WorldWideScience

Sample records for relations army privacy

  1. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    . However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...... notion of privacy are discussed in relation to both research- and public debates on surveillance in a welfare setting....

  2. Identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Ostrovsky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-04-01

    The development of high-throughput genomic technologies has impacted many areas of genetic research. While many applications of these technologies focus on the discovery of genes involved in disease from population samples, applications of genomic technologies to an individual's genome or personal genomics have recently gained much interest. One such application is the identification of relatives from genetic data. In this application, genetic information from a set of individuals is collected in a database, and each pair of individuals is compared in order to identify genetic relatives. An inherent issue that arises in the identification of relatives is privacy. In this article, we propose a method for identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy by taking advantage of novel cryptographic techniques customized for secure and private comparison of genetic information. We demonstrate the utility of these techniques by allowing a pair of individuals to discover whether or not they are related without compromising their genetic information or revealing it to a third party. The idea is that individuals only share enough special-purpose cryptographically protected information with each other to identify whether or not they are relatives, but not enough to expose any information about their genomes. We show in HapMap and 1000 Genomes data that our method can recover first- and second-order genetic relationships and, through simulations, show that our method can identify relationships as distant as third cousins while preserving privacy.

  3. Privacy-related context information for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-03-11

    Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how data can be processed or how components

  4. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  5. Surveillance, Privacy and Trans-Atlantic Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recent revelations, by Edward Snowden and others, of the vast network of government spying enabled by modern technology have raised major concerns both in the European Union and the United States on how to protect privacy in the face of increasing governmental surveillance. This book brings...

  6. 32 CFR 505.3 - Privacy Act systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of data, which could result in substantial harm... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privacy Act systems of records. 505.3 Section 505... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.3 Privacy Act systems of records. (a) Systems of...

  7. Investigating privacy attitudes and behavior in relation to personalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde - Perik, van de E.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Eggen, J.H.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study of privacy-related attitudes and behaviors regarding a music recommender service based on two types of user modeling: personality traits and musical preferences. Contrary to prior expectations and attitudes reported by participants, personality traits are

  8. Location-Related Privacy in Geo-Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Vicente, Carmen; Freni, Dario; Bettini, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    -ins." However, this ability to reveal users' locations causes new privacy threats, which in turn call for new privacy-protection methods. The authors study four privacy aspects central to these social networks - location, absence, co-location, and identity privacy - and describe possible means of protecting...... privacy in these circumstances....

  9. A privacy protection model to support personal privacy in relational databases.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The individual of today incessantly insists on more protection of his/her personal privacy than a few years ago. During the last few years, rapid technological advances, especially in the field of information technology, directed most attention and energy to the privacy protection of the Internet user. Research was done and is still being done covering a vast area to protect the privacy of transactions performed on the Internet. However, it was established that almost no research has been don...

  10. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  11. 78 FR 38303 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Leroy Jones, Department of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army.../army/index.html . The Department of the Army proposes to amend two systems of records notices in its...

  12. Grounding privacy with awareness : a social approach to describe privacy related issues in awareness systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, N.; Markopoulos, P.; Markopoulos, P.; De Ruyter, B.; MacKay, W.

    2009-01-01

    By their very nature, awareness systems bring about an increase in the level of communication between the individuals they connect. Sharing information regarding people’s whereabouts and activities raises privacy concerns, potentially compromising their ability to control who receives what

  13. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies,'' DOE considered...

  14. Disclosing genetic information to at-risk relatives: new Australian privacy principles, but uniformity still elusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, Margaret F A

    2015-04-06

    There is growing understanding of the need for genetic information to be shared with genetic relatives in some circumstances. Since 2006, s 95AA of the Privacy Act 1988 (Cwlth) has permitted the disclosure of genetic information to genetic relatives without the patient's consent, provided that the health practitioner reasonably believes that disclosure is necessary to lessen or prevent a serious threat to the life, health or safety of the genetic relatives. Enabling guidelines were introduced in 2009. These were limited to the private sector, and excluded doctors working in the public sector at both Commonwealth and state and territory levels. Privacy legislation was amended in March 2014, and new Australian Privacy Principles, which replace the National Privacy Principles and Information Privacy Principles, now cover the collection and use of personal information. The Privacy Act and the Australian Privacy Principles now extend to practitioners employed by the Commonwealth but not to health practitioners working in state and territory public hospitals. In this article, I review these legislative developments and highlight the implications of the lack of uniformity and the consequent need for a collaborative, uniform approach by states and territories.

  15. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems A review of the security and privacy related issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. METHODS: Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in

  16. Mind your own business! Longitudinal relations between perceived privacy invasion and adolescent-parent conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Skyler T; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim

    2009-08-01

    Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster invasion perceptions. This longitudinal study assessed relations between privacy invasion and conflict frequency among adolescents, mothers, and fathers (N = 309). Bidirectional relations were present; all reports showed that invasion provoked conflict in later adolescence, but the timing and direction of conflict-to-invasion relations differed between respondents and measurement waves. The findings suggest a functional role for conflict in adolescent-parent privacy negotiations, in that it both draws attention to discrepant expectations and provides youths with a means of directly managing perceived boundary violations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS. PMID:26155953

  18. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingquan

    2015-07-08

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes and enter personal and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. Integration of multiple online and real social networks makes the users vulnerable to unintentional and intentional security threats and misuse. This paper analyzes the privacy and security characteristics of leading health-related SNS. It presents a threat model and identifies the most important threats to users and SNS providers. Building on threat analysis and modeling, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that incorporates individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect user privacy. This study paves the way for analysis and design of privacy-preserving mechanisms on health-related SNS.

  19. Cercomacra and related antbirds (Aves, Formicariidae as army ant followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Willis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercomacra and Schistocichla antbirds (Formicariidae favor dense foliage and seldom follow army ants for flushed prey, since the ants move through open forest understory as well as through dense zones. Two other lineages, the Drymophila-Hypocnemis lineage (of dense woodland understory and the Formicivora lineage (of dense bushes in dry or semiopen zones, also cannot follow ants regularly through open forest understory.

  20. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Anne; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats...... privacy all through the system design process....

  1. An Evaluation of Army Wellness Center Clients' Health-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, L Omar; Ford, Jessica Danielle; Hartzell, Meredith Marie; Hoover, Todd Allan

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether Army community members participating in a best-practice based workplace health promotion program (WHPP) experience goal-moderated improvements in health-related outcomes. Pretest/posttest outcome evaluation examining an autonomously participating client cohort over 1 year. Army Wellness Center facilities on 19 Army installations. Army community members sample (N = 5703), mostly Active Duty Soldiers (64%). Assessment of health risks with feedback, health assessments, health education classes, and health coaching sessions conducted by health educators at a recommended frequency of once a month for 3 to 12 months. Initial and follow-up outcome assessments of body mass index (BMI), body fat, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, and perceived stress. Mixed model linear regression testing for goal-moderated improvements in outcomes. Clients experienced significant improvements in body fat (-2% change), perceived stress (-6% to -12% change), cardiorespiratory fitness (+6% change), and blood pressure (-1% change) regardless of health-related goal. Only clients with a weight loss goal experienced BMI improvement (-1% change). Follow-up outcome assessment rates ranged from 44% (N = 2509) for BMI to 6% (N = 342) for perceived stress. Army Wellness Center clients with at least 1 follow-up outcome assessment experienced improvements in military readiness correlates and chronic disease risk factors. Evaluation design and follow-up-related limitations notwithstanding results suggest that best practices in WHPPs can effectively serve a globally distributed military force.

  2. 2009 Center for Army Leadership Annual Survey of Army Leadership (CASAL): Army Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    right time, handling pre- education attitudes, and tracking performance gains and career advantages related to academics.  Developing current, relevant...Army Leadership Technical Report 2010-2 2009 CENTER FOR ARMY LEADERSHIP ANNUAL SURVEY OF ARMY LEADERSHIP (CASAL): ARMY EDUCATION ...Joshua Hatfield ICF International John P. Steele Center for Army Leadership June 2010 The Center for Army Leadership An

  3. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  4. Differential Privacy for Relational Algebra: Improving the Sensitivity Bounds via Constraint Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catuscia Palamidessi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential privacy is a modern approach in privacy-preserving data analysis to control the amount of information that can be inferred about an individual by querying a database. The most common techniques are based on the introduction of probabilistic noise, often defined as a Laplacian parametric on the sensitivity of the query. In order to maximize the utility of the query, it is crucial to estimate the sensitivity as precisely as possible. In this paper we consider relational algebra, the classical language for queries in relational databases, and we propose a method for computing a bound on the sensitivity of queries in an intuitive and compositional way. We use constraint-based techniques to accumulate the information on the possible values for attributes provided by the various components of the query, thus making it possible to compute tight bounds on the sensitivity.

  5. Privacy preserving protocol for detecting genetic relatives using rare variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Guan, Feng; Ostrosky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-06-15

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have impacted many areas of genetic research. One such area is the identification of relatives from genetic data. The standard approach for the identification of genetic relatives collects the genomic data of all individuals and stores it in a database. Then, each pair of individuals is compared to detect the set of genetic relatives, and the matched individuals are informed. The main drawback of this approach is the requirement of sharing your genetic data with a trusted third party to perform the relatedness test. In this work, we propose a secure protocol to detect the genetic relatives from sequencing data while not exposing any information about their genomes. We assume that individuals have access to their genome sequences but do not want to share their genomes with anyone else. Unlike previous approaches, our approach uses both common and rare variants which provide the ability to detect much more distant relationships securely. We use a simulated data generated from the 1000 genomes data and illustrate that we can easily detect up to fifth degree cousins which was not possible using the existing methods. We also show in the 1000 genomes data with cryptic relationships that our method can detect these individuals. The software is freely available for download at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/crypto/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Inter-organizational future proof EHR systems. A review of the security and privacy related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Helma; Kalra, Dipak; Hasman, Arie; Talmon, Jan

    2009-03-01

    Identification and analysis of privacy and security related issues that occur when health information is exchanged between health care organizations. Based on a generic scenario questions were formulated to reveal the occurring issues. Possible answers were verified in literature. Ensuring secure health information exchange across organizations requires a standardization of security measures that goes beyond organizational boundaries, such as global definitions of professional roles, global standards for patient consent and semantic interoperable audit logs. As to be able to fully address the privacy and security issues in interoperable EHRs and the long-life virtual EHR it is necessary to realize a paradigm shift from storing all incoming information in a local system to retrieving information from external systems whenever that information is deemed necessary for the care of the patient.

  7. Interpersonal Relations of Surveillance and Privacy in Families and Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom

    technologies for interpersonal surveillance between parents and children, partners, and school mates. The findings from our in-depth interviews suggest, for instance, that the use of smartphones in families involve negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can...... sometimes lead to strategies of resistance or modification. Also negotiated is the management of children’s exposure to perceived risks, drawbacks and harmful influences caused by the use of digital technologies. In the paper, we identify examples of the way the deep infiltration of technology...... into contemporary life leads to new challenges to parenting and growing up which need critical attention....

  8. 76 FR 50721 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 1160... of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army Records Management and Declassification Agency, 7701 Telegraph...; laboratory reports, polygraph reports, documentary evidence, physical evidence, summary and administrative...

  9. Mind your own business!! Longitudinal relations between perceived privacy invasion and adolescent-parent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawk, S.T.; Keijsers, L.; Hale, W.W., III; Meeus, W.

    2009-01-01

    Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster

  10. Attitudes to the administrative management of service patients with epilepsy and related disorders among army physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteoak, R; Findley, L J

    1986-02-01

    The case histories of ten patients suffering from epilepsy or related disorders were sent to all serving Consultant Physicians and Senior Specialists in Medicine in the Army. They were asked their opinions on the PULHEEMS Grading and restriction of duty in each case. In many cases there was a wide range of opinion on the management. Clearer guidelines concerning the diagnosis and administrative management of patients need to be drawn up to allow Service physicians to be consistent and fair to their patients.

  11. Privacy and Library Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  12. Myrmeciza and related antbirds (Aves, Formicariidae as army ant followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Willis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Antbirds of the genera Myrmeciza (including Sipia and Myrmoborus, Gymnocichla, and Sclateria hop near or on the ground in fairly dense vegetation, "pounding" their tails downward. Where dense understory vegetation is widespread and ants move in it for long distances, certain of these antbirds become regular ant followers: M. immaculata and M. fortis in cluttered moist foothill forest from Costa Rica to upper Amazonia; Gymnocichla nudiceps in moist cluttered second growth of Central America to Colombia. Where the forest understory is more open, Myrmeciza species follow ants mainly in cluttered patches: M. exsul in lowland forest west of the Andes, M. myotherina east of the Andes. Myrmeciza or relatives that specialize on water-edge or very dense zones rarely follow ants.

  13. Allies of a Kind: Canadian Army-US Army Relations and the Korean War, 1950-1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The open “gray” system , however, involved barter for things someone wanted and had something to trade. Besides their ability to speak En- glish, the...Soldiers in combat units made up only one-third of the force. The Army also had a schools system and base structure to maintain, organized to train...quirements with American assistance and its own support system , Can- ada might create a military presence and political leverage greater than its real

  14. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  15. Mining Roles and Access Control for Relational Data under Privacy and Accuracy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Access control mechanisms protect sensitive information from unauthorized users. However, when sensitive information is shared and a Privacy Protection Mechanism (PPM) is not in place, an authorized insider can still compromise the privacy of a person leading to identity disclosure. A PPM can use suppression and generalization to anonymize and…

  16. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  17. Influence of new military athletic footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running in relation to army boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J

    2014-10-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries in the lower extremities are common in military recruits. Army boots have frequently been cited as a potential mechanism behind these high injury rates. In response to this, the British Army introduced new footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), which are issued to each new recruit in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematic of the PT-03 and PT1000 footwear in relation to conventional army boots. Thirteen participants ran at 4.0 m·s in each footwear condition. Three-dimensional kinematics from the hip, knee, and ankle were measured using an 8-camera motion analysis system. In addition, simultaneous ground reaction forces were obtained. Kinetic parameters were obtained alongside joint kinematics and compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The kinetic analysis revealed that impact parameters were significantly greater when running in the army boot compared with the PT-03 and PT1000. The kinematic analysis indicated that, in comparison with the PT-03 and PT1000, running in army boots was associated with significantly greater eversion and tibial internal rotation. It was also found that when running in the PT-03 footwear, participants exhibited significantly greater hip adduction and knee abduction compared with the army boots and PT1000. The results of this study suggest that the army boots and PT-03 footwear are associated with kinetic and kinematic parameters that have been linked to the etiology of injury; thus, it is recommended that the PT1000 footwear be adopted for running exercises.

  18. Protecting genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P A; Annas, G J

    2001-05-01

    This article outlines the arguments for and against new rules to protect genetic privacy. We explain why genetic information is different to other sensitive medical information, why researchers and biotechnology companies have opposed new rules to protect genetic privacy (and favour anti-discrimination laws instead), and discuss what can be done to protect privacy in relation to genetic-sequence information and to DNA samples themselves.

  19. Data security in genomics: A review of Australian privacy requirements and their relation to cryptography in data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosberg, Arran

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) brings with it a need to manage large volumes of patient data in a manner that is compliant with both privacy laws and long-term archival needs. Outside of the realm of genomics there is a need in the broader medical community to store data, and although radiology aside the volume may be less than that of NGS, the concepts discussed herein are similarly relevant. The relation of so-called "privacy principles" to data protection and cryptographic techniques is explored with regards to the archival and backup storage of health data in Australia, and an example implementation of secure management of genomic archives is proposed with regards to this relation. Readers are presented with sufficient detail to have informed discussions - when implementing laboratory data protocols - with experts in the fields.

  20. The effects of anxiety and depression on stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits: Resilience and coping as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Liu, Botao; Liu, Yunbo; Li, Min; Chen, Long; Xie, Junrun; Li, Jing; Li, Jiawen

    2016-09-01

    Stress-related growth can occur after various traumas or stressful events. In order to investigate how anxiety and depression relate to stress-related growth, this study was conducted with 443 Chinese army recruits who had just finished a 3-month recruit training program. Path analyses revealed that resilience and positive/negative coping partially mediated the effect of anxiety on perceived stress-related growth, while negative coping fully mediated the relationship between depression and perceived stress-related growth. Moreover, positive coping partially carried the influence of resilience on perceived stress-related growth. Anxiety and depression may be potential targets for intervention to enhance the development of stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Regulation of Unmanned Aerial Systems and Related Privacy Issues in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūraitė Aurelija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in Lithuania has significantly increased. However, enjoying the advantages of this technology, which improves society’s socio-economical safety (public safety in a broad sense, raises some privacy concerns. This article analyses European Union and national legal regulations regarding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as well as legal tools for defence of the right to privacy or prevention from its breaches in the Republic of Lithuania. Unmanned aerial vehicles have become popular only recently; thus, legislation regarding their use has not yet become a common topic among lawyers. Furthermore, case law of the Republic of Lithuania is silent about it. Thus, the authors model a situation of breach of privacy using an unmanned aerial vehicle and analyse possible defence mechanisms.

  2. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  3. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  4. Introduction - The Relation of the Post-Soviet Army to Muslim Minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the melting pot of the Nation, the Russian army has always been confronted with the issue of ethnic and religious diversity. Depending on the times, it has dealt with it in various ways. What is the relationship today between the post-soviet Russian army and its minorities, the Muslim minorities in particular?The fact that conscription has been maintainedmakes this issue particularly relevant: the Russian army is faced with a strong rise in its Muslim population, along with the virulent pr...

  5. 77 FR 5062 - Privacy Act of 1974; Consolidation of National Labor Relations Board Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...: Next Generation Case Management System (NxGen) (NLRB-33). NxGen stores electronic case tracking... consolidation of six Privacy Act systems of records notices into one notice: Next Generation Case Management... systems of records notices: Judicial Case Management System--Pending Case List (JCMS-PCL) and Associated...

  6. Privacy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    Privacy is a prime concern in today’s information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website, processes

  7. Privacy Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  8. A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingquan

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of social networking sites (SNS) in health care has resulted in a growing number of individuals posting personal health information online. These sites may disclose users' health information to many different individuals and organizations and mine it for a variety of commercial and research purposes, yet the revelation of personal health information to unauthorized individuals or entities brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among users. Many use...

  9. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  10. Privacy in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis lecture provides a survey of work on privacy in online social networks (OSNs). This work encompasses concerns of users as well as service providers and third parties. Our goal is to approach such concerns from a computer-science perspective, and building upon existing work on privacy, security, statistical modeling and databases to provide an overview of the technical and algorithmic issues related to privacy in OSNs. We start our survey by introducing a simple OSN data model and describe common statistical-inference techniques that can be used to infer potentially sensitive inf

  11. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  12. 76 FR 63611 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2011-0025] Privacy Act of 1974... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http:// [[Page 63612

  13. 75 FR 67703 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2010-0024] Privacy Act of 1974; System... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  14. 77 FR 60412 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2012-0012] Privacy Act of 1974; System... systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed action will... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  15. 76 FR 60008 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0023] Privacy Act of 1974; System... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  16. 76 FR 82286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0028] Privacy Act of 1974; System... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  17. 75 FR 33794 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0013] Privacy Act of 1974... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  18. 75 FR 69650 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0026] Privacy Act of 1974... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This proposed... from members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at...

  19. 78 FR 44102 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2013-0027] Privacy Act of 1974... of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  20. 76 FR 39392 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System...: Mr. Leroy Jones, Department of the Army, Privacy Office, U.S. Army Records Management and... address, counselor's phone number and email, documentary evidence, affidavits, information from individual...

  1. 76 FR 46767 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...: The Department of the Army proposes to add a system of records to its inventory of record systems... provides a student management system that integrates Web-enabled courseware to support online certification... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0019] Privacy Act of 1974; System...

  2. Epidemiological investigation of ocular injuries related to military training and operations in Chinese army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-he XIAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the epidemiological characters of ocular injuries related to military training and operations in Chinese army.Methods The data of servicemen with ocular injuries,hospitalized in 11 military evacuation hospitals from 2005-01-01 to 2009-12-31,were entered into a registration table.The data included the time and place when the injury happened,type and cause of injury,examination records,treatment,rehabilitation level,etc.All data were input into the database for statistical analysis.Results Of all the cases of ocular injuries,189(45.5% were related to military training and operations.The mean age of the 189 cases was 23.4±5.4 years,all of them were men,and soldiers accounted for 91.0% and officers accounted for 9.0%.The incidence declined in 2006 compared with that in 2005,and then rose gradually thereafter year by year.Eight patients(4.2% were complicated with bodily injuries,and 4.2% of patients had the history of eye surgery or eye disease before the ocular injury.Of the 189 cases,in 172(91.0% one eye was injured while in 17(9.0% both eyes were injured.After injury,in 35.0% of patients sight restoration to grade 1,in 20.6% to grade 2,in 13.6% to grade 3,in 25.7% to grade 4,and in 4.4% to grade 5.In 87.3% of patients injuries were due to mechanical forces and in 12.7% ocular injuries were not mechanical.Most patients with eye injury occurring in military training and operations were sent to evacuation hospital and treated timely,and good results were obtained.Conclusions Military training and operations related ocular injury is a prevalent ocular injury occurring in Chinese armed forces,and should be paid more attention in prevention.One important measure is to improve the prevention awareness of Chinese servicemen,and a detailed prevention measures should be further studied.

  3. A Relative Ranking Approach for Nano-Enabled Applications to Improve Risk-Based Decision Making: A Case Study of Army Materiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-24

    accidental expo- sures to carbon nanotubes and copper flakes incorporated into energy and obscurant materiel by Army workers rank highest relative to...that inhalation from accidental exposures to carbon nanotubes and copper flakes incorporated into energy and obscurant materiel by Army workers rank... copper (Cu), and titanium (Ti) flakes used in smokes and obscurants ranked the highest on the risk scale for sce- narios primarily involving accidental

  4. Certificate Transparency with Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandarian Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.

  5. Army Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    that allows them to perform applied research under the Institute for Biotechnology research team 1 2 3 20 | ARMY TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE ...DASA(R&T) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology Download the magazine , view online or read each individual story with...Army photo by Conrad Johnson) Front and back cover designs by Joe Stephens EXECUTIVE DEPUTY TO THE COMMANDING GENERAL Army Technology Magazine is an

  6. 76 FR 66282 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Committee: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Dates of Meeting: November 15, 2011. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes Avenue, Carlisle, PA, Command... issues and matters related to the continued growth and development of the United States Army War College...

  7. 76 FR 72914 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Dates of Meeting: December 14, 2011. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes Avenue, Carlisle, PA, Command... issues and matters related to the continued growth and development of the United States Army War College...

  8. Piloting a deceased subject integrated data repository and protecting privacy of relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Kayaalp, Mehmet; Dodd, Zeyno A; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Use of deceased subject Electronic Health Records can be an important piloting platform for informatics or biomedical research. Existing legal framework allows such research under less strict de-identification criteria; however, privacy of non-decedent must be protected. We report on creation of the decease subject Integrated Data Repository (dsIDR) at National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center and a pilot methodology to remove secondary protected health information or identifiable information (secondary PxI; information about persons other than the primary patient). We characterize available structured coded data in dsIDR and report the estimated frequencies of secondary PxI, ranging from 12.9% (sensitive token presence) to 1.1% (using stricter criteria). Federating decedent EHR data from multiple institutions can address sample size limitations and our pilot study provides lessons learned and methodology that can be adopted by other institutions.

  9. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Privacy remains both contentious and ever more pertinent in contemporary society. Yet it persists as an ill-defined term, not only within specific fields but in its various uses and implications between and across technical, legal and political contexts. This article offers a new critical review of the history of privacy in terms of two dominant strands of thinking: freedom and property. These two conceptions of privacy can be seen as successive historical epochs brought together under digital technologies, yielding increasingly complex socio-technical dilemmas. By simplifying the taxonomy to its socio-cultural function, the article provides a generalisable, interdisciplinary approach to privacy. Drawing on new technologies, historical trends, sociological studies and political philosophy, the article presents a discussion of the value of privacy as a term, before proposing a defense of the term cyber security as a mode of scalable cognitive privacy that integrates the relative needs of individuals, governments and corporations.

  10. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  11. 77 FR 50089 - Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY... the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Education Advisory... learning environment. The agenda will include topics relating to Army Learning Model 2015 and support to...

  12. 77 FR 11084 - Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY... the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Education Advisory... Army 2020 learning environment. The agenda will include topics relating Arm Learning Model 2015 and to...

  13. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  14. 78 FR 24735 - Army Education Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... include topics relating to the Army Learning Model that seeks to improve the Army's learning model by leveraging technology without sacrificing standards so the Army can provide credible, rigorous, and relevant...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock. ...

