standard of proof in criminal law a®ects retributive justice throughthe number of wrong convictions and wrong acquittals. It also a®ects thelevel of crime, since a higher standard of proof implies less deterrence andless incapacitation. This article derives an expression for the optimal...
Deloughery, Kathleen; King, Ryan D.; Asal, Victor
Prior research has frequently drawn parallels between the study of hate crimes and the study of terrorism. Yet, key differences between the two behaviors may be underappreciated in extant work. Terrorism is often an "upward crime," involving a perpetrator of lower social standing than the targeted group. By contrast, hate crimes are…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed
Crofts, Penny; Morris, Tara; Wells, Kim; Powell, Alicia
Illegal waste disposal is an increasingly significant and costly problem. This paper considers a specific hot-spot for illegal dumping in Sydney, Australia from criminological perspectives. We contribute to the developing criminological literature that considers environmental harms as a crime. This draws upon the symbolic aspect of criminal law, contributing to the notion of environmental harms as wrongs worthy of sanction, and facilitates analysis through the prism of criminological literatu...
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....
Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.
Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,
Full Text Available On February 26th 2007, International Court of Justice claimed Serbia responsible for failing to prevent genocide and punish perpetrators underlining its' responsibility to cooperate with International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia. Although it was confirmed genocide has been committed in Srebrenica 1995, Serbia is not obliged to pay financial reparations. Judgment makes distinction between individual and three-fold state responsibility for genocide, based on Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and other sources of international law. There are evident disagreements among judges on jurisdiction, interpretation rules, even on meritum of the case. Many questions still remain open especially what precedent effects will have on establishment of state's dolus specialis and how it will influence the reconciliation process in the region.
Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Farrington, David P
Developmental and life-course (DLC) theories of crime aim to identify the causes and correlates of offending over the life span, focusing on the within-individual variations that result in criminal and delinquent behavior. Although there are several notable theories in the field, few contain both developmental and situational factors related to offending, and none explain why individuals commit crimes in different ways. This study aims to address these issues by developing typologies of burglars based on developmental and situational characteristics to help identify the various criminal career paths of the offenders, and how these different criminal careers may relate to the commission of offenses. Results of this study indicate that there are five different criminal career paths among the sampled burglars and four different styles of committing the same offense, and that burglars with certain criminal career features tend to commit a specific style of burglary. Through this research, we aim to extend DLC theories to create a more practical and contextual explanation of the relationship between criminal careers and the commission of offenses, and increase the level of within-individual explained variance in criminal behavior.
Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T
OBJECTIVE: To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. METHOD: In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with sc...
as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....
Full Text Available In addition to envisaging criminal offences which incriminate the different forms of sexual violence against minor and introducing stricter forms of punishment for sex offenders, the formal social reaction to sex crimes against minors often involves a series of measures aimed at monitoring the convicted offenders after they have served their sentences. These measures are basically aimed at reducing the risk of recidivism. One of these measures is a special pharmacological treatment, generally known as chemical castration, which is applied for the purpose of suppressing the offender's sexual urges and reducing sexual misconduct. In spite of being an appealing solution, chemical castration is acceptable only under specific conditions. Hence, this matter has to be regulated with exquisite caution in order to avoid the objections that this treatment constitutes a violation of the prohibition of torture, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment, as well as a violation of the right to respect for private life and the right to establish a family.
Milano, Giulia; Saenz, Elizabeth; Clark, Nicolas; Busse, Anja; Gale, John; Campello, Giovanna; Mattfeld, Elizabeth; Maalouf, Wadih; Heikkila, Hanna; Martelli, Antonietta; Morales, Brian; Gerra, Gilberto
Very little evidence has been reported in literature regarding the misuse of substances in rural areas. Despite the common perception of rural communities as a protective and risk-mitigating environment, the scientific literature demonstrated the existence of many risk factors in rural communities. The Drug Prevention and Health Branch (DHB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and the World Health Organization (WHO), in June 2016, organized a meeting of experts in treatment and prevention of SUDs in rural settings. The content presented during the meeting and the related discussion have provided materials for the preparation of an outline document, which is the basis to create a technical tool on SUDs prevention and treatment in rural settings. The UNODC framework for interventions in rural settings is a technical tool aimed to assist policy makers and managers at the national level. This paper is a report on UNODC/WHO efforts to improve the clinical conditions of people affected by SUDs and living in rural areas. The purpose of this article is to draw attention on a severe clinical and social problem in a reality forgotten by everyone.
De Danieli, Filippo
In the wake of collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has transformed into a key hub along the Afghan opiates trafficking routes. Around 30 percent of the heroin manufactured in Afghanistan is estimated to be smuggled through Central Asian republics in its way to booming drug markets in Russia and Eastern Europe. Building upon available evidence and extensive fieldwork research, the article seeks to confute mainstream analyses which emphasize connections between criminal and terrorist networks. The focus is on conducive factors for the establishment of drug routes in Central Asia, the characteristics of drug related networks, and the nature of political-criminal relations across the region. It is argued that in all five Central Asia republics strategic partnerships have formed between drug traffickers and state actors around the exploitation of drug rents and that mafias' influence on politics is stronger in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the region's poorest countries. By moving the focus from narco-terror to the state-crime connections, the article provides a critical insight into political economy issues surrounding a complex and multifaceted phenomenon such as the drug trade. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.
McLaughlin, Karen A.; Brilliant, Kelly J.
Designed for use in middle schools and youth organizations, this curriculum, in Spanish, deals with the extent of hate crime in the United States and presents strategies for reducing hate crimes among our youth. This flexible nine-unit curriculum is based on the principles that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable, and that…
Ioannou, Maria; Canter, David; Youngs, Donna
A neglected area of research within criminality has been that of the experience of the offence for the offender. The present study investigates the emotions and narrative roles that are experienced by an offender while committing a broad range of crimes and proposes a model of criminal narrative experience (CNE). Hypotheses were derived from the circumplex of emotions, Frye, narrative theory, and its link with investigative psychology. The analysis was based on 120 cases. Convicted for a variety of crimes, incarcerated criminals were interviewed and the data were subjected to smallest space analysis (SSA). Four themes of CNE were identified: Elated Hero, Calm Professional, Distressed Revenger, and Depressed Victim in line with the recent theoretical framework posited for narrative offence roles. The theoretical implications for understanding crime on the basis of the CNE as well as practical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The criminal research has confirmed that there are clear patterns of crime, with concentrations in specific places at specific times. That is to say, incidence of crime are not distributed randomly; rather, there are certain areas in cities that are relatively small, but where crimes occur much more frequently than elsewhere (the so-called “hotspots”, making them highly vulnerable and predictable. Urban design and environment may play a part in the decision of whether or not to commit a crime; for example, the lack of natural vigilance, poor lighting and other variables mean that a small area may easily be transformed into a potential crime hotspot. The relationship between specific aspects of urban design and the formation of “hotspots” is present in the theory of “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design” (CPTED. This paper examines the relationship between the “hotspots” and the characteristics of the environment, in accordance with CPTED Index, in one city from the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Amadora. The results highlight the need to reassess specific elements of urban design. This fact has drawn attention to the study of localities and urban design.
The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)
Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J
Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.
Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.
Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411
Dennis J. Petrie
Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.
Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....
Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...
Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big
Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad
Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.
Aigbovo & Eidenoje
Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major objective ... weighing the level of satisfaction derivable, set off against the ... preventive measures like the provision of improved living standards and ..... There were several clusters of abandoned arms and combat gear which soon.
Viano Emilio C.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on globalization as it relates to transnational crime. It attempts to show how the very patterns and dynamics that make globalization possible and effective as a positive force in the world also give rise to “collateral” negative, that is criminal, consequences and facilitate the spawning and rapid growth of transnational crimes. Moreover, there are also crimes committed opposing globalization. And globalization also makes it easier to fight crime since it facilitates cooperation and coordination of anti-crime efforts. Thus it has a complex relationship with crime: positive, negative and preventative. The paper also addresses how criminologists should review and revise their research and intervention models to take into account how globalization has changed the way we can and should approach crime. It addresses the lack of criminological interest in the “crimes” of globalization. It challenges the essentialist assumption of mainstream criminology that the legal definitions of crime are sacrosanct and frozen. We need a broader conceptualization of crime which goes beyond the prescriptions of criminal law and draws on different intellectual traditions (crimes of globalization, structural violence and the critique of neo-liberalism which emphasize the contingent influence of social harm in people's life choices. New and bold ways of thinking and modeling are needed. Examples are provided.
Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I
Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.
Full Text Available At the present stage of social development takes on special urgency the problem of finding new means and methods of crime prevention among youth in the context of strengthening the nation's health. In our opinion, employees of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry must take a decisive role in solving these problems. One of the most effective ways to solve them is to organize youth sports schools and clubs to professionally-applied sports at the bases of relevant departments of higher educational institutions of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the involvement of the best specialists and trainers.
Gamma, Alex; Schleifer, Roman; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Buadze, Anna; Liebrenz, Michael
To compare the time trends of Google search interest in methamphetamine and criminal offences related to this drug. Google Trends data for the search term "meth" was compared to methamphetamine-related crime statistics (incl. use, possession, and dealing) in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria for the years 2004-2016. Google data was availably monthly. Crime data was available yearly, and monthly values were imputed. On the country level, internet search trends for "meth" roughly paralleled relevant criminal activity. State-level data, which was available for Austria, showed more heterogeneity. Cross-correlations for yearly data almost always peaked at a lag time of 0 and coefficients were mostly between 0.7 and 1.0 on the country level, and between 0.5 to 1.0 on the state level. Monthly cross-correlations based on imputed values were substantially lower, ranging from 0 to 0.6. These results encourage the further evaluation by law enforcement authorities of Google search activity as a possible predictor of methamphetamine-related crime. However, several limitations, in particular the crude temporal resolution of available crime data, precluded a detailed assessment of the relationship between internet search trends and the development of methamphetamine-related crime in central Europe.
Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.
This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both
Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T; Andreasen, A H; Kramp, P
To analyse how committed crimes and substance-related diagnoses are associated with the age on the first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and the age at diagnosing of schizophrenia among schizophrenics. In a register-based study including all Danes diagnosed with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when the diagnosis of schizophrenia was first given. In contrast, having a substance-related diagnosis was associated with a younger age on first contact but did not influence the age at which the diagnosis of schizophrenia was given. It is important that both psychiatrists and the judicial system are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment.
Waade, Anne Marit
The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....
Smith, Sven; Ferguson, Christopher J; Beaver, Kevin M
Researchers, such as Bandura, have proposed that children's mere exposure to the use of play weapons encourages deviant displays of aggression, but there is very little research to support this hypothesis of 20 years. To examine the relationship between amount of weapon play and concurrent aggression as well as later violent juvenile crime, while controlling for other variables possibly influencing criminal pathways. Using longitudinal survey data collected from mothers and children (n = 2019) from age 5, with follow-up at age 15, correlations between children's play with toy weapons and juvenile criminality were examined. Multivariate regression analyses were employed to determine to what extent early childhood aggression, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and symptoms of depression were antecedents of juvenile crime. For bivariate analysis between toy weapon play and juvenile criminality, the effect size was small and not significant. The relationship remained not significant once control variables were introduced into the model. The act of pretending to be aggressive in childhood thus plays little role in predicting later criminality after other factors, such as gender, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression, have been taken into account. Involvement in imaginative play with toy gun use in early childhood is unlikely to be useful as a risk marker for later criminal behaviour. Play fighting and war toy games may even be considered necessary components within the frame of normal development. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.
Sri Walny Rahayu
Lebih dari satu dekade setelah berlakunya Undang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2006 tentang Pemerintahan Aceh, kemampuan adaptif peradilan adat dan lembaga adat Aceh terus bertahan karena memiliki dasar legalitas penormaan yang kuat diatur dalam undang-undang dan peraturan di Indonesia. Di sisi lain jika dikaji, konsekuensi pelaksanaan Masyarakat Ekonomi Asean (MEA efektif berlaku 31 Desember 2015 di Indonesia berpotensi menimbulkan ancaman seperti munculnya berbagai bentuk kejahatan transnasional yang melintasi perbatasan suatu negara, dilakukan oleh pelaku dari dua atau lebih negara dengan modus operandi modern. Berlakunya MEA bagi Aceh merupakan tantangan memanfaatkan peluang peradilan adat dan lembaga adat mengantisipasi kejahatan tersebut. Berdasarkan data dari ASEAN Rencana Aksi untuk memerangi kejahatan transnasional terdapat delapan bentuk kejahatan yaitu, perdagangan gelap narkoba, perdagangan manusia, laut-pembajakan, penyelundupan senjata, pencucian uang, terorisme, kejahatan ekonomi internasional dan cyber crimes. Tulisan ini bertujuan menjelaskan kemampuan adaptif peradilan adat, lembaga adat Aceh, dan model intervensi peradilan adat di Aceh menghadapi kejahatan transnasional era MEA.
Full Text Available A violência se constitui em um dos problemas mais graves da América Latina. O uso de pequenas e leves armas de fogo é considerada a principal responsável por este fato. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descobrir, a partir de dados do setor saúde, da justiça e da polícia, o número de mortes e crimes envolvendo armas de fogo ocorridos na cidade de Buenos Aires em 2002. Os dados sobre mortalidade e crimes foram obtidos dos Sistemas Nacionais de Estatísticas Vitais e Informação Criminal e os dados sobre apreensão de armas de fogo foram disponibilizados pela Polícia Federal. Utilizaram-se também dados de uma investigação anterior realizada por meio de entrevistas domiciliares a respeito de vitimização por armas de fogo. Durante o período ocorreram 1.304 mortes violentas, dos quais 23.7% corresponderam a mortes provocadas por armas de fogo. Dos 171 indiciamentos policiais por homicídio doloso, 60% haviam sido cometidos com armas de fogo. Das 2.108 pessoas entrevistadas, 6,7% haviam sido vítimas de um crime cometido com arma de fogo. Foram apreendidas 1.887 armas de fogo. A taxa de eventos violentos registrados foi maior nas delegacias da zona sudoeste da cidade, que se caracteriza por condições de vida mais precárias. O impacto da violência e sua relação com armas de fogo constitui-se em um tema relevante da agenda pública.Violence is one of the most serious challenges in Latin American societies. Possession and use of small arms and light weapons are considered to be among the main factors behind it. The aim of this paper is to describe deaths and crimes involving the use of a firearm in the City of Buenos Aires in 2002, focusing the health, justice and police sectors. Data on mortality and crimes were obtained from the National Systems for vital statistics and criminal information; data on firearm seizures were supplied by the Argentine Federal Police. Household interviews conducted for a previous research on firearm-related
Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009
This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…
firearmrelated victimization were also used. An index of violent incidents was developed by police station. There were 1,304 deaths from violence, of which 23.7% were caused by a firearm. The police filed 171 proceedings on the charge of homicides with criminal intent, of which 60% had been committed with a firearm. Of the 2,108 interviewed individuals, 6.7% were victims of a crime committed with a firearm. In 9.6% of surveyed households there was a firearm. Seized firearms added up to 1,887. The index of violent incidents was higher in police stations in the southwestern area of the city that has worse living conditions. The impact of violence and its relation to firearms features as a major issue in the public agenda.
Bergmann, Marie Christine; Dreißigacker, Arne; von Skarczinski, Bennet; Wollinger, Gina Rosa
The Internet has simplified daily life activities. However, besides its comfortability, the Internet also presents the risk of victimization by several kinds of crimes. The present article addresses the question of which factors influence cyber-dependent crime and how they vary between three kinds of cyber-dependent offences: malware infection, ransomware infection, and misuse of personal data. According to the Routine Activity Approach, it is assumed that crime is determined by a motivated offender, the behavior of the Internet user, and the existence of prevention factors. Our analyses were based on a random sample of 26,665 Internet users in two federal states in Germany, aged 16 years and older; 16.6 percent of the respondents had experienced at least one form of cyber-dependent victimization during the year 2014. The results indicate that individual and household factors, as well as online and prevention behavior, influence the risk of cyber-dependent victimization. Furthermore, the effects differ between the three types of offences. In conclusion, the risk of being victimized by cyber-dependent crime is not the same for anyone, but depends on multivariate factors according to the idea of Routine Activity Approach. However, in view of the fact that crime-related factors also matter, studying different cybercrime offences separately seems to be an appropriate research approach.
John R. Lott, Jr.; John Whitley
Abortion may prevent the birth of ''unwanted'' children, who would have relatively small investments in human capital and a higher probability of crime. On the other hand, some research suggests that legalizing abortion increases out-of-wedlock births and single parent families, which implies the opposite impact on investments in human capital and thus crime. The question is: what is the net impact? We find evidence that legalizing abortion increased murder rates by around about 0.5 to 7 perc...
Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich
Full Text Available This article analyses the thesis “Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s” (St. Petersburg, 2016. 254 p. for a Candidate Degree in History by S.V. Remneva as well as the structure and logic of work, the validity of the conclusions, the merits of research and its controversial points. Special attention was paid to the analysis of interaction between the public and law enforcement agencies in crime fighting in the second half of the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s. In conclusion the reviewer pays attention on the idea that the presented facts, assessments and results can be used to develop textbooks on the history of crime, the history of law enforcement community, the history of Leningrad and the Leningrad Region.
Wong, Ian Yat Hin; Koo, Simon Chi Yan; Chan, Clement Wai Nang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula.
@@ Email has fast emerged as the world's most preferred form of communication. Billions of email messages traverse1 the globe daily. Like any other form of communication, email is also misused by criminal elements. The ease, speed and relative anonymity2 of email has made it a powerful tool for criminals.
Jorge Francisco Aguirre Sala
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es mostrar el mayor número de comunes denominadores en cuatro prácticas latinoamericanas exitosas de la prevención del delito. El análisis se hizo con una metodología cualitativa, de índole de diseño teórico y codificación axial. El marco teórico vinculó la participación ciudadana con la gobernanza para sintetizar las perspectivas social, ambiental y situacional de la prevención en el modelo comunitario. Los datos se recolectaron en indicadores de procesos y no de impacto. En los resultados destacan: la asociación entre ciudadanos y autoridades, la gestión de derechos sociales y el empoderamiento ciudadano a través del presupuesto participativo. | The objective of this study is to show the most number of common denominators in four successful Latin American practices in crime prevention. The analysis was done with a qualitative methodology of theoretical design nature and axial coding. The theoretical framework links the citizen participation with governance to synthesize the social, environmental and situational prevention prospects in the Community model. Data were collected on process indicators rather than impact indicators. The main results are: the association between citizens and authorities, the management of social rights and citizen empowerment through participatory budget.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define a profile of juvenile offenders depending on the type of crime (againstproperty or against persons, according to several socio?demographic variables, and a number of indicatorsof juvenile risk. Participants were 395 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 with a criminal record inthe juvenile court over a two-year follow-up period. Results showed that in property-related offences theoffender is more likely to be male, from an Eastern European country, and with inconsistent parenting. Onthe other hand, crimes against persons would be committed mostly by girls, Latin American or Africanjuveniles, and with individual factors such as aggressive behaviour, outbursts of anger, poor frustrationtolerance, or little concern for others. These results may be useful in designing crime prevention andoffender intervention programmes.
... victims of crime each year. For many citizens, a sense of security remains painfully elusive, and we must... survivors. We have shined a light on hidden crimes like cyberbullying, online child sexual exploitation, and... working to prevent and prosecute financial crimes. My Administration's Financial Fraud Enforcement Task...
Full Text Available International human rights law has been challenged because of its alleged inability to safeguard the rights of the most vulnerable victims of violence. Whereas in real life they are often marginalized and effectively left without adequate protection, this is not to be attributed to the absence of an appropriate normative framework but rather to the contempt, lack of enforcement and systemic neglect of their claims. This paper proposes to find a ‘cure’ inside international human rights law, by strengthening the mechanisms that permit a horizontal application of human rights standards in private relations. The paper is divided in four sections. The first section describes the problematic at hand, focusing in particular on violence against women and children. The three subsequent sections then analyze the avenues open to victims in order to claim a ‘third-party’ application of human rights treaties against non-state actors who have violated their fundamental rights.
