Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.
Murray, N P; Janelle, C M
2007-01-15
The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.
Civil-Military Relations and Strategy: Theory and Evidence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kimminau, Jon
2001-01-01
... between civilian and military strategy. There are a number of propositions about such differences that lie at the heart of theories of state and group behavior at international and domestic levels...
Ofer H. Azar
2005-01-01
The article presents a theory that I denote “Relative Thinking Theory,” which claims that people consider relative differences and not only absolute differences when making various economics decisions, even in those cases where the rational model dictates that people should consider only absolute differences. The article reviews experimental evidence for this behavior, summarizing briefly several experiments I conducted, as well as some earlier related literature. It then discusses how we can...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ya Zheng
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition on fairness-related decision making. Specifically, we first introduce three dominant theories that describe how emotion may influence fairness-related decision making (i.e., the wounded pride/spite model, affect infusion model, and dual-process model. Next, we collect behavioral and neural evidence for and against these theories. Finally, we propose that future research on fairness-related decision making should focus on inducing incidental social emotion, avoiding irrelevant emotion when regulating, exploring the individual differences in emotional dispositions, and strengthening the ecological validity of the paradigm.
Zheng, Ya; Yang, Zhong; Jin, Chunlan; Qi, Yue; Liu, Xun
2017-01-01
Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition) on fairness-related decision making. Specifically, we first introduce three dominant theories that describe how emotion may influence fairness-related decision making (i.e., the wounded pride/spite model, affect infusion model, and dual-process model). Next, we collect behavioral and neural evidence for and against these theories. Finally, we propose that future research on fairness-related decision making should focus on inducing incidental social emotion, avoiding irrelevant emotion when regulating, exploring the individual differences in emotional dispositions, and strengthening the ecological validity of the paradigm. PMID:28974937
Zheng, Ya; Yang, Zhong; Jin, Chunlan; Qi, Yue; Liu, Xun
2017-01-01
Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition) on fairness-related decision making. Specifically, we first introduce three dominant theories that describe how emotion may influence fairness-related decision making (i.e., the wounded pride/spite model, affect infusion model, and dual-process model). Next, we collect behavioral and neural evidence for and against these theories. Finally, we propose that future research on fairness-related decision making should focus on inducing incidental social emotion, avoiding irrelevant emotion when regulating, exploring the individual differences in emotional dispositions, and strengthening the ecological validity of the paradigm.
Evidence logics with relational evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés
2017-01-01
We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...
Kilmister, Clive William
1970-01-01
Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawden, D.F.
1985-01-01
The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmutzer, E.
1979-01-01
Issued on the occasion of Albert Einstein's 100th birthday the book deals topically with the special and general relativity theory. The latest experiments to confirm the relativity theory are described and the historical development of the theory is presented in detail. Emphasis is given to the disclosure of deep insights into the nature of matter. Of interest to experts in physical and natural sciences and to mathematicians
Relativity theory and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondi, H.
1986-01-01
The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)
Ya Zheng; Zhong Yang; Zhong Yang; Chunlan Jin; Yue Qi; Yue Qi; Xun Liu; Xun Liu
2017-01-01
Fairness-related decision making is an important issue in the field of decision making. Traditional theories emphasize the roles of inequity aversion and reciprocity, whereas recent research increasingly shows that emotion plays a critical role in this type of decision making. In this review, we summarize the influences of three types of emotions (i.e., the integral emotion experienced at the time of decision making, the incidental emotion aroused by a task-unrelated dispositional or situatio...
Fraïssé, R
2011-01-01
The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1983-11-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is argued that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in an earlier paper is formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity. Then it is shown that the recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce in a consistent way the quantum space-time model (the 'canonically quantized Minkowski space') proposed by Banai earlier. The main new aspect of the quantum mechanics of the quantum relativistic particles is, in this model of space-time, that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem and, that the excited mass states of such particles can be interpreted as classifically relativistic (massive) quantum particles ('elementary particles'). The question of field theory over quantum relativistic models of space-time is also discussed. Finally, it is suggested that 'quarks' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Ovans, Zoe; Landau, Barbara
2016-01-01
Theoretical and empirical studies of memory have long been framed by a distinction between declarative and non-declarative memory. We question the sharpness of the distinction by reporting evidence from amnesic L.S.J., who despite retrograde memory losses in declarative knowledge domains, shows sparing of declarative knowledge related to premorbid skill (e.g., playing an instrument). We previously showed that L.S.J. had severe losses of retrograde declarative knowledge across areas of premorbid expertise (e.g., artists of famous works) and everyday knowledge (e.g., company names for logos). Here we present evidence that L.S.J. has sparing of what we call skill-related declarative knowledge, in four domains in which she had premorbid skill (art, music, aviation, driving). L.S.J.'s pattern of loss and sparing raises questions about the strict separation between classically-defined memory types and aligns with a recent proposal by Stanley and Krakauer [2013. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7,1-11].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deruelle, N.; Uzan, J.P.