  16. Testosterone is related to deviance in male army veterans, but relationships are not moderated by cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan; Booth, Alan

    2014-02-01

    The Vietnam Experience Study (VES) of 4462 male U.S. Army veterans is the first large dataset used to demonstrate that testosterone (but not cortisol) is correlated with diverse measures of antisocial, aggressive or dominant behavior. Many subsequent studies have sustained these relationships while also pointing to important caveats. Some researchers suggest that testosterone is correlated to dominance and aggression only (or mostly) in people with low cortisol, not in those with high cortisol. Here we look back to the VES to test this "dual hormone" hypothesis. We find no testosterone-cortisol interaction for seven measures of antisocial deviance. We consider scope conditions under which the dual hormone hypothesis may be valid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity Issues in the Army as Perceived by Army Students at the United States Army War College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Cecil

    1997-01-01

    ..., welfare, and other related programs. In recognizing this diversity, this paper identifies some diversity issues within the Army, analyzes the perception of those diversity issues by the resident Army students in the USAWC Class of 1997...

  18. Privacy preserving probabilistic record linkage (P3RL): a novel method for linking existing health-related data and maintaining participant confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-05-30

    Record linkage of existing individual health care data is an efficient way to answer important epidemiological research questions. Reuse of individual health-related data faces several problems: Either a unique personal identifier, like social security number, is not available or non-unique person identifiable information, like names, are privacy protected and cannot be accessed. A solution to protect privacy in probabilistic record linkages is to encrypt these sensitive information. Unfortunately, encrypted hash codes of two names differ completely if the plain names differ only by a single character. Therefore, standard encryption methods cannot be applied. To overcome these challenges, we developed the Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage (P3RL) method. In this Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage method we apply a three-party protocol, with two sites collecting individual data and an independent trusted linkage center as the third partner. Our method consists of three main steps: pre-processing, encryption and probabilistic record linkage. Data pre-processing and encryption are done at the sites by local personnel. To guarantee similar quality and format of variables and identical encryption procedure at each site, the linkage center generates semi-automated pre-processing and encryption templates. To retrieve information (i.e. data structure) for the creation of templates without ever accessing plain person identifiable information, we introduced a novel method of data masking. Sensitive string variables are encrypted using Bloom filters, which enables calculation of similarity coefficients. For date variables, we developed special encryption procedures to handle the most common date errors. The linkage center performs probabilistic record linkage with encrypted person identifiable information and plain non-sensitive variables. In this paper we describe step by step how to link existing health-related data using encryption methods to

  19. Privacy and CHI : methodologies for studying privacy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, S.; Romero, N.A.; Karat, J.

    2006-01-01

    This workshop aims to reflect on methodologies to empirically study privacy issues related to advanced technology. The goal is to address methodological concerns by drawing upon both theoretical perspectives as well as practical experiences.

  20. Online Privacy as a Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollach, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Information technology and the Internet have added a new stakeholder concern to the corporate social responsibility agenda: online privacy. While theory suggests that online privacy is a corporate social responsibility, only very few studies in the business ethics literature have connected...... of the companies have comprehensive privacy programs, although more than half of them voice moral or relational motives for addressing online privacy. The privacy measures they have taken are primarily compliance measures, while measures that stimulate a stakeholder dialogue are rare. Overall, a wide variety...

  1. Army dreamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-14

    The birth of the Army Nursing Service took place in 1854, when Florence Nightingale, at the request of the Secretary of State for War, recruited and took to Scutari Hospital 38 women to tend the wounded of the Crimean war.

  2. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  3. Advanced research in data privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the research work on data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies carried by the participants of the ARES project. ARES (Advanced Research in Privacy an Security, CSD2007-00004) has been one of the most important research projects funded by the Spanish Government in the fields of computer security and privacy. It is part of the now extinct CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010 program, a highly competitive program which aimed to advance knowledge and open new research lines among top Spanish research groups. The project started in 2007 and will finish this 2014. Composed by 6 research groups from 6 different institutions, it has gathered an important number of researchers during its lifetime. Among the work produced by the ARES project, one specific work package has been related to privacy. This books gathers works produced by members of the project related to data privacy and privacy enhancing technologies. The presented works not only summarize important research carried in the proje...

  4. From Data Privacy to Location Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Ling

    Over the past decade, the research on data privacy has achieved considerable advancement in the following two aspects: First, a variety of privacy threat models and privacy principles have been proposed, aiming at providing sufficient protection against different types of inference attacks; Second, a plethora of algorithms and methods have been developed to implement the proposed privacy principles, while attempting to optimize the utility of the resulting data. The first part of the chapter presents an overview of data privacy research by taking a close examination at the achievements from the above two aspects, with the objective of pinpointing individual research efforts on the grand map of data privacy protection. As a special form of data privacy, location privacy possesses its unique characteristics. In the second part of the chapter, we examine the research challenges and opportunities of location privacy protection, in a perspective analogous to data privacy. Our discussion attempts to answer the following three questions: (1) Is it sufficient to apply the data privacy models and algorithms developed to date for protecting location privacy? (2) What is the current state of the research on location privacy? (3) What are the open issues and technical challenges that demand further investigation? Through answering these questions, we intend to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art in location privacy research.

  5. Perception of dangers related to privacy on the web and social networks by Spanish university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Herrero Gutiérrez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article collects data from an experiment conducted with a group of students from the University of Salamanca. The aims are focused on inquiring about several variables relating to information posted on social networks, the potential vulnerability of users and the degree of awareness of potential dangers. From an experiment where participants are involved, the results and conclusions lead to reject the hypothesis, because of the increasing assumption of the social networks´ dangers by users. The case study could be an important starting point for further work on the subject in the same generations, close to the native digital, and other generations away from this concept.

  6. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  7. Development of measures of online privacy concern and protection for use on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, T; Paine, C; Joinson, A; Reips, U D

    2007-01-01

    As the Internet grows in importance, concerns about online privacy have arisen. We describe the development and validation of three short Internet-administered scales measuring privacy related attitudes ('Privacy Concern') and behaviors ('General Caution' and 'Technical Protection').

  8. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  9. Privacy og selvbeskrivelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, Hans Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse......En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse...

  10. PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUR, M. Cudi

    2011-01-01

    Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is discussed. Inadequacy of available legal and institutional protection is demonstrated and the effectiveness of...

  11. Facebook: Personality and privacy on profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Riera, Carla; Oberst, Ursula; Carbonell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the possible relationship between the privacy settings in Facebook profiles and two personality dimensions, extraversion and neuroticism, in relation to gender. The Privacy on Facebook Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Inventory was applied to a sample of 92 womenand 70 men, all users of Facebook. No significant relationship was found between extraversion or neuroticism and the privacy settings of Facebook profiles, but the results showed significant...

  12. Privacy vs security

    CERN Document Server

    Stalla-Bourdillon, Sophie; Ryan, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Securing privacy in the current environment is one of the great challenges of today's democracies. Privacy vs. Security explores the issues of privacy and security and their complicated interplay, from a legal and a technical point of view. Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon provides a thorough account of the legal underpinnings of the European approach to privacy and examines their implementation through privacy, data protection and data retention laws. Joshua Philips and Mark D. Ryan focus on the technological aspects of privacy, in particular, on today's attacks on privacy by the simple use of today'

  13. 75 FR 67700 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2010-0023] Privacy Act of 1974; System... Medical Examination with supporting documentation, the Report of Medical History, and any other reporting... Report of Medical Examination with supporting documentation, the Report of Medical History, and any other...

  14. 76 FR 26714 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID USA-2011-0010] Privacy Act of 1974; System... specialty, credit hours accumulated, examination and lesson course completion status, assignment history... history, student academic status, curricula, course description, scheduling, testing, academic, graduation...

  15. 75 FR 36644 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army [Docket ID: USA-2010-0014] Privacy Act of 1974... prisoner, mail records; personal history records; individual prisoner utilization records; requests for... recommendations; request to transfer prisoner; social history; clemency and parole actions; psychologist's report...

  16. 78 FR 41920 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Civil Liberties Office Web site at http://dpclo.defense.gov/privacy/SORNs/component/army/index.html... systems of records notices. Individual should provide full name, SSN and/or DoD ID number and military... penalty of perjury under the laws of the United States of America that the foregoing is true and correct...

  17. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  18. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  19. Army TLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Fast Deflation Device Tether marking Pennants Balloon / Tether marking LED Flashing light Loading Ramps Customized Trailer for transportation and Field...amount of xtra lift that permits the ballon to rise (if Res_Lift = 0, balloon is at equilibrium) RL = NL – Payload – Tether Payload: the weight of...Army TLS The TLS uses tethered aerodynamic blimps and precision-powered winches to loft one or more specialty-designed meteorological payloads that

  20. Toward Privacy-Preserving Personalized Recommendation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recommendation systems are crucially important for the delivery of personalized services to users. With personalized recommendation services, users can enjoy a variety of targeted recommendations such as movies, books, ads, restaurants, and more. In addition, personalized recommendation services have become extremely effective revenue drivers for online business. Despite the great benefits, deploying personalized recommendation services typically requires the collection of users’ personal data for processing and analytics, which undesirably makes users susceptible to serious privacy violation issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop practical privacy-preserving techniques to maintain the intelligence of personalized recommendation services while respecting user privacy. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the literature related to personalized recommendation services with privacy protection. We present the general architecture of personalized recommendation systems, the privacy issues therein, and existing works that focus on privacy-preserving personalized recommendation services. We classify the existing works according to their underlying techniques for personalized recommendation and privacy protection, and thoroughly discuss and compare their merits and demerits, especially in terms of privacy and recommendation accuracy. We also identity some future research directions. Keywords: Privacy protection, Personalized recommendation services, Targeted delivery, Collaborative filtering, Machine learning

  1. Contemporary Privacy Theory Contributions to Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    With the continued adoption of learning analytics in higher education institutions, vast volumes of data are generated and "big data" related issues, including privacy, emerge. Privacy is an ill-defined concept and subject to various interpretations and perspectives, including those of philosophers, lawyers, and information systems…

  2. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    examines the extent to which the Army has (1) assessed the costs and benefits of Pacific Pathways; and (2) synchronized plans and incorporated ... costs . Such an analysis could both: • incorporate financial and non-financial costs and benefits of the initiative, to include readiness benefits for... logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as

  3. 22 CFR 212.22 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of personal privacy. 212.22 Section... Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.22 Protection of personal privacy. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, USAID may delete identifying details...

  4. 20 CFR 401.30 - Privacy Act and other responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information privacy issues, including those relating to the collection, use, sharing, and disclosure of... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Privacy Act and other responsibilities. 401.30 Section 401.30 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF...

  5. Privacy & Social Media in the Context of the Arab Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Abokhodair, Norah; Vieweg, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Theories of privacy and how it relates to the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) have been a topic of research for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the perception of privacy from the perspective of technology users in the Middle East. In this paper, we delve into interpretations of privacy from the approach of Arab Gulf citizens. We consider how privacy is practiced and understood in technology-mediated environments among this population, paying particular at...

  6. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  7. Is Electronic Privacy Achievable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E; Levin, Timothy E

    2000-01-01

    ... individuals. The purpose of this panel was to focus on how new technologies are affecting privacy. Technologies that might adversely affect privacy were identified by Rein Turn at previous symposia...

  8. Virtue, Privacy and Self-Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    The ethical problem of privacy lies at the core of computer ethics and cyber ethics discussions. The extensive use of personal data in digital networks poses a serious threat to the user’s right of privacy not only at the level of a user’s data integrity and security but also at the level of a user......’s identity and freedom. In normative ethical theory the need for an informational self-deterministic approach of privacy is stressed with greater emphasis on the control over personal data. However, scant attention has been paid on a virtue ethics approach of information privacy. Plotinus’ discussion of self......-determination is related to ethical virtue, human freedom and intellectual autonomy. The Plotinian virtue ethics approach of self-determination is not primarily related to the sphere of moral action, but to the quality of the self prior to moral practice. In this paper, it is argued that the problem of information privacy...

  9. Privacy and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology now enables firms to collect detailed and potentially intrusive data about their customers both easily and cheaply. This means that privacy concerns are no longer limited to government surveillance and public figures' private lives. The empirical literature on privacy regulation shows that privacy regulation may affect the extent and direction of data-based innovation. We also show that the impact of privacy regulation can be extremely heterogeneous. T...

  10. Neuroethics and Brain Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology.......An introduction is presented in which editor discusses various articles within the issue on topics including ethical challenges with importance of privacy for well-being, impact of brain-reading on mind privacy and neurotechnology....

  11. Privacy and internet services

    OpenAIRE

    Samec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is focused on internet services user privacy. Goal of this thesis is to determine level of user awareness of how is their privacy approached while using internet services. Then suggest procedure to improve this awareness, or that will lead to better control of individual privacy. In theoretical part I analyze general and legislative approach to privacy, followed by analysis of behaviour of internet service users and providers. Part of this analysis deals with usage of web cookies ...

  12. Internet and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fadhli, Meshal Shehab

    2007-01-01

    The concept of privacy is hard to understand and is not easy to define, because this concept is linked with several dimensions. Internet Privacy is associated with the use of the Internet and most likely appointed under communications privacy, involving the user of the Internet’s personal information and activities, and the disclosure of them online. This essay is going to present the meaning of privacy and the implications of it for Internet users. Also, this essay will demonstrate some of t...

  13. Online privacy: overview and preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mekovec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last decade using the Internet for online shopping, information browsing and searching as well as for online communication has become part of everyday life. Although the Internet technology has a lot of benefits for users, one of the most important disadvantages is related to the increasing capacity for users’ online activity surveillance. However, the users are increasingly becoming aware of online surveillance methods, which results in their increased concern for privacy protection. Numerous factors influence the way in which individuals perceive the level of privacy protection when they are online. This article provides a review of factors that influence the privacy perception of Internet users. Previous online privacy research related to e-business was predominantly focused on the dimension of information privacy and concerned with the way users’ personal information is collected, saved and used by an online company. This article’s main aim is to provide an overview of numerous Internet users’ privacy perception elements across various privacy dimensions as well as their potential categorization. In addition, considering that e-banking and online shopping are one of the most widely used e-services, an examination of online privacy perception of e-banking/online shopping users was performed. 

  14. Privacy Verification Using Ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kost, Martin; Freytag, Johann-Christoph; Kargl, Frank; Kung, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    As information systems extensively exchange information between participants, privacy concerns may arise from its potential misuse. A Privacy by Design (PbD) approach considers privacy requirements of different stakeholders during the design and the implementation of a system. Currently, a

  15. Privacy Preserving Association Rule Mining Revisited: Privacy Enhancement and Resources Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaisen, Abedelaziz; Jho, Nam-Su; Hong, Dowon; Nyang, Daehun

    Privacy preserving association rule mining algorithms have been designed for discovering the relations between variables in data while maintaining the data privacy. In this article we revise one of the recently introduced schemes for association rule mining using fake transactions (FS). In particular, our analysis shows that the FS scheme has exhaustive storage and high computation requirements for guaranteeing a reasonable level of privacy. We introduce a realistic definition of privacy that benefits from the average case privacy and motivates the study of a weakness in the structure of FS by fake transactions filtering. In order to overcome this problem, we improve the FS scheme by presenting a hybrid scheme that considers both privacy and resources as two concurrent guidelines. Analytical and empirical results show the efficiency and applicability of our proposed scheme.

  16. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece...... is a literature review on the topic of privacy. It addresses key privacy challenges for different stakeholders in the sharing economy. Throughout, we use the term "consumers" to refer to users on the receiving end (e.g., Airbnb guests, Uber passengers), "providers" to refer to users on the providing end (e.......g., Airbnb hosts, Uber drivers) and "platforms" to refer to the mediating sites, apps and infrastructures matching consumers and providers (e.g., Airbnb, Uber)....

  17. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  18. 45 CFR 164.534 - Compliance dates for initial implementation of the privacy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... privacy standards. 164.534 Section 164.534 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.534 Compliance dates for initial implementation of the privacy standards. (a...

  19. 45 CFR 164.520 - Notice of privacy practices for protected health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.520 Notice of privacy practices for protected health information. (a) Standard... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of privacy practices for protected health...

  20. 45 CFR 164.522 - Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.522 Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information. (a)(1... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights to request privacy protection for protected...

  1. Robotics In Manufacturing: Army View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F. J.

    1983-05-01

    (Figure 1) This is an outline of my presentation today. The U. S. Army has a dual interest in the use of robots, namely: 1. As a substitute for or an extension of the soldier in the battlefield, and 2. in the factories that make Army materiel, or - as we call it -the the production base. The Production Base can again be divided into three separate segments, i.e., the Army owned and operated facilities or GOG6s, such as Rock Island and Watervliet arsenals, and not to be overlooked, the depot operations. There the Army manufactures gun tubes and other related parts for artillery weapons and repairs and overhauls them. A second category is the Army owned and contractor operated facilities or GOCOs,such as the ammunition plants, the tank plants at Lima, Ohio and Warren, Michigan and the Stratford Engine Plant in Connecticut where gas turbines for helicopter and the Abrams tank are manufactured. The last category covers the industrial base, that is those factories which are not only operated but also owned by the contractor himself also referred to as COCOs. You can see from this description that the Army is supported by a base which produces a diversified line of products. Therefore, the task of technology development and technology insertion is considerably more complex than what one encounters in the average U. S. Manufacturing organization.

  2. Defining Privacy Is Supposed to Be Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Gross, Thomas; Viganò, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Formally specifying privacy goals is not trivial. The most widely used approach in formal methods is based on the static equivalence of frames in the applied pi-calculus, basically asking whether or not the intruder is able to distinguish two given worlds. A subtle question is how we can be sure...... that we have specified all pairs of worlds to properly reflect our intuitive privacy goal. To address this problem, we introduce in this paper a novel and declarative way to specify privacy goals, called α-β privacy, and relate it to static equivalence. This new approach is based on specifying two...... formulae α and β in first-order logic with Herbrand universes, where α reflects the intentionally released information and β includes the actual cryptographic (“technical”) messages the intruder can see. Then α-β privacy means that the intruder cannot derive any “non-technical” statement from β that he...

  3. Administration: Army Congressional Fellowship Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This printing publishes a new Army Regulation. This regulation presents the policies and procedures under which the Army manages the Army Congressional Fellowship Program and supplements applicable Department...

  4. Army medical imaging system: ARMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedband, M.P.; Kramp, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances of stimulable phosphor screens, data cards using optical storage means, and new personal computers with image processing capability have made possible the design of economical filmless medical imaging systems. The addition of communication links means that remote interpretation of images is also possible. The Army Medical Imaging System uses stimulable phosphor screens, digital readout, a small computer, an optical digital data card device, and a DIN/PACS link. Up to 200 images can be stored in the computer hard disk for rapid recall and reading by the radiologist. The computer permits image processing, annotation, insertion of text, and control of the system. Each device contains an image storage RAM and communicates with the computer via the small computer systems interface. Data compression is used to reduce the required storage capacity and transmission times of the 1-mB images. The credit card-size optical data cards replace film and can store 12 or more images. The data cards can be read on an independent viewer. The research is supported by the U.S. Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory

  5. Through Patients' Eyes: Regulation, Technology, Privacy, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2018-04-22

    Privacy is commonly regarded as a regulatory requirement achieved via technical and organizational management practices. Those working in the field of informatics often play a role in privacy preservation as a result of their expertise in information technology, workflow analysis, implementation science, or related skills. Viewing privacy from the perspective of patients whose protected health information is at risk broadens the considerations to include the perceived duality of privacy; the existence of privacy within a context unique to each patient; the competing needs inherent within privacy management; the need for particular consideration when data are shared; and the need for patients to control health information in a global setting. With precision medicine, artificial intelligence, and other treatment innovations on the horizon, health care professionals need to think more broadly about how to preserve privacy in a health care environment driven by data sharing. Patient-reported privacy preferences, privacy portability, and greater transparency around privacy-preserving functionalities are potential strategies for ensuring that privacy regulations are met and privacy is preserved. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  6. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 261a [Docket No. R-1313] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees... records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the release of medical records to...

  7. A Taxonomy of Privacy Constructs for Privacy-Sensitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rueben, Matthew; Grimm, Cindy M.; Bernieri, Frank J.; Smart, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of robots into our society will also introduce new concerns about personal privacy. In order to study these concerns, we must do human-subject experiments that involve measuring privacy-relevant constructs. This paper presents a taxonomy of privacy constructs based on a review of the privacy literature. Future work in operationalizing privacy constructs for HRI studies is also discussed.

  8. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Privacy-preserving heterogeneous health data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Noman; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Rui; Fung, Benjamin C M; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-05-01

    Privacy-preserving data publishing addresses the problem of disclosing sensitive data when mining for useful information. Among existing privacy models, ε-differential privacy provides one of the strongest privacy guarantees and makes no assumptions about an adversary's background knowledge. All existing solutions that ensure ε-differential privacy handle the problem of disclosing relational and set-valued data in a privacy-preserving manner separately. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that considers both relational and set-valued data in differentially private disclosure of healthcare data. The proposed approach makes a simple yet fundamental switch in differentially private algorithm design: instead of listing all possible records (ie, a contingency table) for noise addition, records are generalized before noise addition. The algorithm first generalizes the raw data in a probabilistic way, and then adds noise to guarantee ε-differential privacy. We showed that the disclosed data could be used effectively to build a decision tree induction classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is scalable and performs better than existing solutions for classification analysis. The resulting utility may degrade when the output domain size is very large, making it potentially inappropriate to generate synthetic data for large health databases. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed algorithm allows the disclosure of health data containing both relational and set-valued data in a differentially private manner, and can retain essential information for discriminative analysis.

  10. Privacy concerns, dead or misunderstood? : The perceptions of privacy amongst the young and old

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, Wouter; Vedder, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘privacy’ has become an important topic for academics and policy-makers. Ubiquitous computing and internet access raise new questions in relation to privacy in the virtual world, including individuals’ appreciation of privacy and how this can be safeguarded. This article contributes

  11. Rethinking the Privacy Calculus: On the Role of Dispositional Factors and Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Flavius; Wentzel, Daniel; Mayer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Existing research on information privacy has mostly relied on the privacy calculus model which views privacy-related decision making as a rational process where individuals weigh the anticipated risks of disclosing personal data against the potential benefits. However, scholars have recently challenged two basic propositions of the privacy calculus model. First, some authors have distinguished between general and situational factors in the context of privacy calculus and have argued that ...

  12. Reconciling Utility with Privacy in Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Humbert, Mathias; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Telenti, Amalio

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing makes it possible for everyone to learn their genome sequences. In order to contribute to medical research, a growing number of people publish their genomic data on the Web, sometimes under their real identities. However, this is at odds not only with their own privacy but also with the privacy of their relatives. The genomes of relatives being highly correlated, some family members might be opposed to revealing any of the family's genomic data. In this pape...

  13. Designing Privacy for You : A User Centric Approach For Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Senarath, Awanthika; Arachchilage, Nalin A. G.; Slay, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Privacy directly concerns the user as the data owner (data- subject) and hence privacy in systems should be implemented in a manner which concerns the user (user-centered). There are many concepts and guidelines that support development of privacy and embedding privacy into systems. However, none of them approaches privacy in a user- centered manner. Through this research we propose a framework that would enable developers and designers to grasp privacy in a user-centered manner and implement...

  14. Regulating Online Data Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Reid

    2004-01-01

    With existing data protection laws proving inadequate in the fight to protect online data privacy and with the offline law of privacy in a state of change and uncertainty, the search for an alternative solution to the important problem of online data privacy should commence. With the inherent problem of jurisdiction that the Internet presents, such a solution is best coming from a multi-national body with the power to approximate laws in as many jurisdictions as possible, with a recognised au...

  15. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  16. Predicting user concerns about online privacy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mike Z; Zhang, Jinguang

    2008-12-01

    Empirical studies on people's online privacy concerns have largely been conducted in the West. The global threat of privacy violations on the Internet calls for similar studies to be done in non-Western regions. To fill this void, the current study develops a path model to investigate the influence of people's Internet use-related factors, their beliefs in the right to privacy, and psychological need for privacy on Hong Kong people's concerns about online privacy. Survey responses from 332 university students were analyzed. Results from this study show that people's belief in the right to privacy was the most important predictor of their online privacy concerns. It also significantly mediated the relationship between people's psychological need for privacy and their concerns with privacy violations online. Moreover, while frequent use of the Internet may increase concerns about online privacy issues, Internet use diversity may actually reduce such worries. The final model, well supported by the observed data, successfully explained 25% of the variability in user concerns about online privacy.

  17. Privacy in domestic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Radics, Peter J; Gracanin, Denis

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed While there is a growing body of research on privacy,most of the work puts the focus on information privacy. Physical and psychological privacy issues receive little to no attention. However, the introduction of technology into our lives can cause problems with regard to these aspects of privacy. This is especially true when it comes to our homes, both as nodes of our social life and places for relaxation. This paper presents the results of a study intended to captu...