Pan, William K
Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The
Terranova, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Greta; Zen, Margherita; Montisci, Massimo
Crimes against the elderly have physical, psychological, and economic consequences. Approaches for mitigating them must be based on comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon. This study analyses crimes against the elderly in Italy during the period 2007-2014 from an epidemiological viewpoint. Data on violent and non-violent crimes derived from the Italian Institute of Statistics were analysed in relation to trends, gender and age by linear regression, T-test, and calculation of the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Results show that the elderly are at higher risk of being victimized in two types of crime, violent (residential robbery) and non-violent (pick-pocketing and purse-snatching) compared with other age groups during the period considered. A statistically significant increase in residential robbery and pick-pocketing was also observed. The rate of homicide against the elderly was stable during the study period, in contrast with reduced rates in other age groups. These results may be explained by risk factors increasing the profiles of elderly individuals as potential victims, such as frailty, cognitive impairment, and social isolation. Further studies analysing the characteristics of victims are required. Based on the results presented here, appropriate preventive strategies should be planned to reduce crimes against the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The process of economic transition in Serbia has highlighted the problem of socially responsible behavior of corporations and especially the growing phenomenon of corporate crime. The consequences of corporate wrongdoing are almost everywhere and cannot be overseen. The most tremendous ones are those related to human casualties, environmental disasters, long-term negative health effects and great material budget losses on local and state levels. The fact that corporations are profiting from criminal activity which causes enormous damage to society and individuals makes public policy makers face the ultimate choice - either to devise new effective measures for reducing and controlling this phenomenon or to retain the standard model of crime control, in accordance with the principles of classical criminal law. The first choice would require one of the pillars of criminal law - the principle of individual and subjective guilt of physical persons as the exclusive grounds for imposing criminal liability - to be either modified and widened in order to be used as a base for imposing corporate criminal liability or partially changed by new criminal law categories which would introduce different grounds for imposing criminal liability on an organization. The second choice would require the decision-makers to refuse to change old and well-established principles. The criminal reality, however, has made most legislatures in Europe and around the world choose the first option and introduce different forms of corporate criminal liability. Serbian criminal legislation has been headed in the same direction since 2008, when it was changed in order to enable the imposing of liability for criminal acts on corporations. However, although corporate criminal liability is becoming the European legislative standard, one question remains - Is this the only measure of criminal politics which can be used as a means of reducing and preventing corporate crime? The authors
Bugarski Tatjana D.
Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.
Activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century (according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory
Malyga, N. M.
Full Text Available In the article considered the activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory. This enterprise clearly shows peculiarities of social activity of citizens under the leadership of the Communist Party, which considered labor collective as a main link of communist self government. In Ukrainian and foreign historiography this problem is almost unconsidered. Source base is represented by the fund of State archive of Dnipropetrovsk region, acts of the CC KPSU (Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and puplications of local press. In the article made an attempt to show the process of functioning of voluntary public squads on the example of Dnipropetrovsk radio factory and show the results in field of crime prevention.
The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measur...
Sciandra, Matthew; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Ludwig, Jens
Using data from a randomized experiment, to examine whether moving youth out of areas of concentrated poverty, where a disproportionate amount of crime occurs, prevents involvement in crime. We draw on new administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment. MTO families were randomized into an experimental group offered a housing voucher that could only be used to move to a low-poverty neighborhood, a Section 8 housing group offered a standard housing voucher, and a control group . This paper focuses on MTO youth ages 15-25 in 2001 ( n = 4,643) and analyzes intention to treat effects on neighborhood characteristics and criminal behavior (number of violent- and property-crime arrests) through 10 years after randomization. We find the offer of a housing voucher generates large improvements in neighborhood conditions that attenuate over time and initially generates substantial reductions in violent-crime arrests and sizable increases in property-crime arrests for experimental group males. The crime effects attenuate over time along with differences in neighborhood conditions. Our findings suggest that criminal behavior is more strongly related to current neighborhood conditions (situational neighborhood effects) than to past neighborhood conditions (developmental neighborhood effects). The MTO design makes it difficult to determine which specific neighborhood characteristics are most important for criminal behavior. Our administrative data analyses could be affected by differences across areas in the likelihood that a crime results in an arrest.
Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.
Ernesto Aguayo Téllez
Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.
Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit
Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2012), s. 447-469 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crime under transition * deterrence * economics of crime Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.736, year: 2012
Berge, Keith H; Dillon, Kevin R; Sikkink, Karen M; Taylor, Timothy K; Lanier, William L
Mayo Clinic has been involved in an ongoing effort to prevent the diversion of controlled substances from the workplace and to rapidly identify and respond when such diversion is detected. These efforts have found that diversion of controlled substances is not uncommon and can result in substantial risk not only to the individual who is diverting the drugs but also to patients, co-workers, and employers. We believe that all health care facilities should have systems in place to deter controlled substance diversion and to promptly identify diversion and intervene when it is occurring. Such systems are multifaceted and require close cooperation between multiple stakeholders including, but not limited to, departments of pharmacy, safety and security, anesthesiology, nursing, legal counsel, and human resources. Ideally, there should be a broad-based appreciation of the dangers that diversion creates not only for patients but also for all employees of health care facilities, because diversion can occur at any point along a long supply chain. All health care workers must be vigilant for signs of possible diversion and must be aware of how to engage a preexisting group with expertise in investigating possible diversions. In addition, clear policies and procedures should be in place for dealing with such investigations and for managing the many possible outcomes of a confirmed diversion. This article provides an overview of the multiple types of risk that result from drug diversion from health care facilities. Further, we describe a system developed at Mayo Clinic for evaluating episodes of potential drug diversion and for taking action once diversion is confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....
Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.
Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…
Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.
Full Text Available In this paper the author explores, focusing largely on the example of the Balkans, the connection between the expansion of neoliberal market economy and war, and related to it the growth of illegal markets and the shadow economy, on one hand, and the victimisation by human trafficking, on the other. By locating human trade within expanding local and global illegal markets, the author is arguing that, without taking into consideration wider social contexts, which create structural incentives for illegal markets and transnational organised crime, we can hardly understand the causes, let alone build effective strategies to combat and prevent it. Consequently, on the basis of the analyses of human trade as a form of both transnational organised crime and illegal markets, some strategies (short-term and long-term for the prevention and control of human trafficking on both the micro and macro level are suggested.
Heineke, J M
Three data sets were used to estimate joint and conditional probability distributions between various variables of interest in bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E) cases of $10,000 dollars or more, computer-related crime cases of various types, and cases of insider theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. This report describes in tabular form the information contained in the three rather extensive data sets from industries facing insider threats which, in one or more dimensions, are analogous to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The data in Tables 1 through 29 were computed from the 313 cases of bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E) representing losses of $10,000 or more reported to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for the period 1977 to 1978. The data in Tables 30 through 64 were computed from the 461 cases of computer-related crime obtained from SRI International for the period 1958 to 1978. These incidents include inventory manipulations designed to hide errors, phony entries used to cover embezzlements, schemes used to penetrate a system and surreptitiously bring about a system crash, and sabotage. The data in Tables 65 through 67 were computed from data reported by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) for the period 1973 to 1978. These data, though limited, provided several interesting insights into the insider-threat problem.
Full Text Available Abstract This research reviews the legal framework of human rights crime as an extraordinary crime as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases. The outcomes of the research indicate that modern human rights law developed out of customs and theories that established the rights of the individual in relation to the state. Disagreements regarding human rights violations which can only be done by the state and its agents or can also be done by non-government units still exist at the moment. As it turns out in practice however it has certain weaknesses particularly in legislation concerning serious crimes of human rights both as ius constituendum and ius constitutum still needs to be improved especially in the implementation of human rights on judiciary system. Therefore serious crimes against human rights are included as an extraordinary crime. The handling of the cases was incredible and special has become a logical consequence to be included as an extraordinary crime.
Full Text Available Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, and one which takes many different forms. It is not limited to criminals polluting the air, water and land and pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction; it can also include crimes which speed up climate change, destroy fish stocks, annihilate forests and exhaust essential natural resources. These crimes can have a harmful impact on the economies and security of multiple nations, in some cases they may even threaten the very existence of a country or people. Furthermore, a significant proportion of both wildlife crime and pollution crime cases point to the involvement of organized crime networks. This is evidenced by the detailed planning of operations, substantial financial support, the careful management of international shipments and massive profits. Still, to date, transnational environmental crime has been poorly attended to by the transnational organised crime and transnational policing discourse. National and international institutions have prioritised other forms of organised crime, giving little thought to the nuances of environmental crime and how they should be reflected in policing. Intention of this paper is to point out the importance of international cooperation and to point out the its good examples.
... if not, why not. Thirdly, they were asked to suggest crime prevention strategies. The findings are presented against the background of a criminological perspective on juvenile delinquency and a literature review on the causes of crime and crime prevention strategies. (South African Journal of Education: 2003 23 (2): 85-93).
Cozens, Paul; Hillier, David; Prescott, Gwyn
This paper investigates the perceptions of the elderly in relation to crime and nuisance and the fear of crime associated with stereotypical British housing designs. Demographically, this diverse though highly urbanized group continues to grow; group members' observations, therefore, have increasing social relevance and political importance and are crucial for assessing and informing both current policy and the evolution of future policy initiatives. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) has become popular once again in America, Australia, Canada, South Africa, as well as in Europe and Britain. A crucial dimension to this theory concerns the perception of "territoriality," "surveillance," and "image" within the design of the built environment derived from Newman's "Defensible Space" concepts (1973). This paper presents and discusses the ways in which the elderly associate crime and nuisance with a range of traditional housing designs. The findings strongly reinforce Newman's theory. The paper concludes that the design and, perhaps more importantly, the management of residential housing influence the perceived levels of crime, nuisance, and fear of crime, and the "defensible" qualities of each specific design. Such perceptions will arguably affect elderly people's ability to maintain their privacy, dignity, and autonomy, their physical and psychological well-being, and their social inclusion. Policy implications for housing the elderly safely within the community are reviewed.
Since it began offering cyber liability coverage in December 2011, the Texas Medical Liability Trust has received more than 150 cyber liability claims, most of which involved breaches of electronic protected health information. TMLT's cyber liability insurance will protect practices financially should a breach occur. The insurance covers a breach notification to customers and business partners, expenses for legal counsel, information security and forensic data services, public relations support, call center and website support, credit monitoring, and identity theft restoration services.
Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.
Hansen, Kim Toft
In Crime Stories: Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany, Todd Herzog – explicitly or implicitly – deals with different established myths about crime fiction, criminality and its cultural presumptions. It is generally quite seldom – as Herzog does – that the three subje...... is indeed part of this needed and remarkable wave of theoretical and historical revisions of our understanding of crime through factual and fictional representations....
Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...
Raluca Georgiana POPA
Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.
Dağlar, Murat; Argun, Uğur
As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they b...
Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.
The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)
in a canvas harness. The harness was further supported by a steel frame which was suspended from a metal beam (3.7 m off the ground) mounted on...direction of the wave propagation (Figure 5). After proper alignment of the head with respect to the center of the C4 charge, the steel frame was...further tied to four hooks cemented to the concrete ground with straps to prevent excessive motion during the blast exposure. The intensity of the two
Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine
This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…
... our criminal justice system, and preventing crimes before they occur. The incidence of crime in the.... Moreover, women suffer the vast majority of intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and rape. These... violence in communities across our Nation. We are partnering with organizations and agencies at every level...
Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David
Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…
Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi
This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…
Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J
Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.
Kreager, Derek A; Lyons, Christopher J; Hays, Zachary R
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20 th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle's downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990's, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980's showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990's showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed.
Kreager, Derek A.; Lyons, Christopher J.; Hays, Zachary R.
This study examines the relationship between crime and processes of urban revitalization, or gentrification. Drawing on recent urban demography research, we hypothesize that gentrification progressed rapidly in many American cities over the last decade of the 20th century, and that these changes had implications for area crime rates. Criminological theories hold competing hypotheses for the connections between gentrification and crime, and quantitative studies of this link remain infrequent and limited. Using two measures of gentrification and longitudinal tract-level demographic and crime data for the city of Seattle, we find that many of Seattle’s downtown tracts underwent rapid revitalization during the 1990’s, and that these areas 1) saw reductions in crime relative to similar tracts that did not gentrify, and 2) were areas with higher-than-average crime at the beginning of the decade. Moreover, using a within-tract longitudinal design, we find that yearly housing investments in the 1980’s showed a modest positive association with crime change, while yearly investments in the 1990’s showed the opposite pattern. Our findings suggest a curvilinear gentrification-crime relationship, whereby gentrification in its earlier stages is associated with small increases in crime, but gentrification in its more consolidated form is associated with modest crime declines. Implications of these results for criminological theory, urban development, and broader crime patterns are discussed. PMID:25505350
Martha Fabiola García Álvarez (México
Full Text Available La finalidad de esta investigación realizada en el Centro Preventivo y de Readaptación Femenil de Puente Grande, Jalisco (2008-2011,fue obtener información multidisciplinaria para analizar la participación de la mujer en la delincuencia y violencia, como víctima y victimaria, y las causas externas e internas que influyen en su conducta, para aportar soluciones al problema. Las causas de la conducta delictiva y violenta en la mujer es policausal, determinada por su personalidad. El patrón de conducta causal que predomina es el psicosociocultural. El estudio de la violencia y delictividad femenina debe ser en forma multidisciplinaria, como un ser integral. The purpose of this research at the Women's Rehabilitation and Preventive Puente Grande, Jalisco (2008-2011, multidisciplinary Centre was to obtain information to analyze the participation of women in crime and violence, as victim and victimizer, and causes external and internal influencing their behavior, to provide solutions to the problem. The causes of criminal and violent behavior in women is policausal determined by your personality. The causal pattern of behavior that is the psycho-socio predominates. The study of female criminality and violence should be in a multidisciplinary, as a whole being.
... instructed him to rest, but the man continued working. An hour later, the man appeared confused and coworkers carried ... for conducting research and making recommendations to prevent work-related illness and ... significantly reduced Preventing Heat-related Illness or Death of Outdoor ...
Elonheimo, Henrik; Sourander, Andre; Niemelä, Solja; Helenius, Hans
The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of various crime types among adolescent males born in Finland in 1981. Data on crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001 were received for 2,866 boys, of whom 81% (n = 2,330) filled in a questionnaire at obligatory military call-up at age 18 in 1999. Crime was divided into five types: drug, violent, property, traffic, and drunk driving offences. Of the 2,866 boys, 23% had been registered for offending; 4% for drug, 7% for violent, 11% for property, 11% for traffic, and 5% for drunk driving offences during the 4-year period in late adolescence. All the crime types correlated with each other and shared many of the psychosocial problems. Small community size, parents' divorce, aggressiveness, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness were generic correlates of crime, being independently related to various crime types. The results support general rather than specific accounts of youth crime. In particular, measures moderating the adverse effects of divorce, alleviating parental adversities and supporting parenthood, and tackling substance abuse seem relevant in social and criminal policy because they address psychosocial problems characterizing youth crime in general.
Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando
We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...
Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.
Violations of social norms can be costly to society and they are, in the case of large crimes, followed by prosecution. Minor misbehaviors — small crimes — do not usually result in legal proceedings. Although the economic consequences of a single small crime can be low, such crimes generate
posterior of the head to the lambda . Its location is shown in Figure 2 which also shows the approximate locations of the six ICP transducers. The X-axis...cell bodies that may be related to impaired axoplasmic transport and its ultimate release into the surrounding extracellular matrix , which in turn
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to
Stanger, Michael A.
The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...
Ibraeva B. M.
Full Text Available hackers seem to be the most mysterious people in the contemporary world. Where legal actions are helpless, hackers can intervene. However, not only hackers but state employees commit cyber crimes once they get power. Is it just a coincidence or authorities and hackers have lots of things in common? This article is trying to cast light on the reasons why digital crimes are committed.
Yaseen Ahmed Meenai
Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.
Full Text Available The phenomenological picture of crime is constantly changing. In modern times an increase in criminal behaviour as a whole and in the number of new forms of crimes, in particular grave criminal offences, has been noted. New and especially dangerous forms of crime are considered to be: organised crime, terrorism, business crime, corruption, illegal trafficking of drugs, weapons and people, and grave forms of violence. Recently, the particular attention of all democratic world powers and their special services has been seized by the ever increasing and more intensive collusion of organised crime and terrorism. This is a symbiosis which, apart from the need to create new and specialised services, could even result in some changes to criminal legal theory and practice. In this paper, within the analysis of the collusion between terrorism and organised crime, only one aspect is problematised. This aspect deals with financing terrorism and the measures which the international community and national legislation undertake in the fight against terrorism. The intention of the measures is to prevent not only the collusion of terrorist groups and organised crime in the commission of criminal offences but also the disposal of funds acquired by such means as financial transactions and ‘money laundering’. These measures do not only have a direct effect on the survival and activity of future terrorist groups. They also have a direct influence on the comprehensive fight against organised crime which poses fundamental threats to contemporary civilisation.
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
Security and prevention of crimes in academic libraries is essential library duties .... From the earliest time to the present, librarians are bothered on how to ensure the protection ..... OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) computer system etc.
Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth
Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.
Full Text Available Without certain adjustments to specifics of computer crime, as to a phenomenon of global proportions, detection, investigation and prosecution of this type of crime is almost impossible. Therefore, the need for setting up a legal framework for combating cyber crime has been identified, in order to define which activities related to information systems are considered computer crime; to determine the specific procedural rules, which would enable the access to data, computer and networks during investigating and prosecuting computer crime and to provide continuous training of members of the institutions responsible for countering this form of crime. This legal framework should consist of substantive and procedural rules adapted to this type of crime due its aim is the improvement of international cooperation in the framework of global and regional approach to combating cyber crime. In this this paper the current situation of strategic and legal framework of countering cyber crime is presented (at the level of the Council of Europe and of the European Union as well as trends in the development of systematic approach towards countering the mentioned abuses within these regional organizations. At the European level, the legal framework to combat cyber crime is set in the Council of Europe Convention on cyber crime and the Council of EU Framework Decision on attacks against information systems. In a series of documents organs of EU confirmed the strategic support of COE Convention and the encouragement of Member States to ratify the Convention. In addition, the Convention represent the base of the said Framework Decision. These two legal instruments have the same goal - removing the differences between national legislation, the introduction of new powers in the discovery and evidence of computer crime and improvement of the international cooperation in combating cyber crime. Although their legal nature and scope vary, its objectives will be achieved
Abdul Salam Siku
Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.
Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad/Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics
Osvaldo Tieghi (Argentina
Full Text Available Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics
Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T
with schizophrenia born after November 1, 1963, data on criminality, substance-related diagnoses and contacts with the psychiatric hospital system were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with the non-convicted schizophrenics the convicted were older on first contact with the psychiatric hospital system and older when...... are aware of possible psychotic symptoms in criminal and abusing individuals to enable earlier detection and treatment....
Munkner, R; Haastrup, S; Jørgensen, T
the diagnosis of schizophrenia was first given. In contrast, having a substance-related diagnosis was associated with a younger age on first contact but did not influence the age at which the diagnosis of schizophrenia was given. CONCLUSION: It is important that both psychiatrists and the judicial system...
Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M
Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.
Herman, J L
The conflict between knowing and not knowing, speech and silence, remembering and forgetting, is the central dialectic of psychological trauma. This conflict is manifest in the individual disturbances of memory, the amnesias and hypermnesias, of traumatized people. It is manifest also on a social level, in persisting debates over the historical reality of atrocities that have been documented beyond any reasonable doubt. Social controversy becomes particularly acute at moments in history when perpetrators face the prospect of being publicly exposed or held legally accountable for crimes long hidden or condoned. This situation obtains in many countries emerging from dictatorship, with respect to political crimes such as murder and torture. It obtains in this country with regard to the private crimes of sexual and domestic violence. This article examines a current public controversy, regarding the credibility of adult recall of childhood abuse, as a classic example of the dialectic of trauma.