2014-01-01
This book is a quite complete route towards general relativity via special relativity with a start point at Newton's mechanics. The mathematical formulation is based on tensors. All the relativistic aspects of only classical physics - it means no quantum mechanics - are exposed. This book is divided into 3 books and each book represents a consistent knowledge of physics at a certain time in the past: in Newton's time, in the second half of the 19. century and today. The advantage of this presentation is to make the reader feels the changes over time in the concepts of time, space, gravity, cosmology. Each book is divided into 3, 4 and 5 parts which are sub-divided into numerous chapters. Book 1: Space, time and gravity in Newton's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics and part 3: gravity. Book 2: Special relativity and Maxwell's theory, with part 1: kinematics, part 2: dynamics, part 3: electromagnetism and part 4: electrodynamics. And Book 3: General relativity and gravity, with part 1: curved space-time and gravity, part 2: Schwarzschild solution and black holes, part 3: general relativity and experiments, part 4: Friedman-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and part 5: elements or Riemann geometry. The 3. book dedicated to general relativity, tackles topics like the relationships between space-time curvature and gravity, Schwarzschild solutions and black holes, gravitational waves, Friedmann-Lemaitre solutions and cosmology, and Riemann geometry. (A.C.)
Gravity, general relativity theory and alternative theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.; Grishchuk, L.P.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.
1986-01-01
The main steps in plotting the current gravitation theory and some prospects of its subsequent development are reviewed. The attention is concentrated on a comparison of the relativistic gravitational field with other physical fields. Two equivalent formulations of the general relativity (GR) - geometrical and field-theoretical - are considered in detail. It is shown that some theories of gravity constructed as the field theories at a flat background space-time are in fact just different formulations of GR and not alternative theories
Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.
2010-01-01
The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence
Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
1976-01-01
Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-01-01
This article results from Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory that was published in reference 1. The Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory shows a series of facts relative to matter, energy, space and concludes that empty space is inelastic, absolutely stationary, motionless, perpetual, without possibility of deformation neither can it be destroyed or created. A elementary cell of empty space or a certain amount of empty space can be occupied by any quantity of energy or matter without any alteration or deformation. As a consequence of these properties and being a integral part of the theory, the principles of Relativity Theory must be changed to become simple and intuitive.
Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence
2011-10-01
1776) theory of compensating differences, and Rosen (1986) devised what has become the standard neoclassical economic theory relating wages to the...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4774 October 2011 Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence Curtis J. Simon...OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combat Risk and Pay: Theory and Some Evidence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
Basic statements of relativity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolfgang Muschik
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.
Measuring uncertainty within the theory of evidence
Salicone, Simona
2018-01-01
This monograph considers the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty within the mathematical framework of the Theory of Evidence. With a new perspective on the metrology science, the text paves the way for innovative applications in a wide range of areas. Building on Simona Salicone’s Measurement Uncertainty: An Approach via the Mathematical Theory of Evidence, the material covers further developments of the Random Fuzzy Variable (RFV) approach to uncertainty and provides a more robust mathematical and metrological background to the combination of measurement results that leads to a more effective RFV combination method. While the first part of the book introduces measurement uncertainty, the Theory of Evidence, and fuzzy sets, the following parts bring together these concepts and derive an effective methodology for the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty. A supplementary downloadable program allows the readers to interact with the proposed approach by generating and combining ...
Investigations into quantum theory and relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, I.D.