  18. Privacy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing that training and awareness are critical to protecting agency Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the EPA is developing online training for privacy contacts in its programs and regions.

  19. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  20. Kids Sell: Celebrity Kids’ Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Choul Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The lives of celebrities are often spotlighted in the media because of their newsworthiness; however, many celebrities argue that their right to privacy is often infringed upon. Concerns about celebrity privacy are not limited to the celebrities themselves and often expand to their children. As a result of their popularity, public interest has pushed paparazzi and journalists to pursue trivial and private details about the lives of both celebrities and their children. This paper investigates conflicting areas where the right to privacy and the right to know collide when dealing with the children of celebrities. In general, the courts have been unsympathetic to celebrity privacy claims, noting their newsworthiness and self-promoted characteristic. Unless the press violates news-gathering ethics or torts, the courts will often rule in favor of the media. However, the story becomes quite different when related to an infringement on the privacy of celebrities’ children. This paper argues that all children have a right to protect their privacy regardless of their parents’ social status. Children of celebrities should not be exempt to principles of privacy just because their parents are a celebrity. Furthermore, they should not be exposed by the media without the voluntary consent of their legal patrons. That is, the right of the media to publish and the newsworthiness of children of celebrities must be restrictedly acknowledged.

  1. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  2. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of the effect of deployment-acquired traumatic brain injury on posttraumatic stress and related disorders: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray B; Kessler, Ronald C; Heeringa, Steven G; Jain, Sonia; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Thomas, Michael L; Ursano, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for deleterious mental health and functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and specificity of the association between deployment-acquired TBI and subsequent posttraumatic stress and related disorders among U.S. Army personnel. A prospective, longitudinal survey of soldiers in three Brigade Combat Teams was conducted 1-2 months prior to an average 10-month deployment to Afghanistan (T0), upon redeployment to the United States (T1), approximately 3 months later (T2), and approximately 9 months later (T3). Outcomes of interest were 30-day prevalence postdeployment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, and suicidality, as well as presence and severity of postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Complete information was available for 4,645 soldiers. Approximately one in five soldiers reported exposure to mild (18.0%) or more-than-mild (1.2%) TBI(s) during the index deployment. Even after adjusting for other risk factors (e.g., predeployment mental health status, severity of deployment stress, prior TBI history), deployment-acquired TBI was associated with elevated adjusted odds of PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder at T2 and T3 and of major depressive episode at T2. Suicidality risk at T2 appeared similarly elevated, but this association did not reach statistical significance. The findings highlight the importance of surveillance efforts to identify soldiers who have sustained TBIs and are therefore at risk for an array of postdeployment adverse mental health outcomes, including but not limited to PTSD. The mechanism(s) accounting for these associations need to be elucidated to inform development of effective preventive and early intervention programs.

  3. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  4. Performing privacy in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom; Andersen, Lars Bo

    with technologies is carried out as well as observation is conducted. We obtain and present new knowledge about how surveillance is practiced in the interpersonal relations of students and teachers. References: Monahan, T., & Torres, R. D. (2009). Schools Under Surveillance: Cultures of Control in Public Education....... Rutgers University Press. Selwyn, N. (2010). Schools and Schooling in the Digital Age: A Critical Analysis. Routledge. Taylor, E. (2013). Surveillance Schools: Security, Discipline and Control in Contemporary Education. Palgrave Macmillan UK. Taylor, E., & Rooney, T. (2016). Surveillance Futures: Social......In this presentation we pursue the question: How is privacy performed and perceived in schools by children? Our aim is to investigate how the boundaries between public and private spheres are continuously performed in the formal setting of the classroom as well as in the social lives of students...

  5. Undoing of Privacy Policies on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Patil , Vishwas ,; Shyamasundar , R. ,

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Privacy; International audience; Facebook has a very flexible privacy and security policy specification that is based on intensional and extensional categories of user relationships. The former is fixed by Facebook but controlled by users whereas the latter is facilitated by Facebook with limited control to users. Relations and flows among categories is through a well-defined set of protocols and is subjected to the topology of underlying social graph that continuously evolves by cons...

  6. Android Watchdog - A Privacy Preserving Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Stenbro, Fredrik; Falk, Sigurd Hagen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores issues related to privacy, both in general, and especially on Android smartphones. Previous research indicates that people often are irrational when it comes to privacy. They state that they are in control of their digitally stored personal information, but their actions show the opposite. On Android devices, permissions are intended to provide users with information about the critical functionality an application can implement by requesting it on install-time. This vision...

  7. Privacy enhanced recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Beye, Michael; Veugen, Thijs; Lagendijk, Reginald L.

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems are widely used in online applications since they enable personalized service to the users. The underlying collaborative filtering techniques work on user’s data which are mostly privacy sensitive and can be misused by the service provider. To protect the privacy of the users, we

  8. Information Privacy Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    2013-01-01

    Why is Information Privacy the focus of the January-February 2013 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" and "EDUCAUSE Review Online"? Results from the 2012 annual survey of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) indicate that "meeting regulatory compliance requirements continues to be the top perceived driver…

  9. Privacy under construction : A developmental perspective on privacy perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijn, W.M.P.; Vedder, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a developmental perspective regarding the difference in perceptions toward privacy between young and old. Here, we introduce the notion of privacy conceptions, that is, the specific ideas that individuals have regarding what privacy actually is. The differences in privacy concerns often

  10. Fictional privacy among Facebook users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The current study involved the creation of a fictional Facebook account with limited information and was designed to assess whether participants would accept the friendship of an ambiguous, unknown person. Results indicated that 325 Facebook members (72% of the sample) willingly accepted the friendship of the unknown individual. Results are discussed in relation to privacy concerns, norms of reciprocity, and allowing access to potentially embarrassing information and/or pictures.

  11. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standa...

  12. Protecting patron privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Beckstrom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In a world where almost anyone with computer savvy can hack, track, and record the online activities of others, your library can serve as a protected haven for your visitors who rely on the Internet to conduct research-if you take the necessary steps to safeguard their privacy. This book shows you how to protect patrons' privacy while using the technology that your library provides, including public computers, Internet access, wireless networks, and other devices. Logically organized into two major sections, the first part of the book discusses why the privacy of your users is of paramount

  13. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  14. Don't Forget the Fine Print: MOOCs and Student Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Neal H.; Hulbert, Azalea

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents issues related to the legal privacy rights of MOOC enrollees and considers the role of institutional values and missions; it concludes with recommendations for enhancing student privacy.

  15. Exposure to Sodium Dichromate at Qarmat Ali Iraq in 2003: Part 2 -- Evaluation of Army and Contractor Actions Related to Hazardous Industrial Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    hexavalent chromium (chromium VI), a known carcinogen. USACE and the Army command in Iraq were made aware of the exposure in 2003 and took a series of...occupational and environmental health risks to U.S. personnel from potential exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and other hazards prior to...chromium, or stigmata such as chrome ulcers. It was assumed by the 12 USACHPPM identified members of the West Virginia Army National Guard as part of the

  16. Privacy as human flourishing: could a shift towards virtue ethics strengthen privacy protection in the age of Big Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.

    2014-01-01

    Privacy is commonly seen as an instrumental value in relation to negative freedom, human dignity and personal autonomy. Article 8 ECHR, protecting the right to privacy, was originally coined as a doctrine protecting the negative freedom of citizens in vertical relations, that is between citizen and

  17. Discovering the Army's Core Competencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudesheim, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question, "Has the Army correctly identified its core competencies to ensure the Army can adequately respond to the national military strategy?" FM 1, The Army (Prototype Draft...

  18. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  19. Cybersecurity and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    he huge potential in future connected services has as a precondition that privacy and security needs are dealt with in order for new services to be accepted. This issue is increasingly on the agenda both at the company and at individual level. Cybersecurity and Privacy – bridging the gap addresses...... two very complex fields of the digital world, i.e., Cybersecurity and Privacy. These multifaceted, multidisciplinary and complex issues are usually understood and valued differently by different individuals, data holders and legal bodies. But a change in one field immediately affects the others....... Policies, frameworks, strategies, laws, tools, techniques, and technologies – all of these are tightly interwoven when it comes to security and privacy. This book is another attempt to bridge the gap between the industry and academia. The book addresses the views from academia and industry on the subject...

  20. Privacy for Sale?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Khajuria, Samant

    Data brokers have become central players in the collection online of private user data. Data brokers’ activities are however not very transparent or even known by users. Many users regard privacy a central element when they use online services. Based on 12 short interviews with users, this paper...... analyses how users perceive the concept of online privacy in respect to data brokers col- lection of private data, and particularly novel services that offer users the possi- bility to sell their private data. Two groups of users are identified: Those who are considering selling their data under specific...... conditions, and those who reject the idea completely. Based on the literature we identify two positions to privacy either as an instrumental good, or as an intrinsic good. The paper positions vari- ous user perceptions on privacy that are relevant for future service develop- ment....

  1. Women in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    Army womenpower re- quirements with no apparent end in sight. No country, not even Russia or Israel, has ever made a conscious decision to include...provide a basis for decision making. iiI CHAPTER ONE AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Few books have been written which outline the history of military women...with a bill introducing the Women’s Army Auxillary Corps (WAAC). In order 7 that the Army could maintain control over this sensitive issue, General

  2. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  3. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  4. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  5. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S.; Miller-Klein, Erik T.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s’ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  6. 77 FR 64962 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... social media, and recipients of other public relations materials issued by the CFPB about CFPB sponsored... THE BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In...

  7. Right of Privacy, Right to Know: Which Prevails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Morton J.

    1977-01-01

    Looks at the conflict between the 'right to know' and the 'right to privacy' by examining relationships and situations pertinent to both and concludes that the right to know and the right to privacy are two of the most ambiguous legal areas today facing government, the courts, the public and the individual. Available from: Public Relations Review,…

  8. Student Perceptions of Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student perceptions of privacy principles related to learning analytics. Privacy issues for learning analytics include how personal data are collected and stored as well as how they are analyzed and presented to different stakeholders. A total of 330 university students participated in an exploratory study…

  9. Cryptographic framework for analyzing the privacy of recommender algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Recommender algorithms are widely used, ranging from traditional Video on Demand to a wide variety of Web 2.0 services. Unfortunately, the related privacy concerns have not received much attention. In this paper, we study the privacy concerns associated with recommender algorithms and present a

  10. ARMY CYBER STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    content/?q=historic-cyber-unit-begins- daily-action . 14 John M. McHugh , Secretary of the Army, HQDA General Order 2014-02, Affirmation of Secretary of...support-plays-role-in-tactical-operations/75545442/. McHugh , John M., Secretary of the Army, HQDA General Order 2014-02, Affirmation of Secretary of

  11. 75 FR 10554 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ..., privacy and security objectives: Provide driver-related MCMIS crash and inspection data electronically... to submit a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request or Privacy Act request to FMCSA for the data..., privacy and security objectives are being met. The PSP system will only allow operator-applicants to...

  12. The future of privacy - Addressing singularities to identify bright-line rules that speak to us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To apprehend the future of privacy I have opted for a controlled exploration of the issue, mainly taking the form of delamination: an exploration or assessment of privacy in a broad sense is not the object of this reflection. The focus is on technology-related privacy. Is the future of (some aspects

  13. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... involving the DoD Privacy Program, meeting as necessary, to address issues of common concern so as to ensure... privacy issues relating to the Department's collection, maintenance, use, or dissemination of personal... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy boards and office, composition and...

  14. The Models of Applying Online Privacy Literacy Strategies: A Case Study of Instagram Girl Users

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Bicharanlou; Seyedeh farzaneh Siasi rad

    2017-01-01

    Social networks affect remarkably in the lives of virtual space users. These networks like most human relations involve compromising between self-disclosure and privacy protection. A process which is realized through improving privacy and empowering the user at the personal level. This study aimed to assess strategies based on online privacy literacy. In particular, strategies that Instagram young girls users should employ to achieve the optimum level of privacy. For this purpose, firstly the...

  15. Privacy and Property? Multi-level Strategies for Protecting Personal Interests in Genetic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie, Graeme

    2003-01-01

    The paper builds on earlier medico-legal work by Laurie on privacy in relation to genetic material. In this chapter, the author discusses not only Laurie's views as 'pro-privacy' but the limitations of privacy, particularly once information, genetic or otherwise, enters a public sphere. The article draws on cases and laws in the UK, continental Europe, and the US, to provide a comparative view in suggesting an alternative approach to privacy.

  16. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  17. Security, privacy and trust in cloud systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nepal, Surya

    2013-01-01

    The book compiles technologies for enhancing and provisioning security, privacy and trust in cloud systems based on Quality of Service requirements. It is a timely contribution to a field that is gaining considerable research interest, momentum, and provides a comprehensive coverage of technologies related to cloud security, privacy and trust. In particular, the book includes - Cloud security fundamentals and related technologies to-date, with a comprehensive coverage of evolution, current landscape, and future roadmap. - A smooth organization with introductory, advanced and specialist content

  18. A case study of the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway: A privacy-protecting remote access system for health-related research and evaluation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kerina H.; Ford, David V.; Jones, Chris; Dsilva, Rohan; Thompson, Simon; Brooks, Caroline J.; Heaven, Martin L.; Thayer, Daniel S.; McNerney, Cynthia L.; Lyons, Ronan A.

    2014-01-01

    With the current expansion of data linkage research, the challenge is to find the balance between preserving the privacy of person-level data whilst making these data accessible for use to their full potential. We describe a privacy-protecting safe haven and secure remote access system, referred to as the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway. The Gateway provides data users with a familiar Windows interface and their usual toolsets to access approved anonymously-linked datasets for research and evaluation. We outline the principles and operating model of the Gateway, the features provided to users within the secure environment, and how we are approaching the challenges of making data safely accessible to increasing numbers of research users. The Gateway represents a powerful analytical environment and has been designed to be scalable and adaptable to meet the needs of the rapidly growing data linkage community. PMID:24440148

  19. A case study of the Secure Anonymous Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway: a privacy-protecting remote access system for health-related research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kerina H; Ford, David V; Jones, Chris; Dsilva, Rohan; Thompson, Simon; Brooks, Caroline J; Heaven, Martin L; Thayer, Daniel S; McNerney, Cynthia L; Lyons, Ronan A

    2014-08-01

    With the current expansion of data linkage research, the challenge is to find the balance between preserving the privacy of person-level data whilst making these data accessible for use to their full potential. We describe a privacy-protecting safe haven and secure remote access system, referred to as the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Gateway. The Gateway provides data users with a familiar Windows interface and their usual toolsets to access approved anonymously-linked datasets for research and evaluation. We outline the principles and operating model of the Gateway, the features provided to users within the secure environment, and how we are approaching the challenges of making data safely accessible to increasing numbers of research users. The Gateway represents a powerful analytical environment and has been designed to be scalable and adaptable to meet the needs of the rapidly growing data linkage community. Copyright © 2014 The Aurthors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proactive Engagement with Ethics and Privacy in AI and Big Data - Implementing responsible research and innovation in AI-related projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten, 1968-; Wright, David

    2018-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. Emerging combinations of artificial intelligence, big data and the applications these enable are receiving significant media and policy attention. Much of the attention concerns privacy and other ethical issues. In our paper, we suggest that what is needed now is a way to comprehensively understand these issues and find mechanisms of addressing them that involve stakeholders, including civil society, to ensure t...

  1. A Failure to "Do No Harm" -- India's Aadhaar biometric ID program and its inability to protect privacy in relation to measures in Europe and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pam

    2017-01-01

    It is important that digital biometric identity systems be used by governments with a Do no Harm mandate, and the establishment of regulatory, enforcement and restorative frameworks ensuring data protection and privacy needs to transpire prior to the implementation of technological programs and services. However, when, and where large government bureaucracies are involved, the proper planning and execution of public service programs very often result in ungainly outcomes, and are often qualitatively not guaranteeable. Several important factors, such as the strength of the political and legal systems, may affect such cases as the implementation of a national digital identity system. Digital identity policy development, as well as technical deployment of biometric technologies and enrollment processes, may all differ markedly, and could depend in some part at least, on the overall economic development of the country in question, or political jurisdiction, among other factors. This article focuses on the Republic of India's national digital biometric identity system, the Aadhaar , for its development, data protection and privacy policies, and impact. Two additional political jurisdictions, the European Union, and the United States are also situationally analyzed as they may be germane to data protection and privacy policies originated to safeguard biometric identities. Since biometrics are foundational elements in modern digital identity systems, expression of data protection policies that orient and direct how biometrics are to be utilized as unique identifiers are the focus of this analysis. As more of the world's economies create and elaborate capacities, capabilities and functionalities within their respective digital ambits, it is not enough to simply install suitable digital identity technologies; much, much more - is durably required. For example, both vigorous and descriptive means of data protection should be well situated within any jurisdictionally relevant

  2. An informational theory of privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schottmuller, C.; Jann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory that explains how and when privacy can increase welfare. Without privacy, some individuals misrepresent their preferences, because they will otherwise be statistically discriminated against. This "chilling effect" hurts them individually, and impairs information aggregation. The

  3. Privacy in social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Λεονάρδος, Γεώργιος; Leonardos, Giorgos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the aspects of privacy over the use of social networks web sites. More specific, we will show the types of social networks, their privacy mechanisms that are different in each social network site, their privacy options that are offered to users. We will report some serious privacy violations incidents of the most popular social networks sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Also, we will report some important surveys about social networks and pr...

  4. 77 FR 31371 - Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... presentations, including the privacy compliance fundamentals, privacy and data security, and the privacy... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Privacy Compliance... Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Privacy Compliance Workshop.'' DATES: The...

  5. Special Army Reports Prepared by Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Armstrong, Jack L; Wenzel, Paul C; Barnes, Leslie M; Grum, Andrew D; Kleiman, E. E; Baer, Joseph A; Maroska, Chad A; Thompson, Ann L

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second in a series of reports related to Army budget execution operations. The first report discussed the transmission of Army budget execution data by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS...

  6. 75 FR 22756 - Federal Advisory Committee; United States Army Science Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... relating to the Army's scientific, technical, manufacturing, acquisition, logistics, and business... the following disciplines: Science, technology, manufacturing, acquisition, logistics, business...; the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology; and as requested, other...

  7. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  8. Public Opinion about the Importance of Privacy in Biobank Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David J.; Murphy-Bollinger, Juli; Scott, Joan; Hudson, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about privacy may deter people from participating in genetic research. Recruitment and retention of biobank participants requires understanding the nature and magnitude of these concerns. Potential participants in a proposed biobank were asked about their willingness to participate, their privacy concerns, informed consent, and data sharing. A representative survey of 4659 U.S. adults was conducted. Ninety percent of respondents would be concerned about privacy, 56% would be concerned about researchers having their information, and 37% would worry that study data could be used against them. However, 60% would participate in the biobank if asked. Nearly half (48%) would prefer to provide consent once for all research approved by an oversight panel, whereas 42% would prefer to provide consent for each project separately. Although 92% would allow academic researchers to use study data, 80% and 75%, respectively, would grant access to government and industry researchers. Concern about privacy was related to lower willingness to participate only when respondents were told that they would receive $50 for participation and would not receive individual research results back. Among respondents who were told that they would receive $200 or individual research results, privacy concerns were not related to willingness. Survey respondents valued both privacy and participation in biomedical research. Despite pervasive privacy concerns, 60% would participate in a biobank. Assuring research participants that their privacy will be protected to the best of researchers' abilities may increase participants' acceptance of consent for broad research uses of biobank data by a wide range of researchers. PMID:19878915

  9. Privacy and confidentiality in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Deven; Greene, Sarah M; Miner, Caroline S; Staman, Karen L; Welch, Mary Jane; Rubel, Alan

    2015-10-01

    With pragmatic clinical trials, an opportunity exists to answer important questions about the relative risks, burdens, and benefits of therapeutic interventions. However, concerns about protecting the privacy of this information are significant and must be balanced with the imperative to learn from the data gathered in routine clinical practice. Traditional privacy protections for research uses of identifiable information rely disproportionately on informed consent or authorizations, based on a presumption that this is necessary to fulfill ethical principles of respect for persons. But frequently, the ideal of informed consent is not realized in its implementation. Moreover, the principle of respect for persons—which encompasses their interests in health information privacy—can be honored through other mechanisms. Data anonymization also plays a role in protecting privacy but is not suitable for all research, particularly pragmatic clinical trials. In this article, we explore both the ethical foundation and regulatory framework intended to protect privacy in pragmatic clinical trials. We then review examples of novel approaches to respecting persons in research that may have the added benefit of honoring patient privacy considerations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Privacy in an Ambient World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy

    Privacy is a prime concern in today's information society. To protect the privacy of individuals, enterprises must follow certain privacy practices, while collecting or processing personal data. In this chapter we look at the setting where an enterprise collects private data on its website,

  11. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency...-1379. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the CIA has undertaken and...

  12. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  13. Designing Privacy-by-Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.H.C. van; Boonstra, D.; Everts, M.H.; Rijn, M. van; Paassen, R.J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    The proposal for a new privacy regulation d.d. January 25th 2012 introduces sanctions of up to 2% of the annual turnover of enterprises. This elevates the importance of mitigation of privacy risks. This paper makes Privacy by Design more concrete, and positions it as the mechanism to mitigate these

  14. What was privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Lew

    2008-10-01

    Why is that question in the past tense? Because individuals can no longer feel confident that the details of their lives--from identifying numbers to cultural preferences--will be treated with discretion rather than exploited. Even as Facebook users happily share the names of their favorite books, movies, songs, and brands, they often regard marketers' use of that information as an invasion of privacy. In this wide-ranging essay, McCreary, a senior editor at HBR, examines numerous facets of the privacy issue, from Google searches, public shaming on the internet, and cell phone etiquette to passenger screening devices, public surveillance cameras, and corporate chief privacy officers. He notes that IBM has been a leader on privacy; its policy forswearing the use of employees' genetic information in hiring and benefits decisions predated the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act by three years. Now IBM is involved in an open-source project known as Higgins to provide users with transportable, potentially anonymous online presences. Craigslist, whose CEO calls it "as close to 100% user driven as you can get," has taken an extremely conservative position on privacy--perhaps easier for a company with a declared lack of interest in maximizing revenue. But TJX and other corporate victims of security breaches have discovered that retaining consumers' transaction information can be both costly and risky. Companies that underestimate the importance of privacy to their customers or fail to protect it may eventually face harsh regulation, reputational damage, or both. The best thing they can do, says the author, is negotiate directly with those customers over where to draw the line.

  15. [Relationship between the frequency of work-related stress and prevalence of functional dyspepsia in Lima Geriatric Army Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Narváez, Daniel Raúl; Gayoso Cervantes, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the frequency of work-related stress and prevalence of functional dyspepsia in a sample of 218 military older 50 years in 2010 in Lima Military Hospital Geriatric. Descriptive and explanatory study and for the data collection on stress, were used the Vital Events Scale Holmes-Rahe and clinical records for clinical and upper endoscopy registration that comply the criteria of Rome III for functional dyspepsia. For processing and data analysis the statistical software package SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used. 100% of military showed some level of work stress during the study year; thus, 36.7% had a high level, 31.2% medium or moderate level, and 32.1% had low stress level; these percentages medium and high stress levels accounted for 67.9%. These results establish that job stress is a common discomfort in the study population (tabulated Chi2 = 3.841, chi2 observed = 27,908). Regarding functional dyspepsia prevalence of 37.2%, which indicates that it is a common condition in those military (tabular Z = 1.96, Z c = 9.163) it was determined. There is a significant relationship between the frequency of work-related stress and prevalence of functional dyspepsia in military activity in older than 50 years (tabulated Chi2 = 5.991, chi2 observed = 28,878, contingency coefficient = 0.342).

  16. Privacy Bridges: EU and US Privacy Experts In Search of Transatlantic Privacy Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramatic, J.-F.; Bellamy, B.; Callahan, M.E.; Cate, F.; van Eecke, P.; van Eijk, N.; Guild, E.; de Hert, P.; Hustinx, P.; Kuner, C.; Mulligan, D.; O'Connor, N.; Reidenberg, J.; Rubinstein, I.; Schaar, P.; Shadbolt, N.; Spiekermann, S.; Vladeck, D.; Weitzner, D.J.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Hagenauw, D.; Hijmans, H.