Hanlon, Robert E; Rubin, Leah H; Jensen, Marie; Daoust, Sarah
Neuropsychological features of 77 indigent murder defendants and death row inmates were examined in relation to criminal variables underlying their homicidal acts. Clinically, the sample was characterized by elevated rates of developmental disorders (49%), personality disorders (54%), Axis I psychiatric disorders (45%), substance abuse (86%), and history of violence (43%). By statute, killing more than one person is an aggravating factor in many jurisdictions that renders a murder defendant eligible for the death penalty. Individuals who committed a single murder were characterized by executive dysfunction, lower intelligence, slower speed of information processing, and a higher frequency of developmental disorders (58%), relative to those charged and/or convicted of killing two or more people, who were characterized by a significantly higher rate of personality disorders (79%) and a lower rate of developmental disorders (34%). Additionally, using the FBI criminal classification system for categorizing homicide by motive, a significant difference in the frequency of psychosis was found among subgroups associated with the following motives: Criminal enterprise; personal cause; and sex. The collective neuropsychological profile of the sample revealed that executive functions were significantly decreased, relative to memory functions, with over half of the sample (55%) demonstrating executive dysfunction.
Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin
Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.
In this chapter an agent-based model for investigating how crime spreads through social networks is presented. Some theoretical issues related to the sociological explanation of crime are tested through simulation. The agent-based simulation allows us to investigate the relative impact of some mechanisms of social influence on crime, within a set of controlled simulated experiments.
Zubairu Abubakar Ghani
Full Text Available Urbanization has created numerous social problems, among which is crime that became a common phenomenon to all urban areas in both developed and developing nations. Recent unimaginable levels of the world urbanization coincides with rise in urban crimes in many parts of the world, as the rate of unemployment had been on the increase and coupled with increased poverty among the urban poor. Nature of crime is not uniform but varies from one geographical region to another. In some areas, property crime is more common while in others, crime on person (violent is prevalent. Crime is not being plagued by a singular factor anywhere it occurred, there are variant factors that influence criminal activities. However, key factors that persuade criminal behaviours of potential offenders includes: unemployment, poverty, bad governance and weaknesses in law enforcement or crime-control agencies. These four key factors were discussed in this paper with hope of bringing out nature of urban crimes that bedevilled properties and people safety for taking management and prevention measures.
Perc, Matjaž; Donnay, Karsten; Helbing, Dirk
Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.
Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.
Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull
promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... Current available crime data ... Figure 1: The ecological framework: WHO examples of multi-level risk factors. Source: ... murder are the South African Police Service's (SAPS) ..... crime: testing social disorganization theory, American Journal.
Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound
Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu
WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
Cook, Philip J
Some law enforcement officials and other observers have asserted that theft is the primary source of guns to crime. In fact, the role of theft in supplying the guns used in robbery, assault, and murder is unknown, and current evidence provides little guidance about whether an effective program to reduce gun theft would reduce gun violence. The current article analyzes publicly available national data on gun theft together with a unique data set for Chicago. The results tend to support a conclusion that stolen guns play only a minor role in crime. First, publicly available data are used to calculate that thefts are only about 1% of all gun transactions nationwide. Second, an analysis of original data from Chicago demonstrates that less than 3% of crime guns recovered by the police have been reported stolen to the Chicago Police Department (CPD). If a gun is reported stolen, there is a 20% chance that it will be recovered, usually in conjunction with an arrest for illegal carrying. Less than half of those picked up with a stolen gun have a criminal record that includes violent offenses. Third, results from surveys of convicted criminals, both nationally and in Chicago, suggest that it is rare for respondents to have stolen the gun used in their most recent crime. The data on which these results are based have various shortcomings. A research agenda is proposed that would provide more certainty about the role of theft.
Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.
Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.
The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…
Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.
National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…
Full Text Available This paper addresses issues related to transport and security with a particular focus on the role that the physical environment plays in increasing or reducing opportunities for crime. The focus is on crime problems on public transport and the use...
Full Text Available to the places in which it occurs. That is why many residents and businesses have opted for enclosed neighbourhoods and security villages. But there are alternatives that avoid the problems of access and exclusion that come with erecting barriers. A model...
Ami M. Lynch
Full Text Available Grounded in group conflict theory and the defended neighborhoods thesis, this nationwide empirical study of cities and their residential segregation levels examines the occurrence of hate crime using data for all U.S. cities with populations over 95,000 and Uniform Crime Reporting data for hate crime, in conjunction with 2000 census data. Hate crime is any illegal act motivated by pre-formed bias against, in this case, a person’s real or perceived race. This research asks: Do hate crime levels predict white/black segregation levels? How does hate crime predict different measures of white/black segregation? I use the dissimilarity index measure of segregation operationalized as a continuous, binary, and ordinal variable, to explore whether hate crime predicts segrega- tion of blacks from whites. In cities with higher rates of hate crime there was higher dissimilarity between whites and blacks, controlling for other factors. The segregation level was more likely to be “high” in a city where hate crime occurred. Blacks are continually multiply disadvantaged and distinctly affected by hate crime and residential segregation. Prior studies of residential segregation have focused almost exclusively on individual choice, residents’ lack of finances, or discriminatory actions that prevent racial minorities from moving, to explore the correlates of segregation. Notably absent from these studies are measures reflecting the level of hate crime occurring in cities. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hate crime and neighborhood conflict when contemplating the causes of residential segregation.
Stef P. J. Kremers
Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70 y. Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered.
The factors and conditions which have contributed to many of the corrosion related service failures are discussed based on a review of actual case histories. The anti-corrosion devices which developed as a result of these failure analyses are reviewed, and the method which must be adopted and used to take advantage of the available corrosion prevention techniques is discussed
Full Text Available Smuggling is not only a pivot of organized crime, but also a binder that facilitates the components of the organized crime. Its relationship with other forms of crime is so visible that there is no need to demonstrate it. Observers examine and study the reactions that govern the organized crime. The judicial practices have shown the relations of smuggling acts with corruption, drug trafficking, terrorism and clandestine migration.
Tompson, L.; Partridge, H.; Shepherd, N.
The use of hotspot mapping techniques such as KDE to represent the geographical spread of linear events can be problematic. Network-constrained data (for example transport-related crime) require a different approach to visualize concentration. We propose a methodology called Hot Routes, which measures the risk distribution of crime along a linear network by calculating the rate of crimes per section of road. This method has been designed for everyday crime analysts, and requires only a Geogra...
Engelen, Peter Jan; Lander, Michel W.; van Essen, Marc
Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of
Fallesen, Peter; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Imai, Susumu
In this paper, we estimate the effect of workfare policy on crime by exploiting two exogenous welfare policy changes in Denmark. Our results show a strong decline in the crime rate among treated unemployment uninsured men relative to untreated uninsured and unemployment insured men, and part...... of this decline can be identified as a direct effect of workfare participation. Moreover, we find that criminal activity was also reduced during weekends, when the workfare programs were closed, allowing us to distinguishing the pure program effect from the incapacitation effect. These results imply a strong...
Money laundering took advantage of the increasing openness and expanding markets to improve their techniques, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the weaker countries. In an evolutionary perspective, we understand how this phenomenon has progressed and how countries and referenced organizations have an important role to play in its prevention. This crime was defined and framed in an evolutionary perspective, whether legislative, or jurisprudential doctrine in order to better understand t...
In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.
Sindhu VIJAYA KUMAR
Full Text Available God endowed man and women with same sense of emotion, passion, pain and pleasure, yet both differ from each other. Her gentle tenderness and tolerance make her different from her fellow partner. Indeed women are given place of pride in almost all the religion. Her importance, rights and privileges are recognized by almost all religious scripture. Even then she is subjected to several socialprejudices. Causing carnal catastrophe is one of the most demeaning devices adopted to subjugate women. Today the greater challenging before her is to protect her dignity chastity and virginity.Women are sexually exploited in almost all sphere of life. This crime has neither face of its own nor any territorial boundary but with the fact that women are to greater extent its victim, the degree of thiscrime and the victims’ status aftermath the crime differ. In India the incident of rape seems to be less when compared with the foreign country. Numerically, among all crime rape is relatively in frequentphenomenon (0.3 % of total crime in India but among the crime against the women the rape constitute the highest percentage. Case study reveals that there has been a strong increase in offenceof rape in past decade. There has been almost 2,487 rape cases reported between 1971 to 1978, which had increased to 4,621 cases in the same year. According to the official statistic produce by theNational Human right commission Delhi in the year 1991, one woman is molested every 26 minute. These are statistic reported cases, which if include unreported cases the matter would have been ofevery second rather than minute. In response to this government of India approached Law commission with a request to suggest substantive and procedural reformation of criminal law. In spite of amendment made to the criminal law in 1983, the legal system could hardy control the crime, perhaps there is a necessity of awaking calls from the victims’ side on one hand and rapid
In recent decades, womenâ€™s participation in the labor market has increased considerably in most countries and is converging toward the participation rate of men. Though on a lesser scale, a similar movement toward gender convergence seems to be occurring in the criminal world, though many more men than women still engage in criminal activity. Technological progress and social norms have freed women from the home, increasing their participation in both the labor market and the crime market. ...
Full Text Available In today’s world, globalization and the increased use of information technology have resulted to the significant increases of economic crimes in recent years. Accordingly, financial crimes, such as money laundering misconducts have increased significantly. The police play active roles in the fight against money laundering and related crimes in Turkey. However, professional support is essential in order to effectively combat money laundering. In other words, not only a good level of economics, finance, accounting knowledge is critical; but also, a decent level of law information is crucial in the detection and prevention of these crimes. Increasing the effectiveness of forensic accounting profession, especially in the USA, has an important role in the prevention and detection of money laundering. Since forensic accountants have skills and capacities of litigation support, investigative accounting and expertise.
This chapter examines four possible relationships between the credit crunch and corporate crime. A first relation is that cases of accounting fraud have contributed to the causes of the crisis. Because of these accounting scandals, the trust in large corporations and the financial sector possibly
Gartstein, Maria A; Seamon, Erich; Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J
Identification of early risk factors related to obesity is critical to preventative public health efforts. In this study, we investigated links between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (diurnal cortisol pattern), geospatially operationalized exposure to neighborhood crime, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of 5-year-old children. Greater community crime exposure and lower HPA-axis activity were hypothesized to contribute to higher BMI, with child HPA-axis moderating the association between crime exposure and BMI. Families residing within the boundaries of the City of Seattle (N = 114) provided information concerning demographic/psychosocial risk factors, used to calculate a Cumulative Risk Index, indicating the number of contextual adversities present. Child BMI and diurnal cortisol pattern (derived from assays of saliva samples) were examined, along with neighborhood crime indices computed with publically available information, based on participants' locations. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, adjusted for covariates (cumulative risk, age, and sex), indicated that crime proximity made a unique contribution to child BMI, in the direction signaling an increase in the risk for obesity. Consistent with our hypothesis, a significant interaction was observed, indicative of moderation by diurnal cortisol pattern. Follow-up simple slope analyses demonstrated that crime exposure was significantly related to higher BMI for children with low-flat (blunted) diurnal cortisol patterns, where community crime and BMI were not significantly associated at higher levels of cortisol. Community crime exposure contributes to higher BMI as early as the preschool period, and blunted diurnal cortisol patterns may place children experiencing neighborhood adversity at greater risk for obesity.
Heeramun, Ragini; Magnusson, Cecilia; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Granath, Sven; Lundberg, Michael; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj
Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors. We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age. Of these, 5,739 individuals had a recorded autism diagnosis. The main outcome measure was a conviction for violent crimes identified using the Swedish National Crime Register. Individuals with autism, particularly those without intellectual disability, initially appeared to have a higher risk of violent offending (adjusted relative risk = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.58). However, these associations markedly attenuated after co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder were taken into account (adjusted relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97). Among individuals with autism, male sex and psychiatric conditions were the strongest predictors of violent criminality, along with parental criminal and psychiatric history and socioeconomic characteristics. There was some evidence that a delayed diagnosis of autism was associated with a greater risk of violent crime. Better school performance and intellectual disability appeared to be protective. An initially observed association between autism and violent crimes at a population level was explained by comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder. Better understanding and management of comorbid psychopathology in autism may potentially help preventive action against offending behaviors in people with autism. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mihalic, Sharon F; Fagan, Abigail A; Argamaso, Susanne
Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST) drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers), ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence). Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage). Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery) were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness). Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that organizations should consider to ensure fidelity, such as
Fagan Abigail A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread replication of effective prevention programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of adolescent delinquency, violent crime, and substance use until the quality of implementation of these programs by community-based organizations can be assured. Methods This paper presents the results of a process evaluation employing qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the extent to which 432 schools in 105 sites implemented the LifeSkills Training (LST drug prevention program with fidelity. Regression analysis was used to examine factors influencing four dimensions of fidelity: adherence, dosage, quality of delivery, and student responsiveness. Results Although most sites faced common barriers, such as finding room in the school schedule for the program, gaining full support from key participants (i.e., site coordinators, principals, and LST teachers, ensuring teacher participation in training workshops, and classroom management difficulties, most schools involved in the project implemented LST with very high levels of fidelity. Across sites, 86% of program objectives and activities required in the three-year curriculum were delivered to students. Moreover, teachers were observed using all four recommended teaching practices, and 71% of instructors taught all the required LST lessons. Multivariate analyses found that highly rated LST program characteristics and better student behavior were significantly related to a greater proportion of material taught by teachers (adherence. Instructors who rated the LST program characteristics as ideal were more likely to teach all lessons (dosage. Student behavior and use of interactive teaching techniques (quality of delivery were positively related. No variables were related to student participation (student responsiveness. Conclusion Although difficult, high implementation fidelity by community-based organizations can be achieved. This study suggests some important factors that
Sergey Aleksandrovich Khokhrin
Full Text Available Objective basing on statistical data and generalized empirical material to study the structure and dynamic properties of the penitentiary crime which are necessary to elaborate measures to prevent crimes involving the penitentiary system. Methods comparativelegal logicaljuridical analysis of documents survey results statistics and litigation. Results basing on the analysis of more than 1400 convictions for committing crimes by convicts while being imprisoned as well as statistical indicators of crime in penitentiary institutions since 2005 it is proposed to divide all the recorded facts of crime into categories. This will allow to define some categories of crimes committed in penitentiary institutions. Comparing the results of the analysis of judicial practice the survey of the staff and the statistical reports suggests that convicts with two or three convictions are most likely to commit crimes in the penitentiary institution. In our view an effective incentive to forgo crimes and resocialize may be a legal norm regulating sentencing for offences committed during the period of serving the sentence Article 68 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation quotSentencing for the offence during the period of serving the sentence quot. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the need to extinguish the risk groups by committing crimes in penitentiary institutions. The proposals are formulated to supplement the criminal law. Practical significance the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity for the development of draft laws on amendments and additions to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in scientific work in the preparation of the dissertation research monographs textbooks and articles teaching the courses quotCriminal lawquot and quotCriminologyquot as well as courses for qualificationnbsp promotion. nbsp
Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.
Besiana Muka (Petanaja
Full Text Available Crime being a social and economic phenomenon constitutes a serious threat to democratic values, not just one country or region, but beyond. Its prevention and detection constitutes the most important challenge dealing with the criminal investigation organs, where the underlying investigative process at any time should remain the utmost respect for human rights, particularly care to crime victims. The process of crime prevention should be more efficient, first there must be a spirit of close cooperation between police officers, prosecution authorities and community in order to guarantee the rule of security for citizens. This is due to the fact that all citizens are concerned about the safety of their family and the environment where they live. Through their individual skills they react to the actions and behaviors that affect the interests, values and legal norms prescribed (Nasufi & Yzeiri, 2004, 162. Besides civic reaction, criminal legislation provides for the rights and duties to citizens to denounce criminal acts. Under the criminal code, every citizen is obliged to speak of a crime that is being committed or has been committed, the bodies of prosecution, court, law enforcement bodies, government or administration, otherwise the risk is connected with a sanction of a fine or imprisonment up to three years. 1 To better understand the problems of non testifying crime and discrepancy it is important to analyze the criminal Offense of non testifying crime and Characteristics of the Offense under the Albanian criminal code.
Đekić Milica D.
Full Text Available It's well-known that the developing countries such as Republic of Serbia lose many funds through the financial crime. The corruption and bribe, industrial frauds, money laundering, organized crime, insider's threats and much more are some of the examples of well-planned and conducted crimes within the commerce and financial sector. What drags our attention here are socio-economical consequences of those activities. In this paper, we would talk a bit more about how to prevent and effectively resolve such cases. It's quite clear that it's not all about the rising a competitiveness of domestic economy, but rather it's about the saving the already existing resources. Finally, this paper would bring a brief overview of typical commerce crimes as well as the measures of assuring the financial sector.
International literature on crime and violence suggests that social cohesion may play a key role in facilitating prevention at community level. It is argued that in South Africa high levels of crime entailing interpersonal violation not only reflect ruptures in the social fabric but also contribute to social disorganization. In exploring the traumatic impact of exposure to fairly pervasive criminality via the constructs of Fear of Crime (FoC) and Continuous Traumatic Stress the article explor...
van der Kemp, J.J.; de Gruijter, M.
To solve a crime a chronological description of what went on, when, how, why and by who must be given; a crime scenario. As to avoid the risk of wrongful conviction due to tunnel vision in an investigation, Dutch investigators are obliged to create multiple scenarios and rule but one out. Although
Curtis, Glenn E; Elan, Seth L; Hudson, Rexford A; Kollars, Nina A
.... The report notes the participation of such groups in all major types of crime, including trafficking of human beings and various commodities, financial crimes, extortion, gambling, prostitution, and violent crimes...
Topic: URBAN YOUTH, CRIME PREVENTION, YOUTH UNREST, ORGANIZED CRIME, ... Institutional Support to Latin American Policy Research Organizations ... Topic: MODELS, Fiscal policy, TAX SYSTEMS, TAX REFORM, TAXATION, ...
Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E
This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.
difficult to draw, among the related social, psychological, and economic factors ... Children are forced to sleep outside which makes them more vulnerable ... through official police data, analysis of media reporting of crime, and a survey of more ...
Full Text Available For the past two decades organized crime has become a transnational phenomenon, and its impact is still far from being fully known and understood by common people. Its forms of manifestation, whether explicit, or subtle, are permanently evolving and adapting. As a result, its interference with the activities from the legal area makes it difficult to identify and counteract. After a long period of time when it was more a peripheral phenomenon, current transnational organized crime tends to become a major danger to the political, social and economic stability of the states. Through its nature and goals, as well as through the complexity of its forms of manifestation, transnational organized crime represents a major challenge for the state and nonstate organizations that deal with national and international security This paper focuses on the phenomenon starting from some of the most influent theories in international relations, presents the current features of transnational organized criminal groups and analyzes the causes and the favoring factors of the phenomenon, as well as the impact of the phenomenon upon national and international security at political, economic-financial and military level. The approach is an interdisciplinary one and also covers the nexus between transnational organized crime and international terrorism.
Full Text Available Crime, as a form of violation of law (A. Giddens, is one of the social risks. One of the negative consequences of the development of a modern, global society is the globalization of criminality (M. Kostić & F. Mirić. Criminality can only be discussed with the development and elaboration of the legal system in the modern sense of the word (including criminal law, but in societies there have always been certain types of norms and beliefs that have influenced human behavior and against which (in correctness (M. Ivanović. Unlike a positive right that cannot fully follow the dynamics of change in society that influence the definition of a crime, sociology should constantly seek new elements that extend this notion (new, unpredictable, unlimited. The paper analyzes the causes of criminality, its distribution, types (violent, property, etc., relation to other notions (deviance, delinquency and crime and its consequences in contemporary society, in order to look at the risk of crime, to seek an adequate social response to This negative phenomenon, and provides an analysis of the penal policy and the role of a prison institution for the offender's conversion (M. Foucault.
Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.
McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…
Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary
Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…
Full Text Available Crime is, to a large degree, absent from the contemporary debate on sustainability. Yet it is difficult to think of sustainable cities without considering crime and safety in the design, planning and development process. Some argue that ecological...
Ryan, John Paul, Ed.
This issue of a newsletter from the American Bar Association emphasizes teaching about crime and punishment. The first article offers an overview of the diversity and common assumptions that underpin the teaching of criminology. Student interest in crime and criminology creates an opportunity for instructors interested in challenging students'…
Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg
The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.
subject, using Medline and Lilacs as data bases, covering the period of 1986 the 2006. The keywords used had been: "Alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuses" and "crime". Summaries of congresses, articles and excellent books on the subject, published for different authorities in the subject, in diverse phases of research, had been consulted and enclosed. CONCLUSION: The diverse research coincide in the affirmation of an association between psychoactive substances use disorders and crime. What it is possible to evidence is the high ratio of violent acts when the alcohol or the illicit drugs is used by aggressors, its victims or in both. When it carries through an expert examination in authors who allege some relation of the practiced act with alcohol consumption/drugs, this exam must take in consideration the substance in use, the clinical symptom for caused it, as well as verifying the presence of a diagnosis, the existence of causal nexus and possible alterations in the understanding capacity and/or determination of the agent.
Full Text Available This article aims to reveal the characteristics of the crimes committed by the police in general, and then continued by asserting the main orientation of the criminal policy in crime prevention. Next, will be discussed more specifically about the urgency of the criminal policy in the prevention of the crimes committed by the police. This paper, presented using data and information from literature sources, then analyzed qualitatively with decomposition descriptive and prescriptive analytics. The focus of the discussion of this article will be directed to the issue of urgency criminal policy in relation to the role of agency compensation and rehabilitation for the abuses of power that are criminogen in the investigation process established through pretrial agencies that the results are only set compensation and rehabilitation as a result of misuse of the police profession. To that end, the weakness of the criminal law policy, need to be updated, ie, by adding the authority to institute pretrial may also recommend its findings to be prosecuted and criminal sanctions
Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of communication among managers, human resource (HR experts, and occupational health care specialists, as they deal with such informal information as weak signals in the prevention of work-related illnesses, using a theoretical framework in which the prevention of work-related illness is analogous to theory on crisis management. This is a qualitative study in which individual and focus-group interviews were conducted in a Swedish context with occupational health care specialists, managers, and HR experts. The results suggest that organizational solutions have failed and continue to fail at controlling workers’ health problems, although the main difficulty is not in identifying the ‘right’ individually oriented weak signals. Rather, it is upper management’s reliance on formal information (e.g., statistics and surveys – because of the difficulty in supplementing it with informal information (e.g., rumors and gossip – that makes it difficult to improve traditional health and safety work
Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.
Ms. Irina V. Tseveleva
Full Text Available The article deals with criminological aspects of juvenile crime in the narcotics and psychotropic substances trafficking. The authors analyzed the main reasons of committing these crimes by teenagers. The proposals for the prevention of minors’ criminal behavior in drug trafficking are drafted.
Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert
Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.
Everyday, thousands of women are targets of violation that range from simple cases of sexual harassment to extreme cases of dowry deaths. This article describes different forms of violence against women. Wife beating has been prevalent in all societies regardless of race, culture, and socioeconomic status. In India, incidents like bride burning and dowry death are common because laws against these crimes have never been enforced. In Chile, the constitution grants the husband marital authority over his wife, resulting to wife beating due to unequal power balance. Due to the prevalence of these violations, shelters, legal reforms, and various groups and agencies to combat violence against women all over the world have initiated programs. Coalitions have also been organized to promote awareness and denounce male violence.
Porteous, S D
A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.
Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken
The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.
John Wah Lim
Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe, CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers’ Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration.
This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...
Suresh Bada Math; Biju Viswanath; Ami Sebastian Maroky; Naveen C Kumar; Anish V Cherian; Maria Christine Nirmala
Purpose: Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime o...
Studies investigating the effect of running on risk for developing osteoarthritis at weight-bearing joints have reported with conflicting results. Generally, moderate-level running is not likely detrimental to joint health. However, many factors may be associated with the increased risk of developing osteoarthritis in runners. Factors often implicated in the development of osteoarthritis comprise those that increase joint vulnerability and those which increase joint loading. It is therefore suggested that running has different effects on different people. Efforts should be made to identify those with joint vulnerability and joint loading, and measures should be taken to have those factors and/or their running programs modified to run safely. Further investigations are needed to examine the effect of running on joint health under different conditions to confirm the association between exposure to risk factors and development of osteoarthritis, as well as to validate the effectiveness of measures for preventing running-related osteoarthritis.
Full Text Available In accordance with organ transplant’s evolve especially the kidneys it is necessary to rule out specific health legislation in dealing with transplantation of human body’s organs to prevent human trafficking of human organs. The approaches used is the approach of legislation and comparisons to provide an overview of the regulation of transplantation of human body’s organs in Indonesia, and to know the comparison with other countries that have specific rules on transplants. The result is that the regulations in Indonesia does not have rules on organ transplants from living non-related organ donation and found no legal protection againts the donor. Keywords: Organ transplant, kidney transplant, human trafficking, health legislation.
Kuznetsova I. A.
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the changes contributed by the lawmaker to the RF Criminal Code. Here are distinguished contradictory and collision norms, the problems of their qualification. Some scientific points of view are quoted. The authors offer the ways of solving problematic issues connected with strengthening of the responsibility for crimes of sexual character committed in relation to non-adults
Full Text Available The world today is experiencing an exponential growth in cyberspace. Nevertheless, India too has witnessed a significant ascend in Internet activities and it is quite assertive to say that such phenomenal growth in access to information on one hand leads to empowered individuals and organization and on the other hand also poses new challenges to government and citizens. To make the cyber world safe is the need of the hour. Putting up deterrent measures against cybercrime is essential to national cyber security in protecting critical infrastructure of the nation as well as for individuals. In this regard, the prime objective of the government is to prevent cyber attacks and to protect the country's critical infrastructure. It also focuses on reducing vulnerability to cyber attacks so as to reduce and minimize damage and recovery time. To prevent the cyber crimes, individuals and governments need to clearly understand the crime schemes in the cyberspace and the contemporary and continuing Internet trends and behaviours of these criminals. This paper gives a brief outline of categories of cybercrimes. These crimes are categorized as crimes against individuals, property, organizations and governments. Various Internet crime scheme are evaluated and behaviour of criminals to perform the cybercrimes has been analyzed. A critical evaluation of report of cybercrime complaints under IT Act 2000 has been presented.
ANA ALINA DUMITRACHE
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyses which of the phrases money laundering or laundering the proceeds of crime is more appropriate to describe the crime provided by art. 23 of Law no. 656/2002 on prevention and sanctioning money laundering, as well as for setting up some measures for prevention and combating terrorism financing. In this respect, the article includes a survey of the important international documents in this matters ratified by Romania - United Nations Vienna Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the Vienna Convention, the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds of Crime, The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime,Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism. To remove any ambiguities arising from the approach of the money laundering concept and to reach a conclusion, there are also presented the controversial views regarding the use of the expression money laundering in both Title and content of Law, views expressed in specialized literature.
Yonas, Michael A; Burke, Jessica G; Brown, Shawn T; Borrebach, Jeffrey D; Garland, Richard; Burke, Donald S; Grefenstette, John J
To develop a conceptual computational agent-based model (ABM) to explore community-wide versus spatially focused crime reporting interventions to reduce community crime perpetrated by youth. Agents within the model represent individual residents and interact on a two-dimensional grid representing an abstract nonempirically grounded community setting. Juvenile agents are assigned initial random probabilities of perpetrating a crime and adults are assigned random probabilities of witnessing and reporting crimes. The agents' behavioral probabilities modify depending on the individual's experience with criminal behavior and punishment, and exposure to community crime interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses assessed the impact of activating different percentages of adults to increase reporting and reduce community crime activity. Community-wide interventions were compared with spatially focused interventions, in which activated adults were focused in areas of highest crime prevalence. The ABM suggests that both community-wide and spatially focused interventions can be effective in reducing overall offenses, but their relative effectiveness may depend on the intensity and cost of the interventions. Although spatially focused intervention yielded localized reductions in crimes, such interventions were shown to move crime to nearby communities. Community-wide interventions can achieve larger reductions in overall community crime offenses than spatially focused interventions, as long as sufficient resources are available. The ABM demonstrates that community-wide and spatially focused crime strategies produce unique intervention dynamics influencing juvenile crime behaviors through the decisions and actions of community adults. It shows how such models might be used to investigate community-supported crime intervention programs by integrating community input and expertise and provides a simulated setting for assessing dimensions of cost comparison and intervention effect
Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.
Grønlund, Bo; Soomeren, Paul van
Forslag til europæisk normtekst færdiggjort i marts/april 2002. Om kriminalpræventiv by- og bebyggelsesplanlægning. Indfaldsvikler, procesforløb, og gode råd for en række forskellige områdetyper, bl.a. bycentre, boligområder, parker....
Arnio, Ashley N; Baumer, Eric P; Wolff, Kevin T
Foreclosure rates in America reached unprecedented levels during the last half of the 2000s, and many observers have speculated that elevated crime rates were one of the probable negative collateral consequences of this trend. We examine this issue with a comprehensive county-level analysis of the role of foreclosure in shaping contemporary crime patterns, highlighting the possibility of theoretically informed non-linear and conditional relationships. Multivariate regression models that account for the well-documented spatial autocorrelation of crime rates and the possible endogeneity of foreclosure reveal a positive association between rates of foreclosure and property crime that accelerates significantly once foreclosure rates attain historically high levels. Multiplicative models indicate that this pattern holds for burglary across diverse county conditions, but the observed non-linear effect of foreclosure on robbery rates is limited primarily to areas that also exhibit relatively high levels of resource deprivation and limited new housing construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dugato, Marco; Calderoni, Francesco; Berlusconi, Giulia
Mafia homicides are usually committed for retaliation, economic profit, or rivalry among groups. The variety of possible reasons suggests the inefficacy of a preventive approach. However, like most violent crimes, mafia homicides concentrate in space due to place-specific social and environmental features. Starting from the existing literature, this study applies the Risk Terrain Modeling approach to forecast the Camorra homicides in Naples, Italy. This approach is based on the identification and evaluation of the underlying risk factors able to affect the risk of a homicide. This information is then used to predict the most likely location of future events. The findings of this study demonstrate that past homicides, drug dealing, confiscated assets, and rivalries among groups make it possible to predict up to 85% of 2012 mafia homicides, identifying 11% of city areas at highest risk. By contrast, variables controlling for the socio-economic conditions of areas are not significantly related to the risk of homicide. Moreover, this study shows that, even in a restricted space, the same risk factors may combine in different ways, giving rise to areas of equal risk but requiring targeted remedies. These results provide an effective basis for short- and long-term targeted policing strategies against organized crime- and gang-related violence. A similar approach may also provide practitioners, policy makers, and local administrators in other countries with significant support in understanding and counteracting also other forms of violent behavior by gangs or organized crime groups.
Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime ［1］ demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.
Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull
SACQ). We believe ... justice and evolving forms of crime in South Africa, and the global South more broadly, complements the SACQ's ... These high-profile events, along with disruptions and conflict in Parliament, have served to create a political.
Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.
Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull
and public policy at Edinburgh University. When the data ... violence, vigilantism and public and sexual assaults.13. Although ... Xhosa speakers, Xhosa-speaking translators helped facilitate ...... socioeconomic conditions that generate crime.
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...
Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe), CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose) is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers' Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C
Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Богдан Миколайович Головкін
crime usually are two categories of people. On the one hand, a poorly adapted to modern living conditions of individuals who primarily guided by intuitive thinking in identifying criminal threats and choosing the behavior strategies in social interaction with other participants of public relations. They show an increased vulnerability to criminal assault and psychological readiness to accept the role of victim. The second category of people is guided by rational thinking that basically allows you to properly navigate in the sources and types of criminal threats and largely avoid dangerous situations. Their vulnerability to criminal assault is temporary and related to the time and place of residence.
Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas
This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...
Full Text Available Previous studies showed that feigning amnesia for a crime impairs actual memory for the target event. Lack of rehearsal has been proposed as an explanation for this memory-undermining effect of feigning. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research adopting a mock crime video instead of a narrative story. We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine that they had committed this offense and to either feign amnesia or confess the crime. A third condition was included: Participants in the delayed test-only control condition did not receive any instruction. On subsequent recall tests, participants in all three conditions were instructed to report as much information as possible about the offense. On the free recall test, feigning amnesia impaired memory for the video clip, but participants who were asked to feign crime-related amnesia outperformed controls. However, no differences between simulators and confessors were found on both correct cued recollection or on distortion and commission rates. We also explored whether inner speech might modulate memory for the crime. Inner speech traits were not found to be related to the simulating amnesia effect. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.
Mangiulli, Ivan; van Oorsouw, Kim; Curci, Antonietta; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko
Previous studies showed that feigning amnesia for a crime impairs actual memory for the target event. Lack of rehearsal has been proposed as an explanation for this memory-undermining effect of feigning. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research adopting a mock crime video instead of a narrative story. We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine that they had committed this offense and to either feign amnesia or confess the crime. A third condition was included: Participants in the delayed test-only control condition did not receive any instruction. On subsequent recall tests, participants in all three conditions were instructed to report as much information as possible about the offense. On the free recall test, feigning amnesia impaired memory for the video clip, but participants who were asked to feign crime-related amnesia outperformed controls. However, no differences between simulators and confessors were found on both correct cued recollection or on distortion and commission rates. We also explored whether inner speech might modulate memory for the crime. Inner speech traits were not found to be related to the simulating amnesia effect. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.
Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J
To describe the epidemiology of self-defense gun use (SDGU) and the relative effectiveness of SDGU in preventing injury and property loss. Data come from the National Crime Victimization Survey for 2007-2011, focusing on personal contact crimes. For property loss, we examined incidents where the intent was to steal property. Multivariate analyses controlled for age, gender of offender and victim, if offender had a gun, urbanicity, and thirteen types of self-protective action. Of over 14,000 incidents in which the victim was present, 127 (0.9%) involved a SDGU. SDGU was more common among males, in rural areas, away from home, against male offenders and against offenders with a gun. After any protective action, 4.2% of victims were injured; after SDGU, 4.1% of victims were injured. In property crimes, 55.9% of victims who took protective action lost property, 38.5 of SDGU victims lost property, and 34.9% of victims who used a weapon other than a gun lost property. Compared to other protective actions, the National Crime Victimization Surveys provide little evidence that SDGU is uniquely beneficial in reducing the likelihood of injury or property loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael Raymond Bartolacci
Full Text Available The growth of the Internet has created a corresponding growth in Internet-based crimes and online misbehavior, particularly among younger computer-savvy people who learned the technical skills necessary for such activities throughout their entire lives. We define a new category of cyber crime called a Personal Denial of Service attack (PDOS. A PDOS is a cyber crime in which an individual deliberately prevents the access of an individual or small group to online services such as email or banking. Due to the nature of a PDOS, these acts can be overlooked by law enforcement and organizations that operate Internet infrastructure such as universities. We analyze a PDOS attack in the context of the Routine Activities Theory of criminal justice. We also surveyed university students to ascertain their attitudes towards online account breaches as related to a PDOS attack. Our motivation for this work is twofold: to stress the need for cyber ethics education at the university level, and to illustrate how a previously uncategorized type of cyber crime is easily perpetrated in such an environment.
Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D
This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.
Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R
It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number
Mason, Phil; Kearns, Ade; Livingston, Mark
Few studies have simultaneously examined the relationship of levels of recorded crime, perceptions of crime and disorder, and safety from crime with rates of physical activity. We developed a series of multilevel ordinal regression models to examine these aspects in relation to self-reported neighbourhood walking frequency in a cross-sectional sample of 3824 British adults from 29 deprived neighbourhoods in Glasgow, UK. Perceptions of several serious local antisocial behaviours (drunkenness and burglary) and feelings of personal safety (feeling safe in the home and if walking alone in the local area at night) were consistently associated, respectively, with less and more frequent walking. Conversely, perceiving drug dealing or drug use as a serious problem was associated with walking more frequently. There was a small but significant association between walking frequency in neighbourhoods with higher recorded person crime (but not property crime) rates when considered in conjunction with other aspects of disorder and crime safety, although not when additionally controlling for sociodemographic, neighbourhood and community aspects. The magnitude of these objective and perceived crime-related effects is modest and features of the psychosocial environment and social cohesion (having a sense of progress from living in the neighbourhood, group participation and positively rating social venues), as well as health and personal income deprivation, may more strongly determine levels of neighbourhood walking. Nevertheless, physical activity benefits may accrue at the population level through provision of environments that are safer from crime. Our study also shows the importance to local walking of neighbourhood management, which reduces problems of disorder, and of social regeneration, which helps strengthen sense of community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Advancements in information technology have affected modern society in numerous areas, including communication, education, commerce, and so on. These advancements have brought incredible benefits; they have also provided opportunities and motivation for various forms of crime. Information technology has also made crime highly profitable. Among the many types of criminal activities, modern technology has allowed money laundering to become an online crime. This new type of crime has raised some legal questions about the capability of national and international regulations in relation to current and upcoming issues. These include finding electronic funds transfer records after the fact, and determining money laundering activity that includes electronic funds transfer. Although Indonesia is an integral member of a community concerned with the interaction between technology and money laundering, it has not provided regulations to deal with the current and upcoming issues involving the crime of electronic money laundering. The increase in the amount of crime indicates the following series of techniques and mechanisms that had been detected in relation to money laundering activity. This research will examine current issues under the light of Indonesian regulations, and will put forward some proposals to close the legal vacuum.
Sep 21, 2015 ... ... dark; 20% did not feel safe when alone in their own homes after dark. ... that modifying designs and the physical environment, for example, ... on community bonding and social cohesion, which can work to prevent crime.
Over the past few years, smartphone adoption has increased worldwide. In this era of smartphones, one of the easiest ways to make this information available to many users is through smartphone applications. Smartphone applications can provide requested information in a readable and user friendly format. Information related to data such as real estate, property, post offices, crime locations and many others can be very useful. Such information helps city planners, residents, students and commuters to identify and communicate trends and patterns about places. ESRI`s ARCGIS provides various services and tools which help visualize real-world features, discover patterns, obtain information, and communicate that information to others. When these services work in conjunction with GPS based location services in smartphones, they create new avenues for applications. This thesis implements an Android smartphone application with features to analyze location based crime data. The user of this application can view crime data in a region and filter different crime types. The application allows the user to query and analyze crimes that have occurred near his location or at a location of interest. The application includes features to measure distance between crime spots and also measure area on the map. The user can also switch the base-map from street map to NatGeo map. Powered with this information, renters and home buyers can ensure that their new home is in a safe location. Real estate agents can buy or sell property in safer locations. Commuters can find routes which avoid crime spots. Tourists can find accommodation in safer places. Students can be aware of the high crime rate areas around the school campus. This application uses ArcGIS feature service by ESRI to render all data on the map.
Jessica L Fitterer
Full Text Available Modelling the relationship between alcohol consumption and crime generates new knowledge for crime prevention strategies. Advances in data, particularly data with spatial and temporal attributes, have led to a growing suite of applied methods for modelling. In support of alcohol and crime researchers we synthesized and critiqued existing methods of spatially and quantitatively modelling the effects of alcohol exposure on crime to aid method selection, and identify new opportunities for analysis strategies. We searched the alcohol-crime literature from 1950 to January 2014. Analyses that statistically evaluated or mapped the association between alcohol and crime were included. For modelling purposes, crime data were most often derived from generalized police reports, aggregated to large spatial units such as census tracts or postal codes, and standardized by residential population data. Sixty-eight of the 90 selected studies included geospatial data of which 48 used cross-sectional datasets. Regression was the prominent modelling choice (n = 78 though dependent on data many variations existed. There are opportunities to improve information for alcohol-attributable crime prevention by using alternative population data to standardize crime rates, sourcing crime information from non-traditional platforms (social media, increasing the number of panel studies, and conducting analysis at the local level (neighbourhood, block, or point. Due to the spatio-temporal advances in crime data, we expect a continued uptake of flexible Bayesian hierarchical modelling, a greater inclusion of spatial-temporal point pattern analysis, and shift toward prospective (forecast modelling over small areas (e.g., blocks.