1982-03-01
This thesis falls into two parts. The first is concerned with damping theory as a particular approach to the description of the dynamical evolution of non-closed systems. Appealing ultimately to the Liouville/Von-Neuman equation in the weak coupling regime, the current-voltage characteristics of both the normal and Josephson tunnelling junctions, treated as open systems are obtained. It is then shown that the same results may be obtained via the combined scattering and density matrix formalism (which does not appeal to the Liouville/Von-Neuman equation), and that this method has certain advantages over the conventional formalism. In the second part an extended (non-quantum) theory of relativity in a five dimensional space is developed and a number of interesting consequences thereof obtained. In particular a generalised set of Maxwell equations for electro-dynamics is derived, and some of the implications of the new set of equations are described. Furthermore a treatment of the five-dimensional analogue of the Schwarzschild problem in general relativity is given, together with the resulting implications for planetary motion. (author)
Lange, Jens; Weidman, Aaron C; Crusius, Jan
2018-04-01
Despite envy's importance as a driver of social behavior, scholars disagree on its conceptualization. We review the literature and distinguish three incongruent theories: (a) Malicious Envy Theory (i.e., envy as uniform and malicious), (b) Dual Envy Theory (i.e., envy as taking on 2 forms, benign and malicious), and (c) Pain Theory of Envy (i.e., envy as uniform and driven by pain). Moreover, within and across theories, operationalizations of envy have included various different components. We integrate these conceptualizations using a data-driven approach, deriving a comprehensive theory of envy in 5 studies (total N = 1,237)-the Pain-driven Dual Envy (PaDE) Theory. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of an exhaustive set of envy components (Studies 1-4) suggest that envy consists of 3 factors: Pain (i.e., preoccupation with the envy-eliciting situation, inferiority), predicts both benign envy (i.e., desire for the envy object, improvement motivation, emulation of the other), and malicious envy (i.e., communication about the other, directed aggression, nondirected aggression). An experience-sampling study (Study 5) suggests that pain constitutes a quickly fading reaction, whereas benign and malicious envy are enduring attitudinal constructs. We apply this theory in a meta-analysis on the controversial relation of envy and schadenfreude (N = 4,366), finding that envy and schadenfreude are more strongly and positively correlated to the extent that the respective research operationalizes envy as malicious, compared with as pain or benign envy. We discuss how the PaDE Theory can illuminate research on envy in diverse settings, and envy's relation to other distinct emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Quantum information and relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.
2004-01-01
This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a reassessment
Verifying the Theory of Relativity
Chandrasekhar, S.
1975-01-01
This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)
The Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
cial theory of relativity were published in the journal. Annalen der Physik, and were titled 'On the electro- dynamics of ... Historical Background. In order to set Einstein's work in proper perspective, re- call that, in ... ideas of absolute space and time firmly entrenched, most physicists thought that this speed was correct only in.
The special theory of relativity
Devanathan, V
2015-01-01
THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY, designed as a text book for undergraduate and postgraduate students, deals with the Michelson-Morley experiment, the concept of unified space and time, the Lorentz transformation of physical quantities, length contraction, time dilation, the Minkowski space, the mass-energy relation, the concept of four-vectors, the relativistic mechanics, the laws of transformation between centre of momentum and laboratory systems, the relativistic kinematics, the unification of laws of electricity and magnetism into laws of electromagnetism, the invariance of Maxwell's equations under Lorentz transformation and the Lorentz transformation of electromagnetic quantities. KEY FEATURES: * Review Questions * Problems * Solutions to Problems * Multiple Choice Questions
GARCH Option Valuation: Theory and Evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat
We survey the theory and empirical evidence on GARCH option valuation models. Our treatment includes the range of functional forms available for the volatility dynamic, multifactor models, nonnormal shock distributions as well as style of pricing kernels typically used. Various strategies...... for empirical implementation are laid out and we also discuss the links between GARCH and stochastic volatility models. In the appendix we provide Matlab computer code for option pricing via Monte Carlo simulation for nonaffine models as well as Fourier inversion for affine models....
Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.
Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo
2012-06-01
The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for
Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio
Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...
Generalized string theory mapping relations between gravity and gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.