    2015-01-01

    The EU and US share a common commitment to privacy protection as a cornerstone of democracy. Following the Treaty of Lisbon, data privacy is a fundamental right that the European Union must proactively guarantee. In the United States, data privacy derives from constitutional protections in the

  17. "Everybody Knows Everybody Else's Business"-Privacy in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Smith, Annetta; Atherton, Iain; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2016-12-01

    Patients have a right to privacy in a health care setting. This involves conversational discretion, security of medical records and physical privacy of remaining unnoticed or unidentified when using health care services other than by those who need to know or whom the patient wishes to know. However, the privacy of cancer patients who live in rural areas is more difficult to protect due to the characteristics of rural communities. The purpose of this article is to reflect on concerns relating to the lack of privacy experienced by cancer patients and health care professionals in the rural health care setting. In addition, this article suggests future research directions to provide much needed evidence for educating health care providers and guiding health care policies that can lead to better protection of privacy among cancer patients living in rural communities.

  18. Privacy After Snowden: Theoretical Developments and Public Opinion Perceptions of Privacy in Slovenia (Zasebnost po Snowdnu: novejša pojmovanja zasebnosti in odnos javnosti do le-te v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Završnik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses recent theorizing of privacy arising from new technologies that allow constant and ubiquitous monitoring of our communication and movement. The theoretical part analyses Helen Nissenbaum’s theory of contextual integrity of privacy and pluralistic understanding of privacy by Daniel Solove. The empirical part presents the results of an online survey on the Slovenian public perceptions of privacy that includes questions on types and frequency of victimizations relating to the right to privacy; self-reported privacy violations; concern for the protection of one’s own privacy; perception of primary privacy offenders; the value of privacy; attitude towards data retention in public telecommunication networks; and acquaintance with the Information Commissioner of RS. Despite growing distrust of large internet corporations and – after Edward Snowden’s revelations – Intelligence agencies, the findings indicate a low degree of awareness and care for the protection of personal data.

  19. 76 FR 33728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... ill duty status from the incident. Duty related information: Duty station, employment and job related... verify relationship by providing a birth certificate, marriage license, death certificate, or court... according to DoD and Army security policies. [[Page 33730

  20. Biometrics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this

  1. Reconciling privacy and security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Friedewald, M.; Wright, D.; Gutwirth, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between privacy and security and, in particular, the traditional "trade-off" paradigm. The issue is this: how, in a democracy, can one reconcile the trend towards increasing security (for example, as manifested by increasing surveillance) with the fundamental

  2. Privacy Policy | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Lab. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Lab will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may collect and store

  3. Ethical aspects of information security and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews ethical aspects of computer and information security and privacy. After an introduction to ethical approaches to information technology, the focus is first on ethical aspects of computer security. These include the moral importance of computer security, the relation between

  4. 75 FR 20298 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse and perform its other authorized duties and activities relating...--RATB Investigative Files'' and ``RATB--12--RATB Fraud Hotline Program Files,'' pursuant to the Privacy... 5 U.S.C. 552a: (1) From subsection (c)(3) because the release of accounting of disclosure would...

  5. Comparative analysis of field ration for military personnel of the ukrainian army and armies of other countries worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improvement of the Ukrainian nutritional standards this Article provides comparative analysis of field rations of different countries worldwide to make a proposal on improvement of food-stuff assortment in food ration for military personnel in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Army of USA, the British Army, Army of Germany, Army of Italy, Army of Canada, Army of France, Army of Belarus, Army of Armenia. In accordance with the comparative analysis it was established that ration composition used for the Armed Forces of Ukraine military personnel lags behind developed countries of the world both in nutrition arrangement and in nutrient composition, especially in relation to assortment and variety of ration food-stuff. Moreover, a field ration is strictly unified and doesn’t consider individual needs of military personnel in calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, food fibers. Selection of individual field ration takes to account only age of military personnel, i. e. individual needs related to nutrition composition such as physical abilities, level of physical activity, gender, type of occupation before military conscription and etc. are not consideredThe obtained results confirms practicability of assortment products assortment included to field rations for the purpose to correct nutrition rations towards optimal balance for military efficiency of army, adaptation of military personnel to physical and psychological loads.

  6. The Army Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Constitution and Declaration of Independence simultaneously hold two different views of human nature, an individualist and a collectivist view...Profession, defines the Army Ethic as “the evolving set of laws, values, and beliefs, deeply embedded within the core of the Army culture and...incorporate other viewpoints or respond to shifts in morality, religion, economics, and other socio- cultural factors. This thesis will use the term

  7. The Total Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    http://thediplomat.com/2015/04/chinas-growing-cyberwar-capabilities/ (accessed April 25, 2016); Nicolas Giacometti, “China’s Nuclear Modernization and...link between the operational and tactical levels of war.48 47. Michelle Tan , “US Army Generals Criticize Outdated Deployment Model: ‘We’ve Gotten...unveils-its-big-8-initiatives/81882852/ (accessed March 16, 2016). 58. Michelle Tan , “US Army Generals Criticize Outdated Deployment Model: ‘We’ve

  8. Army Leader Transitions Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The courseware allows users to tailor training materials to specific needs. Users access this at the CAL AKO website or Army eLearning https...usarmy.skillport.com/ skillportfe/login/usarmylogin.cfm. New users must register with eLearning . Then login, select “Army Custom Curricula” and scroll to...challenges of your transition. Patience, flexibility and a good understanding of influence techniques on your part will help make any needed realignment a

  9. Disentangling privacy from property: toward a deeper understanding of genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Sonia M

    2004-04-01

    With the mapping of the human genome, genetic privacy has become a concern to many. People care about genetic privacy because genes play an important role in shaping us--our genetic information is about us, and it is deeply connected to our sense of ourselves. In addition, unwanted disclosure of our genetic information, like a great deal of other personal information, makes us vulnerable to unwanted exposure, stigmatization, and discrimination. One recent approach to protecting genetic privacy is to create property rights in genetic information. This Article argues against that approach. Privacy and property are fundamentally different concepts. At heart, the term "property" connotes control within the marketplace and over something that is disaggregated or alienable from the self. "Privacy," in contrast, connotes control over access to the self as well as things close to, intimately connected to, and about the self. Given these different meanings, a regime of property rights in genetic information would impoverish our understanding of that information, ourselves, and the relationships we hope will be built around and through its disclosure. This Article explores our interests in genetic information in order to deepen our understanding of the ongoing discourse about the distinction between property and privacy. It develops a conception of genetic privacy with a strong relational component. We ordinarily share genetic information in the context of relationships in which disclosure is important to the relationship--family, intimate, doctor-patient, researcher-participant, employer-employee, and insurer-insured relationships. Such disclosure makes us vulnerable to and dependent on the person to whom we disclose it. As a result, trust is essential to the integrity of these relationships and our sharing of genetic information. Genetic privacy can protect our vulnerability in these relationships and enhance the trust we hope to have in them. Property, in contrast, by

  10. The Effects of Multiple Deployments on Army Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    deployment-related feelings.12 Focusing on a parent’s absence, dwelling on potential negative outcomes, or ruminating on problems often sends a child...maintain balance in the pull of both noble institutions. Some Army adolescents contend poorly in this dilemma; others—many more than soldiers or Army

  11. Privacy Attitudes among Early Adopters of Emerging Health Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cheung

    Full Text Available Advances in health technology such as genome sequencing and wearable sensors now allow for the collection of highly granular personal health data from individuals. It is unclear how people think about privacy in the context of these emerging health technologies. An open question is whether early adopters of these advances conceptualize privacy in different ways than non-early adopters.This study sought to understand privacy attitudes of early adopters of emerging health technologies.Transcripts from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with early adopters of genome sequencing and health devices and apps were analyzed with a focus on participant attitudes and perceptions of privacy. Themes were extracted using inductive content analysis.Although interviewees were willing to share personal data to support scientific advancements, they still expressed concerns, as well as uncertainty about who has access to their data, and for what purpose. In short, they were not dismissive of privacy risks. Key privacy-related findings are organized into four themes as follows: first, personal data privacy; second, control over personal information; third, concerns about discrimination; and fourth, contributing personal data to science.Early adopters of emerging health technologies appear to have more complex and nuanced conceptions of privacy than might be expected based on their adoption of personal health technologies and participation in open science. Early adopters also voiced uncertainty about the privacy implications of their decisions to use new technologies and share their data for research. Though not representative of the general public, studies of early adopters can provide important insights into evolving attitudes toward privacy in the context of emerging health technologies and personal health data research.

  12. Privacy Attitudes among Early Adopters of Emerging Health Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cynthia; Bietz, Matthew J; Patrick, Kevin; Bloss, Cinnamon S

    2016-01-01

    Advances in health technology such as genome sequencing and wearable sensors now allow for the collection of highly granular personal health data from individuals. It is unclear how people think about privacy in the context of these emerging health technologies. An open question is whether early adopters of these advances conceptualize privacy in different ways than non-early adopters. This study sought to understand privacy attitudes of early adopters of emerging health technologies. Transcripts from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with early adopters of genome sequencing and health devices and apps were analyzed with a focus on participant attitudes and perceptions of privacy. Themes were extracted using inductive content analysis. Although interviewees were willing to share personal data to support scientific advancements, they still expressed concerns, as well as uncertainty about who has access to their data, and for what purpose. In short, they were not dismissive of privacy risks. Key privacy-related findings are organized into four themes as follows: first, personal data privacy; second, control over personal information; third, concerns about discrimination; and fourth, contributing personal data to science. Early adopters of emerging health technologies appear to have more complex and nuanced conceptions of privacy than might be expected based on their adoption of personal health technologies and participation in open science. Early adopters also voiced uncertainty about the privacy implications of their decisions to use new technologies and share their data for research. Though not representative of the general public, studies of early adopters can provide important insights into evolving attitudes toward privacy in the context of emerging health technologies and personal health data research.

  13. Computer-Aided Identification and Validation of Privacy Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Meis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Privacy is a software quality that is closely related to security. The main difference is that security properties aim at the protection of assets that are crucial for the considered system, and privacy aims at the protection of personal data that are processed by the system. The identification of privacy protection needs in complex systems is a hard and error prone task. Stakeholders whose personal data are processed might be overlooked, or the sensitivity and the need of protection of the personal data might be underestimated. The later personal data and the needs to protect them are identified during the development process, the more expensive it is to fix these issues, because the needed changes of the system-to-be often affect many functionalities. In this paper, we present a systematic method to identify the privacy needs of a software system based on a set of functional requirements by extending the problem-based privacy analysis (ProPAn method. Our method is tool-supported and automated where possible to reduce the effort that has to be spent for the privacy analysis, which is especially important when considering complex systems. The contribution of this paper is a semi-automatic method to identify the relevant privacy requirements for a software-to-be based on its functional requirements. The considered privacy requirements address all dimensions of privacy that are relevant for software development. As our method is solely based on the functional requirements of the system to be, we enable users of our method to identify the privacy protection needs that have to be addressed by the software-to-be at an early stage of the development. As initial evaluation of our method, we show its applicability on a small electronic health system scenario.

  14. Towards Territorial Privacy in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Bastian; Schaub, Florian; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Territorial privacy is an old concept for privacy of the personal space dating back to the 19th century. Despite its former relevance, territorial privacy has been neglected in recent years, while privacy research and legislation mainly focused on the issue of information privacy. However, with the

  15. Privacy Awareness: A Means to Solve the Privacy Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzsch, Stefanie

    People are limited in their resources, i.e. they have limited memory capabilities, cannot pay attention to too many things at the same time, and forget much information after a while; computers do not suffer from these limitations. Thus, revealing personal data in electronic communication environments and being completely unaware of the impact of privacy might cause a lot of privacy issues later. Even if people are privacy aware in general, the so-called privacy paradox shows that they do not behave according to their stated attitudes. This paper discusses explanations for the existing dichotomy between the intentions of people towards disclosure of personal data and their behaviour. We present requirements on tools for privacy-awareness support in order to counteract the privacy paradox.

  16. Ambient intelligence & personalization : people's perspectives on information privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde - Perik, van de E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current developments towards Ambient Intelligence and related technological visions of the future are founded on continuous collection of information about individuals and their activities. This collection of information, its potentially persistent storage, dissemination and use raise privacy

  17. Privacy, security and access with sensitive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * Confidentiality issues and the challenges faced; * The fundamental differences between privacy and security; * The different access control mechanisms; * The challenges of Internet security; * How 'safety and quality' relate to all the above.

  18. Gaussian operations and privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states

  19. Privacy 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Papathanassopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the era of change. In this world, privacy is not a static concept, but instead has a dynamic component. Overall, it becomes clear that the public and private are not defined in the same manner as in the past and as in the actual world, while our personal information has become a commodity that can raise our visibility in the social media driven world.

  20. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  1. Army Healthcare Enterprise Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... to buy the Enterprise Management System. The Information Technology Business Center provides information technology services to Fort Sam Houston tenants which include the Army Medical Command and the Army Medical Department Center and School...

  2. Army Business Transformation - Next Steps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Army Science Board 2005 Summer Study on Best Practices, the Army Science Board was tasked to identify areas where alternative approaches and application of transforming practices...

  3. The privacy implications of Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Kostakos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    A substantial amount of research, as well as media hype, has surrounded RFID technology and its privacy implications. Currently, researchers and the media focus on the privacy threats posed by RFID, while consumer groups choose to boycott products bearing RFID tags. At the same, however, a very similar technology has quietly become part of our everyday lives: Bluetooth. In this paper we highlight the fact that Bluetooth is a widespread technology that has real privacy implications. Furthermor...

  4. A Baseline Historical Analysis of Neck and Back-Related Morbidity in the U.S. Army: Occupational Risks Potentially Related to Head-Supported Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    disorder with myelopathy, unspecified region 722.73 Intervertebral disc disorder w/ myelopathy, lumbar region 721.3 Lumbosacral spondylosis without...Disc disorder, lumbar region 721.42 Spondylosis with myelopathy, lumbar region 724.6 Disorders of sacrum 738.4 Acquired spondylolisthesis...particular, increases risk for spondylosis and accentuates age-related decreases in spinal lordosis(20). In addition to the ballistic protection

  5. One Size Doesn’t Fit All: Measuring Individual Privacy in Aggregate Genomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sean; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Even in the aggregate, genomic data can reveal sensitive information about individuals. We present a new model-based measure, PrivMAF, that provides provable privacy guarantees for aggregate data (namely minor allele frequencies) obtained from genomic studies. Unlike many previous measures that have been designed to measure the total privacy lost by all participants in a study, PrivMAF gives an individual privacy measure for each participant in the study, not just an average measure. These individual measures can then be combined to measure the worst case privacy loss in the study. Our measure also allows us to quantify the privacy gains achieved by perturbing the data, either by adding noise or binning. Our findings demonstrate that both perturbation approaches offer significant privacy gains. Moreover, we see that these privacy gains can be achieved while minimizing perturbation (and thus maximizing the utility) relative to stricter notions of privacy, such as differential privacy. We test PrivMAF using genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, providing a more nuanced understanding of the privacy risks involved in an actual genome-wide association studies. Interestingly, our analysis demonstrates that the privacy implications of releasing MAFs from a study can differ greatly from individual to individual. An implementation of our method is available at http://privmaf.csail.mit.edu. PMID:29202050

  6. Cognitive Privacy for Personal Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Cognitive Privacy (CogPriv framework that improves privacy of data sharing between Personal Clouds for different application types and across heterogeneous networks. Depending on the behaviour of neighbouring network nodes, their estimated privacy levels, resource availability, and social network connectivity, each Personal Cloud may decide to use different transmission network for different types of data and privacy requirements. CogPriv is fully distributed, uses complex graph contacts analytics and multiple implicit novel heuristics, and combines these with smart probing to identify presence and behaviour of privacy compromising nodes in the network. Based on sensed local context and through cooperation with remote nodes in the network, CogPriv is able to transparently and on-the-fly change the network in order to avoid transmissions when privacy may be compromised. We show that CogPriv achieves higher end-to-end privacy levels compared to both noncognitive cellular network communication and state-of-the-art strategies based on privacy-aware adaptive social mobile networks routing for a range of experiment scenarios based on real-world user and network traces. CogPriv is able to adapt to varying network connectivity and maintain high quality of service while managing to keep low data exposure for a wide range of privacy leakage levels in the infrastructure.

  7. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  8. Privacy and equality in diagnostic genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrhinen, Tarja; Hietala, Marja; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which the principles of privacy and equality were observed during diagnostic genetic testing according to views held by patients or child patients' parents (n = 106) and by staff (n = 162) from three Finnish university hospitals. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire and analysed using the SAS 8.1 statistical software. In general, the two principles were observed relatively satisfactorily in clinical practice. According to patients/parents, equality in the post-analytic phase and, according to staff, privacy in the pre-analytic phase, involved the greatest ethical problems. The two groups differed in their views concerning pre-analytic privacy. Although there were no major problems regarding the two principles, the differences between the testing phases require further clarification. To enhance privacy protection and equality, professionals need to be given more genetics/ethics training, and patients individual counselling by genetics units staff, giving more consideration to patients' world-view, the purpose of the test and the test result.

  9. Overview of Privacy in Social Networking Sites (SNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powale, Pallavi I.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.

    2013-07-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become an integral part of communication and life style of people in today's world. Because of the wide range of services offered by SNSs mostly for free of cost, these sites are attracting the attention of all possible Internet users. Most importantly, users from all age groups have become members of SNSs. Since many of the users are not aware of the data thefts associated with information sharing, they freely share their personal information with SNSs. Therefore, SNSs may be used for investigating users' character and social habits by familiar or even unknown persons and agencies. Such commercial and social scenario, has led to number of privacy and security threats. Though, all major issues in SNSs need to be addressed, by SNS providers, privacy of SNS users is the most crucial. And therefore, in this paper, we have focused our discussion on "privacy in SNSs". We have discussed different ways of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) leakages from SNSs, information revelation to third-party domains without user consent and privacy related threats associated with such information sharing. We expect that this comprehensive overview on privacy in SNSs will definitely help in raising user awareness about sharing data and managing their privacy with SNSs. It will also help SNS providers to rethink about their privacy policies.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Privacy Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Trepte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “privacy calculus” approach to studying online privacy implies that willingness to engage in disclosures on social network sites (SNSs depends on evaluation of the resulting risks and benefits. In this article, we propose that cultural factors influence the perception of privacy risks and social gratifications. Based on survey data collected from participants from five countries (Germany [n = 740], the Netherlands [n = 89], the United Kingdom [n = 67], the United States [n = 489], and China [n = 165], we successfully replicated the privacy calculus. Furthermore, we found that culture plays an important role: As expected, people from cultures ranking high in individualism found it less important to generate social gratifications on SNSs as compared to people from collectivist-oriented countries. However, the latter placed greater emphasis on privacy risks—presumably to safeguard the collective. Furthermore, we identified uncertainty avoidance to be a cultural dimension crucially influencing the perception of SNS risks and benefits. As expected, people from cultures ranking high in uncertainty avoidance found privacy risks to be more important when making privacy-related disclosure decisions. At the same time, these participants ascribed lower importance to social gratifications—possibly because social encounters are perceived to be less controllable in the social media environment.

  11. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  12. A Survey of Privacy on Data Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Do Son, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    This survey is an integrated view of other surveys on privacy preserving for data integration. First, we review the database context and challenges and research questions. Second, we formulate the privacy problems for schema matching and data matching. Next, we introduce the elements of privacy models. Then, we summarize the existing privacy techniques and the analysis (proofs) of privacy guarantees. Finally, we describe the privacy frameworks and their applications.

  13. Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David

    2018-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, instead of using existing metrics, n...

  14. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  15. The awareness of Privacy issues in Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar LÓPEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI involves extensive and invisible integration of computer technologies in people´s daily lives: Smart Sensors, Smart Phones, Tablets, Wireless Sensor Network (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, RFID, etc., Internet (Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, You Tube, Blogs, Cloud Computing, etc.. The Intelligent Environments (IE collect and process a massive amount of person-related and sensitive information.The aim of this work is to show the awareness of privacy issues in AmI and to identify the relevant design issues that should be addressed in order to provide privacy in the design of Ambient Intelligence’s applications focused in the user´s domain and involved technologies. We propose a conceptual framework in order to enforce privacy that takes care of interaction between technologies and devices, users and application´s domain with different modules that contain different steps relating to the privacy policies.

  16. Space in Space: Designing for Privacy in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Jonie

    2015-01-01

    Privacy is cultural, socially embedded in the spatial, temporal, and material aspects of the lived experience. Definitions of privacy are as varied among scholars as they are among those who fight for their personal rights in the home and the workplace. Privacy in the workplace has become a topic of interest in recent years, as evident in discussions on Big Data as well as the shrinking office spaces in which people work. An article in The New York Times published in February of this year noted that "many companies are looking to cut costs, and one way to do that is by trimming personal space". Increasingly, organizations ranging from tech start-ups to large corporations are downsizing square footage and opting for open-office floorplans hoping to trim the budget and spark creative, productive communication among their employees. The question of how much is too much to trim when it comes to privacy, is one that is being actively addressed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as they explore habitat designs for future space missions. NASA recognizes privacy as a design-related stressor impacting human health and performance. Given the challenges of sustaining life in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment such as Mars, NASA deems it necessary to determine the acceptable minimal amount for habitable volume for activities requiring at least some level of privacy in order to support optimal crew performance. Ethnographic research was conducted in 2013 to explore perceptions of privacy and privacy needs among astronauts living and working in space as part of a long-distance, long-duration mission. The allocation of space, or habitable volume, becomes an increasingly complex issue in outer space due to the costs associated with maintaining an artificial, confined environment bounded by limitations of mass while located in an extreme environment. Privacy in space, or space in space, provides a unique case study of the complex notions of

  17. The Privacy Coach: Supporting customer privacy in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Broenink, Gerben; Hoepman, Jaap-Henk; Hof, Christian van 't; van Kranenburg, Rob; Smits, David; Wisman, Tijmen

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing technologies on the RFID tags themselves. Instead the Privacy Coach functions as a mediator between customer privacy preferences and corporate privacy policies, trying to find a match between the ...

  18. Defending Privacy: the Development and Deployment of a Darknet

    OpenAIRE

    McManamon, Conor; Mtenzi, Fredrick

    2010-01-01

    New measures imposed by governments, Internet service providers and other third parties which threaten the state of privacy are also opening new avenues to protecting it. The unwarranted scrutiny of legitimate services such as file hosters and the BitTorrent protocol, once relatively unknown to the casual Internet user, is becoming more obvious. The darknet is a rising contender against these new measures and will preserve the default right to privacy of Internet users. A darknet is defined i...

  19. Situational leadership styles, staff nurse job characteristics related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment of head nurses working in hospitals under the jurisdiction of the Royal Thai Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaraprasong, Bhusita; Potjanasitt, Sureporn; Pattaraarchachai, Junya; Meennuch, Chavalit

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the relationships between the situational leadership styles, staff nurse job characteristic with job satisfaction and organizational commitment of head nurses working in hospitals under the jurisdiction of the Royal Thai Army The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 128 head nurses working in hospitals under the jurisdiction of the Royal Thai Army. Data were collected by mailed questionnaires. A total of 117 completed questionnaires (91.4%) were received for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. It was found that situational leadership styles were not correlated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment of head nurses. Staff nurse job characteristics had a low level of positive correlation with job satisfaction and organizational commitment of head nurses at 0.05 level of significance (r = 0.202 and 0.189 respectively). The hospital administrators should formulate policy to improve working system, human resource management and formulate policies and strategies based on situational leadership. In addition, they should improve the characteristics of staff nurse job by using surveys to obtain job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

  20. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  1. Story Lab: Student Data Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Student data privacy is an increasingly high-profile--and controversial--issue that touches schools and families across the country. There are stories to tell in virtually every community. About three dozen states have passed legislation addressing student data privacy in the past two years, and eight different proposals were floating around…

  2. Privacy and Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Much of what constitutes Big Data is information about us. Through our online activities, we leave an easy-to-follow trail of digital footprints that reveal who we are, what we buy, where we go, and much more. This eye-opening book explores the raging privacy debate over the use of personal data, with one undeniable conclusion: once data's been collected, we have absolutely no control over who uses it or how it is used. Personal data is the hottest commodity on the market today-truly more valuable than gold. We are the asset that every company, industry, non-profit, and government wants. Pri

  3. Speech Privacy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-08-18

    eondwious, «ach AnvoWnc either one or tiro staple m^aSattoa processes. The British teo -dimensioaai privacy system eUiissd both ire- oasaay ana time...of the 884 gas tube and ground showed that the tubs did not re- main fired throughout the duration of the 4- kc puls.e. Instead, the tube fired on...ouri’ent through the relay circuit was not sufficient to: permit its firm operation, especially when the amplitude of the 4~ kc pulse was low. This

  4. The Army Lawyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    authors in the articles do not necessarily reflect the view of The Judge Advocate General or the Department of the Army. Masculine or feminine...for the hegemonic power (read ‘United States’) and its followers to determine international public enemy on a case-by-case basis. A legal

  5. Army Sustainability Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the Fairfax Village Neighborhood Center’s native plant and butterfly garden. The center is the first LEED platinum military project (photo: US Army... Bush in 2007. 11 Statement of Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Strategy, Plans, and Forces, Kathleen Hicks before the Senate Environment and

  6. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  7. Data Security and Privacy in Apps for Dementia: An Analysis of Existing Privacy Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lisa; Torous, John; Vahia, Ipsit V

    2017-08-01

    Despite tremendous growth in the number of health applications (apps), little is known about how well these apps protect their users' health-related data. This gap in knowledge is of particular concern for apps targeting people with dementia, whose cognitive impairment puts them at increased risk of privacy breaches. In this article, we determine how many dementia apps have privacy policies and how well they protect user data. Our analysis included all iPhone apps that matched the search terms "medical + dementia" or "health & fitness + dementia" and collected user-generated content. We evaluated all available privacy policies for these apps based on criteria that systematically measure how individual user data is handled. Seventy-two apps met the above search teams and collected user data. Of these, only 33 (46%) had an available privacy policy. Nineteen of the 33 with policies (58%) were specific to the app in question, and 25 (76%) specified how individual-user as opposed to aggregate data would be handled. Among these, there was a preponderance of missing information, the majority acknowledged collecting individual data for internal purposes, and most admitted to instances in which they would share user data with outside parties. At present, the majority of health apps focused on dementia lack a privacy policy, and those that do exist lack clarity. Bolstering safeguards and improving communication about privacy protections will help facilitate consumer trust in apps, thereby enabling more widespread and meaningful use by people with dementia and those involved in their care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  9. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  10. European Perspectives on Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Vermeulen, Ivar

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy. This report ‘European Perspectives on Privacy in the Sharing Economy’ forms one element of a European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project on the sharing economy: Ps2Share ‘Participation......, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy’. The study is undertaken within the scope of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, funded under grant agreement No. 732117 and with the objective (ICT-35) of “Enabling responsible ICT-related research and innovation”. This project...... recommendations to Europe’s institutions. We focus on topics of participation, privacy, and power in the sharing economy....