By quitting, smokers of all ages can gain substantial health benefits. No other single effort of public health is able to achieve an advantage comparable to smoking cessation on a large scale. However, conventional approaches to smoking cessation require tobacco users to completely abstain, and many smokers are unable - or have not the willingness - to achieve this goal, and then continue to smoke despite the looming negative consequences for health. But it is possible to consider another option: the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking (tobacco harm reduction) through the intake of nicotine from alternative sources safer than tobacco smoke, such as the electronic cigarette (e-cig). It is a promising product for the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking. In addition to providing nicotine through the vapour without the typical toxic and carcinogenic substances derived from combustion, the e-cig is also a good substitute for the rituals associated with the behaviour of the smoker. In this article, the author suggests that the wide dissemination of vaping behaviour can become a successful strategy to reduce smoking and preventing smoking-related diseases, advancing on how to succeed with this matter.
Iglesias, J. R.; Semeshenko, V.; Schneider, E. M.; Gordon, M. B.
Crime is the result of a rational distinctive balance between the benefits and costs of an illegal act. This idea was proposed by Becker more than forty years ago (Becker (1968) ). In this paper, we simulate a simple artificial society, in which agents earn fixed wages and can augment (or lose) wealth as a result of a successful (or not) act of crime. The probability of apprehension depends on the gravity of the crime, and the punishment takes the form of imprisonment and fines. We study the costs of the law enforcement system required for keeping crime within acceptable limits, and compare it with the harm produced by crime. A sharp phase transition is observed as a function of the probability of punishment, and this transition exhibits a clear hysteresis effect, suggesting that the cost of reversing a deteriorated situation might be much higher than that of maintaining a relatively low level of delinquency. Besides, we analyze economic consequences that arise from crimes under different scenarios of criminal activity and probabilities of apprehension.
Math, Suresh Bada; Viswanath, Biju; Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Kumar, Naveen C.; Cherian, Anish V.; Nirmala, Maria Christine
Purpose: Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime over a period of four decades - 1971-2008 (time periods being divided into: Pre-liberalization and post-liberation - India adopted liberalization policy in 1992) and availability of pornography over internet with a particular focus on crime against women (such as rape, sexual harassment, and crime against women). Results: Comparison of pre-liberalization and post-liberalization growth of rape rates was not significant. Though there were statistically significant positive correlations between the number of internet users and sexual crime rates, the association was non-significant after controlling for the effects of population growth using regression analysis. Conclusion: Results presented needs to be interpreted with extreme care and caution. Nevertheless, the results from this study suggest that easy access to pornography did not have a significant impact on rape rates and crime rate against women. PMID:24860215
Math, Suresh Bada; Viswanath, Biju; Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Kumar, Naveen C; Cherian, Anish V; Nirmala, Maria Christine
Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime over a period of four decades - 1971-2008 (time periods being divided into: Pre-liberalization and post-liberation - India adopted liberalization policy in 1992) and availability of pornography over internet with a particular focus on crime against women (such as rape, sexual harassment, and crime against women). Comparison of pre-liberalization and post-liberalization growth of rape rates was not significant. Though there were statistically significant positive correlations between the number of internet users and sexual crime rates, the association was non-significant after controlling for the effects of population growth using regression analysis. Results presented needs to be interpreted with extreme care and caution. Nevertheless, the results from this study suggest that easy access to pornography did not have a significant impact on rape rates and crime rate against women.
Wertz, J.; Caspi, A.; Belsky, D. W.; Beckley, A. L.; Arseneault, L.; Barnes, J. C.; Corcoran, D. L.; Hogan, S.; Houts, R. M.; Morgan, N.; Odgers, C. L.; Prinz, J. A.; Sugden, K.; Williams, B. S.; Poulton, R.; Moffitt, T. E.
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and E-Risk birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometres apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record, with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling, in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and predicted a life-course persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature/nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest the hypothesis that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding. PMID:29513605
Wertz, J; Caspi, A; Belsky, D W; Beckley, A L; Arseneault, L; Barnes, J C; Corcoran, D L; Hogan, S; Houts, R M; Morgan, N; Odgers, C L; Prinz, J A; Sugden, K; Williams, B S; Poulton, R; Moffitt, T E
Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypotheses of how polygenic risk relates to the development of antisocial behavior from childhood through adulthood. Across the Dunedin and Environmental Risk (E-Risk) birth cohorts of individuals growing up 20 years and 20,000 kilometers apart, education polygenic scores predicted risk of a criminal record with modest effects. Polygenic risk manifested during primary schooling in lower cognitive abilities, lower self-control, academic difficulties, and truancy, and it was associated with a life-course-persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that onsets in childhood and persists into adulthood. Crime is central in the nature-nurture debate, and findings reported here demonstrate how molecular-genetic discoveries can be incorporated into established theories of antisocial behavior. They also suggest that improving school experiences might prevent genetic influences on crime from unfolding.
... risk of falling. Some tips to help prevent falls outdoors are: Use a cane or walker Wear rubber-soled shoes so you don’t slip Walk on grass when sidewalks are slick Put salt or kitty litter on icy sidewalks. Some ways to help prevent falls indoors are: Keep rooms free of clutter, especially ...
Ćopić Sanja M.
Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.
Jeffrey R. Kling; Jens Ludwig; Lawrence F. Katz
The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) demonstration assigned housing vouchers via random lottery to public housing residents in five cities. We use the exogenous variation in residential locations generated by MTO to estimate neighborhood effects on youth crime and delinquency. The offer to relocate to lower-poverty areas reduces arrests among female youth for violent and property crimes, relative to a control group. For males the offer to relocate reduces arrests for violent crime, at least in the...
James Simanjuntak; M. Syukri Akub; Muhadar; Andi Sofyan
The criminal act of corruption is more systematic and has been categorized as extraordinary crime and its scope has entered all aspects of community life. The importance of research is conducted to determines law enforcement of corruption crime in the return of State financial loss and the return of corruption asset through money laundering crime instrument. The research was carried out in Papua Province - Indonesia. The results shows that the relation between corruption and money-laundering ...
Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.
Siti Nur Zahara HAMZAH
Full Text Available Utilizing Malaysia data from 1973 to 2008, the study reveals that crime can be influenced by population, fertility, unemployment, and GDP in either the long-run or short-run period. This study also further analysed beyond sample estimations of the variables involved and found that although violent crime can be explained in the short-run only from the VECM analysis, it is found to be explained by other explanatory variables in the long-run of beyond sample for at least 50 years ahead. It is important for policy makers to focus in both social structure and economic conditions to help prevent crime in the long-run.
Monchuk, Leanne; Clancey, Garner
‘Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)’, ‘designing out crime’, ‘safer by design’, ‘secured by design’ or any of the other ‘flavours’ of manipulating the built environment to prevent crime, invariably engender an inter-disciplinary approach. This work is frequently the domain of architects, urban planners, police, security professionals, local authority planners and community safety professionals (amongst others). Despite the real work being undertaken by these actors, the div...
Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.
Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander
Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wilkinson, Wayne W; Peters, Christopher S
Minimal studies have investigated individuals' evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation simultaneously, with most research focusing on one or the other. In a sample of 246 heterosexual undergraduates, the present study found that evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation were unrelated. Higher social dominance orientation (SDO) and crime control orientation scores were associated with more positive evaluations of antigay hate crimes. Positive evaluations of hate crime legislation were associated with more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. We also found that the relationship between SDO and evaluations were mediated by crime control beliefs (for hate crimes evaluations) and antigay attitudes (for hate crime legislation evaluations). The present findings have possible implications for the manner in which organizations advocate for the extension of hate crime legislation to include sexual orientation.
K. A. Mirzabekova
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It
K. A. Mirzabekova
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It
Full Text Available Some of the most promising post-Cold War developments in Marxian thought have been stimulated by problems facing Marxists in Western Europe, to that extent they all seem to lay bare, intentionally or otherwise, the lacking of qualities, of Marx’s prediction. The most significant example of the failure of Marxist theory to be realised in practice is the persistent survival of the capitalist mode of production. The inevitable crisis foreseen by Marx, which would lead to revolution, failed to materialise and that claim is now itself historical, since capitalism has become the norm for social organisation in most of the world’s nations. By asking the question how capitalism can persist amid crisis, Gramsci, provided the most promising way of revision to the stunted Marxian orthodoxy. Today for us is important to ask whether Marxist analysis of neoliberal global strategy or globalisation and fragmentation invite reconsideration of the tendency on the part of many international relations scholarships to ignore and simply dismiss Marxism. It is also important to consider whether the significance of Marxist project of developing a critical approach to international politics, is but one way in which Marxism progressed beyond the traditional Anglo-American scholarship to IR.
Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.
Full Text Available Restorative justice as the theoretical foundation of social reaction to crime is one of the key themes of contemporary criminological discourse. The idea of crime as a conflict between perpetrator and victim of crime is included in the core ideas related to the concept of restorative justice, which differs from traditional understanding of crime as a relationship between the state and the individual. This change in perspective on crime points towards social reaction to crime that differs from traditional criminal justice system. As the restoration process of relationship damaged by crime is directly related to possibilities of participation in the very process, institutionalisation of that participation sets the scope of restorative process. In this article, the author points towards the traditional criminal justice and restorative justice processes, focusing the relationship of perpetrator and victim of crime and the process of conflict resolution. The aim of the article is to highlight the conflict perspective as a defining element of the relationship between offender and victim, and to underline the effectiveness of restorative justice as social reaction to crime, which contributes to optimisation of the relationship between the offender and the community.
Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.
In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study – a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada – we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country. PMID:27585030
Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...
Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne
This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...
Organized crime - Trafficking in human beings This thesis deals with the criminal offence of trafficking in human beings under Sec. 168 of the Czech Criminal Code. A trafficking in human being is not a frequent criminal offence but with its consequences belongs to the most dangerous crimes. After the Velvet revolution the relevance of this crime has raised subsequently and therefore the regulation of this crime requires particular attention. It is important to find new ways and improve curren...
Glenn D. Walters
Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.
This comment presents an overview of criminological theories of crime and examines some contemporary crime problems in Nigeria against the backdrop of relevant theories. It also analyses society's response to each crime problem in the form of government policies and legislation. The paper argues that an appreciable ...
Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…
Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine
Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…
Full Text Available The phenomenon of crime consequences is studied as a total social and not social, direct and indirect damage caused by crime. The quantitative and qualitative indicators of these consequences are shown. It is determined that concept of crime does not embrace its consequences and victims. The qualitative indicators of crime consequences imply the consequences’ character and structure; the quantitative indicators imply cumulative consequences of certain kinds of crime, the dynamics of certain kinds of consequences and coefficient of certain crime consequences. It is proved that not only physical and juridical persons, but also the public, authorities and associations (groups of people having no indication of juridical person must be recognized as crime sufferers. It is argued that crimes can cause property and moral damage (goodwill damage, ecological damage, considerable damage of interests protected by the law, information, managerial damage and other kinds of damage. Theoretically according to criminal law a crime sufferer is a physical, juridical person, an authority, the public, group of people who suffered from physical, property, moral or other kind of damage caused by a completed or uncompleted crime. The author proves the necessity to fix the concept of crime sufferer in criminal law. The concept of victim should include Russian criminal actualities, foreign experience and embrace not only physical but also juridical persons and groups of people suffered from crimes.
Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique
There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court.
Full Text Available Effective partnerships in community crime and violence prevention interventions are challenging to foster. While this may be the case, their merits cannot be denied, thus it is necessary to involve diverse stakeholders in processes that aim to address violence and crime prevention in order to better approach the causes of crime. However practical experiences have identified the challenges of crime prevention partnerships, particularly in developing indicators that appropriately measure and work to monitor and evaluate progress. It has also been noted that it is difficult to discern which interventions yield success, particularly in partnerships with various stakeholders. This article therefore encourages joint assessments from the onset of crime prevention projects with the development of indicators that are relatable to all partners. The paper will draw on three violence and crime prevention pilot projects, conducted in South Africa. The discussion will focus on the processes of developing performance measurement frameworks and the challenges and successes experienced throughout the monitoring, evaluation and learning process.
Patricia Manente Melhem
Full Text Available Through literature review and qualitative analysis the work deals with the category "stand society" in Faoro, relating to the Ideology of Social Defense, treated in the marxist context presented by Baratta as the dominant discourse on crime in capitalism and has among its postulates the claim that the conduct is considered criminal because of social interest, and the law is the expression of the general will. It seeks to demonstrate that the law does not actually represent the interests of society but of the influential groups in the legislative process, here called: “stands”.
Douhou, S.; Magnus, J.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.
In this paper we measure perceptions of incorrect behavior or ‘small crime’, based on a questionnaire administered to a large representative sample from the Dutch population. In the questionnaire we ask the respondents to rate the severity or justifiability of a number of small crimes. We present
Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.
Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional
Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.
This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between
Grodal, Torben Kragh
, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...
Roth, Byron M.
Examines the notion that heredity plays a powerful role in criminal behavior, including genetic evidence that can allow for antisocial behavior. Reviews suggestions for reversing rising crime rates in light of the hereditary connection, policy development, family cohesion, and child raising. (GR)
This document was prepared to assist the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Crimes Against Children in its study of current laws relating to crimes against children. It provides the background of the origin of the study and describes the characteristics of the Criminal Code, upon which much of the committee review will center.…
... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Alleged Crimes By or Against Contractor Personnel (DFARS Case... (DFARS) to expand coverage on contractor requirements and responsibilities relating to alleged crimes by or against contractor personnel. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed rule should be...
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wong, Michelle S.; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T.; Hertenstein, Daniel L.; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y.
Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and obesity among African-American women. Methods We developed an agent-based model, in 2016, representing resource-limited Washington, DC communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African-American women under different circumstances. Results Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African-American women have a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations are accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreases the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African-American women to exercise to 37.5%, further increases the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). Conclusions Our simulations show that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e. economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. PMID:29086471
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Liesbeth De Donder
Full Text Available This paper broadens theoretical perspectives on fear of crime in late life by exploring the concept against the backdrop of a changing society. Since the emergence of the first studies that address fear of crime in late life, research overemphasizes the search for related independent variables being heedless of a thorough theoretical framework. Recent researchers, however, perceive the construct of ‘fear of crime’ as an ‘umbrella’ concept, which encompasses crime related fear and more diffuse ‘feelings of insecurity’. In response to a lack of macro-theorizing, this article illuminates some of the most important characteristics and descriptions of contemporary societies that are relevant to fear of crime. It is shown that in relation to fear of crime, the macro-level of society can be conceptualized as having four important ambivalences. In conclusion, the article
Grodal, Torben Kragh
how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...... fiction that blend seeking with other emotions: the hardboiled crime fiction that blends detection with action and hot emotions like anger and bonding, and the moral crime fiction that strongly evokes moral disgust and contempt, often in conjunction with detectors that perform hard to fake signals...
Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Giolito, Eugenio P.
In this paper, we evaluate the impact of unilateral divorce on crime. First, using crime rates from the FBI's Uniform Crime Report program for the period 1965-1998 and differences in the timing in the introduction of the reform, we find that unilateral divorce has a positive impact on violent crime rates, with an 8% to 12% average increase for the period under consideration. Second, arrest data not only confirms the findings of a positive impact on violent crime but also shows that this impac...
G. O. Krapivnyk
Full Text Available Philosophical and anthropological analysis allowed to confirm that the compensatory function is one of the basic functions of formulaic crime fiction texts in mass culture. It closely interacts and has no clear borderlines with other anthropological functions of the crime fiction genre. Structuring and systematizing human consciousness, entertaining and educating the recipient, the compensatory function positively influences the addresser, the addressee and the modern society. In the mass culture the function under consideration has a number of aspects, in particular, therapeutic, entertaining, educating etc. It transforms into a mechanism of regulating mental state when life processes are becoming more complicated and human psyche needs regular training and relaxation (including the creation of virtual situations in the crime fiction world, associated with crime, violence, aggression and their effects for all the related parties. However, the compensatory function of crime fiction texts also follows classical traditions, oriented on rationalism and enlightenment, as well as encourages regulation of moral and legal state system in the times of Modernity and Postmodernity, that is promotes moral and legal culture in the society.
Michael G. Vaughn
Full Text Available The question of whether MDMA use is associated with increased crime and violence has not been adequately explored especially in nationally representative samples. This study used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to assess the association between MDMA use and violent and non-violent antisocial behavior while controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime psychiatric, alcohol and drug use disorders, and family history of antisocial behavior. MDMA users, both male and female, were involved in a number of crimes in acts of violence including drunk driving, shoplifting, theft, intimate partner violence, and fighting. Notably, female MDMA users were more antisocial than male non-MDMA users. Although adjusting the results for numerous confounds attenuated the relationships, MDMA users were still at significantly greater odds of engaging in violent and nonviolent crime than non-MDMA users. Although MDMA has been considered a facilitator of empathy and closeness, the current study suggests a dark side as MDMA is associated with a broad array of crimes and transgressions. Additional tests of the MDMA-crime link are needed to properly inform policy.
Beckley, Amber L
Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the legal provisions of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia relating to crimes against official duty. Crimes against official duty represent a group of criminal offenses that occupy a special place in criminal law. This kind of crimes is also called civil servants crimes, that is, they are defined as a violation of duty made by an official in performing his/her official duty. In this paper we will analyze all articles of the Criminal Code that regulate the group of criminal offenses against official duty. Most frequent cases of misuse of official duty are cases of misuse of official position and authorization, unprincipled operation within the service, defraud in the service, receiving a bribe, giving a bribe, unlawful mediation, disclosing an official secret, falsifying an official document and other. The paper will define the terms official and responsible person. In the context of the paper we will show the research referring to the number of registered and accused of crimes against official duty in the Republic of Macedonia in the period from 2004 to 2013.
Frisell, T; Lichtenstein, P; Långström, N
Etiological theory and prior research with small or selected samples suggest that interpersonal violence clusters in families. However, the strength and pattern of this aggregation remains mostly unknown. We investigated all convictions for violent crime in Sweden 1973-2004 among more than 12.5 million individuals in the nationwide Multi-Generation Register, and compared rates of violent convictions among relatives of violent individuals with relatives of matched, non-violent controls, using a nested case-control design. We found strong familial aggregation of interpersonal violence among first-degree relatives [e.g. odds ratio (OR)sibling 4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-4.3], lower for more distant relatives (e.g. OR cousin 1.9, 95% CI 1.9-1.9). Risk patterns across biological and adoptive relations provided evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on the development of violent behavior. Familial risks were stronger among women, in higher socio-economic strata, and for early onset interpersonal violence. There were crime-specific effects (e.g. OR sibling for arson 22.4, 95% CI 12.2-41.2), suggesting both general and subtype-specific familial risk factors for violent behavior. The observed familiality should be accounted for in criminological research, applied violence risk assessment, and prevention efforts.
The 4.5 million international students worldwide bring in multifold benefits to the advancement of culture, economy, and national security in education host countries. Surprisingly, few prior studies have explored international students' fear of crime, which may harm their mental and physical health and undermine their educational achievements. The current study aims to fill in this research void by investigating international students' fear of crime in line with the cultivation theoretical framework, which postulates that media consumption cultivates fear of crime. The analyses draw on a sample of 398 international students attending nine different public and private universities across the United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), I investigate the extent and correlates of students' fear of crime. The findings reveal that international students are more fearful in the United States than in their home countries. SEM results show that controlling for students' fear in their home countries, attention paid to crime news is positively related to fear in the United States, through perceived victimization risk. The SEM results also suggest that exposure to non-U.S. social media (e.g., WeChat and Weibo) is positively related to respondents' fear of crime, whereas exposure to U.S. social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) is not related to fear of crime. The current study highlights the importance of studying the impact of fear of crime and social media use on international students.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.