2003-01-01
A previous study of the Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theories, imposed by the relationship of closed and open strings, are here extended in the light of general relativity and Yang-Mills theory as effective field theories. We discuss the possibility of generalizing the traditional KLT mapping in this effective setting. A generalized mapping between the effective Lagrangians of gravity and Yang-Mills theory is presented, and the corresponding operator relations between gauge and gravity theories at the tree level are further explored. From this generalized mapping remarkable diagrammatic relations are found, linking diagrams in gravity and Yang-Mills theory, as well as diagrams in pure effective Yang-Mills theory. Also the possibility of a gravitational coupling to an antisymmetric field in the gravity scattering amplitude is considered, and shown to allow for mixed open-closed string solutions, i.e., closed heterotic strings
Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco
2007-01-01
Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only
On Palacios-Gordon's theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, P.S.
1981-01-01
Since the early days of Einstein's special theory of relativity (1905), it is known that this theory suffers from some epistemological problems. Over the years, many theoreticians have endeavored to overcome these problems, rejecting either the 'Principle of Relativity' or the 'Light Principle'. Palacios and Gordon rejected the former and advanced an alternative theory governed by Voigt's transformation equations (1887). In the present paper, Palacios-Gordon's theory has been critically examined and some of its drawbacks are discovered. It becomes obvious that neither Einstein's special theory of relativity nor Palacios-Gordon's theory of relativity provides a flawless fit to the real world. It is speculated that suitable synthesis of these two theories might resolve all the controversial issues of special theory of relativity. (author)
Physics Without Causality — Theory and Evidence
Shoup, Richard
2006-10-01
The principle of cause and effect is deeply rooted in human experience, so much so that it is routinely and tacitly assumed throughout science, even by scientists working in areas where time symmetry is theoretically ingrained, as it is in both classical and quantum physics. Experiments are said to cause their results, not the other way around. In this informal paper, we argue that this assumption should be replaced with a more general notion of mutual influence — bi-directional relations or constraints on joint values of two or more variables. From an analysis based on quantum entropy, it is proposed that quantum measurement is a unitary three-interaction, with no collapse, no fundamental randomness, and no barrier to backward influence. Experimental results suggesting retrocausality are seen frequently in well-controlled laboratory experiments in parapsychology and elsewhere, especially where a random element is included. Certain common characteristics of these experiments give the appearance of contradicting well-established physical laws, thus providing an opportunity for deeper understanding and important clues that must be addressed by any explanatory theory. We discuss how retrocausal effects and other anomalous phenomena can be explained without major injury to existing physical theory. A modified quantum formalism can give new insights into the nature of quantum measurement, randomness, entanglement, causality, and time.
Jonas Olson's Evidence for Moral Error Theory
Evers, Daan
2016-01-01
Jonas Olson defends a moral error theory in (2014). I first argue that Olson is not justified in believing the error theory as opposed to moral nonnaturalism in his own opinion. I then argue that Olson is not justified in believing the error theory as opposed to moral contextualism either (although
Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity
Allan, Keith
2010-01-01
Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…
Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurt Von Mettenheim
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.
Some empirical evidence for ecological dissonance theory.
Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E
2000-04-01
Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.
Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory
Ruiz, Elizabeth
2005-01-01
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
Chaos Theory and International Relations
2016-12-01
King Oscar II 12 James E. Glenn, Chaos Theory: The Essentials for Military Applications (Newport, RI...Adolf Hitler in Germany, Alexander’s conquest of the Persian Empire, the arrival of Attila to Europe, the onset of the two Gulf Wars, the Arab Spring
Probability Estimation in the Framework of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Evidence Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yafei Song
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Intuitionistic fuzzy (IF evidence theory, as an extension of Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to the intuitionistic fuzzy environment, is exploited to process imprecise and vague information. Since its inception, much interest has been concentrated on IF evidence theory. Many works on the belief functions in IF information systems have appeared. Although belief functions on the IF sets can deal with uncertainty and vagueness well, it is not convenient for decision making. This paper addresses the issue of probability estimation in the framework of IF evidence theory with the hope of making rational decision. Background knowledge about evidence theory, fuzzy set, and IF set is firstly reviewed, followed by introduction of IF evidence theory. Axiomatic properties of probability distribution are then proposed to assist our interpretation. Finally, probability estimations based on fuzzy and IF belief functions together with their proofs are presented. It is verified that the probability estimation method based on IF belief functions is also potentially applicable to classical evidence theory and fuzzy evidence theory. Moreover, IF belief functions can be combined in a convenient way once they are transformed to interval-valued possibilities.