  11. Online privacy: overview and preliminary research

    OpenAIRE

    Mekovec, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade using the Internet for online shopping, information browsing and searching as well as for online communication has become part of everyday life. Although the Internet technology has a lot of benefits for users, one of the most important disadvantages is related to the increasing capacity for users’ online activity surveillance. However, the users are increasingly becoming aware of online surveillance methods, which results in their increased concern for privacy ...

  12. Security and privacy preserving in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chbeir, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This volume aims at assessing the current approaches and technologies, as well as to outline the major challenges and future perspectives related to the security and privacy protection of social networks. It provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the art techniques, studies, and approaches as well as outlining future directions in this field. A wide range of interdisciplinary contributions from various research groups ensures for a balanced and complete perspective.

  13. PRIVACY IN CLOUD COMPUTING: A SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Arockiam L; Parthasarathy G; Monikandan S

    2012-01-01

    Various cloud computing models are used to increase the profit of an organization. Cloud provides a convenient environment and more advantages to business organizations to run their business. But, it has some issues related to the privacy of data. User’s data are stored and maintained out of user’s premises. The failure of data protection causes many issues like data theft which affects the individual organization. The cloud users may be satisfied, if their data are protected p...

  14. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  15. 76 FR 64115 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-092)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... retirement of one Privacy Act system of records notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, NASA is giving notice that it proposes to cancel the following Privacy Act system of records notice...

  16. Deriving a Set of Privacy Specific Heuristics for the Assessment of PHRs (Personal Health Records).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Riccardo F; Kushniruk, Andre; Barnett, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of personal health record (PHR) platforms becoming more widely available, this research focused on the development of privacy heuristics to assess PHRs regarding privacy. Existing sets of heuristics are typically not application specific and do not address patient-centric privacy as a main concern prior to undergoing PHR procurement. A set of privacy specific heuristics were developed based on a scoping review of the literature. An internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application was evaluated using the derived set of privacy specific heuristics. The proposed set of privacy specific derived heuristics is explored in detail in relation to ISO 29100. The assessment of the internet-based commercially available, vendor specific PHR application indicated numerous violations. These violations were noted within the study. It is argued that the new derived privacy heuristics should be used in addition to Nielsen's well-established set of heuristics. Privacy specific heuristics could be used to assess PHR portal system-level privacy mechanisms in the procurement process of a PHR application and may prove to be a beneficial form of assessment to prevent the selection of a PHR platform with a poor privacy specific interface design.

  17. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C...

  18. Department of the Army - The Fiscal Year 2008 Military Personnel, Army Appropriation and the Antideficiency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    of the Army, U.S. Army Audit Agency, Budgeting for the Military Personnel, Army Appropriation, Report No. A-2010-0028- FFM (Jan. 6, 2010); Department...of the Army, U.S. Army Audit Agency, Military Personnel, Army FY 05 Subsistence Charges, Report No. A-2008-0037- FFM (Feb. 12, 2008); Department of

  19. Army Programs: Army Finance and Accounting Quality Assurance Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    This regulation discusses the primary responsibilities of commanders and staff officers at installation and higher levels for execution of the Army Finance and Accounting Quality Assurance (QA) Program...

  20. Towards Privacy Managment of Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Drageide, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    This masters thesis provides insight into the concept of privacy. It argues why privacy is important, and why developers and system owners should keep privacy in mind when developing and maintaining systems containing personal information. Following this, a strategy for evaluating the overall level of privacy in a system is defined. The strategy is then applied to parts of the cellphone system in an attempt to evaluate the privacy of traffic and location data in this system.

  1. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-01-01

    The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy ...

  2. Effective online privacy mechanisms with persuasive communication

    OpenAIRE

    Coopamootoo, P L

    2016-01-01

    This thesis contributes to research by taking a social psychological perspective to managing privacy online. The thesis proposes to support the effort to form a mental model that is required to evaluate a context with regards to privacy attitudes or to ease the effort by biasing activation of privacy attitudes. Privacy being a behavioural concept, the human-computer interaction design plays a major role in supporting and contributing to end users’ ability to manage their privacy online. Howev...

  3. Adding query privacy to robust DHTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket

    2012-01-01

    intermediate peers that (help to) route the queries towards their destinations. In this paper, we satisfy this requirement by presenting an approach for providing privacy for the keys in DHT queries. We use the concept of oblivious transfer (OT) in communication over DHTs to preserve query privacy without...... privacy over robust DHTs. Finally, we compare the performance of our privacy-preserving protocols with their more privacy-invasive counterparts. We observe that there is no increase in the message complexity...

  4. Trajectory data privacy protection based on differential privacy mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ke; Yang, Lihao; Liu, Yongzhi; Liao, Niandong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a trajectory data privacy protection scheme based on differential privacy mechanism. In the proposed scheme, the algorithm first selects the protected points from the user’s trajectory data; secondly, the algorithm forms the polygon according to the protected points and the adjacent and high frequent accessed points that are selected from the accessing point database, then the algorithm calculates the polygon centroids; finally, the noises are added to the polygon centroids by the differential privacy method, and the polygon centroids replace the protected points, and then the algorithm constructs and issues the new trajectory data. The experiments show that the running time of the proposed algorithms is fast, the privacy protection of the scheme is effective and the data usability of the scheme is higher.

  5. The Problem of Privacy in Capitalism and the Alternative Social Networking Site Diaspora*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sevignani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, l examine the alternative social networking site Diaspora* from a Marxist standpoint. The investigation focuses on privacy, and contributes to a better understanding of this issue within the context of capitalism in general. First, I describe Diaspora*’s way of production by pointing out its alternative character as part of the free software and copyleft movement. Second, dominant theories of privacy related to individual control, exclusion, and property are introduced. Third, the problem of privacy in capitalism is described wherein dominant concepts of privacy will be contextualised on behalf of a critical political economy analysis that refers to the Marxian concept of ideology critique, Marx’s differentiation between a societal sphere of production and a societal sphere of circulation, and his analysis of capitalist fetishisms. Fourth, taking into account the problem of privacy in capitalism, the alternative potential of Diaspora* is evaluated. Finally, a brief outline of a Marxist theory of privacy is proposed.

  6. When Differential Privacy Meets Randomized Perturbation: A Hybrid Approach for Privacy-Preserving Recommender System

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, An; Zhang, Xiangliang; Li, Zhixu; Liu, Guanfeng; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2017-01-01

    result. However, none is designed for both hiding users’ private data and preventing privacy inference. To achieve this goal, we propose in this paper a hybrid approach for privacy-preserving recommender systems by combining differential privacy (DP

  7. Parasiteware: Unlocking Personal Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Garrie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyware presents a threat of privacy infringement to unassuming internet users irrespective of their country of citizenship. European legislation attempts to protect end-users from unethical processing of their personal data. Spyware technologies, however, skirts these laws and often break them in their entirety. Outlawing the spyware and strengthening the legal consent requirement to mine data are statutory solutions that can prevent spyware users from skirting the law. An internationally standardized technology education system for the judiciaries in Europe and the U.S. can help ensure that when spyware users do break the law, they cannot hide by escaping from one nation to another without being held accountable. Transnational improvements are necessary to remedy the global spyware epidemic.

  8. Union Directions - Army Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-06

    reflects the long-held belief in the Army that employee participation in decisions that affect their worklife is healthy and desirable. Although some...pluralistic society, checks and balances are as important for the economy as for the government. Business executives who salivate at the thought of vanishing...Unions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1976. 37. National Federation of Federal Employees. NFFE’s Guide to Quality of Worklife Programs. No. G-21

  9. Operationalizing Army Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    killed just under 3,000 people and cost the U.S. economy somewhere between three and five trillion dollars. The Japanese attacked with a state... economy , and military readiness. The challenge is to design an Army Cyber force that can support the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) national...still keeps the intelligence and signal functions separate in most units today from battalion to echelon above Corps ( EAC ). There are many past reasons

  10. 2007 Army Modernization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Additional confi gurations include two NATO li ers with patients and one medical a endant. The aircra has a hoist for use in emergency...including airframes, wiring bundles and hydraulic systems on the remanufactured CH-47Fs are new. Program Status. The Army received its fi rst fully...Expansible Van and the 10T Dump Truck. Another new variant, the FMTV-Load Handling System, is expected to be fi elded in late-2007, initially to medical

  11. 1998 Army Modernization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Biological (CB) Protective Duty Uniform (STO) • Biometrics (SRO) • Nanoscience (SRO) • Millimeter Wave Material and Dissemination Technology... Biometrics and Nanoscience SROs will enable the development of advanced NBC detection and characterization systems, including the exploitation of biologically...Requirements Trailers • Procure HEMAT Trailers Figure K-23 K-19 //;<?. U.S. Army 1997Modernization Plan This final fleet assessment, made against the

  12. The Privacy Calculus: Mobile Apps and User Perceptions of Privacy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fife

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A continuing stream of new mobile data services are being released that rely upon the collection of personal data to support a business model. New technologies including facial recognition, sensors and Near Field Communications (NFC will increasingly become a part of everyday services and applications that challenge traditional concepts of individual privacy. The average person as well as the “tech‐savvy” mobile phone user may not yet be fully aware of the extent to which their privacy and security are being affected through their mobile activities and how comparable this situation is to personal computer usage. We investigate perceptions and usage of mobile data services that appear to have specific privacy and security sensitivities, specifically social networking,\tbanking/payments\tand\thealth‐related activities. Our annual survey of smartphone users in the U.S. and Japan is presented from 2011. This nationally representative survey data is used to show demographic and cultural differences, and substantiate our hypotheses about the links between use and privacy concerns

  13. Army Healthcare Enterprise Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The complaint alleged that the Army Healthcare Enterprise Management System was not properly competed, potential conflicts of interest existed, and possible contract performance problems existed...

  14. Army Officers’ Attitudes of Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-11

    The purpose of this study was to measure the attitudes of the middle level career Army officers relative to the concepts of conflict management . The...the literature concerning conflict management and its related fields of study, an exploratory analysis employing Hierarchical Clustering Schemes, and... conflict management . (2) No difference exists in the attitudes of conflict management according to the sample’s three branch groups: combat arms

  15. Privacy Preserving Distributed Data Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed data mining from privacy-sensitive multi-party data is likely to play an important role in the next generation of integrated vehicle health monitoring...

  16. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang; Papadimitriou, Panagiotis D.; Raï ssi, Chedy; Kalnis, Panos; Pung, Hungkeng

    2011-01-01

    an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data

  17. Privacy and the Connected Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    The Vision of the 5G enabled connected society is highly based on the evolution and implementation of Internet of Things. This involves, amongst others, a significant raise in devices, sensors and communication in pervasive interconnections as well as cooperation amongst devices and entities across...... the society. Enabling the vision of the connected society, researchers point in the direction of security and privacy as areas to challenge the vision. By use of the Internet of Things reference model as well as the vision of the connected society, this paper identifies privacy of the individual with respect...... to three selected areas: Shopping, connected cars and online gaming. The paper concludes that privacy is a complexity within the connected society vision and that thee is a need for more privacy use cases to shed light on the challenge....

  18. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Derek

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  19. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  20. Privacy-preserving Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Milutinovic, Milica

    2015-01-01

    With the technological advances and the evolution of online services, user privacy is becoming a crucial issue in the modern day society. Privacy in the general sense refers to individuals’ ability to protect information about themselves and selectively present it to other entities. This concept is nowadays strongly affected by everyday practices that assume personal data disclosure, such as online shopping and participation in loyalty schemes. This makes it difficult for an individual to con...

  1. PRIVACY CONCERNS IN FACEBOOK SITE

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Singh

    2014-01-01

    Today social networking sites play an important role and inexpensive way to maintain existing relationships and present oneself. However, the increasing use of online sites give rise to privacy concerns and risks. All Internet sites are also under attack from phishers, fraudsters, and spammers. They aim to steal user information and expose users to unwanted spam. They have so many resources at their disposal.This paper studies the awareness of college students regarding the privacy in Faceboo...

  2. Security and privacy in biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Campisi, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    This important text/reference presents the latest secure and privacy-compliant techniques in automatic human recognition. Featuring viewpoints from an international selection of experts in the field, the comprehensive coverage spans both theory and practical implementations, taking into consideration all ethical and legal issues. Topics and features: presents a unique focus on novel approaches and new architectures for unimodal and multimodal template protection; examines signal processing techniques in the encrypted domain, security and privacy leakage assessment, and aspects of standardizati

  3. Hacking Facebook Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    REPORT Hacking Facebook Privacy and Security 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: When people talk about hacking and social networks , they’re...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Facebook , Privacy, Security, Social Network Dr. Jeff Duffany (Advisor), Omar Galban...transmit personal information that many people that they dare not do it personally. FACEBOOK PLATFORM Facebook is a popular social networking

  4. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    van Zoonen, Liesbet

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in research about people's concerns about privacy: one dimensions represents that people perceive particular data as more personal and sensitive than others, the other dimension represents that people'...

  5. Factors and Predictors of Online Security and Privacy Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bubaš

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Assumptions and habits regarding computer and Internet use are among the major factors which influence online privacy and security of Internet users. In our study a survey was performed on 312 subjects (college students who are Internet users with IT skills that investigated how assumptions and habits of Internet users are related to their online security and privacy. The following four factors of online security and privacy related behaviors were revealed in factor analysis: F1 – conscientiousness in the maintenance of the operating system, upgrading of the Internet browser and use of antivirus and antispyware programs; F2 –engagement in risky and careless online activities with lack of concern for personal online privacy; F3 – disbelief that privacy violations and security threats represent possible problems; F4 – lack of fear regarding potential privacy and security threats with no need for change in personal online behavior. Statistically significant correlations were found between some of the discovered factors on the one side, and criteria variables occurrence of malicious code (C1 and data loss on the home computer (C2 on the other. In addition, a regression analysis was performed which revealed that the potentially risky online behaviors of Internet users were associated with the two criteria variables. To properly interpret the results of correlation and regression analyses a conceptual model was developed of the potential causal relationships between the behavior of Internet users and their experiences with online security threats. An additional study was also performed which partly confirmed the conceptual model, as well as the factors of online security and privacy related behaviors.

  6. Combat Service Support Model Development: BRASS - TRANSLOG - Army 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    throughout’the system. Transitional problems may address specific hardware and related software , such as the Standard Army Ammunition System ( SAAS ...FILE. 00 Cabat Service Support Model Development .,PASS TRANSLOG -- ARMY 21 0 Contract Number DAAK11-84-D-0004 Task Order #1 DRAFT REPOkT July 1984 D...Armament Systems, Inc. 211 West Bel Air Avenue P.O. Box 158 Aberdeen, MD 21001 8 8 8 2 1 S CORMIT SERVICE SUPPORT MODEL DEVELOPMENT BRASS -- TRANSLOG

  7. Army Blast Claims Evaluation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    ATIN: AFZX-JA Building 4551 Fort Polk, LA 71459-5000 Commander U.S. Army Engineer Center and Fort Leonard Wood ATIN: AlZT-JA Building 1706 East...U.S. Armed Forces Claims Service, Korea APO AP 96205-0084 No. of Copies Organization 1 Commander U.S. Army South ATI’N: SOJA Building 154 APO

  8. DQC Comments on the Posted Recommendations Regarding Data Security and Privacy Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education is conducting several activities to address privacy and security issues related to education data. Earlier this year a contractor for the Department convened a group of privacy and security experts and produced a report with recommendations to the Department on ways they can address emerging challenges in…

  9. The Army Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-09

    STUDDIES BY CATEGORY STUDY TITLE SPONSOR NMtTHOO PPA ADM RE:MOTE LINK PRUG DARCOM CONTRACT ADV TECH MODEL FULL DARCON CONTRACT ARMY COMMAND ANDi CONTROL...HOUUSE NUN -RLCURRIN 1 LMANUS DARCON I"-HUSL FF-TH-hLLI TM~k ECUNLNI(. ANALYSIS DARCOM CUNTRALT FOR SFELTKUM ANALYZERS UPLRA1IUN&L FLt)AI/EKPSL TKADL...TECHNULOGY A5 AESM:NT TRADOC bUTH *TEN YEAR INSTRUMENTATIOft ANALYSkIS OCSA ot" PHASE I TERRAIN MODELS DARCOM bUTH lEST CRITLRIA FUOR NUN -IIILLL-K WEAPUN

  10. Privacy in the Genomic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ayday, Erman; Clayton, Ellen W; Fellay, Jacques; Gunter, Carl A; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Malin, Bradley A; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward.

  11. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  12. Economics of Privacy: Users'€™ Attitudes and Economic Impact of Information Privacy Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Frik, Alisa

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of three essays within the field of economics of information privacy examined through the lens of behavioral and experimental economics. Rapid development and expansion of Internet, mobile and network technologies in the last decades has provided multitudinous opportunities and benefits to both business and society proposing the customized services and personalized offers at a relatively low price and high speed. However, such innovations and progress have al...

  13. Vigilância e anonimato em aplicativos mobile: um estudo sobre a privacidade em relações homoafetivas no digital | Surveillance and anonymity in mobile applications: a study about the privacy in digital same sex relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela do Corral Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo busca compreender de que forma homens que utilizam os aplicativos de relacionamento Tinder, Grindr e Scruff – considerando seus pontos de semelhanças e de especificidades, conforme serão detalhadas ao longo deste estudo – experienciam facetas de suas identidades e constroem práticas de sociabilidade, fazendo uso ou não do anonimato, na vivência de relações homoafetivas. Além disso, a pesquisa analisa de que forma estas plataformas digitais se configuram como heterotopias e “armários digitais”, nos quais os sujeitos desenvolvem formas de resistência e proteção a práticas de vigilâncias sociais on e off-lines. Palavras-chave: Privacidade; Anonimato; Identidade; Sociabilidade; Aplicativos de Relacionamento. ABSTRACT This article seeks to understand how men who use the relationship applications Tinder, Grindr and Scruff – considering their similarities points and specificities, as will be detailed in the course of this study – experience facets of their identities and build sociability practices making use or not of anonymity, in experiences of same sex relations. Furthermore, the research examines how these digital platforms are configured as heterotopias and "digital lockers" in which subjects develop forms of resistance and protection to the surveillances practices on and off-lines. Keywords: Privacy; Anonymity; Identity; Sociability; Relationship Applications.

  14. Privacy and Personal Information Held by Government: A Comparative Study, Japan and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena

    This chapter reports on the concepts of information privacy and trust in government among citizens in Japan and New Zealand in a transnational, crosscultural study. Data from both countries are presented, and cultural and other factors are sought that might explain differences in attitudes shown. In both countries, citizens display a range of views, not related to age or gender. New Zealand citizens express concern about information privacy in relation to information held by government, but show a higher level of trust in government overall, and most attribute breaches of privacy to incompetence, rather than deliberate malfeasance. Japanese citizens interviewed also indicated that they had major concerns about information privacy, and had considerably less trust in government than New Zealand respondents showed. They were more inclined to attribute breaches of privacy to lax behavior in individuals than government systems. In both countries citizens showed an awareness of the tradeoffs necessary between personal privacy and the needs of the state to hold information for the benefit of all citizens, but knew little about the protection offered by privacy legislation, and expressed overall concern about privacy practices in the modern state. The study also provides evidence of cultural differences that can be related to Hofstede's dimensions of culture.

  15. Privacy at end of life in ICU: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona; Parissopoulos, Stelios; Plakas, Sotirios; Naughton, Margaret T; de Vries, Jan Ma; Fouka, Georgia

    2018-06-01

    To explore the issues surrounding privacy during death in ICU. While the provision of ICU care is vital, the nature and effect of the potential lack of privacy during death and dying in ICUs have not been extensively explored. A literature search using CINAHL and Pubmed revealed articles related to privacy, death and dying in ICU. Keywords used in the search were "ICU," "Privacy," "Death" and "Dying." A combination of these terms using Boolean operators "or" or "and" revealed a total of 23 citations. Six papers were ultimately deemed suitable for inclusion in the review and were subjected to code analysis with Atlas.ti v8 QDA software. The analysis of the studies revealed eight themes, and this study presents the three key themes that were found to be recurring and strongly interconnected to the experience of privacy and death in ICU: "Privacy in ICU," "ICU environment" and "End-of-Life Care". Research has shown that patient and family privacy during the ICU hospitalisation and the provision of the circumstances that lead to an environment of privacy during and after death remains a significant challenge for ICU nurses. Family members have little or no privacy in shared room and cramped waiting rooms, while they wish to be better informed and involved in end-of-life decisions. Hence, death and dying for many patients takes place in open and/or shared spaces which is problematic in terms of both the level of privacy and respect that death ought to afford. It is best if end-of-life care in the ICU is planned and coordinated, where possible. Nurses need to become more self-reflective and aware in relation to end-of-life situations in ICU in order to develop privacy practices that are responsive to family and patient needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The privacy coach: Supporting customer privacy in the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, E.G.; Hoepman, J.H.; Hof, C. van 't; Kranenburg, R. van; Smits, D.; Wisman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Privacy Coach is an application running on a mobile phone that supports customers in making privacy decisions when confronted with RFID tags. The approach we take to increase customer privacy is a radical departure from the mainstream research efforts that focus on implementing privacy enhancing

  17. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice to Revise Privacy Act Systems of Records... two Privacy Act Systems of Records entitled ``Information on Persons Disqualified from the...

  18. 76 FR 67763 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-109)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  19. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-093)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  20. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-091)] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act...: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that NASA is... Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes those amendments as set forth below under the caption...

  1. 78 FR 40515 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-071] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Each Federal agency is required by the Privacy Act of 1974 to publish...

  2. 78 FR 77503 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-149] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to existing Privacy Act systems of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  3. 77 FR 69898 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-100] Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act... proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public...

  4. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  5. Injury Incidence and Injury Risk Factors Among U.S. Army Basic Trainees at Ft. Jackson SC, 1998 (Including Fitness Training Unit Personnel, Discharges, and Newstarts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, J

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological consultation (EPICON) was requested by the Commander, U.S. Army Training Center, Ft Jackson, SC, to assist in the development of an Army Center for the Study of Training-Related Injuries. This EPICON (1...

  6. Internet privacy options for adequate realisation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A thorough multidisciplinary analysis of various perspectives on internet privacy was published as the first volume of a study, revealing the results of the achatech project "Internet Privacy - A Culture of Privacy and Trust on the Internet." The second publication from this project presents integrated, interdisciplinary options for improving privacy on the Internet utilising a normative, value-oriented approach. The ways in which privacy promotes and preconditions fundamental societal values and how privacy violations endanger the flourishing of said values are exemplified. The conditions which must be fulfilled in order to achieve a culture of privacy and trust on the internet are illuminated. This volume presents options for policy-makers, educators, businesses and technology experts how to facilitate solutions for more privacy on the Internet and identifies further research requirements in this area.