Ruiz-Esquide, Gonzalo; Nervi, Bruno; Vargas, Alex; Maíz, Alberto
One of the most common and troublesome complications of modern intensive anticancer treatments is oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence and clinical guidelines regarding its prevention and therapy. The use of keratinocyte growth factor-1, supplementary glutamine and other recently developed treatment modalities are discussed. The injury of the oral mucosa caused by antineoplastic agents promotes the local expression of multiple pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic molecules and eventually leads to the development of ulcers. Such lesions predispose patients to several infectious and nutritional complications. Also, they lead to modification of treatment schedules, potentially affecting overall prognosis. Local cryotherapy with ice chips and phototherapy with low energy laser may be useful as preventive measures. Mouthwashes with allopurinol and phototherapy with low energy laser can be used as treatment. In radiotherapy, special radiation administration techniques should be used to minimize mucosal injury. Pain control should always be optimized, with the use of patient controlled analgesia and topical use of morphine. Supplemental glutamine should not be used outside of research protocols. Lastly, thorough attention should be paid to general care and hygiene measures.
Over the past two decades, rates of violence in the workplace have grown significantly. Such growth has been more prevalent in some fields than others, however. Research shows that rates of violence against healthcare workers are continuously among the highest of any career field. Within the healthcare field, the overwhelming majority of victims of workplace violence are hospital employees, with those working in emergency departments (EDs) experiencing the lion's share of violent victimization. Though this fact is well-known by medical researchers and practitioners, it has received relatively little attention from criminal justice researchers or practitioners. Unfortunately, this oversight has severely limited the use of effective crime prevention techniques in hospital EDs. The goal of this analysis is to utilize techniques of situational crime prevention to develop an effective and easily applicable crime prevention strategy for hospital EDs.
In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.
Blake Stephen Howald
Full Text Available Structurally, formal definitions of the linguistic narrative minimally require two temporally linked past-time events. The role of space in this definition, based on spatial language indicating where events occur, is considered optional and non-structural. However, based on narratives with a high frequency of spatial language, recent research has questioned this perspective, suggesting that space is more critical than may be readily apparent. Through an analysis of spatially rich serial criminal narratives, it will be demonstrated that spatial information qualitatively varies relative to narrative events. In particular, statistical classifiers in a supervised machine learning task achieve a 90% accuracy in predicting Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime events based on spatial (and temporal information. Overall, these results suggest a deeper spatial organization of discourse, which not only provides practical event resolution possibilities, but also challenges traditional formal linguistic definitions of narrative.
Cornwell, James F M; Higgins, E Tory
Our research investigated whether promotion concerns with advancement and prevention concerns with security related to moral beliefs and political ideology. Study 1 found that chronic prevention and promotion focus had opposite relations to binding foundation endorsement (as measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), that is, positive for prevention and negative for promotion, and opposite relations to political ideology, that is, more conservative for prevention and more liberal for promotion, and the relation between focus and political ideology was partially mediated by binding foundation endorsement. Study 2 showed that promotion and prevention, even as situationally induced states, can contribute to differences in binding foundation endorsement, with prevention producing stronger endorsement (compared with a control) and promotion producing weaker endorsement.
OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organised crime. We offer in this paper an overall view of some results, embedding into the system legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe. We briefly describe CAPER architecture, workflow, functionalities, modules and ontologies (European LEAs Interoperability ELIO, and Multi-Lingual Crime Ontology MCO). This paper is focused on th...
Full Text Available Today computer crime belongs to transnational criminal organizations which have new rules for the development of new strategies able to enrol people in their organizations and to obtain profits from money laundering. These new forms of crime which are more and more related to sophisticated data processing technologies must urge institutional agencies for new strategies against crime
Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.
Full Text Available Jusqu’à présent, le XXIe siècle peut être considéré comme le siècle de la révolution technologique.L’augmentation des flux de communication a engendré une évolution de l’économie globale et de la diffusion globale d’Internet et de la téléphonie mobile dans lesquels nos vies sont plongées. Tout cela représente le principal facteur des mutations sociales.De nouveaux modèles de déviance et de criminalité voient le jour au sein du cyberspace, de même que les groupes terroristes traditionnels emploient de manière intensive les nouveaux médias. Toutefois, il faudra faire tout particulièrement attention au phénomène qualifié de « Jihad Digitale ». Quel est le rôle des médias dans le terrorisme contemporain ? Que sont l’Infowar, le Netwar et le Mediawar ? Quelles réflexions peut-on faire à propos de la culture du crime et de ses relations avec la technologie ? Qu’est-ce que c’est que l’Open Source INTelligence ?Aujourd’hui, le criminologue doit connaître l’importance de la culture numérique, de même qu’il a besoin d’un savoir-faire lié aux technologies de l’information et de la communication dans le but de prévenir et de contrôler la criminalité. Il utilise également ses connaissances dans l’océan de ‘l’open source’ afin de prévoir les tendances de la criminalité. AbstractToday the 21st century can be considered the century of the technological revolution.The increase in communication flows has brought about an evolution in the global economy and the global spread of Internet and mobile communication, all of which affect our lives significantly and are key factors of social change.New models of deviance and crime can be found in cyberspace as well as in traditional terrorist groups who resort to a massive use of this new media. Therefore special attention should be given to the phenomenon referred to as ‘Digital Jihad’. What is the role of media in contemporary terrorism
servir des techniques de mappage du crime est offerte aussi bien par les logiciels SIG commerciaux que par les logiciel libres et gratuits.Ceux qui veulent approcher cette discipline pour profiter de ses applications tactiques (planification des contrôles, activités de prévention de la délinquance, enquête forensique, etc. ou bien mener des études sociologiques (sur le crime, la déviance, l’illégalité, la perception de la sécurité, etc. doivent quand même bien se préparer à utiliser le logiciel SIG avant de devenir capable d’interpréter les résultats d’un point de vue sociologique.Le mappage du crime assure un véritable support dans les domaines des activités générales de police (surtout à niveau local, de la gestion des ressources destinées à la sécurité, de la programmation des services de police et, en particulier, de la prévention et répression des délits.Crime mapping is not merely a discipline itself, but it is the application of statistical and geographic analysis techniques to the study of crime. Due to the exponential development of computer sciences and easy access to the Web, the possibility to produce quality “crime” maps is now available for all average users through GIS software (Geographic Information System. Now, the possibility to use crime mapping techniques is offered both by commercial and free, open source GIS software. Those wanting to approach this discipline to take advantage of its tactical applications (planning control activities, crime prevention, forensic investigations, etc. or to carry out sociological studies (on crime, deviance, security perception, etc. must develop a strong background on GIS program before being able to interpret the results from a social sciences point of view. Crime mapping provides real support in general police activities, especially at local level, in management of security resources, in programming police services and especially in prevention and repression of specific crimes
Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar
Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....
Tittle, Charles R.; Antonaccio, Olena; Botchkovar, Ekaterina
This study reports a cross-cultural test of Social Learning Theory using direct measures of social learning constructs and focusing on the causal structure implied by the theory. Overall, the results strongly confirm the main thrust of the theory. Prior criminal reinforcement and current crime-favorable definitions are highly related in all three…
Lamont, R. F.
Infection-related preterm birth (PTB) is more common at early gestational ages and is associated with major neonatal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal genital tract microflora in early pregnancy predicts late miscarriage and early PTB. Accordingly, it is logical to consider antibiotics as an inte......Infection-related preterm birth (PTB) is more common at early gestational ages and is associated with major neonatal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal genital tract microflora in early pregnancy predicts late miscarriage and early PTB. Accordingly, it is logical to consider antibiotics...
Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes
As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.
Overman, Amy A; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Allison, Meredith; Stephens, Joseph D W
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: This study investigated age-related differences in memory for crime information. Older adults have been found to rely more than young adults on schema- and stereotype-based processing in memory, and such age differences may have implications in the criminal justice system. Some prior research has examined schema-based processing among older adults in legal settings, but no studies have tested for schema effects on older adults' memory for specific details of a crime. Older adults (N = 56, ages 65-93) and young adults (N = 52, ages 18-22) read a passage about a criminal suspect's "bad" or "good" childhood, and then read a crime report containing incriminating, exonerating, and neutral details with regard to the suspect. Participants were subsequently tested on recognition of accurate versus altered details from the crime report. Participants also rated the suspect"s guilt, and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Correct and false recognition rates were analyzed with ANOVA to compare means across age group, evidence type, and background type, and guilt ratings were analyzed with linear regression using neuropsychological scores as predictors. Among older adults, an interaction was found between evidence type (incriminating/exonerating) and suspect's background (good/bad childhood) in false recognition of altered details from the crime report, supporting the hypothesis that schema-based processing influenced older adult memory from crime information. Additionally, although guilt ratings were not related to the suspect's background for either age group, they were predicted by older adults' short-delay recall (β = -.37), suggesting that cognitive decline may play a role in older adults' interpretations of evidence. The findings suggest reduced cognitive capacity in older adults increases schema-based processing in memory for crime information, and are consistent with research in other domains that has demonstrated greater schema
Full Text Available Crime appears to be strictly related to the level of education attained and to individuals’ economic and social background. The objective of the study examines multiple factors i.e., education, unemployment, poverty and economic growth which contributed to the rate of crimes in Pakistan during the period of 1972-2011. The study finds a positive relationship between crime rates and unemployment rate in Pakistan. Higher unemployment diminishes the rate of return of legal activities, and is more likely to increase the return of illegal activities. There is a significant negative relationship between the crime rates and the higher education. More education directly induces high earnings of individuals and may increase both the opportunity cost of crimes and the cost of time spent in criminal activity. The study further assesses that GDP per capita leads to higher crime rates in the long-run but to lower rates in the short-run. Higher income shows that there are greater benefits for criminals as for thefts and robberies. Affluent areas attract more criminals due to the opportunities available to them. Finally, there is a positive relationship between the crime rates and poverty in the long-run but there is a negative relationship in the short-run. Poverty may lead to a high level of stress and mental illness which in turn causes individuals to adopt the criminal behavior. The study posits a caution that policy formulation in ameliorating crimes in Pakistan should anchor both social and economic factors.
Shrira, Ilan; Wisman, Arnaud; Webster, Gregory
Can variation in crime rates be traced to the threat of infectious disease? Pathogens pose an ongoing challenge to survival, leading humans to adapt defenses to manage this threat. In addition to the biological immune system, humans have psychological and behavioral responses designed to protect against disease. Under persistent disease threat, xenophobia increases and people constrict social interactions to known in-group members. Though these responses reduce disease transmission, they can generate favorable crime conditions in two ways. First, xenophobia reduces inhibitions against harming and exploiting out-group members. Second, segregation into in-group factions erodes people's concern for the welfare of their community and weakens the collective ability to prevent crime. The present study examined the effects of infection incidence on crime rates across the United States. Infection rates predicted violent and property crime more strongly than other crime covariates. Infections also predicted homicides against strangers but not family or acquaintances, supporting the hypothesis that in-group-out-group discrimination was responsible for the infections-crime link. Overall, the results add to evidence that disease threat shapes interpersonal behavior and structural characteristics of groups.
Full Text Available Can variation in crime rates be traced to the threat of infectious disease? Pathogens pose an ongoing challenge to survival, leading humans to adapt defenses to manage this threat. In addition to the biological immune system, humans have psychological and behavioral responses designed to protect against disease. Under persistent disease threat, xenophobia increases and people constrict social interactions to known in-group members. Though these responses reduce disease transmission, they can generate favorable crime conditions in two ways. First, xenophobia reduces inhibitions against harming and exploiting out-group members. Second, segregation into in-group factions erodes people's concern for the welfare of their community and weakens the collective ability to prevent crime. The present study examined the effects of infection incidence on crime rates across the United States. Infection rates predicted violent and property crime more strongly than other crime covariates. Infections also predicted homicides against strangers but not family or acquaintances, supporting the hypothesis that in-group—out-group discrimination was responsible for the infections—crime link. Overall, the results add to evidence that disease threat shapes interpersonal behavior and structural characteristics of groups.
A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial...retrieval and analysis of the core SARS literature and literatures related directly to the core SARS literature (e.g., immune system component literatures...According to recent reviews of the pandemic, none of the drugs worked. Those who recovered did so by natural means; their immune systems were
O'Toole, Thomas R; Jacobs, Natalie; Hondorp, Brian; Crawford, Laura; Boudreau, Lisa R; Jeffe, Jill; Stein, Brian; LoSavio, Phillip
Objective To determine if standardization of perioperative tracheostomy care procedures decreased the incidence of hospital-acquired tracheostomy-related pressure ulcers. Methods All patients at least 18 years old who underwent placement of a tracheostomy tube in the operating room from July 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, were cared for postoperatively through an institutionally adopted quality improvement protocol. This included 4 elements: (1) placement of a hydrocolloid dressing underneath the tracheostomy flange in the postoperative period, (2) removal of plate sutures within 7 days of the tracheostomy procedure, (3) placement of a polyurethane foam dressing after suture removal, and (4) neutral positioning of the head. One year after the bundle was initiated, a retrospective analysis was performed to compare the percentage of tracheostomy patients who developed pressure ulcers versus the preintervention period. Results The incidence of tracheostomy-related pressure ulcers decreased from 20 of 183 tracheostomies (10.93%) prior to use of the standardized protocol to 2 of 155 tracheostomies (1.29%). Chi-square analysis showed a significant difference between the groups, with a P value of .0003. Discussion Adoption of this care bundle at our institution resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of hospital-acquired tracheostomy-related pressure ulcers. The impact of any single intervention within our protocol was not assessed and could be an area of further investigation. Implications for Practice Adoption of a standardized posttracheostomy care bundle at the institution level may result in the improved care of patients with tracheostomies and specifically may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging that gradually destroys sharp, central vision. Central vision is needed for seeing objects clearly and for common daily tasks such as reading and driving. AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that alows seeing of fine details. AMD occurs in two form: dry and wet. In dry AMD, the light sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. As fewer cells in the macula are able to function, people will see details less c...
This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...
van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Huysmans, Maaike A; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van Mechelen, Willem; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; van der Molen, Henk F; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.
Fischer-Nielsen, Sara; Møller, Sabrah
The thesis scrutinizes how gender relations and women’s and men’s control of sexual health are influenced by the intervention of male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa. The analytical framework combines the theory of therapeutic citizenship, post-development theory and gender theory. We argue that the individual man’s choice to circumcise is being challenged by international HIV prevention methods emphasizing men’s responsibility in HIV prevention. In South Africa, current chang...
My dissertation, titled "Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State," proposes a new understanding of the dictatorship novels of Ricardo Piglia, Juan José Saer, and Manuel Puig grounded in their shared appropriation from popular crime fiction. Across the 1940's, 50's, and 60's, a wide range of popular crime fiction was translated, written, theorized, printed and reprinted in Argentina, and these popular genres grew steadily in readership, visibility, and cultural legitimacy....
Богдан Миколайович Головкін
Victimization from crime – a higher degree of social vulnerability criminal, contributing to the commission of crimes against them in certain circumstances. Victimization takes place in space and time, and includes four stages: 1) the emergence of criminal threats; 2) increasing the degree of social vulnerability to criminal assault; 3) the harm to individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable state at appropriate conditions (situations); 4) increase the number of victims of crimes as regis...
Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael
Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individualsâ€™ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...
John Donohue; Steven Levitt
We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...
Ayesha Al Neyadi; Alia Al Kaabi; Laila Al Kaabi; Mariam Al Ghufli; Maitha Al Shamsi; Dr. Muhammad Khan
Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being ...
Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.
This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...
Brian Bell; Rui Costa; Stephen Machin
Do compulsory schooling laws reduce crime? Previous evidence for the U.S. from the 1960s and 1970s suggests they do, primarily working through their effect on educational attainment to generate a causal impact on crime. In this paper, we consider whether more recent experience replicates this. There are two key findings. First, there is a strong and consistent negative effect on crime from stricter compulsory schooling laws. Second, there is a weaker and sometimes non-existent link between su...
Hypólito, Bruno Kloss
Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende analisar de que maneira se construiu discursivamente o Relatório Tovo, bem como sua relevância para o julgamento do processo originado na investigação sobre o assassinato do ex-sargento do Exército Manoel Raymundo Soares, vítima de tortura durante os primeiros anos da ditadura civil-militar no Brasil, e que se tornou conhecido pela sociedade gaúcha, através da imprensa, como O Caso das Mãos Amarradas, devido à posição das mãos do cadáver no momento de seu resgate nas águas do rio Jacuí
Janet L. Gamble
Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate relationships between ambient temperatures and violent crimes to determine whether those relationships are consistent across different crime categories and whether they are best described as increasing linear functions, or as curvilinear functions that decrease beyond some temperature threshold. A secondary objective was to consider the implications of the observed relationships for injuries and deaths from violent crimes in the context of a warming climate. To address these questions, we examined the relationship between daily ambient temperatures and daily incidents of violent crime in Dallas, Texas from 1993–1999.Methods: We analyzed the relationships between daily fluctuations in ambient temperature, other meteorological and temporal variables, and rates of daily violent crime using time series piece-wise regression and plots of daily data. Violent crimes, including aggravated assault, homicide, and sexualassault, were analyzed.Results: We found that daily mean ambient temperature is related in a curvilinear fashion to daily rates of violent crime with a positive and increasing relationship between temperature and aggravated crime that moderates beyond temperatures of 80 F and then turns negative beyond 90 F.Conclusion: While some have characterized the relationship between temperature and violent crime as a continually increasing linear function, leaving open the possibility that aggravated crime will increase in a warmer climate, we conclude that the relationship in Dallas is not linear, but moderatesand turns negative at high ambient temperatures. We posit that higher temperatures may encourage people to seek shelter in cooler indoor spaces, and that street crime and other crimes of opportunity are subsequently decreased. This finding suggests that the higher ambient temperatures expected with climate change may result in marginal shifts in violent crime in the short term, but are not likely to be
Ricardo R. Gómez Vilchis
Full Text Available How important are citizen perceptions of an increase in crime rate when they evaluate the President? This article uses Mexico as a case study to examine the relationship between perception of crime and citizen grading of the President. The research uses 11 national surveys from 1994 to 2006 to analyze the effects of perception of crime on citizen grading of the President before and after the 2000 presidential election. The main proposition is that, after the 2000 political transition, perception of crime, together with other economic variables, becomes more relevant and has stronger effects when citizens evaluate the President due to an increase of their expectations of the Executive's competence.
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...
Full Text Available Data recording and keeping the official unique database on hate crimes contributes to increasing visibility of this type of crimes, as well as to formulating effective policies of preventing discrimination, racism and non-tolerance. At the end of 2012, the Republic of Serbia introduced the aggravating circumstance in sentencing crimes motivated by hatred on the basis of race, religion belief, national or ethnical belonging, sex, sexual orientation or gender identity. The Action Plan of the Implementation of the Strategy of Prevention and Protection against Discrimination (2014 foresees introducing the unique database on hate crimes by the end of 2016. The subject of the paper is the analysis of the importance of establishing this type of database from the perspective of acknowledging victims’ rights. The relevant activities and the recommendations of the EU Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA and the OSCE to the member states, with respect to efficient recording data on hate crimes, have been also introduced. The aim of the paper is to contribute developing of the methodology of data recording of hate crimes in the Republic of Serbia in line with the given recommendations of the FRA and the OSCE. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179044: Razvoj metodologije evidentiranja kriminaliteta kao osnova efikasnih mera za njegovo suzbijanje i prevenciju
Morley, Belinda; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Wakefield, Melanie
The study was designed to determine public acceptability of various forms of regulation to support a healthy eating environment. Telephone interviews were undertaken in June-July 2010 with a random sample of adults in Australia who were the main grocery buyer for their household. Data were analysed for 1,511 adults. A clear majority of participants (80% or more) were in favour of traffic light and kilojoule menu labelling, reformulation to reduce the fat, salt and sugar content of processed foods, and regulation of broadcast and non-broadcast avenues used to market unhealthy food and drinks to children. Relatively less support (two-thirds or more), particularly among lower socioeconomic status participants, was shown for taxation policies and controls on food company sponsorship of sports and education programs. Despite the survey's focus on food marketing avenues and methods directed at children, for the most part non-parents were just as likely as parents to support restrictions. Overall, these findings indicate that there is strong public support for the introduction of policy initiatives aimed at creating a healthier food environment.