Book Review: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boscan, Luis
2014-01-01
Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013.......Review of: Market Liquidity: Theory, Evidence, and Policy / by Thierry Foucault, Marco Pagano and Ailsa Röell. Oxford University Press. April 2013....
The end of International Relations theory?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dunne, Tim; Hansen, Lene; Wight, Colin
2013-01-01
With a view to providing contextual background for the Special Issue, this opening article analyses several dimensions of ‘The end of International Relations theory?’ It opens with a consideration of the status of different types of theory. Thereafter, we look at the proliferation of theories...... to the alternatives currently being practised: integrative pluralism. The article ends on a cautiously optimistic note: given the disciplinary competition that now exists in relation to explaining and understanding global social forces, International Relations may find resilience because it has become theory...
Kinematical Test Theories for Special Relativity
Lämmerzahl, Claus; Braxmaier, Claus; Dittus, Hansjörg; Müller, Holger; Peters, Achim; Schiller, Stephan
A comparison of certain kinematical test theories for Special Relativity including the Robertson and Mansouri-Sext test theories is presented and the accuracy of the experimental results testing Special Relativity are expressed in terms of the parameters appearing in these test theories. The theoretical results are applied to the most precise experimental results obtained recently for the isotropy of light propagation and the constancy of the speed of light.
How I Created the Theory of Relativity.
Ono, Yoshimasa A.
1982-01-01
This translation of a lecture given in Kyoto (Japan) on 14 December l922 sheds light on Einstein's path to the theory of relativity and offers insights into many other aspects of his work on relativity. (Author/JN)
Qigong in Cancer Care: Theory, Evidence-Base, and Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Penelope Klein
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine. Theoretical foundations include Chinese medicine energy theory, psychoneuroimmunology, the relaxation response, the meditation effect, and epigenetics. Research supports positive effects on quality of life (QOL, fatigue, immune function and cortisol levels, and cognition for individuals with cancer. There is indirect, scientific evidence suggesting that qigong practice may positively influence cancer prevention and survival. No one Qigong exercise regimen has been established as superior. Effective protocols do have common elements: slow mindful exercise, easy to learn, breath regulation, meditation, emphasis on relaxation, and energy cultivation including mental intent and self-massage. Conclusions: Regular practice of Qigong exercise therapy has the potential to improve cancer-related QOL and is indirectly linked to cancer prevention and survival. Wide-spread access to quality Qigong in cancer care programming may be challenged by the availability of existing programming and work force capacity.
Simple recursion relations for general field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-01-01
On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-line constructibility of all gauge theories with fermions and complex scalars in arbitrary representations, all supersymmetric theories, and the standard model. Moreover, all amplitudes in non-renormalizable theories without derivative interactions are constructible; with derivative interactions, a subset of amplitudes is constructible. We illustrate our results with examples from both renormalizable and non-renormalizable theories. Our study demonstrates both the power and limitations of recursion relations as a self-contained formulation of quantum field theory.
Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.
1986-01-01
Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field
Relativity. The theory and its philosophy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angel, R.B.
1980-01-01
An attempt is made to provide a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. The chapter headings are: mathematical preliminaries; relativity and Newtonian mechanics; the principle of special relativity; empiricism, rationalism and special relativity; special relativity and conventionalism; the commensurability of classical and relativistic mechanics; more mathematics; the path to general relativity; an outline of general relativity; relativity and covariance; spacetime and geometry. (U.K.)
Critical evidence for the prediction error theory in associative learning.
Terao, Kanta; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto
2015-03-10
In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. Complete evidence for the prediction error theory, however, has not been obtained in any learning systems: Prediction error theory stems from the finding of a blocking phenomenon, but blocking can also be accounted for by other theories, such as the attentional theory. We demonstrated blocking in classical conditioning in crickets and obtained evidence to reject the attentional theory. To obtain further evidence supporting the prediction error theory and rejecting alternative theories, we constructed a neural model to match the prediction error theory, by modifying our previous model of learning in crickets, and we tested a prediction from the model: the model predicts that pharmacological intervention of octopaminergic transmission during appetitive conditioning impairs learning but not formation of reward prediction itself, and it thus predicts no learning in subsequent training. We observed such an "auto-blocking", which could be accounted for by the prediction error theory but not by other competitive theories to account for blocking. This study unambiguously demonstrates validity of the prediction error theory in associative learning.