  7. CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampigethaya, Krishna; Huang, Leping; Li, Mingyan; Poovendran, Radha; Matsuura, Kanta; Sezaki, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    .... This type of tracking leads to threats on the location privacy of the vehicle's user. In this paper, we study the problem of providing location privacy in VANET by allowing vehicles to prevent tracking of their broadcast communications...

  8. SIED, a Data Privacy Engineering Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mivule, Kato

    2013-01-01

    While a number of data privacy techniques have been proposed in the recent years, a few frameworks have been suggested for the implementation of the data privacy process. Most of the proposed approaches are tailored towards implementing a specific data privacy algorithm but not the overall data privacy engineering and design process. Therefore, as a contribution, this study proposes SIED (Specification, Implementation, Evaluation, and Dissemination), a conceptual framework that takes a holist...

  9. Privacy and Data-Based Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ori Heffetz; Katrina Ligett

    2013-01-01

    What can we, as users of microdata, formally guarantee to the individuals (or firms) in our dataset, regarding their privacy? We retell a few stories, well-known in data-privacy circles, of failed anonymization attempts in publicly released datasets. We then provide a mostly informal introduction to several ideas from the literature on differential privacy, an active literature in computer science that studies formal approaches to preserving the privacy of individuals in statistical databases...

  10. PriBots: Conversational Privacy with Chatbots

    OpenAIRE

    Harkous, Hamza; Fawaz, Kassem; Shin, Kang G.; Aberer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for delivering notice and enabling choice have so far failed to protect users’ privacy. Users are continuously frustrated by complex privacy policies, unreachable privacy settings, and a multitude of emerging standards. The miniaturization trend of smart devices and the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs) will exacerbate this problem further. In this paper, we propose Conversational Privacy Bots (PriBots) as a new way of delivering notice and choice through a two...

  11. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a...

  12. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...... data is anonymized in the system using data cloaking and data swapping techniques. Finally, the paper empirically demonstrates that the proposed system is effective and feasible....

  13. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol......, or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  14. Efficiency and Privacy Enhancement for a Track and Trace System of RFID-Based Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunjun Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is in supply chain management as it promises to provide real-time visibility based on the function of track and trace. However, such an RFID-based track and trace system raises new security and privacy challenges due to the restricted resource of tags. In this paper, we refine three privacy related models (i.e., the privacy, path unlinkability, and tag unlinkability of RFID-based track and trace systems, and clarify the relations among these privacy models. Specifically, we have proven that privacy is equivalent to path unlinkability and tag unlinkability implies privacy. Our results simplify the privacy concept and protocol design for RFID-based track and trace systems. Furthermore, we propose an efficient track and trace scheme, Tracker+, which allows for authentic and private identification of RFID-tagged objects in supply chains. In the Tracker+, no computational ability is required for tags, but only a few bytes of storage (such as EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags are needed to store the tag state. Indeed, Tracker+ reduces the memory requirements for each tag by one group element compared to the Tracker presented in other literature. Moreover, Tracker+ provides privacy against supply chain inside attacks.

  15. An Efficient Context-Aware Privacy Preserving Approach for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of smartphones and the usage of the smartphone apps, privacy preservation has become an important issue. The existing privacy preservation approaches for smartphones usually have less efficiency due to the absent consideration of the active defense policies and temporal correlations between contexts related to users. In this paper, through modeling the temporal correlations among contexts, we formalize the privacy preservation problem to an optimization problem and prove its correctness and the optimality through theoretical analysis. To further speed up the running time, we transform the original optimization problem to an approximate optimal problem, a linear programming problem. By resolving the linear programming problem, an efficient context-aware privacy preserving algorithm (CAPP is designed, which adopts active defense policy and decides how to release the current context of a user to maximize the level of quality of service (QoS of context-aware apps with privacy preservation. The conducted extensive simulations on real dataset demonstrate the improved performance of CAPP over other traditional approaches.

  16. Display methods of electronic patient record screens: patient privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Yukari; Ota, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    To provide adequate care, medical professionals have to collect not only medical information but also information that may be related to private aspects of the patient's life. With patients' increasing awareness of information privacy, healthcare providers have to pay attention to the patients' right of privacy. This study aimed to clarify the requirements of the display method of electronic patient record (EPR) screens in consideration of both patients' information privacy concerns and health professionals' information needs. For this purpose, semi-structured group interviews were conducted of 78 medical professionals. They pointed out that partial concealment of information to meet patients' requests for privacy could result in challenges in (1) safety in healthcare, (2) information sharing, (3) collaboration, (4) hospital management, and (5) communication. They believed that EPRs should (1) meet the requirements of the therapeutic process, (2) have restricted access, (3) provide convenient access to necessary information, and (4) facilitate interprofessional collaboration. This study provides direction for the development of display methods that balance the sharing of vital information and protection of patient privacy.

  17. Libraries Protecting Privacy on Social Media: Sharing without "Oversharing"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Cotter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Libraries have increasingly adopted social media as an integral means of connecting with their users. However, social media presents many potential concerns regarding library patron privacy. This article presents the findings from a study of how librarians and library staff perceive and handle issues of patron privacy related to social media marketing in libraries. The study reports the results from a mixed-methods online survey, which used a nonprobability self-selection sampling method to collect responses from individuals employed by libraries, without restrictions on position or library type. Nearly three-quarters of respondents reported working in libraries that have either an official or unofficial social media policy. Approximately 53% of those policies mention patron privacy. The findings suggest that many respondents’ views and practices are influenced by the perception of the library’s physical space and social media presence as public places. The findings also suggest a lack of consensus regarding the extent of the library’s obligation to protect patron privacy on library social media sites and what would constitute a violation of privacy.

  18. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP. GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals’ private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP’s performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical statistical dataset models: (a the binary data model; and (b the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  19. Sexiled: Privacy Acquisition Strategies of College Roommates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how roommates make privacy bids in college residence halls. The results indicate that privacy for sexual activity is a problem for students living in college residence halls, as almost all participants (82%) reported having dealt with this issue. Two sets of responses were collected and analyzed: privacy acquisition…

  20. 31 CFR 0.216 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act. 0.216 Section 0.216... RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.216 Privacy Act. Employees involved in the design, development, operation, or maintenance of any system of records or in maintaining records subject to the Privacy Act of...

  1. Context-Aware Generative Adversarial Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chong; Kairouz, Peter; Chen, Xiao; Sankar, Lalitha; Rajagopal, Ram

    2017-12-01

    Preserving the utility of published datasets while simultaneously providing provable privacy guarantees is a well-known challenge. On the one hand, context-free privacy solutions, such as differential privacy, provide strong privacy guarantees, but often lead to a significant reduction in utility. On the other hand, context-aware privacy solutions, such as information theoretic privacy, achieve an improved privacy-utility tradeoff, but assume that the data holder has access to dataset statistics. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a novel context-aware privacy framework called generative adversarial privacy (GAP). GAP leverages recent advancements in generative adversarial networks (GANs) to allow the data holder to learn privatization schemes from the dataset itself. Under GAP, learning the privacy mechanism is formulated as a constrained minimax game between two players: a privatizer that sanitizes the dataset in a way that limits the risk of inference attacks on the individuals' private variables, and an adversary that tries to infer the private variables from the sanitized dataset. To evaluate GAP's performance, we investigate two simple (yet canonical) statistical dataset models: (a) the binary data model, and (b) the binary Gaussian mixture model. For both models, we derive game-theoretically optimal minimax privacy mechanisms, and show that the privacy mechanisms learned from data (in a generative adversarial fashion) match the theoretically optimal ones. This demonstrates that our framework can be easily applied in practice, even in the absence of dataset statistics.

  2. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title Privacy... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13...

  3. Enhancing Privacy for Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Conrado, C.; Schrijen, G.J.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter addresses privacy issues in DRM systems. These systems provide a means of protecting digital content, but may violate the privacy of users in that the content they purchase and their actions in the system can be linked to specific users. The chapter proposes a privacy-preserving DRM

  4. Access to Information and Privacy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a Crown corporation, IDRC is subject to Canada's laws on access to information and privacy protection. The following resources will help you learn more about IDRC and the access to information and privacy acts, including instructions for submitting an access to information or privacy act (ATIP) request. IDRC and ATIP ...

  5. Do privacy and security regulations need a status update? Perspectives from an intergenerational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Stacey; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Peoples, Hayley A; Gutierrez, Amanda M; Majumder, Mary A; McGuire, Amy L; Rothstein, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information. 1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher) were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P privacy or security of online or health information (all P > 0.05). This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample. Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously.

  6. Do privacy and security regulations need a status update? Perspectives from an intergenerational survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Stacey; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Gutierrez, Amanda M.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.; Rothstein, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the “Facebook Generation” has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents’ views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary. Methods Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information. Results 1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher) were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P privacy or security of online or health information (all P > 0.05). Limitations This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample. Conclusions Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously. PMID:28926626

  7. Portraying the Army Reserve Components in Army War Games and Exercises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillon, Dick

    2002-01-01

    .... Ensuring that accuracy and realism was the primary purpose of the Role of the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in Army Exercises workshop conducted at the Collins Center for Strategic Leadership from 23-26 September 2002.

  8. Smartdata privacy meets evolutionary robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Inman; Tomko, George

    2013-01-01

    Privacy by Design and the Promise of SmartData.- SmartData: the Need, the Goal and the Challenge.- Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence.- Context dependent information processing entails scale-free dynamics.- Philosophy and SmartData.- Relevance Realization and the Neurodynamics and Neural Connectivity of General Intelligence.- What Matters: Real Bodies and Virtual Worlds.- The development of autonomous virtual agents.- Patterns of Attractors in the "Brain"".- A Privacy-Enabled Mobile Computing Model Using Intelligent Cloud-Based Services.- Unconstraint the Population: the Benefits of Horiz

  9. Privacy context model for dynamic privacy adaptation in ubiquitous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Koenings, Bastian; Dietzel, Stefan; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Ubiquitous computing is characterized by the merger of physical and virtual worlds as physical artifacts gain digital sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. Maintaining an appropriate level of privacy in the face of such complex and often highly dynamic systems is challenging. We argue

  10. Gendered Cultural Identities: The Influences of Family and Privacy Boundaries, Subjective Norms, and Stigma Beliefs on Family Health History Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2017-05-25

    This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.

  11. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  12. Adding Query Privacy to Robust DHTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket

    2011-01-01

    intermediate peers that (help to) route the queries towards their destinations. In this paper, we satisfy this requirement by presenting an approach for providing privacy for the keys in DHT queries. We use the concept of oblivious transfer (OT) in communication over DHTs to preserve query privacy without...... of obtaining query privacy over robust DHTs. Finally, we compare the performance of our privacy-preserving protocols with their more privacy-invasive counterparts. We observe that there is no increase in the message complexity and only a small overhead in the computational complexity....

  13. Balancing Health Information Exchange and Privacy Governance from a Patient-Centred Connected Health and Telehealth Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, Craig E; Gogia, Shashi B; Househ, Mowafa; Petersen, Carolyn; Basu, Arindam

    2018-04-22

     Connected healthcare is an essential part of patient-centred care delivery. Technology such as telehealth is a critical part of connected healthcare. However, exchanging health information brings the risk of privacy issues. To better manage privacy risks we first need to understand the different patterns of patient-centred care in order to tailor solutions to address privacy risks.  Drawing upon published literature, we develop a business model to enable patient-centred care via telehealth. The model identifies three patient-centred connected health patterns. We then use the patterns to analyse potential privacy risks and possible solutions from different types of telehealth delivery.  Connected healthcare raises the risk of unwarranted access to health data and related invasion of privacy. However, the risk and extent of privacy issues differ according to the pattern of patient-centred care delivery and the type of particular challenge as they enable the highest degree of connectivity and thus the greatest potential for privacy breaches.  Privacy issues are a major concern in telehealth systems and patients, providers, and administrators need to be aware of these privacy issues and have guidance on how to manage them. This paper integrates patient-centred connected health care, telehealth, and privacy risks to provide an understanding of how risks vary across different patterns of patient-centred connected health and different types of telehealth delivery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  14. Privacy enhancing techniques - the key to secure communication and management of clinical and genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, G J E; Claerhout, B; De Meyer, F

    2003-01-01

    To introduce some of the privacy protection problems related to genomics based medicine and to highlight the relevance of Trusted Third Parties (TTPs) and of Privacy Enhancing Techniques (PETs) in the restricted context of clinical research and statistics. Practical approaches based on two different pseudonymisation models, both for batch and interactive data collection and exchange, are described and analysed. The growing need of managing both clinical and genetic data raises important legal and ethical challenges. Protecting human rights in the realm of privacy, while optimising research potential and other statistical activities is a challenge that can easily be overcome with the assistance of a trust service provider offering advanced privacy enabling/enhancing solutions. As such, the use of pseudonymisation and other innovative Privacy Enhancing Techniques can unlock valuable data sources.

  15. Increasing Army Retention Through Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beerman, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    .... If the Army fails to address the enlisted retention issue in the near future departures of experienced NCOs will have a detrimental impact our military's ability to provide for our nation's security...

  16. Christian Contributions to Army Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Emma, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    .... The Army builds the soldier's heart, spirit, and soul by the values we instill. Over the years these values of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage have been trained and reinforced...

  17. Racial Extremism in the Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, Walter M

    1998-01-01

    ... modem phenomenon of "skinheads." I then discuss the history of white supremacist extremism in the Army, culminating in the December, 1995 murders of two black civilians by soldiers assigned to the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina...

  18. Security and privacy preserving approaches in the eHealth clouds with disaster recovery plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Aqeel; Lai, David; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing was introduced as an alternative storage and computing model in the health sector as well as other sectors to handle large amounts of data. Many healthcare companies have moved their electronic data to the cloud in order to reduce in-house storage, IT development and maintenance costs. However, storing the healthcare records in a third-party server may cause serious storage, security and privacy issues. Therefore, many approaches have been proposed to preserve security as well as privacy in cloud computing projects. Cryptographic-based approaches were presented as one of the best ways to ensure the security and privacy of healthcare data in the cloud. Nevertheless, the cryptographic-based approaches which are used to transfer health records safely remain vulnerable regarding security, privacy, or the lack of any disaster recovery strategy. In this paper, we review the related work on security and privacy preserving as well as disaster recovery in the eHealth cloud domain. Then we propose two approaches, the Security-Preserving approach and the Privacy-Preserving approach, and a disaster recovery plan. The Security-Preserving approach is a robust means of ensuring the security and integrity of Electronic Health Records, and the Privacy-Preserving approach is an efficient authentication approach which protects the privacy of Personal Health Records. Finally, we discuss how the integrated approaches and the disaster recovery plan can ensure the reliability and security of cloud projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supporting multi-state collaboration on privacy and security to foster health IT and health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Alison K; Alakoye, Amoke O; Rizk, Stephanie C

    2008-11-06

    As part of the HHS funded contract, Health Information Security and Privacy Collaboration, 41 states and territories have proposed collaborative projects to address cross-state privacy and security challenges related to health IT and health information exchange. Multi-state collaboration on privacy and security issues remains complicated, and resources to support collaboration around these topics are essential to the success of such collaboration. The resources outlined here offer an example of how to support multi-stakeholder, multi-state projects.

  20. Student Data Privacy Communications Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Excellence in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Parents expect school districts and schools to keep their children safe while they are in school. That expectation of safety and security also extends to the protection of their children's learning data. Therefore, it is critical that school districts and schools are open and transparent about their student data privacy practices, and that those…

  1. Privacy proof in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessen, Veerle; Weigand, Hans; Mouratidis, Haris

    Cloud computing has been a frequently researched subject as it brings many advantages, such as the ability to store data remotely and scale rapidly, but also comes with several issues, including privacy, trust and security. The decision whether it is best to go `into the cloud' or to `stay inside'

  2. Patient privacy and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, Amy L; Brown, Evan D

    2010-08-01

    Healthcare providers using social media must remain mindful of professional boundaries and patients' privacy rights. Facebook and other online postings must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), applicable facility policy, state law, and AANA's Code of Ethics.

  3. Facebook: When Education Meets Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, Steven; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) has become commonplace amongst students. In this research, we aim to shed light upon the educational use and privacy issues on Facebook from the perspective of role theory and reference group theory. 15 bachelor students of the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) in Flanders, Belgium, were interviewed in…

  4. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  5. Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, Michael; Jeckmans, Arjan; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, Reginald; Tang, Qiang; Abraham, A.

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have become part of daily life for millions of users. Users building explicit networks that represent their social relationships and often share a wealth of personal information to their own benefit. The potential privacy risks of such behavior are often underestimated

  6. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  7. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  8. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.'' are added at the end of the definition of Act. [FR Doc. 2013-18535 Filed 7...

  9. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  10. Protecting Your Child's Privacy Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Up With Kids' Apps infographic Kids and Computer Security Kids and Mobile Phones Kids and Socializing Online ... email Looking for business guidance on privacy and ... The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive ...

  11. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  12. First HIV legal precedent in Kyrgyzstan: breach of medical privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriskulbekov, Erik; Balybaeva, Asylgul

    2007-12-01

    A recent court case of a breach of the privacy rights of a person living with HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan is the first of its kind in Central Asia, write Erik Iriskulbekov and Asylgul Balybaeva. ADILET, the NGO that brought the case to court, is one of only a few NGOs in Central Asia that provide legal assistance related to HIV and AIDS.

  13. Location-Based Services and Privacy in Airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of privacy concerns related to location-based services in an airport, where users who volunteer for the service will be tracked for a limited period and within a limited area. Reactions elicited from travellers at a field trial showed 60% feeling to some or to a larg...

  14. Social Status and the Demand for Security and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    . The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...

  15. Privacy and security issues in a digital world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most important security and privacy issues of the modern digital world, emphasizing the issues brought by the concept of ambient intelligence. Furthermore, the chapter explains the organization of the book, describing which issues and related technologies are addressed by

  16. Privacy and Security Issues in a Digital World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most important security and privacy issues of the modern digital world, emphasizing the issues brought by the concept of ambient intelligence. Furthermore, the chapter explains the organization of the book, describing which issues and related technologies are addressed by

  17. 75 FR 34714 - Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure Realignment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Proving Ground, MD 21010-5401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: LTC David Patterson, Media Relations... strategic requirements. The Department of the Army prepared a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  18. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army... CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.14 Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for Department...

  19. Perspectives of Australian adults about protecting the privacy of their health information in statistical databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tatiana; Brankovic, Ljiljana; Gillard, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to discover the public's attitude and views towards privacy in health care. This is a part of a larger project which aims to gain an insight into what kind of privacy is needed and develop technical measures to provide such privacy. The study was a two-stage process which combined qualitative and quantitative research. Stage One of the study comprised arranging and facilitating focus groups while in Stage Two we conducted a social survey. We measured attitudes towards privacy, medical research and consent; privacy concern about sharing one's health information for research; privacy concern about the possibility that some specific information from medical records could be linked to the patient's name in a situation that was not related to medical treatment. The results of the study revealed both great support for medical research (98%), and concern about privacy of health information (66%). Participants prefer to be asked for their permission before their health information is used for any purpose other than medical treatment (92%), and they would like to know the organisation and details of the research before allowing the use of their health records (83%). Age, level of education, place of birth and employment status are most strongly associated with privacy concerns. The study showed that there are some particularly sensitive issues and there is a concern (42-60%) about any possibility of linking these kinds of data to the patient's name in a situation that is not related to medical treatment. Such issues include sexually transmitted diseases, abortions and infertility, family medical history/genetic disorders, mental illness, drug/alcohol related incidents, lists of previous operations/procedures/dates and current medications. Participants believe they should be asked for permission before their health information is used for any purpose other than medical treatment. However, consent and privacy concerns are not necessary related

  20. Children's Privacy in the Big Data Era: Research Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff; Milosevic, Tijana

    2017-11-01

    This article focuses on the privacy implications of advertising on social media, mobile apps, and games directed at children. Academic research on children's privacy has primarily focused on the safety risks involved in sharing personal information on the Internet, leaving market forces (such as commercial data collection) as a less discussed aspect of children's privacy. Yet, children's privacy in the digital era cannot be fully understood without examining marketing practices, especially in the context of "big data." As children increasingly consume content on an ever-expanding variety of digital devices, media and advertising industries are creating new ways to track their behaviors and target them with personalized content and marketing messages based on individual profiles. The advent of the so-called Internet of Things, with its ubiquitous sensors, is expanding these data collection and profiling practices. These trends raise serious concerns about digital dossiers that could follow young people into adulthood, affecting their access to education, employment, health care, and financial services. Although US privacy law provides some safeguards for children younger than 13 years old online, adolescents are afforded no such protections. Moreover, scholarship on children and privacy continues to lag behind the changes taking place in global media, advertising, and technology. This article proposes collaboration among researchers from a range of fields that will enable cross-disciplinary studies addressing not only the developmental issues related to different age groups but also the design of digital media platforms and the strategies used to influence young people. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Privacy protection for personal health information and shared care records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, Roderick L B

    2014-01-01

    The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers: this will become more onerous with the introduction of the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in mid-2014. Many institutions, both large and small, have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient consent and control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring, has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failure to protect privacy: these too are set to become more onerous under the GDPR, increasing to a maximum of 2% of annual turnover. There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information. This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy. This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing. REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVACY: There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers) to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient. To achieve this information storage and retrieval, communication systems must be appropriately configured. There are many components of this, which are discussed in this paper. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore, their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval (i.e. like the World Wide Web) under patient control and kept private: a method for delivering this is outlined.

  2. Privacy Protection in Personal Health Information and Shared Care Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick L B Neame

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers. Many institutions have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failures to protect privacy. Objective  There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information.  This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy.  This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing.Requirements for Privacy  There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient.  To achieve this information storage and retrieval, and communication systems must be appropriately configured. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval under patient control and kept private. 

  3. Public assessment of new surveillance-oriented security technologies: Beyond the trade-off between privacy and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vincenzo; Esposti, Sara Degli

    2012-07-01

    As surveillance-oriented security technologies (SOSTs) are considered security enhancing but also privacy infringing, citizens are expected to trade part of their privacy for higher security. Drawing from the PRISE project, this study casts some light on how citizens actually assess SOSTs through a combined analysis of focus groups and survey data. First, the outcomes suggest that people did not assess SOSTs in abstract terms but in relation to the specific institutional and social context of implementation. Second, from this embedded viewpoint, citizens either expressed concern about government's surveillance intentions and considered SOSTs mainly as privacy infringing, or trusted political institutions and believed that SOSTs effectively enhanced their security. None of them, however, seemed to trade privacy for security because concerned citizens saw their privacy being infringed without having their security enhanced, whilst trusting citizens saw their security being increased without their privacy being affected.

  4. Lessons learned from a privacy breach at an academic health science centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonda, Jacqueline; Campbell, Janice; Crivianu-Gaita, Daniela; Freedman, Melvin H; Stevens, Polly; Laxer, Ronald M

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Hospital for Sick Children experienced a serious privacy breach when a laptop computer containing the personal health information of approximately 3,000 patients and research subjects was stolen from a physician-researcher's vehicle. This incident was reported to the information and privacy commissioner of Ontario (IPC). The IPC issued an order that required the hospital to examine and revise its policies, practices and research protocols related to the protection of personal health information and to educate staff on privacy-related matters.

  5. Disclosure 'downunder': misadventures in Australian genetic privacy law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonython, Wendy; Arnold, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    Along with many jurisdictions, Australia is struggling with the unique issues raised by genetic information in the context of privacy laws and medical ethics. Although the consequences of disclosure of most private information are generally confined to individuals, disclosure of genetic information has far-reaching consequences, with a credible argument that genetic relatives have a right to know about potential medical conditions. In 2006, the Privacy Act was amended to permit disclosure of an individual's genetic information, without their consent, to genetic relatives, if it was to avoid or mitigate serious illness. Unfortunately, additional amendments required for operation of the disclosure amendment were overlooked. Public Interest Determinations (PIDs)-delegated legislation issued by the privacy commissioner-have, instead, been used to exempt healthcare providers from provisions which would otherwise make disclosure unlawful. This paper critiques the PIDs using documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act-specifically the impact of both the PIDs and the disclosure amendment on patients and relatives-and confidentiality and the procedural validity of subordinate laws regulating medical privacy.

  6. 76 FR 37329 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... related to disciplinary actions, responses from subjects, and correspondence with Governmental agencies... responsibility and mismanagement; to take adverse action and appropriate disciplinary action against those found... of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY...

  7. 76 FR 40343 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Responsibility Committee opinions, memoranda related to disciplinary actions, responses from subjects, and... professional responsibility and mismanagement; to take adverse action and appropriate disciplinary action... of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY...