Full Text Available There are competing theories of what drives crime in cities and neighbourhoods. Two widely cited theoretical approaches focused on social disorganization and institutional anomie propose different explanations for the causes and dynamics of criminality. Yet these theories are seldom empirically tested, much less acknowledged, outside of North America and Western Europe. This article considers their applicability in Mexico’s capital, a sprawling metropolis of more than 20 million people. The authors administer spatial and general statistical tests to explain the geographical patterns of crime rates across multiple forms of criminality. The assessment demonstrates that both theories accurately predict the spatial distribution of crime. The article concludes with a host of policy conclusions, emphasizing social crime prevention over more traditional law and order measures. and consolidating families, parents and childcare.
Wilson Alejandro Martínez-Sánchez
Full Text Available The public service enterprises are victims of crimes and felonies which may reduce their capacity to perform their functions. These enterprises expend much money and effort in order to prevent those criminal behaviors. For this reason they ask from the authorities more efficient measures against crime; however, such enterprises may feel that they are not being given sufficient importance and/or remedies in dealing with such crime. The aim paper of this is not to study the problem from de substantive criminal law point of view. Rather, this paper’s goal is to study the Colombia’s Rules of Criminal Procedure, which regulate the investigation of this kind of crime. The article will look particularly at the competency of the relevant authorities at the investigative stages. Finally, it will make some recommendations regarding a proper route towards the investigation of these criminal behaviors.
Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.
Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…
Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.
Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…
Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
Full Text Available Public opinion on prevention is often very narrow and stigmatised: the concept of prevention is more often related to a crime than to antisocial behaviour. Often such approach limits not only the understanding of the usability and content of prevention methods but also the age of children at which a successful use of these methods is acceptable. Due to the aforementioned, it is possible to put forward a hypothesis: successful prevention of antisocial behaviour in the work with children at a young age decreases the necessity of crime prevention in later years of children and youth development. Therefore, this publication will focus on the use and practice of prevention methods in the early period of child development – pre-school and primary school.
Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee
African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford
Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles
We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...
Karl H. Stingeder
äventivmaßnahmen ist weder ausreichend noch nachhaltig. What roles does cyber crime play today? What differentiates cyber crime from cyber war? How must cyber security be organized in order to effectively ensure sustainable protection? Cyber crime activities are frequently characterized by the easy accessibility of fraudulent know-how and technical means. Due to the sluggish and inadequate implementation of coordinated countermeasures, cyber crimes are a low-risk and high-reward scenario for cyber criminals. The more organized and specialized a cyber crime network, the greater the potential for damage. In fact, cyber crime is the umbrella term for fraudulent activities via the World Wide Web. These rely on the model of "traditional" offline criminal behavior patterns, which are easy to access thanks to the technological spectrum of the Internet. Nonetheless, it is the technical execution of the crime that represents a crucial distinguishing characteristic between online and offline fraud. Furthermore, from the point of view of organized crime, governments and terror groups, a lower inhibition threshold for a military exploitation of the Internet is a focal point of cyber security. As soon as cyber crime activity is the means by which to achieve political goals, it is called cyber war. Sustainable measures directed against cyber crime and cyber war take place in a highly dynamic environment. Cyber criminals are usually well-equipped in terms of logistics and financial resources. Many are supported by governments. Cyber criminals have wide-ranging technical expertise, which enables them to develop customized malware to accomplish their goals. At present, many companies and public sector entities do not fully realize how imperative defense systems are. Cyber security focus on purely preventive measures is therefore neither sufficient nor sustainable.
Aug 8, 2016 ... Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban youth ... related to public housing, education, and family planning also need reform. ... and civil society leaders in Mexico and Central America together to address ...
Anca Lelia Lorincz
Full Text Available The intensification of the European political and economic integration also requires that our country contributes to continuing the tradition of incriminating criminal deeds perpetrated in the business field. Romanian authorities display their constant interest in expanding their knowledge of the crime phenomenon in this field, while looking to identify effective means to control it. Within this context, corruption crimes approached in the Criminal Code of Law and in Law no. 78/2000 take a distinct place within the group of crimes for which prevention and combating is regulated under the Business Criminal Code of Law. In order to ensure celerity in solving criminal cases involving corruption crimes, certain derogations from the usual procedure were required, as well as enforcement of a special procedure; also, specific procedural aspects regarding corruption crimes need to be retained as we look at the coming into force of the new criminal and criminal procedure legislation.
Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002-10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices.
Zulkifli, Malina; Ismail, Noriszura; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Kasim, Maznah Mat
Vehicle theft is classified as property crime and is considered as the most frequently reported crime in Malaysia. The rising number of vehicle thefts requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Nevertheless, the effort to control this crime would be much easier if there is an indication or index which is more specific to vehicle theft. This study aims to build an index crime which is specific to vehicle theft. The development of vehicle theft index proposed in this study requires three main steps; the first involves identification of criteria related to vehicle theft, the second requires calculation of degrees of importance, or weighting criteria, which involves application of correlation and entropy methods, and the final involves building of vehicle theft index using method of linear combination, or weighted arithmetic average. The results show that the two methods used for determining weights of vehicle theft index are similar. Information generated from the results can be used as a primary source for local authorities to plan strategies for reduction of vehicle theft and for insurance companies to determine premium rates of automobile insurance.
Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Eidson, Shelby S
Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no 'one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists. We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of beverages to tax; and (iii) the amount of tax needed to affect consumption and/or obesity prevention-related revenue generation. We offer examples of existing beverage taxes in the United States and internationally. The information will be useful to policymakers at all levels of government, as they continue to consider beverage taxation policies.
Aug 3, 2016 ... ... and reintegration have minimized their chances of relapsing into a life of crime. ... implementation of crime and violence prevention initiatives in the two communities. ... Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa.
Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.
This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.
This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.
Full Text Available In Other Words, The Victim Of Crime Or Bad Act And Contrary To The Provisions Specified In A Society. Breaking The Law In One Way Or Another In All Sections Of Society Or Culture There And Just Not Certain. Given The Importance Of Nazareth As A Crucial Moment In History, Investigate The Crime As One Of The Most Important Events Of This Period Can Reveal Its Many Ambiguities In The Fields Of Committing Economic Crimes. Accordingly, In This Study We Try Economic Crimes Testament Naseri Typology And The Role Of Various Factors In This Phenomenon, Particularly In Its Dual Role Of Government Is. Therefore, Relying On Historical Documents And Library Resources Available And The Statistical Analysis Of Crimes Of This Period, The Description Of The Economic Situation Of Naseri Age, The Type Of Economic Crime In The Period Studied And Said Some Of The Factors Contributing To The Occurrence Of This Crime, As Far As Possible From The Viewpoint Of Analytical Thought. According To The Findings Obtained From Different Types Of Economic Crimes, The Murder Of A 7/58%, The Highest Rate Of Opium Drawing 2/0% Were Allocated To The Lowest. Although The Government Of Nazareth Was The Main Cause Of Action In Dealing With Criminals However Its Way To Provide Mass Media, And In Many Cases They Are Also Added On.
The application of restorative justice (RJ) with hate crime remains an underdeveloped field of research, policy, and practice. This article aims to advance the understanding of these two areas of inquiry: RJ and hate crime. It is known that while most hate incidents involve minor, punishable offenses, their impact can be long lasting and…
Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.
We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a
as hate crimes,3 undermine social cohesion4 and have been shown to have ... a bias motive'.8 A 'hate crime' is thus an act which constitutes a ... not report their experience to the police and that ... police officers appear to share such sentiments.28 ... considerable media attention. ..... opening the lodge to gay tourists. During ...
van Winden, F.; Ash, E.
This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences' mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The standard rational-choice crime model is refined by a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According
Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim
Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on came...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crime control. 742.7 Section 742.7... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.7 Crime control. (a) License requirements. In support of U.S. foreign policy to promote the...
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Shah, Azhar Ali
In this paper, we present a method of crime analysis from open source information. We employed un-supervised methods of data mining to explore the facts regarding the crimes of an area of interest. The analysis is based on well known clustering and association techniques. The results show...
Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina
This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information
van Winden, F.; Ash, E.
This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the
May-Chahal, Corinne; Humphreys, Leslie; Clifton, Alison; Francis, Brian; Reith, Gerda
Incarcerated populations across the world have been found to be consistently and significantly more vulnerable to problem gambling than general populations in the same countries. In an effort to gain a more specific understanding of this vulnerability the present study applied latent class analysis and criminal career theory to gambling data collected from a sample of English and Scottish, male and female prisoners (N = 1057). Theoretical links between gambling and crime were tested through three hypotheses: (1) that prisoners in the UK would have higher rates of problem gambling behaviour than the national population; (2) that if the link between gambling and crime is coincidental, gambling behaviour would be highly prevalent in an offending population, and (3) if connections between gambling behaviour and offending are co-symptomatic a mediating factor would show a strong association. The first of these was supported, the second was not supported and the third was partially supported. Latent class analysis found six gambling behaviour clusters measured by responses to the Problem Gambling Severity Index, primarily distinguished by loss chasing behaviour. Longitudinal offending data drawn from the Police National Computer database found four criminal career types, distinguished by frequency and persistence over time. A significant association was found between higher level loss chasing and high rate offending in criminal careers suggesting that impulse control may be a mediating factor for both gambling harm and criminal careers.
Yanez, Christina; Lessne, Deborah
Student victimization and school violence have been an ongoing cause of national concern, resulting in a concerted effort among educators, administrators, parents, and policymakers to determine the gravity of the issue and consider approaches to crime prevention. This Statistics in Brief presents estimates of student criminal victimization at…
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the kidnapping, rape and murder of Jill Meagher as a case study to highlight a range of issues that emerge in relation to criminalisation, crime prevention and policing strategies on social media - issues that, in our opinion, require immediate and thorough theoretical engagement. An in-depth analysis of Jill Meagher’s case and its newsworthiness in terrestrial media is a challenging task that is beyond the scope of this paper; rather, the focus for this particular paper is on the process of agenda-building, particularly via social media, and the impact of the social environment and the capacity of ‘ordinary’ citizens to influence the agenda-defining process. In addition, we outline other issues that emerged in the aftermath of this case, such as the depth of the target audience on social media, the threat of a ‘trial by social media’ and the place of social media in the context of pre-crime and surveillance debates. Through the analysis of research data we establish some preliminary findings and call for more audacious and critical engagement by criminologists and social scientists in addressing the challenges posed by new technologies.
Full Text Available One of the objectives of the European Union enshrined in 67 alin.(1 (ex-art. 61 TCE and ex-art. 29 TUE of the consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union is to create a common European space of security and justice without internal frontiers, in which to ensure the free movement of people, corralated with appropriate measures on external border controls , asylum , immigration, and crime prevention and combating. This is a long term goal that requires active cooperation of Member States and multiple efforts by EU institutions. The institutional functioning practice has shown that the clasic forms of judicial cooperation do not have the ability to complete this objective and that is necessary to create specialized structures. In this context the First European institutional structure was established in 2002, a specialized agency of the European Union, named Eurojust, with the main objective to promote and improve coordination and cooperation between the judicial authorities of the Member States in the fight against serious cross-border crime affecting the European Union. Tasks of Eurojust and relations with other European bodies, particularly the Council and Commission are established by Decision 2002/187 / JHA amended by Decision 2009/426 / JHA Council of 16 December 2008 It is exercised by College Eurojust or through its national members.
Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.
Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on the data warehouse. We discuss several ways of utilizing the data warehouse using OLAP and data mining technologies. We finally discuss legal issues and data population issues for the data warehouse.
Lo social, lo comunitario y lo individual en las estrategias de prevención “social” del delito en Argentina (2003-2008 (“Social”, “community” and “individual” in social crime prevention strategies in Argentina (2003-2008
Emilio J. Ayos
Full Text Available El artículo aborda las construcciones de lo individual, lo comunitario y lo social que emergen en la confluencia de una intervención de prevención “social” del delito y una política social asistencial en Argentina. Es producto de una investigación mayor que se propone indagar acerca de la relación entre las definiciones de pobreza y delito y las estrategias de intervención asociadas a las mismas en la articulación entre los programas Comunidades Vulnerables y de Empleo Comunitario. Desde un enfoque metodológico cualitativo, se argumentará que la implementación de dicha estrategia de prevención social del delito, en su vinculación con una política asistencial, describirá una tendencia hacia la comunitarización de su intervención a partir de construir una territorialización segmentada, y hacia la individualización, fundamentalmente en los mecanismos preventivos propuestos.ABSTRACTThis article focuses at the analysis of the tensions that emerge from the meeting of a social crime prevention strategy and a social policy in Argentina. These tensions turn run the constructions of the idea of “social”, “community” and “individual”. This analysis is part of a bigger research which has as a general objective the exploration of the association between the definitions of “poverty” and “crime” and the intervention strategies that emerge from that intersection, specifically in the articulation between two programs: “Vulnerable Communities” and “Community Employment”. Using a qualitative methodology, it will be argued that the implementation of such crime social prevention strategy, in its association with a welfare policy, would describe a trend characterized by the communitisation, from building a segmented territorialization, and the individualization, mainly in the preventive mechanisms proposed, of the strategy itself.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
G. O. Krapivnyk
Full Text Available The author provides philosophical anthropological analysis of the logic of the crime fiction genre in the modern person’s consciousness. It was shown that detective texts convey hyper-orderliness, which compensates for the lack of systematization in real life, directly influences the recipient, setting the limits of personal freedom, and indirectly structures social order. The research assumes that classical crime fiction is related to the positivist philosophy, rationalism and scientific thinking, whereas the formula of the late Modern crime fiction stories is gradually getting more sophisticated, which reflects the evolution of the philosophical thinking on the whole. The special feature of the crime fiction genre logic is in the fact that available in crime fiction texts typical formal logical elements of a hypothesis, versions, evidence and contradiction are combined by the addressers with creative inspiration, intuition, true life, which are not the characteristics of pure science. The logic in the texts of the crime fiction genre helps a modern person to virtually build a system of universal philosophical and cultural values, applied by the society as its basis for social norms, rules and laws of any modern state. In addition, the specific logic of investigation encourages person’s everyday activities, since cultural reading enables a person not only to perceive but also to transfer and use the laws of logic, inherent in the crime fiction genre, in their professional activities, including research work.
Full Text Available Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour.Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed.Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed.The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.
Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L; Moore, Simon C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M
Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.
Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah
Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is
Bogomolov, Andrey; Lepri, Bruno; Staiano, Jacopo; Letouzé, Emmanuel; Oliver, Nuria; Pianesi, Fabio; Pentland, Alex
The wealth of information provided by real-time streams of data has paved the way for life-changing technological advancements, improving the quality of life of people in many ways, from facilitating knowledge exchange to self-understanding and self-monitoring. Moreover, the analysis of anonymized and aggregated large-scale human behavioral data offers new possibilities to understand global patterns of human behavior and helps decision makers tackle problems of societal importance. In this article, we highlight the potential societal benefits derived from big data applications with a focus on citizen safety and crime prevention. First, we introduce the emergent new research area of big data for social good. Next, we detail a case study tackling the problem of crime hotspot classification, that is, the classification of which areas in a city are more likely to witness crimes based on past data. In the proposed approach we use demographic information along with human mobility characteristics as derived from anonymized and aggregated mobile network data. The hypothesis that aggregated human behavioral data captured from the mobile network infrastructure, in combination with basic demographic information, can be used to predict crime is supported by our findings. Our models, built on and evaluated against real crime data from London, obtain accuracy of almost 70% when classifying whether a specific area in the city will be a crime hotspot or not in the following month.
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Background Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25–55 years. Methods Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Results Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). Discussion This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. PMID:29549106
Register-Mihalik, Johna; Baugh, Christine; Kroshus, Emily; Y Kerr, Zachary; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
To offer an overview of sport-related concussion (SRC) prevention and education strategies in the context of the socioecological framework (SEF). Athletic trainers (ATs) will understand the many factors that interact to influence SRC prevention and the implications of these interactions for effective SRC education. Concussion is a complex injury that is challenging to identify and manage, particularly when athletes fail to disclose symptoms to their health care providers. Education is 1 strategy for increasing disclosure. However, limited information addresses how ATs can integrate the many factors that may influence the effectiveness of SRC education into their specific settings. Public health models provide an example through the SEF, which highlights the interplay among various levels of society and sport that can facilitate SRC prevention strategies, including education. For ATs to develop appropriate SRC prevention strategies, a framework for application is needed. A growing body of information concerning SRC prevention indicates that knowledge alone is insufficient to change concussion-related behaviors. The SEF allows this information to be considered at levels such as policy and societal, community, interpersonal (relationships), and intrapersonal (athlete). The use of such a framework will facilitate more comprehensive SRC prevention efforts that can be applied in all athletic training practice settings. Clinical Applications: Athletic trainers can use this information as they plan SRC prevention strategies in their specific settings. This approach will aid in addressing the layers of complexity that exist when developing a concussion-management policy and plan.
Falk, Orjan; Wallinius, Märta; Lundström, Sebastian; Frisell, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Kerekes, Nóra
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime. The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders. A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3). The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize
In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…
Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...
Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; Van Mechelen, Willem; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Van Der Molen, Henk F.; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD
A.J. van der Beek (Allard); Dennerlein, J.T. (Jack T.); Huysmans, M.A. (Maaike A.); S.E. Mathiassen; A. Burdorf (Alex); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J.H. van Dieën (Jaap); M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; A. Holtermann (Andreas); Janwantanakul, P. (Prawit); Van Der Molen, H.F. (Henk F.); Rempel, D. (David); L. Straker (Leon); Walker-Bone, K. (Karen); P. Coenen (Pieter)
textabstractObjectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in
Lange, D; Wahrendorf, M; Siegrist, J; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Landsberg, B; Müller, M J
To understand determinants of overweight, several studies addressed the association between neighbourhood characteristics and adult obesity. However, little is known about the association of such characteristics with adolescents' overweight. This study aims at the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on adolescent body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle and to what extent BMI and lifestyle variation between neighbourhoods can be explained by neighbourhood characteristics. We used cross-sectional data from the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study collected between 2004 and 2008 in 28 different residential districts of the city of Kiel (North Germany). Anthropometric data were available for 1675 boys and 1765 girls (n=3440) aged 13-15 years, and individual lifestyle factors and sociodemographic data were included in the analysis. At the macro level, six different neighbourhood characteristics were used: unemployment rate, population density, traffic density, prevalence of energy-dense food supply, number of sports fields and parks, and crime rate. To test our main hypothesis, linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses were performed to predict BMI and lifestyle factors in individuals nested in neighbourhoods. Findings of multilevel analysis show little between-neighbourhood variations in BMI and health-related behaviours. In all, 2% of BMI variation, 4% of media time variation and 3% of variation in snacking behaviour could be attributed to differences in neighbourhoods. Environmental factors are significantly associated with adolescent BMI and health-related behaviour; however, their total effect is small. Owing to these results, recommendations for structural policy measures as part of prevention of overweight in adolescents must be made cautiously.
Jones, Jennifer Bashaw
This thesis examines the effects of European immigration policies on crime and society, with a focus on the past and present security challenges of shifts of peoples and demographics since 1942 and 1989, which have changed the face of Europe. The first chapter reviews the significance of the issue in the context of the historical and economic developments in which post-war immigration has assumed its familiar dimensions. The second section discusses the effects of immigrant-related crime o...