On skein relations in class S theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tachikawa, Yuji; Watanabe, Noriaki
2015-01-01
Loop operators of a class S theory arise from networks on the corresponding Riemann surface, and their operator product expansions are given in terms of the skein relations, that we describe in detail in the case of class S theories of type A. As two applications, we explicitly determine networks corresponding to dyonic loops of N=4SU(3) super Yang-Mills, and compute the superconformal index of a nontrivial network operator of the T 3 theory.
Relativity the theory and its philosophy
Angel, Roger B
1980-01-01
Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy provides a completely self-contained treatment of the philosophical foundations of the theory of relativity. It also surveys the most essential mathematical techniques and concepts that are indispensable to an understanding of the foundations of both the special and general theories of relativity. In short, the book includes a crash course in applied mathematics, ranging from elementary trigonometry to the classical tensor calculus.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to fundamental mathematical concepts such as sets, relatio
The relativity theory and the nature of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selleri, F.
1997-01-01
In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from March's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon, Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a superdeterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs
The relativity theory and the nature of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selleri, F.
1997-01-01
In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from Mach's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon. Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz' reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a super deterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs
Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and special relativity.
Hall, Graham
2008-05-28
This paper presents a brief history of electromagnetic theory from ancient times up to the work of Maxwell and the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is divided into five convenient periods and the intention is to describe these developments for the benefit of a lay scientific audience and with the minimum of technical detail.
Possible violations of the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiomno, J.
1985-01-01
A review of previous works of the author and collaborators on possible violations of the Theory of Relativity (SR) is made. It is shown that there is no contradiction of the predictions of the Lorentz Aether Theory, in the form presented in these papers, with existing experiments. Further experiments to detect these violations (or to confirm SR) are indicated. (Author) [pt
On the Finsler relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asanov, G.S.
1980-01-01
Possibility for revealing the Finsler metric space-time properties in kinematics and dynamics of local nonprobe particles is investigated. Spherically-symmetric S particle in a static gravitational field is considered. It is shown that S particle follows S line of a ''renormalized'' gravitational field. The situation is alternative to the case of a probe particle. It is also shown that the Finsler properties of real space-time can be revealed in kinematic and ''dynamics of S particles relative to a ''nonrenormalization'' field. So, the Finsler kinematic dualism is the geometrical analogue of physical dualism between probe particles and S particles. Noted are difficulties related to problems of determining the Lagrangian density for the gravitational field which leads to the Finsler geodesic ones
Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory
Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W
1972-01-01
Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec
Modern approach to relativity theory (radar formulation)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1991-01-01
The main peculiarities of the radar formulation of the relativity theory are presented. This formulation operates with the retarded (light) distances and relativistic or radar length introduced on their basis. 21 refs.; 1 tab
Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning
Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura
2012-01-01
We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…
Collateral and the limits of debt capacity: theory and evidence
Giambona, E.; Mello, A.S.; Riddiough, T.
2012-01-01
This paper considers how collateral is used to finance a going concern, and demonstrates with theory and evidence that there are effective limits to debt capacity and the kinds of claims that are issued to deploy that debt capacity. The theory shows that firms with (unobservably) better quality
The special theory of relativity bound with relativity
Dingle, Herbert
2014-01-01
The Special Theory of Relativity:Based on a short course of lectures delivered in the late 1930s, this short book presents the theory of Special Relativity by formulating a redefinition of the measurement of length, and thus will appeal to students of physics who wish to think through Einstein's thought without the encumbrance of quasi-scientific concepts and language. Relativity: A Very Elementary Exposition:This brief lecture, delivered in October 1921 and published for the first time in 1925, offers an explanation of Einstein's theory of Special Relativity for the non-scientist, giving a ge
Victories and defeats in general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, C.