  8. Do privacy and security regulations need a status update? Perspectives from an intergenerational survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Pereira

    Full Text Available The importance of health privacy protections in the era of the "Facebook Generation" has been called into question. The ease with which younger people share personal information about themselves has led to the assumption that they are less concerned than older generations about the privacy of their information, including health information. We explored whether survey respondents' views toward health privacy suggest that efforts to strengthen privacy protections as health information is moved online are unnecessary.Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk, which is well-known for recruitment for survey research, we distributed a 45-item survey to individuals in the U.S. to assess their perspectives toward privacy and security of online and health information, social media behaviors, use of health and fitness devices, and demographic information.1310 participants (mean age: 36 years, 50% female, 78% non-Hispanic white, 54% college graduates or higher were categorized by generations: Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In multivariate regression models, we found that generational cohort was an independent predictor of level of concern about privacy and security of both online and health information. Younger generations were significantly less likely to be concerned than older generations (all P 0.05.This study is limited by the non-representativeness of our sample.Though Millennials reported lower levels of concern about privacy and security, this was not related to internet or social media behaviors, and majorities within all generations reported concern about both the privacy and security of their health information. Thus, there is no intergenerational imperative to relax privacy and security standards, and it would be advisable to take privacy and security of health information more seriously.

  9. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  10. (IN-PRIVACY IN MOBILE APPS. CUSTOMER OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Chemerkina

    2016-01-01

    implement the missing privacy and security protection control and provide the privacy requirements (keeping the users informed about possibility to avoid untrusted usage cases. Practical Relevance. Practical relevance of the received results is the following: first, the set of knowledge facts about each examined application to privacy score per application, per application category (IM, travel, etc., per OS, etc; second, the developed method under the forensics approach can be used to carry out analysis of the application data privacy in relation to the specified requirements including audit, reconfiguring EMM application policies and reasons for their commissioning.

  11. Information privacy fundamentals for librarians and information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Givens, Cherie L

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces library and information professionals to information privacy, provides an overview of information privacy in the library and information science context, U.S. privacy laws by sector, information privacy policy, and key considerations when planning and creating a privacy program.

  12. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  13. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  14. 32 CFR 701.101 - Privacy program terms and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from a project on privacy issues, identifying and resolving the privacy risks, and approval by a... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy program terms and definitions. 701.101... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.101 Privacy program terms and...

  15. Comparative analysis of field ration for military personnel of the ukrainian army and armies of other countries worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mardar; M. Hkrupalo; M. Stateva

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the Ukrainian nutritional standards this Article provides comparative analysis of field rations of different countries worldwide to make a proposal on improvement of food-stuff assortment in food ration for military personnel in the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Army of USA, the British Army, Army of Germany, Army of Italy, Army of Canada, Army of France, Army of Belarus, Army of Armenia. In accordance with the comparative analysis it was established that ration c...

  16. Data privacy considerations in Intensive Care Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Jesus; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Bilas, Angelos; Marazakis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    Novel eHealth systems are being designed to provide a citizen-centered health system, however the even demanding need for computing and data resources has required the adoption of Grid technologies. In most of the cases, this novel Health Grid requires not only conveying patient's personal data through public networks, but also storing it into shared resources out of the hospital premises. These features introduce new security concerns, in particular related with privacy. In this paper we survey current legal and technological approaches that have been taken to protect a patient's personal data into eHealth systems, with a particular focus in Intensive Care Grids. However, thanks to a security analysis applied over the Intensive Care Grid system (ICGrid) we show that these security mechanisms are not enough to provide a comprehensive solution, mainly because the data-at-rest is still vulnerable to attacks coming from untrusted Storage Elements where an attacker may directly access them. To cope with these issues, we propose a new privacy-oriented protocol which uses a combination of encryption and fragmentation to improve data's assurance while keeping compatibility with current legislations and Health Grid security mechanisms.

  17. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Answering the Hottest Question in Army Education: What Is Army University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kem, John S.; LeBoeuf, Eugene J.; Martin, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The most common question heard by senior members of Army University is always, "What is Army University?" The newest education institution in the U.S. Army was created to unify the training and educational institutions of the Army, making the large learning organization more effective and efficient for its soldiers, bringing together 37…

  19. Operational Reach: Is Current Army Doctrine Adequate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heintzelman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The term operational reach, an element of operational design, is new to U.S. Army doctrine. Operational reach is not found in the previous edition of the Army's basic operational doctrine, Field Manual...

  20. Tales from the dark side: Privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bösch, Christoph; Erb, Benjamin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Privacy strategies and privacy patterns are fundamental concepts of the privacy-by-design engineering approach. While they support a privacy-aware development process for IT systems, the concepts used by malicious, privacy-threatening parties are generally less understood and known. We argue...... that understanding the “dark side”, namely how personal data is abused, is of equal importance. In this paper, we introduce the concept of privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns and present a framework that collects, documents, and analyzes such malicious concepts. In addition, we investigate from...... a psychological perspective why privacy dark strategies are effective. The resulting framework allows for a better understanding of these dark concepts, fosters awareness, and supports the development of countermeasures. We aim to contribute to an easier detection and successive removal of such approaches from...

  1. Privacy Protection: Mandating New Arrangements to Implement and Assess Federal Privacy Policy and Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C

    2004-01-01

    When Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974, it established a temporary national study commission to conduct a comprehensive assessment of privacy policy and practice in both the public and private...

  2. The Evolution of Army Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Human Resources Command, OPMD- MFE -I. 4 U.S. Army General Officer Management Office, Army General Officer Roster (Washington, DC, U.S. Department of the...Human Resources Command, Command Management Branch post board data analysis. 15 Data from the United States Army Human Resources Command, OPMD- MFE -A...May 1, 2008), D-1. 25 19 Data from the United States Army Human Resources Command, OPMD- MFE -A, 01 February, 2013. 20 U.S. Joint Chiefs of

  3. Privacy and security in teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  5. Privacy and security in teleradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: pekka.ruotsalainen@THL.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper.

  6. Privacy and security in teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. δ-dependency for privacy-preserving XML data publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landberg, Anders H; Nguyen, Kinh; Pardede, Eric; Rahayu, J Wenny

    2014-08-01

    An ever increasing amount of medical data such as electronic health records, is being collected, stored, shared and managed in large online health information systems and electronic medical record systems (EMR) (Williams et al., 2001; Virtanen, 2009; Huang and Liou, 2007) [1-3]. From such rich collections, data is often published in the form of census and statistical data sets for the purpose of knowledge sharing and enabling medical research. This brings with it an increasing need for protecting individual people privacy, and it becomes an issue of great importance especially when information about patients is exposed to the public. While the concept of data privacy has been comprehensively studied for relational data, models and algorithms addressing the distinct differences and complex structure of XML data are yet to be explored. Currently, the common compromise method is to convert private XML data into relational data for publication. This ad hoc approach results in significant loss of useful semantic information previously carried in the private XML data. Health data often has very complex structure, which is best expressed in XML. In fact, XML is the standard format for exchanging (e.g. HL7 version 3(1)) and publishing health information. Lack of means to deal directly with data in XML format is inevitably a serious drawback. In this paper we propose a novel privacy protection model for XML, and an algorithm for implementing this model. We provide general rules, both for transforming a private XML schema into a published XML schema, and for mapping private XML data to the new privacy-protected published XML data. In addition, we propose a new privacy property, δ-dependency, which can be applied to both relational and XML data, and that takes into consideration the hierarchical nature of sensitive data (as opposed to "quasi-identifiers"). Lastly, we provide an implementation of our model, algorithm and privacy property, and perform an experimental analysis

  8. Online Tracking Technologies and Web Privacy:Technologieën voor Online volgen en Web Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Mustafa Gunes Can

    2017-01-01

    In my PhD thesis, I would like to study the problem of online privacy with a focus on Web and mobile applications. Key research questions to be addressed by my study are the following: How can we formalize and quantify web tracking? What are the threats presented against privacy by different tracking techniques such as browser fingerprinting and cookie based tracking? What kind of privacy enhancing technologies (PET) can be used to ensure privacy without degrading service quality? The stud...

  9. Gender and online privacy among teens: risk perception, privacy concerns, and protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seounmi; Hall, Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Survey data from 395 high school students revealed that girls perceive more privacy risks and have a higher level of privacy concerns than boys. Regarding privacy protection behaviors, boys tended to read unsolicited e-mail and register for Web sites while directly sending complaints in response to unsolicited e-mail. This study found girls to provide inaccurate information as their privacy concerns increased. Boys, however, refrained from registering to Web sites as their concerns increased.

  10. Portrait of a Privacy Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshitaishvili Yan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of online social networks has changed the way in which we share personal thoughts, political views, and pictures. Pictures have a particularly important role in the privacy of users, as they can convey substantial information (e.g., a person was attending an event, or has met with another person. Moreover, because of the nature of social networks, it has become increasingly difficult to control who has access to which content. Therefore, when a substantial amount of pictures are accessible to one party, there is a very serious potential for violations of the privacy of users. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technique that, given a large corpus of pictures shared on a social network, automatically determines who is dating whom, with reasonable precision. More specifically, our approach combines facial recognition, spatial analysis, and machine learning techniques to determine pairs that are dating. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first privacy attack of this kind performed on social networks. We implemented our approach in a tool, called Creepic, and evaluated it on two real-world datasets. The results show that it is possible to automatically extract non-obvious, and nondisclosed, relationships between people represented in a group of pictures, even when the people involved are not directly part of a connected social clique.

  11. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Assessing subject privacy and data confidentiality in an emerging region for clinical trials: United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sponsored clinical trials, formerly conducted predominantly in the United States and Europe, have expanded to emerging regions, including the Middle East. Our study explores factors influencing clinical trial privacy and confidentiality in the United Arab Emirates. Factors including concept familiarity, informed consent compliance, data access, and preservation, were analyzed to assess current practices in the Arab world. As the UAE is an emerging region for clinical trials, there is a growing need for regulations related to data confidentiality and subject privacy. Informational and decisional privacy should be viewed within the realms of Arab culture and religious background.

  13. Fourier Magnitude-Based Privacy-Preserving Clustering on Time-Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hea-Suk; Moon, Yang-Sae

    Privacy-preserving clustering (PPC in short) is important in publishing sensitive time-series data. Previous PPC solutions, however, have a problem of not preserving distance orders or incurring privacy breach. To solve this problem, we propose a new PPC approach that exploits Fourier magnitudes of time-series. Our magnitude-based method does not cause privacy breach even though its techniques or related parameters are publicly revealed. Using magnitudes only, however, incurs the distance order problem, and we thus present magnitude selection strategies to preserve as many Euclidean distance orders as possible. Through extensive experiments, we showcase the superiority of our magnitude-based approach.

  14. Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    David Sánchez; Montserrat Batet

    2017-01-01

    Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2016.12.013 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952197616302408 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI Privacy has become a serious concern for modern Information Societies. The sensitive nature of much of the data that are daily exchanged or released to untrusted parties requires that responsible organizations undertake appropriate privacy protection measures. Nowadays, much...

  15. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy tends to ignore the political economy of privacy in capitalism that can mask socio-economic inequality and protect capital and the rich from public accountability. Facebook is in this paper analyzed with the help of an approach, in which privacy for dominant groups, in regard to the ability of keeping wealth and power secret from the public, is seen as problematic, whereas privacy at the bottom of the power pyramid for consumers and normal citizens is seen as a protection from dominant interests. Facebook’s privacy concept is based on an understanding that stresses self-regulation and on an individualistic understanding of privacy. The theoretical analysis of the political economy of privacy on Facebook in this paper is based on the political theories of Karl Marx, Hannah Arendt and Jürgen Habermas. Based on the political economist Dallas Smythe’s concept of audience commodification, the process of prosumer commodification on Facebook is analyzed. The political economy of privacy on Facebook is analyzed with the help of a theory of drives that is grounded in Herbert Marcuse’s interpretation of Sigmund Freud, which allows to analyze Facebook based on the concept of play labor (= the convergence of play and labor.

  16. Security measures required for HIPAA privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatayakul, M

    2000-01-01

    HIPAA security requirements include administrative, physical, and technical services and mechanisms to safeguard confidentiality, availability, and integrity of health information. Security measures, however, must be implemented in the context of an organization's privacy policies. Because HIPAA's proposed privacy rules are flexible and scalable to account for the nature of each organization's business, size, and resources, each organization will be determining its own privacy policies within the context of the HIPAA requirements and its security capabilities. Security measures cannot be implemented in a vacuum.

  17. A Model-Based Privacy Compliance Checker

    OpenAIRE

    Siani Pearson; Damien Allison

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, e-business organisations are coming under pressure to be compliant to a range of privacy legislation, policies and best practice. There is a clear need for high-level management and administrators to be able to assess in a dynamic, customisable way the degree to which their enterprise complies with these. We outline a solution to this problem in the form of a model-driven automated privacy process analysis and configuration checking system. This system models privacy compliance ...

  18. Privacy Preservation in Distributed Subgradient Optimization Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Youcheng; Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation is becoming an increasingly important issue in data mining and machine learning. In this paper, we consider the privacy preserving features of distributed subgradient optimization algorithms. We first show that a well-known distributed subgradient synchronous optimization algorithm, in which all agents make their optimization updates simultaneously at all times, is not privacy preserving in the sense that the malicious agent can learn other agents' subgradients asymptotic...

  19. 76 FR 12087 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Dates of Meeting: March 24, 2011. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes Avenue, Carlisle, PA, Command... faculty; table and examine online College issues; assess resident and distance education programs, self...

  20. 75 FR 7255 - Army Educational Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Committee: U.S. Army War College Subcommittee of the Army Education Advisory Committee. Date of Meeting: March 11, 2010. Place of Meeting: U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes Avenue, Carlisle, PA, Command...; table and examine online College issues; assess resident and distance education programs, self- study...

  1. 32 CFR 631.14 - Army policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army policy. 631.14 Section 631.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.14 Army policy. (a...

  2. Analysis of Privacy on Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tomandl, Luboš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with a question of privacy in a context of social networks. The main substance of these services is the users' option to share an information about their lives. This alone can be a problem for privacy. In the first part of this thesis concentrates on the meaning of privacy as well as its value for both individuals and the society. In the next part the privacy threats on social networks, namely Facebook, are discussed. These threats are disclosed on four levels according to f...

  3. Privacy Protection Research of Mobile RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification is one of the most controversial technologies at present.It is very difficult to detect who reads a tag incorporated into products owned by a person,a significant concern to privacy threats in RFID system arises from this reason.User privacy problem is prior considersion for mobile RFID service,because most mobile RFID service based on end-user service.Propose a solution for user privacy protection,which is a modification of EPC Class 1 Generation 2 protocol,and introduce a privacy protection scenario for mobile RFID service using this method.

  4. Location privacy protection in mobile networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief analyzes the potential privacy threats in wireless and mobile network environments, and reviews some existing works. It proposes multiple privacy preserving techniques against several types of privacy threats that are targeting users in a mobile network environment. Depending on the network architecture, different approaches can be adopted. The first proposed approach considers a three-party system architecture where there is a trusted central authority that can be used to protect users? privacy. The second approach considers a totally distributed environment where users per

  5. Extending SQL to Support Privacy Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazinour, Kambiz; Pun, Sampson; Majedi, Maryam; Chinaci, Amir H.; Barker, Ken

    Increasing concerns over Internet applications that violate user privacy by exploiting (back-end) database vulnerabilities must be addressed to protect both customer privacy and to ensure corporate strategic assets remain trustworthy. This chapter describes an extension onto database catalogues and Structured Query Language (SQL) for supporting privacy in Internet applications, such as in social networks, e-health, e-governmcnt, etc. The idea is to introduce new predicates to SQL commands to capture common privacy requirements, such as purpose, visibility, generalization, and retention for both mandatory and discretionary access control policies. The contribution is that corporations, when creating the underlying databases, will be able to define what their mandatory privacy policies arc with which all application users have to comply. Furthermore, each application user, when providing their own data, will be able to define their own privacy policies with which other users have to comply. The extension is supported with underlying catalogues and algorithms. The experiments demonstrate a very reasonable overhead for the extension. The result is a low-cost mechanism to create new systems that arc privacy aware and also to transform legacy databases to their privacy-preserving equivalents. Although the examples arc from social networks, one can apply the results to data security and user privacy of other enterprises as well.

  6. Do Privacy Concerns Matter for Millennials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fodor, Mark; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    data have raised the question, if location data are considered as sensitive data by users. Thus, we use two privacy concern models, namely Concern for Information Privacy (CFIP) and Internet Users’ Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC) to find out. Our sample comprises of 235 individuals between 18...... and 34 years (Generation C) from Germany. The results of this study indicate that the second-order factor IUIPC showed better fit for the underlying data than CFIP did. Overall privacy concerns have been found to have an impact on behavioral intentions of users for LBS adoption. Furthermore, other risk...

  7. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C Cucoranu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI. In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  8. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  9. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to `sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to `hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a `digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers. PMID:12554559

  10. Security, privacy, and confidentiality issues on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grant; McKenzie, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    We introduce the issues around protecting information about patients and related data sent via the Internet. We begin by reviewing three concepts necessary to any discussion about data security in a healthcare environment: privacy, confidentiality, and consent. We are giving some advice on how to protect local data. Authentication and privacy of e-mail via encryption is offered by Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). The de facto Internet standard for encrypting Web-based information interchanges is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), more recently known as Transport Layer Security or TLS. There is a public key infrastructure process to 'sign' a message whereby the private key of an individual can be used to 'hash' the message. This can then be verified against the sender's public key. This ensures the data's authenticity and origin without conferring privacy, and is called a 'digital signature'. The best protection against viruses is not opening e-mails from unknown sources or those containing unusual message headers.

  11. 45 CFR 2508.19 - What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from disclosure? 2508.19 Section 2508.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... ACT OF 1974 § 2508.19 What Privacy Act exemptions or control of systems of records are exempt from...

  12. 45 CFR 2508.8 - Who is responsible for establishing the Corporation's rules of conduct for Privacy Act compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Corporation's rules of conduct for Privacy Act compliance? 2508.8 Section 2508.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2508.8 Who is responsible for establishing the Corporation's rules of conduct for...

  13. The Models of Applying Online Privacy Literacy Strategies: A Case Study of Instagram Girl Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Bicharanlou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networks affect remarkably in the lives of virtual space users. These networks like most human relations involve compromising between self-disclosure and privacy protection. A process which is realized through improving privacy and empowering the user at the personal level. This study aimed to assess strategies based on online privacy literacy. In particular, strategies that Instagram young girls users should employ to achieve the optimum level of privacy. For this purpose, firstly the paradox of privacy, benefits and risks of self-disclosure are explained, then according to online privacy literacy, some social and technological strategies are introduced by which users can solve the “paradox of privacy.” In the result section, after describing the main benefits and risks of self-disclosure by girl users, the current models of using these social and technological strategies to solve the mentioned paradox are discussed. The research method is ethnography based on non-collaborative observation of Instagram pages and semi-structured interviews with 20 girl users of social networks.

  14. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelMalik Philip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals, including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  15. Child privacy rights: A ‘Cinderella’ issue in HIV-prevention research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elaine Strode

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legal debates regarding child participation in HIV research have tended to focus on issues of informed consent. However, much less attention has been given to privacy; accordingly, we classify this as a ‘Cinderella issue’ that has been excluded from ‘the ball’ (academic debate. Here we argue that privacy issues are as important as consent issues in HIV-prevention research. We describe a child’s right to privacy regarding certain health interventions in South African law, and identify four key norms that flow from the law and that could be applied to HIV-prevention research: (i children cannot have an expectation of privacy regarding research participation if they have not given independent consent to the study; (ii children may have an expectation of privacy regarding certain components of the study, such as HIV testing, if they consent independently to such services; (iii children’s rights to privacy in health research are limited by mandatory reporting obligations; (iv children’s rights to privacy in HIV-prevention research may be justifiably limited by the concept of the best interests of the child. We conclude with guidelines for researchers on how to implement these principles in HIV-related research studies.

  16. Privacy and confidentiality: perspectives of mental health consumers and carers in pharmacy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; McConnell, Denise; Fowler, Jane L; Mey, Amary; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-02-01

    The study aims to explore within the community pharmacy practice context the views of mental health stakeholders on: (1) current and past experiences of privacy, confidentiality and support; and (2) expectations and needs in relation to privacy and confidentiality. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in three states in Australia, namely Queensland, the northern region of New South Wales and Western Australia, between December 2011 and March 2012. There were 98 participants consisting of consumers and carers (n = 74), health professionals (n = 13) and representatives from consumer organisations (n = 11). Participants highlighted a need for improved staff awareness. Consumers indicated a desire to receive information in a way that respects their privacy and confidentiality, in an appropriate space. Areas identified that require improved protection of privacy and confidentiality during pharmacy interactions were the number of staff having access to sensitive information, workflow models causing information exposure and pharmacies' layout not facilitating private discussions. Challenges experienced by carers created feelings of isolation which could impact on care. This study explored mental health stakeholders' experiences and expectations regarding privacy and confidentiality in the Australian community pharmacy context. A need for better pharmacy staff training about the importance of privacy and confidentiality and strategies to enhance compliance with national pharmacy practice requirements was identified. Findings provided insight into privacy and confidentiality needs and will assist in the development of pharmacy staff training material to better support consumers with sensitive conditions. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Curtis, Andrew J; Abdelmalik, Philip

    2009-07-20

    This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic) of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association) workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals), including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  18. The Army study to assess risk and resilience in servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    samples to examine predictors of subsequent suicidality and related mental health outcomes. Measures (self-report and administratively recorded) of suicidal behaviors and their psychopathological correlates. Component study cooperation rates are comparatively high. Sample biases are relatively small. Inefficiencies introduced into parameter estimates by using nonresponse adjustment weights and time-space clustering are small. Initial findings show that the suicide death rate, which rose over 2004-2009, increased for those deployed, those never deployed, and those previously deployed. Analyses of administrative records show that those deployed or previously deployed were at greater suicide risk. Receiving a waiver to enter the Army was not associated with increased risk. However, being demoted in the past two years was associated with increased risk. Time in current deployment, length of time since return from most recent deployment, total number of deployments, and time interval between most recent deployments (known as dwell time) were not associated with suicide risk. Initial analyses of survey data show that 13.9% of currently active non-deployed regular Army soldiers considered suicide at some point in their lifetime, while 5.3% had made a suicide plan, and 2.4% had attempted suicide. Importantly, 47-60% of these outcomes first occurred prior to enlistment. Prior mental disorders, in particular major depression and intermittent explosive disorder, were the strongest predictors of these self-reported suicidal behaviors. Most onsets of plans-attempts among ideators (58.3-63.3%) occurred within the year of onset of ideation. About 25.1% of non-deployed U.S. Army personnel met 30-day criteria for a DSM-IV anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior, or substance disorder (15.0% an internalizing disorder; 18.4% an externalizing disorder) and 11.1% for multiple disorders. Importantly, three-fourths of these disorders had pre-enlistment onsets. Integration across component studies

  19. Digital privacy in the marketplace perspectives on the information exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, George

    2015-01-01

    Digital Privacy in the Marketplace focuses on the data ex-changes between marketers and consumers, with special ttention to the privacy challenges that are brought about by new information technologies. The purpose of this book is to provide a background source to help the reader think more deeply about the impact of privacy issues on both consumers and marketers. It covers topics such as: why privacy is needed, the technological, historical and academic theories of privacy, how market exchange af-fects privacy, what are the privacy harms and protections available, and what is the likely future of privacy.

  20. Suicide in the Army National Guard: An Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, suicides in the U.S. military have risen, most notably in the Army National Guard (ARNG). Data used in this study were obtained for suicides occurring from 2007 to 2010 and for a random sample of nonsuicides from the general ARNG population. Of the military-related variables considered, a few showed relationships to suicide. Rather,…

  1. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530

  2. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  3. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Dhir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  4. Security and privacy qualities of medical devices: an analysis of FDA postmarket surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel B; Baker, Matthew; Ransford, Benjamin; Molina-Markham, Andres; Stewart, Quinn; Fu, Kevin; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Medical devices increasingly depend on computing functions such as wireless communication and Internet connectivity for software-based control of therapies and network-based transmission of patients' stored medical information. These computing capabilities introduce security and privacy risks, yet little is known about the prevalence of such risks within the clinical setting. We used three comprehensive, publicly available databases maintained by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate recalls and adverse events related to security and privacy risks of medical devices. Review of weekly enforcement reports identified 1,845 recalls; 605 (32.8%) of these included computers, 35 (1.9%) stored patient data, and 31 (1.7%) were capable of wireless communication. Searches of databases specific to recalls and adverse events identified only one event with a specific connection to security or privacy. Software-related recalls were relatively common, and most (81.8%) mentioned the possibility of upgrades, though only half of these provided specific instructions for the update mechanism. Our review of recalls and adverse events from federal government databases reveals sharp inconsistencies with databases at individual providers with respect to security and privacy risks. Recalls related to software may increase security risks because of unprotected update and correction mechanisms. To detect signals of security and privacy problems that adversely affect public health, federal postmarket surveillance strategies should rethink how to effectively and efficiently collect data on security and privacy problems in devices that increasingly depend on computing systems susceptible to malware.