Ackoski, Jugoslav; Dojcinovski, Metodija
This paper has aim to give contribution in supporting efforts against cyber threats recognized as a cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Also, it has aim to show future challenges related to cyber security and their emerging threats – cyber war, cyber terrorism and cyber crime. Accelerate weapon development called ICT (Information Communication Technology) which is developed every day faster and faster, and development of human conscious on higher level about consequences of ICT enormous pene...
The article addresses the development of international and European policy in relation to victims of crime. It starts with an outline of the 1985 United Nations (UN) Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. It demonstrates that compliance by Member States with the provisions of the Declaration is still unsatisfactory, despite serious efforts by the UN to promote its standards and norms. A similar trend is described...
Despite the widespread implementation of sports-based crime prevention programs, there is little known about the effectiveness of these interventions and the validity of underlying theoretical assumptions. This dissertation consists of four studies. First, a meta-analysis on the relation between
Ahmad J. Abdulsalam
Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. Results: A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%. The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001 and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001. High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002, DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026 and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015. Conclusion: Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.
Abdulsalam, Ahmad J; Al-Daihani, Abdullah E; Francis, Kostantinos
Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%). The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001) and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001). High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002), DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026) and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015). Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.
Full Text Available Article is devoted to determination of starting conceptual positions of a concept and signs of corruption. In article it is noted that qualification of this type of crimes is rather difficult. To a basis of a corruption crime the illegal transaction having criminal character constitutes. The government employee, having the rights and obligations of the government employee, he sells to other persons that he by right doesn’t belong to it. The corruption crime becomes result of this transaction. It always has mercenary character and is made for the sake of receipt of benefit of property nature. Corruption in the state has system nature.
Cunningham, A. Scott; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.
Psychological studies invariably find a positive relationship between violent video game play and aggression. However, these studies cannot account for either aggressive effects of alternative activities video game playing substitutes for or the possible selection of relatively violent people into playing violent video games. That is, they lack external validity. We investigate the relationship between the prevalence of violent video games and violent crimes. Our results are consistent with t...
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J
Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.
The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.
McHugh, E E
This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.
Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Philibert, Robert A.
Introduction Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. Objective The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Methods Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Results Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Conclusion The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. PMID:26513121
Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A
Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Federico, Frank A; Gandhi, Tejal K; Kaushal, Rainu; Williams, Deborah H; Bates, David W
Adverse drug events (ADEs) may lead to serious injury and may result in malpractice claims. While ADEs resulting in claims are not representative of all ADEs, such data provide a useful resource for studying ADEs. Therefore, we conducted a review of medication-related malpractice claims to study their frequency, nature, and costs and to assess the human factor failures associated with preventable ADEs. We also assessed the potential benefits of proved effective ADE prevention strategies on ADE claims prevention. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a New England malpractice insurance company claims records from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1999. Cases were electronically screened for possible ADEs and followed up by independent review of abstracts by 2 physician reviewers (T.K.G. and R.K.). Additional in-depth claims file reviews identified potential human factor failures associated with ADEs. Adverse drug events represented 6.3% (129/2040) of claims. Adverse drug events were judged preventable in 73% (n = 94) of the cases and were nearly evenly divided between outpatient and inpatient settings. The most frequently involved medication classes were antibiotics, antidepressants or antipsychotics, cardiovascular drugs, and anticoagulants. Among these ADEs, 46% were life threatening or fatal. System deficiencies and performance errors were the most frequent cause of preventable ADEs. The mean costs of defending malpractice claims due to ADEs were comparable for nonpreventable inpatient and outpatient ADEs and preventable outpatient ADEs (mean, $64,700-74,200), but costs were considerably greater for preventable inpatient ADEs (mean, $376,500). Adverse drug events associated with malpractice claims were often severe, costly, and preventable, and about half occurred in outpatients. Many interventions could potentially have prevented ADEs, with error proofing and process standardization covering the greatest proportion of events.
Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S
Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835
Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel
Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...
What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
"Dip me in Chocolate and Thow me to the Lesbians": Homophobic hate crimes, the state and civil society · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. K Williams, 39-46 ...
, Crime, and Job Displacement”, analyzes the determinants and social implications of these three factors. While independent, each essay within this thesis examines the impact of factors such as education, in terms of reduced crime, job loss, in terms of increased crime, and discrimination, in terms of its......With a limited budget and resources, governments must decide how to allocate funds across a variety of factors which benefit society such as education, crime deterrence, and public safety. Each increase in spending on one area comes with the knowledge that this money cannot be spent on social...... problems in another area. As such, externalities and unexpected spillover effects impact the costs and benefits of public spending to society and may have large and meaningful implications on how to most effectively allocate resources across a multitude of outcomes. For example, an increase in education...
Schmitz, Peter MU
Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...
12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Wildlife crime, computation, conservation, criminology , conservation biology, risk, poaching REPORT...Action items? Conference on “Conservation, Computation, Criminology ” C^3? Technology Transfer
Agribotix GCS 077
1Institute of Statistical, Social & Economic Research (ISSER)/Department of ... nor democratic: unregulated, informal economic activities are very common in .... with crime in urban Ghana based on a household survey and a qualitative study.
Berry, LaVerle; Curtis, Glenn E; Gibbs, John N; Hudson, Rex A; Karacan, Tara; Kollars, Nina; Miro, Ramon
.... Although the focus of the report is on transnational activity, domestic criminal activity is recognized as a key foundation for transnational crime, especially as the forces of globalization intensify...
B. L. Himabindu
Full Text Available The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society. Using secondary data related to sex-selective abortions and crimes against women, and a critical review of the portrayal of women in Indian cinema, we reflect on the role of health workers, researchers and public health professionals in shaping a social response towards improving gender parity in our country.
Himabindu, B L; Arora, Radhika; Prashanth, N S
The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society. Using secondary data related to sex-selective abortions and crimes against women, and a critical review of the portrayal of women in Indian cinema, we reflect on the role of health workers, researchers and public health professionals in shaping a social response towards improving gender parity in our country.
Orr, David Mr
Fictional representations of dementia have burgeoned in recent years, and scholars have amply explored their double-edged capacity to promote tragic perspectives or normalising images of 'living well' with the condition. Yet to date, there has been only sparse consideration of the treatment afforded dementia within the genre of crime fiction. Focusing on two novels, Emma Healey's Elizabeth is Missing and Alice LaPlante's Turn of Mind, this article considers what it means in relation to the ethics of representation that these authors choose to cast as their amateur detective narrators women who have dementia. Analysing how their narrative portrayals frame the experience of living with dementia, it becomes apparent that features of the crime genre inflect the meanings conveyed. While aspects of the novels may reinforce problem-based discourses around dementia, in other respects they may spur meaningful reflection about it among the large readership of this genre.
The study below is meant to focus on the migrant smuggling crime in Romania, especially analysis of the migrant smuggling infraction provided in the Romanian Criminal Code. Being a component of the human trafficking activity, the illegal migration is a phenomenon that is continuously extending and harder to stop due to the involvement of the organized crime networks and also due the ingenuousness and maliciousness of the people and the criminals. Therewith, the migrant smuggling is highly con...
Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna
Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...
van Winden, F.; Ash, E.
This paper examines the implications of the brain sciences’ mechanistic model of human behavior for our understanding of crime. The rational crime model is replaced with a behavioral approach, which proposes a decision model comprising cognitive and emotional decision systems. According to the behavioral approach, a criminal is not irrational but rather ‘ecologically rational’, outfitted with evolutionarily conserved decision modules adapted for survival in the human ancestral environment. Se...
Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan
The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.
Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.
Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard
This bulletin, part of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's "Crimes against Children Series," draws on FBI and other data to provide a statistical portrait of juvenile homicide victimization, asserting that homicide is the only major cause of childhood deaths that has increased over the past 3 decades. The bulletin…
During the last decade, throughout the world, more emphasis has been put on financial instruments in order to control and prevent money laundering, organised crime (and more recently) terrorism. In most democratic countries, follow-the money-methods have been developed, and legislation has been
Guerra-García, María Mercedes; Campos-Rivas, Beatriz; Sanmarful-Schwarz, Alexandra; Vírseda-Sacristán, Alicia; Dorrego-López, M Aránzazu; Charle-Crespo, Ángeles
To assess the extent of healthcare related adverse events (AEs), their effect on patients, and their seriousness. To analyse the factors leading to the development of AEs, their relationship with the damage caused, and their degree of preventability. Retrospective descriptive study. Porriño, Pontevedra, Spain, Primary Care Service, from January-2014 to April-2016. Reported AEs were entered into the Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System (SiNASP). The variables measured were: Near Incident (NI) an occurrence with no effect or harm on the patient; Adverse Event (AE) an occurrence that affects or harms a patient. The level of harm is classified as minimal, minor, moderate, critical, and catastrophic. Preventability was classified as little evidence of being preventable, 50% preventable, and sound evidence of being preventable. percentages and Chi-squared test for qualitative variables; P<.05 with SPSS.15. SiNASP. Ethical considerations: approved by the Research Ethics Committee (2016/344). There were 166 recorded AEs (50.6% in males, and 46.4% in women. The mean age was 60.80years). Almost two-thirds 62.7% of AEs affected the patient, with 45.8% causing minimal damage, while 2.4% caused critical damages. Healthcare professionals were a contributing factor in 71.7% of the AEs, with the trend showing that poor communication and lack of protocols were related to the damage caused. Degree of preventability: 96.4%. Most AEs affected the patient, and were related to medication, diagnostic tests, and laboratory errors. The level of harm was related to communication problems, lack of, or deficient, protocols and a poor safety culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…
Conclusion: According to the results, agriculture workers based on their age distribution, education, body mass index, health knowledge, drug use and incidence of chronic diseases, are very vulnerable to heat-related disorders. Therefore, training on recognizing the early signs and doing control measures as essential element in heat stress prevention should be seriously considered.
Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.
Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…
Zinc is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to its high concentration in the retina and role as a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of studies that investigated dietary inta...
Mellgren, Caroline; Andersson, Mika; Ivert, Anna-Karin
Hate crimes have been found to have more severe consequences than other parallel crimes that were not motivated by the offenders' hostility toward someone because of their real or perceived difference. Many countries today have hate crime laws that make it possible to increase the penalties for such crimes. The main critique against hate crime laws is that they punish thoughts. Instead, proponents of hate crime laws argue that sentence enhancement is justified because hate crimes cause greater harm. This study compares consequences of victimization across groups of victims to test for whom hate crimes hurt more. We analyzed data that were collected through questionnaires distributed to almost 3,000 students at Malmö University, Sweden, during 2013. The survey focused on students' exposure to, and experiences of, hate crime. A series of separate logistic regression analyses were performed, which analyzed the likelihood for reporting consequences following a crime depending on crime type, perceived motive, repeat victimization, gender, and age. Analyzed as one victim group, victims of hate crime more often reported any of the consequences following a crime compared with victims of parallel non-hate-motivated crimes. And, overall victims of threat more often reported consequences compared with victims of sexual harassment and minor assault. However, all hate crime victim groups did not report more consequences than the non-hate crime victim group. The results provide grounds for questioning that hate crimes hurt the individual victim more. It seems that hate crimes do not hurt all more but hate crimes hurt some victims of some crimes more in some ways.
Reem L. Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.
Lindberg, Marc A; Zeid, Dana
The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior. The model also fit a sample of 239 female inmates. The notions of crime addiction, in this context of adverse events and insecure parental attachments, offered newer and more powerful explanations than previously offered by social learning theories on why some individuals are more likely to associate with peers engaging in criminal behavior, and also how these combine to predict degrees of criminal behavior. By moving beyond main effects models, it was found that a focus on systems of interactions was robust in theory and application. However, profile data from the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire showed that individual differences in Research Domain Criteria diagnoses are fundamental to treatment settings. Such approaches to reducing rates of recidivism and substance abuse should also enhance outcomes in many domains, including HIV prevention, costs to health care, and at the same time increase overall public safety.
The beneficial effect achieved by the treatment of endothelial dysfunction in chronic cardiovascular diseases is already an evidence belonging to the basic treatment of the disease. Given the fact that the vascular system is uniform and consubstantial both physiologically, pathophysiologically and in terms of therapy, and that it plays a key role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) - a disease leading to tragic loss of vision with its etiology and therapy being unknown -, endothelial dysfunction should be treated. The pleiotropic effects of ACE-inhibitors, AR-blockers and statins help to restitute the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, the balance of growth factors and their inhibitors, pro- and anti-inflammatory substances and prothrombotic and fibrinolytic factors, inhibit the formation of oxidative stress and its harmful effects; while aspirin with its pleiotropic effects acting as an antiaggregation substance on platelets helps to set the endothelial layer back to its normal balance regarding its vasodilating, antithrombotic, anti-adhesive and anti-inflammatory functions. For the above reasons it is suggested that, as a part of long term primary and/or secondary prevention, the following groups of patients with AMD receive - taking into consideration all possible side effects - ACE-inhibitor and/or AR-blocker and statin and aspirin treatment: 1) those without maculopathy but being over the age of 50 and having risk factors inducing endothelial dysfunction; 2) those, who already developed AMD in one eye as a prevention in the second, unaffected eye; and 3) those patients who developed AMD in both eyes in order to ameliorate or merely slow the progression of the disease. Besides, it is advisory to inhibit AMD risk factors inducing oxidative stress with consecutive endothelial dysfunction.
Since the beginning of the nineties the field of forensic Y chromosome analysis has been successfully developed to become commonplace in laboratories working in crime casework all over the world. The ability to identify male-specific DNA renders highly variable Y-chromosomal polymorphisms, the STR sequences, an invaluable addition to the standard panel of autosomal loci used in forensic genetics. The male-specificity makes the Y chromosome especially useful in cases of male/female cell admixture, namely in sexual assault cases. On the other hand, the haploidy and patrilineal inheritance complicates the interpretation of a Y-STR match, because male relatives share for several generations an identical Y-STR profile. Since paternal relatives tend to live in the geographic and cultural territory of their ancestors, the Y chromosome analysis has a potential to make inferences on the population of origin of a given DNA profile. This review addresses the fields of application of Y chromosome haplotyping, the interpretation of results, databasing efforts and population genetics aspects.
Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana
Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana
Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080
Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.
Rosellini, A J; Monahan, J; Street, A E; Heeringa, S G; Hill, E D; Petukhova, M; Reis, B Y; Sampson, N A; Bliese, P; Schoenbaum, M; Stein, M B; Ursano, R J; Kessler, R C
Although interventions exist to reduce violent crime, optimal implementation requires accurate targeting. We report the results of an attempt to develop an actuarial model using machine learning methods to predict future violent crimes among US Army soldiers. A consolidated administrative database for all 975 057 soldiers in the US Army in 2004-2009 was created in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Of these soldiers, 5771 committed a first founded major physical violent crime (murder-manslaughter, kidnapping, aggravated arson, aggravated assault, robbery) over that time period. Temporally prior administrative records measuring socio-demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy, and contextual variables were used to build an actuarial model for these crimes separately among men and women using machine learning methods (cross-validated stepwise regression, random forests, penalized regressions). The model was then validated in an independent 2011-2013 sample. Key predictors were indicators of disadvantaged social/socioeconomic status, early career stage, prior crime, and mental disorder treatment. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.80-0.82 in 2004-2009 and 0.77 in the 2011-2013 validation sample. Of all administratively recorded crimes, 36.2-33.1% (male-female) were committed by the 5% of soldiers having the highest predicted risk in 2004-2009 and an even higher proportion (50.5%) in the 2011-2013 validation sample. Although these results suggest that the models could be used to target soldiers at high risk of violent crime perpetration for preventive interventions, final implementation decisions would require further validation and weighing of predicted effectiveness against intervention costs and competing risks.
Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns. A first series of analyses examines the impact of altruistic public-sector mobilisation on crime. A significant decline in property crime rates was noticed when cheques were distributed to crisis victims in financial need in Montérégie, and hence they were attributable to public intervention (institutional altruism). Moreover, the rate of social altruism (financial donations), which was more substantial in adjoining rather than distant regions, was inversely proportional to crime rates. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Crime is a popular genre of fiction, widely read but sometimes seen as 'throwaway'. Disregarding this type of fiction because it is seen as low quality does not take into account its value to readers. Reading has been established as a means of improving mental health and well-being-often known as bibliotherapy. This often focuses on fiction considered to have literary merit rather than genre fiction like crime. However, in framing therapeutic reading in this way, the impact of texts considered to have low cultural value such as crime has been concealed. Examining readers' responses as a starting point identifies some reasons why crime fiction fulfils a need. Readers in an empirical study spoke about the strong narrative as a distraction, the predictability as a comfort and the safe distance from events as a reassurance that left them feeling that reading crime fiction was a refuge from the world. In exploring readers' responses in relation to the academic literature, the paper argues that there is a need to think differently about how readers engage with texts and how they experience reading as therapeutic, with a role for fiction like crime. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Karnon, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Aki; Dolan, Paul
The aim of the current explorative study is to define and test a process for the valuation of the benefits associated with the prevention of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health. A relativities approach is adopted, and monetary values for the prevention of three forms of work-related illness are estimated. The approach involves describing relevant attributes of alternative events (accidents or occurrences of ill health), their causes, the characteristics of the relevant working population, and the number of events that are avoidable, and asking respondents to make pair wise choices between alternatives options for prevention. Indirect monetary valuations are obtained against a peg event for which a reliable valuation exists (road deaths).A series of discussion groups were held to identify relevant factors affecting potential valuations and to test the presentation of information. The predicted magnitude of responses for three-case study events (and road deaths) was estimated in a pilot study. These preliminary stages informed the final survey instrument that described five attributes in addition to a statement of the event and occupation, and the likely intervention effect, which was administered by post. Based on a small sample, the results show that virtually all respondents passed the inserted consistency test. The median respondent altered their choice according to the number of events avoided for all three comparisons, such that the estimated valuations appear sensible. Potential amendments are suggested, but the general relativities approach warrants further investigation for the valuation of non-fatal work-related accidents and ill health.
Today's Internet-based crime reporting systems make timely and anonymous crime reporting possible. However, these reports also result in a rapidly growing set of unstructured text files. Complicating the problem is that the information has not been filtered or guided in a detective-led interview resulting in much irrelevant information. To…
Nielsen, Christian Axboe
The growth of organized crime and its interconnection with European organized crime both presaged and informed the collapse of the Yugoslav state in the early 1990s. A tight nexus emerged between state security services and militaries and organized criminal gangs who converged to enjoy parasitic...... significant challenges that these societies still confront on their road to European Union membership....
Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon
Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available White-collar offenders have access to resources that make financial crime convenient. In the rare case of crime suspicion, resources are available in terms of professional attorney work, control over internal investigations, and public relations support. Hiring private investigators at an early stage of potential crime disclosure enables the organization to control the investigation mandate and influence the investigation process and the investigation output. Getting an early start on reconstruction of the past in terms of a fraud examination makes it possible for the suspect and the organization to influence what facts are relevant and how facts might be assessed in terms of possible violations of the penal code. Convenience aspects of private investigations are discussed in this article in terms of five internal investigations, two in the United States (General Motors and Lehman Brothers and three in Norway (Telenor VimpelCom, DNB Bank, and Norwegian Football Association. The aim of this research is to contribute insights into convenience associated with internal private investigations.
Strekalova, Yulia A; James, Vaughan S
User-generated information on the Internet provides opportunities for the monitoring of health information consumer attitudes. For example, information about cancer prevention may cause decisional conflict. Yet posts and conversations shared by health information consumers online are often not readily actionable for interpretation and decision-making due to their unstandardized format. This study extends prior research on the use of natural language as a predictor of consumer attitudes and provides a link to decision-making by evaluating the predictive role of uncertainty indicators expressed in natural language. Analyzed data included free-text comments and structured scale responses related to information about skin cancer prevention options. The study identified natural language indicators of uncertainty and showed that it can serve as a predictor of decisional conflict. The natural indicators of uncertainty reported here can facilitate the monitoring of health consumer perceptions about cancer prevention recommendations and inform education and communication campaign planning and evaluation.