  5. A privacy-preserving framework for outsourcing location-based services to the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaojie; Ayday, Erman; Vitenberg, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Thanks to the popularity of mobile devices a large number of location-based services (LBS) have emerged. While a large number of privacy-preserving solutions for LBS have been proposed, most of these solutions do not consider the fact that LBS are typically cloud-based nowadays. Outsourcing data and computation to the cloud raises a number of significant challenges related to data confidentiality, user identity and query privacy, fine-grain access control, and query expressiveness. In this wo...

  6. Male parentage in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2006-01-01

    of active research in insect sociobiology. Here we present microsatellite data for 176 males from eight colonies of the African army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus. Comparison with worker genotypes and inferred queen genotypes from the same colonies show that workers do not or at best very rarely reproduce...

  7. The Army word recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, David R.; Haratz, David

    1977-01-01

    The application of speech recognition technology in the Army command and control area is presented. The problems associated with this program are described as well as as its relevance in terms of the man/machine interactions, voice inflexions, and the amount of training needed to interact with and utilize the automated system.

  8. Army Transformation to Expeditionary Formations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the path of transformation in the U.S. Army from its inception in the late 1990s by then Chief of Staff GEN Eric Shinseki to the Interim Brigade Combat Team and through Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom...

  9. Privacy and Psychosomatic Stress: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the supposition that insufficient privacy is stressful to the individual. Data were obtained from urban centers in New Zealand. Findings support the hypothesis that a percieved lack of privacy is associated with psychosomatic stress. The relationship is specified by measures of stress and sex of respondents. (Author)

  10. 76 FR 51869 - Privacy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... permanent residence. Maintain includes collect, use, disseminate, or control. Privacy Act means the Privacy... announces the creation, deletion, or amendment of one or more system of records. System of records notices... reference and university libraries or electronically at the [[Page 51873

  11. Just in Time Research: Privacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Joanna Lyn

    2014-01-01

    The January 2014 edition of the ECAR Update subscriber newsletter included an informal poll on information privacy practices. The poll was intended to collect a quick snapshot of the higher education community's thoughts on this important topic during Data Privacy Month. Results of the poll will be used to inform EDUCAUSE research, programs,…

  12. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with

  13. Privacy een grondrecht, maar ook handelswaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Snoeihard uit journalist Brenno de Winter zijn commentaar op sprekers over privacy tijdens het NLIGF congres 2015. Hij zet Bart Schermer, adviseur van bedrijven en organisaties in de hoek. Die heeft net betoogd dat privacy geen juk (‘korvee’) mag vormen maar inzet moet zijn van innovatie door

  14. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  15. Revocable privacy: Principles, use cases, and technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lueks, W.; Everts, M.H.; Hoepman, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Security and privacy often seem to be at odds with one another. In this paper, we revisit the design principle of revocable privacy which guides the creation of systems that offer anonymity for people who do not violate a predefined rule, but can still have consequences for people who do violate the

  16. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving…

  17. Privacy and Ethics in Undergraduate GIS Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Peter; Burnett, Adam; Dolfi, Emmalee; Goldfarb, Ali; Baum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The development of location-aware technologies, such as smartphones, raises serious questions regarding locational privacy and the ethical use of geographic data. The degree to which these concepts are taught in undergraduate geographic information science (GISci) courses is unknown. A survey of GISci educators shows that issues of privacy and…

  18. Towards quantum-based privacy and voting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillery, Mark; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir; Bielikova, Martina

    2006-01-01

    The privacy of communicating participants is often of paramount importance, but in some situations it is an essential condition. A typical example is a fair (secret) voting. We analyze in detail communication privacy based on quantum resources, and we propose new quantum protocols. Possible generalizations that would lead to voting schemes are discussed

  19. Privacy-preserving digital rights management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrado, C.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    DRM systems provide a means for protecting digital content, but at the same time they violate the privacy of users in a number of ways. This paper addresses privacy issues in DRM systems. The main challenge is how to allow a user to interact with the system in an anonymous/pseudonymous way, while

  20. Measuring privacy compliance using fitness metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banescu, S.; Petkovic, M.; Zannone, N.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, repurposing of personal data is a major privacy issue. Detection of data repurposing requires posteriori mechanisms able to determine how data have been processed. However, current a posteriori solutions for privacy compliance are often manual, leading infringements to remain undetected.

  1. Management accounting and rationalisation in the Army: The case of Spanish Military Hospitals in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.

  2. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  3. Enforcing Privacy in Cloud Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam, Somayeh Sobati; Darmont, Jérôme; Gavin, Gérald

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Outsourcing databases, i.e., resorting to Database-as-a-Service (DBaaS), is nowadays a popular choice due to the elasticity, availability, scalability and pay-as-you-go features of cloud computing. However, most data are sensitive to some extent, and data privacy remains one of the top concerns to DBaaS users, for obvious legal and competitive reasons.In this paper, we survey the mechanisms that aim at making databases secure in a cloud environment, and discuss current...

  4. Protecting privacy in a clinical data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Guilan; Xiao, Zhichun

    2015-06-01

    Peking University has several prestigious teaching hospitals in China. To make secondary use of massive medical data for research purposes, construction of a clinical data warehouse is imperative in Peking University. However, a big concern for clinical data warehouse construction is how to protect patient privacy. In this project, we propose to use a combination of symmetric block ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and cryptographic hashing algorithms to protect patient privacy information. The novelty of our privacy protection approach lies in message-level data encryption, the key caching system, and the cryptographic key management system. The proposed privacy protection approach is scalable to clinical data warehouse construction with any size of medical data. With the composite privacy protection approach, the clinical data warehouse can be secure enough to keep the confidential data from leaking to the outside world. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Efficient Dynamic Searchable Encryption with Forward Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etemad Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Searchable symmetric encryption (SSE enables a client to perform searches over its outsourced encrypted files while preserving privacy of the files and queries. Dynamic schemes, where files can be added or removed, leak more information than static schemes. For dynamic schemes, forward privacy requires that a newly added file cannot be linked to previous searches. We present a new dynamic SSE scheme that achieves forward privacy by replacing the keys revealed to the server on each search. Our scheme is efficient and parallelizable and outperforms the best previous schemes providing forward privacy, and achieves competitive performance with dynamic schemes without forward privacy. We provide a full security proof in the random oracle model. In our experiments on the Wikipedia archive of about four million pages, the server takes one second to perform a search with 100,000 results.

  6. Defense Logistics Army Should Assess Cost and Benefits of the Workload Performance System Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... In the Department of Defense's (DOD) fiscal years 1997 and 1998 Annual Statements of Assurance, DOD noted difficulties in relating personnel requirements to workload and budget as a material weakness in the Army's manpower requirements...

  7. Organizational Analysis of the United States Army Contracting Command-Kuwait

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orr, Kristine R

    2008-01-01

    This study of the U.S. Army Contracting Command - Kuwait (USACC-KU) used an organizational systems framework to analyze factors related to strategy structure, processes and results experienced at USACC-KU during 2006-2008...

  8. Development and Validation of a Video-Based Social Knowledge Test for Junior Commissioned Army Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, R. J; Johnson, J. W

    2004-01-01

    Social knowledge/skill are increasingly critical to the success of U.S. Army officers. In this paper, we describe development and criterion-related validation of an experimental video-based social knowledge test...

  9. Your privacy is paramount!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    May I read your e-mails or join you while you browse the web? What if I access all your personal documents on the DFS or AFS disk spaces? I guess you have nothing to hide and all that information is related to your professional duties… so why would you care?   But hold on! The personal use of CERN computing facilities is tolerated (as long as use of resources and bandwidth is negligible). This includes personal mails, reading online newspapers, browsing the web for leisure purposes, or storing private photos on your laptop. In addition, many people bring their own laptops, pads or mobile phones for convenience, instead of using CERN ones. This is because their life at CERN is rather a mixture of working for CERN and for their university, and leisure activities (such as keeping in touch with their families and friends). This implies working hours and leisure time are entangled, and the case is the same for your e-mails and documents. CERN takes great care to protect the personal dat...

  10. 2013 Center for Army Leadership Annual Survey of Army Leadership (CASAL): Army Civilian Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-30

    Army civilian workforce with regard to gender and ethnic origin (Office of the Assistant G-1 for Civilian Personnel, 2013). The reported education...climates of perceived inequality . Civilian leader comments frequently referenced favoritism as reflecting cronyism, unfair personnel actions, and...interests of others, unequal enforcement of standards and discipline, and use of discretion in workplace justice. As demonstrated in previous CASAL

  11. Social Media Users’ Legal Consciousness About Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Sarikakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the concept of privacy is understood in the context of social media and with regard to users’ awareness of privacy policies and laws in the ‘Post-Snowden’ era. In the light of presumably increased public exposure to privacy debates, generated partly due to the European “Right to be Forgotten” ruling and the Snowden revelations on mass surveillance, this article explores users’ meaning-making of privacy as a matter of legal dimension in terms of its violations and threats online and users’ ways of negotiating their Internet use, in particular social networking sites. Drawing on the concept of legal consciousness, this article explores through focus group interviews the ways in which social media users negotiate privacy violations and what role their understanding of privacy laws (or lack thereof might play in their strategies of negotiation. The findings are threefold: first, privacy is understood almost universally as a matter of controlling one’s own data, including information disclosure even to friends, and is strongly connected to issues about personal autonomy; second, a form of resignation with respect to control over personal data appears to coexist with a recognized need to protect one’s private data, while respondents describe conscious attempts to circumvent systems of monitoring or violation of privacy, and third, despite widespread coverage of privacy legal issues in the press, respondents’ concerns about and engagement in “self-protecting” tactics derive largely from being personally affected by violations of law and privacy.

  12. Workshop--E-leaks: the privacy of health information in the age of electronic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonn, Michael; Lang, Renée; Perras, Maude

    2011-10-01

    This workshop examined some of the new challenges to health-related privacy emerging as a result of the proliferation of electronic communications and data storage, including through social media, electronic health records and ready access to personal information on the internet. The right to privacy is a human right. As such, protecting privacy and enforcing the duty of confidentiality regarding health information are fundamental to treating people with autonomy, dignity and respect. For people living with HIV, unauthorized disclosure of their status can lead to discrimination and breaches of other human rights. While this is not new, in this information age a new breed of privacy violation is emerging and our legal protections are not necessarily keeping pace.

  13. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, M.A. [ed.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  14. 75 FR 19302 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... possession of ionizing radiation sources by non-Army agencies (including their civilian contractors) on an... radiation sources on Army land. The Army requires Non-Army agencies (including their civilian contractors... ionizing radiation sources on an Army Installation. For the purpose of this proposed rule, ``ionizing...

  15. 78 FR 33074 - Army Science Board Summer Study Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...--This study evaluates what science and technology competencies the Army must maintain and/or develop as... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Army Science Board Summer Study Session AGENCY... the Army announces the following committee meeting: 1. Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB). 2...

  16. Public privacy: Reciprocity and Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kennedy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his 1958 poem 'Dedication to my Wife' TS Eliot proclaims "these are private words addressed to you in public". Simultaneously written for his wife, Valerie Fletcher, and to the implied you of a discourse network, Eliot's poem helps to illustrate the narrative voices and silences that are constitutive of an intimate public sphere. This paper situates reciprocity as a condition of possibility for public privacy. It shows how reciprocity is enabled by systems of code operating through material and symbolic registers. Code promises to control communication, to produce neutral, systemic forms of meaning. Yet such automation is challenged by uneven and fragmented patterns of reciprocity. Moreover, examining the media of public privacy reveals historical trajectories important for understanding contemporary socio­technical platforms of reciprocity. To explore the implicit requirement of reciprocity in publicly private practices, three sites of communication are investigated framed by a media archaeology perspective: postal networks, the mail­art project PostSecret and the anonymous zine 'You'.

  17. Perceptions of Facebook Privacy and Career Impression Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pilcer , Danielle; Thatcher , Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers (Continued); International audience; Facebook was initially designed as a social tool representing a person’s social life, yet today it functions as a platform synthesizing all facets of life, including the work context. Within the frame of the social capital theory, a survey was conducted measuring Facebook users’ experience, perceptions of privacy and career impression management. Results found that higher Facebook experience was related to increased levels of ...

  18. Logical Specification of the GLBA and HIPAA Privacy Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    carrier set S. States from S are ordered according to the total order <st (and its natural weakening ≤st). In this way, we may think of states as being...January 2008. [Bar08] Adam Barth. Design and Analysis of Privacy Policies. Phd thesis, Stanford University, 2008. [BCK03] Simon Byers, Lorrie F. Cranor, and... Blackburn . Representation, reasoning, and relational structures: A hybrid logic manifesto. Logic Journal of IGPL, 8(3):339–365, 2000. [BPS03] Michael

  19. Laboratory specimens and genetic privacy: evolution of legal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby

    2013-03-01

    Although laboratory specimens are an important resource for biomedical research, controversy has arisen when research has been conducted without the knowledge or consent of the individuals who were the source of the specimens. This paper summarizes the most important litigation regarding the research use of laboratory specimens and traces the evolution of legal theory from property claims to claims related to genetic privacy interests. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. 76 FR 30952 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... the Department. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between..., 2011 and March 31, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published sixteen Privacy...

  1. 76 FR 58814 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... DHS. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between June 1... 31, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published twenty-six Privacy Impact...

  2. 76 FR 78934 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on.... These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's web site between September 1, 2011... November 30, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published seven Privacy Impact...

  3. 77 FR 46100 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be... approved and published fifteen Privacy Impact Assessments (PIAs) on the DHS Privacy Office Web site, www...

  4. 76 FR 37823 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on... Department. These assessments were approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between March 31... 31, 2011, the Chief Privacy Officer of the DHS approved and published ten Privacy Impact Assessments...

  5. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

  6. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with...

  7. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examples. 160.2 Section 160.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  8. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model... this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this...

  9. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a... of this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in...

  10. 45 CFR 503.1 - Definitions-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-Privacy Act. 503.1 Section 503.1... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.1 Definitions—Privacy Act. For the purpose of this part: Agency...

  11. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  12. 75 FR 28051 - Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice announcing public workshop. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Pieces of Privacy.'' DATES: The workshop will be...

  13. 48 CFR 52.224-2 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 52.224-2... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.224-2 Privacy... agency function: Privacy Act (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor agrees to— (1) Comply with the Privacy Act of...

  14. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all...

  15. 76 FR 56406 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Demonstration Project; Department of the Army; Army...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Demonstration Project; Department of the Army; Army Research, Development and Engineering Command; Tank... personnel management demonstration project for eligible TARDEC employees. Within that notice the table...

  16. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 1st ECML/PKDD Workshop on Privacy and Security issues in Data Mining and Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis; Yucel Saygin; Vassilios S. Verykios

    2011-01-01

    The first Workshop on Privacy and Security issues in Data Mining and Machine Learning (PSDML 2010) was organized on September 24, 2010 at Barcelona, Spain, in conjunction with the European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD). Privacy and security-related aspects of data mining and machine learning have been the topic of active research during the last decade due to the existence of numerous applications with privacy and/or...

  17. Data privacy foundations, new developments and the big data challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Torra, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a broad, cohesive overview of the field of data privacy. It discusses, from a technological perspective, the problems and solutions of the three main communities working on data privacy: statistical disclosure control (those with a statistical background), privacy-preserving data mining (those working with data bases and data mining), and privacy-enhancing technologies (those involved in communications and security) communities. Presenting different approaches, the book describes alternative privacy models and disclosure risk measures as well as data protection procedures for respondent, holder and user privacy. It also discusses specific data privacy problems and solutions for readers who need to deal with big data.

  18. New threats to health data privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjun; Zou, Xukai; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jake Y

    2011-11-24

    Along with the rapid digitalization of health data (e.g. Electronic Health Records), there is an increasing concern on maintaining data privacy while garnering the benefits, especially when the data are required to be published for secondary use. Most of the current research on protecting health data privacy is centered around data de-identification and data anonymization, which removes the identifiable information from the published health data to prevent an adversary from reasoning about the privacy of the patients. However, published health data is not the only source that the adversaries can count on: with a large amount of information that people voluntarily share on the Web, sophisticated attacks that join disparate information pieces from multiple sources against health data privacy become practical. Limited efforts have been devoted to studying these attacks yet. We study how patient privacy could be compromised with the help of today's information technologies. In particular, we show that private healthcare information could be collected by aggregating and associating disparate pieces of information from multiple online data sources including online social networks, public records and search engine results. We demonstrate a real-world case study to show user identity and privacy are highly vulnerable to the attribution, inference and aggregation attacks. We also show that people are highly identifiable to adversaries even with inaccurate information pieces about the target, with real data analysis. We claim that too much information has been made available electronic and available online that people are very vulnerable without effective privacy protection.

  19. 2013 CENTER FOR ARMY LEADERSHIP ANNUAL SURVEY OF ARMY LEADERSHIP (CASAL): MAIN FINDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The Center for Army Profession and Ethic (CAPE) has fielded education and training materials (including doctrine, pamphlets , videos, brochures , and...Army Pamphlet (DA PAM) 600-3, Commissioned Officer Development and Career Management, states that a goal of warrant officer training and education... Pamphlet 600-25, U.S. Army noncommissioned officer professional development and career management. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army

  20. 77 FR 33761 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, “Grievance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... of a data breach. (See also on HUD's privacy Web site, Appendix I for other ways that the Privacy Act... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5613-N-04] Privacy Act of 1974; Notification to Update an Existing Privacy Act System of Records, ``Grievance Records'' AGENCY: Office of the...

  1. Racial Extremism in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of Deference ...................................................................................................... 46 1. The Separation of Powers Doctrine...to the military. This deference has a two-fold basis. First, the separation of powers in the U.S. Constitution gives authority to the executive (and...Why should there be judicial deference to the Army’s policy on extremism? There are two principal reasons. First, the Constitution’s separation of powers doctrine

  2. 2011 Army Strategic Planning Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    TESI ) of 22,000 Soldiers, the Army’s total force by the end of the mid-term period is programmed to be 520K (AC). We will achieve a more...dwell ratios, extending TESI authority to adequately man deploying units and sustain the All-Volunteer Force, right-sizing the generating force, and... TESI Temporary End-Strength Increase WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction 2011 ARMY STRATEGIC PLANNING GUIDANCE Page 19 2011

  3. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    British experience fighting the Provisional Irish Republican Army ( PIRA ) in Northern Ireland, which began an insurgency in 1969.91...they became extremely successful.”93 Martin Van Creveld posits that the British Army’s success against the PIRA in Northern Ireland stands out as...and MI6 (Secret Intelligence Service) to defeat the PIRA .97 92 John Kiszely, "Learning About

  4. Information Management: Army Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-31

    funds or personnel to produce free programming solely for the benefit of a commercial CATV company. (6) The Army will require that the CATV franchisee ...provided, future customer requirements, and emerging IT capabilities which can benefit the customer. The Army’s increasing employment of IT dictates a...proactive oversight/insight system is operational and ensures mission benefit , cost, and schedule goals are met. (2) IT performance measures at the

  5. Issues and Insights from the Army Technology Seminar Game

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darilek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    ...). The AAN goals were to link Army XXI to a long-term vision of the Army extending well into the 21st century and to ensure that this vision informed evolving Army research and development requirements...

  6. Privacy is an essentially contested concept: a multi-dimensional analytic for mapping privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Colin; Doty, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of privacy has been much disputed throughout its history in response to wave after wave of new technological capabilities and social configurations. The current round of disputes over privacy fuelled by data science has been a cause of despair for many commentators and a death knell for privacy itself for others. We argue that privacy’s disputes are neither an accidental feature of the concept nor a lamentable condition of its applicability. Privacy is essentially contested. Because it is, privacy is transformable according to changing technological and social conditions. To make productive use of privacy’s essential contestability, we argue for a new approach to privacy research and practical design, focused on the development of conceptual analytics that facilitate dissecting privacy’s multiple uses across multiple contexts. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The ethical impact of data science’. PMID:28336797

  7. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cologne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  8. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.; Nakashima, E.; Funamoto, S.; Grant, E.J.; Chen, Y.; Hiroaki Katayama, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying) the data, but over masking can compromise utility (analysis potential). Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs

  9. Army Reserve Military Intelligence: Time for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    Miramax Books, 2002. Goleman , Daniel . Emotional Intelligence . New York: Bantam Books, 1997. Goleman , Daniel , Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee...or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. ARMY RESERVE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE : TIME FOR CHANGE...Research Project 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Reserve Military Intelligence : Time for Change 5a

  10. Effectiveness of the Army Mentorship Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieberding, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    ...). From the artifacts associated with this mentorship program, it appears that the Army highly values this program as a way to create a culture and climate that fosters learning and development for future leadership. This project will examine the effectiveness of mentorship in the today's Army and evaluate whether the program is sufficient to meet the needs for the Army's next generation of soldiers and leaders.

  11. The United States Army 1996 Modernization Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-08

    time and with less risk. IMA technology improvements are leveraged and inserted into the Army’s information architectures as the competitive market place...to procure a family of complementary, interoperable systems. At the end of the near-term, "Active Defense RD&A Startegy Army will begin fielding...Haul and Engineer tractors were fielded that brought modern technologies from the commercial market to the Army. However, adequate quantities were

  12. The study on privacy preserving data mining for information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Privacy preserving data mining have a rapid development in a short year. But it still faces many challenges in the future. Firstly, the level of privacy has different definitions in different filed. Therefore, the measure of privacy preserving data mining technology protecting private information is not the same. So, it's an urgent issue to present a unified privacy definition and measure. Secondly, the most of research in privacy preserving data mining is presently confined to the theory study.

  13. Privacy Challenges of Genomic Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Ma, Jian

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid advancement of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, genomics has become a big data discipline where large-scale genetic information of human individuals can be obtained efficiently with low cost. However, such massive amount of personal genomic data creates tremendous challenge for privacy, especially given the emergence of direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that provides genetic testing services. Here we review the recent development in genomic big data and its implications on privacy. We also discuss the current dilemmas and future challenges of genomic privacy.

  14. Privacy Breach Analysis in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Frank

    This chapter addresses various aspects of analyzing privacy breaches in social networks. We first review literature that defines three types of privacy breaches in social networks: interactive, active, and passive. We then survey the various network anonymization schemes that have been constructed to address these privacy breaches. After exploring these breaches and anonymization schemes, we evaluate a measure for determining the level of anonymity inherent in a network graph based on its topological structure. Finally, we close by emphasizing the difficulty of anonymizing social network data while maintaining usability for research purposes and offering areas for future work.

  15. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  16. Routes for breaching and protecting genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Yaniv; Narayanan, Arvind

    2014-06-01

    We are entering an era of ubiquitous genetic information for research, clinical care and personal curiosity. Sharing these data sets is vital for progress in biomedical research. However, a growing concern is the ability to protect the genetic privacy of the data originators. Here, we present an overview of genetic privacy breaching strategies. We outline the principles of each technique, indicate the underlying assumptions, and assess their technological complexity and maturation. We then review potential mitigation methods for privacy-preserving dissemination of sensitive data and highlight different cases that are relevant to genetic applications.

  17. Blood rights: the body and information privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    Genetic and other medical technology makes blood, human tissue and other bodily samples an immediate and accessible source of comprehensive personal and health information about individuals. Yet, unlike medical records, bodily samples are not subject to effective privacy protection or other regulation to ensure that individuals have rights to control the collection, use and transfer of such samples. This article examines the existing coverage of privacy legislation, arguments in favour of baseline protection for bodily samples as sources of information and possible approaches to new regulation protecting individual privacy rights in bodily samples.

  18. Privacy in Online Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    M.Ida Evones

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 192 act ive social networking websites. Bringing every kind of social group together in one place and letting them interact is really a big thing indeed .Huge amount of information process in the sites each day, end up making it vulnerable to attack. There is no systematic framework taking into account the importance of privacy. Increased privacy settings don’t always guarantee privacy when there is a loop hole in the applications. Lack of user education results is over sh...

  19. 5G Visions of User Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the discussions are going on the elements and definition of 5G networks. One of the elements in this discussion is how to provide for user controlled privacy for securing users' digital interaction. The purpose of this paper is to present elements of user controlled privacy needed...... for the future 5G networks. The paper concludes that an ecosystem consisting of Trusted Third Party between the end user and the service providers as a distributed system could be integrated to secure the perspective of user controlled privacy for future systems...

  20. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future.