1977-01-01
Only within the last 20 years has it been possible to conduct far-reaching experimental tests of the validity of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. Experimental confirmation in some fields is embarrassed by considerable difficulties in applying the theory to cosmic systems, which indicate that such major systems lie at the limit of the theory's applicability. The lecture here reproduced discusses both the successes and the limitations of the theory, starting with its replacement of the absolute space-time theory of Newton and its historical replacement by the relativistic gravitational postulates of Einstein which, in spite of its more complicated postulates, nevertheless introduced a great simplicity and comprehensiveness into the overall conception of nature. This theoretical 'beauty', however, can only be trusted if vindicated experimentally, which has to a considerable extent proved to be the case. For weak fields Newtonian and Einsteinian concepts coincide, while for stronger fields, and velocities not far from that of light, Einstein's theory is superior, giving,for example, an excellent correspondence with the precession of the perehelion of Mercury. On a larger scale, however, the theory appears to lead to conclusions which would invalidate the very concepts of space and time, even within a finite time-interval. A more generalized theory seems to be required. (A.D.N.)
Between general relativity and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rayski, J.
1982-01-01
Some possibilities of reconciling general relativity with quantum theory are discussed. The procedure of quantization is certainly not unique, but depends upon the choice of the coordinate conditions. Most versions of quantization predict the existence of gravitons, but it is also possible to formulate a quantum theory with a classical gravity whereby the expectation values of Tsub(μν) constitute the sources of the classical metric field. (author)
Quadratic mass relations in topological bootstrap theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, C.E.; Uschersohn, J.
1980-01-01
From the requirement of reality of discontinuities of scattering amplitudes at the spherical level of the topological bootstrap theory, a large number of mass relations for hadrons is derived. Quadratic mass formulas for the symmetry-breaking pattern of both mesons and baryon is obtained and their relation to conventional models of symmetry breaking is briefly discussed
Evidence against the selfish operon theory.
Pál, Csaba; Hurst, Laurence D
2004-06-01
According to the selfish operon hypothesis, the clustering of genes and their subsequent organization into operons is beneficial for the constituent genes because it enables the horizontal gene transfer of weakly selected, functionally coupled genes. The majority of these are expected to be non-essential genes. From our analysis of the Escherichia coli genome, we conclude that the selfish operon hypothesis is unlikely to provide a general explanation for clustering nor can it account for the gene composition of operons. Contrary to expectations, essential genes with related functions have an especially strong tendency to cluster, even if they are not in operons. Moreover, essential genes are particularly abundant in operons.
Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, B.K.
1980-01-01
Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)
Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.
Herrmann, Joachim
2009-11-01
The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.
Local computations in Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jiroušek, Radim
2012-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 8 (2012), s. 1155-1167 ISSN 0888-613X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/2175 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Discrete belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * conditional independence * decomposable model Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/jirousek-local computations in dempster–shafer theory of evidence. pdf
On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, Martin
2010-01-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Faster-X evolution: Theory and evidence from Drosophila.
Charlesworth, Brian; Campos, José L; Jackson, Benjamin C
2018-02-12
A faster rate of adaptive evolution of X-linked genes compared with autosomal genes can be caused by the fixation of recessive or partially recessive advantageous mutations, due to the full expression of X-linked mutations in hemizygous males. Other processes, including recombination rate and mutation rate differences between X chromosomes and autosomes, may also cause faster evolution of X-linked genes. We review population genetics theory concerning the expected relative values of variability and rates of evolution of X-linked and autosomal DNA sequences. The theoretical predictions are compared with data from population genomic studies of several species of Drosophila. We conclude that there is evidence for adaptive faster-X evolution of several classes of functionally significant nucleotides. We also find evidence for potential differences in mutation rates between X-linked and autosomal genes, due to differences in mutational bias towards GC to AT mutations. Many aspects of the data are consistent with the male hemizygosity model, although not all possible confounding factors can be excluded. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friis, Nicolai
2016-01-01
We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory. (paper)
Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.
Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu
2016-09-01
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.
Motives and chances of firm diversification: theory and empirical evidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briglauer, W.
2001-11-01
It is beyond controversy that the majority of the largest companies in the industrialized countries perform to a certain extent product diversification strategies. Tying up to this finding the underlying work firstly deals with alternative theoretical and empirical definitions of corporate diversification. Subsequently the theoretical part mainly elaborates an industrial economic framework for categorizing motives of firm diversification. Despite of some inevitable degree of arbitrariness, a relatively widespread and sufficient categorization can be presented. With regards to the relevant economic literature most explanations of product diversification can be classified appropriately. Observing diversification activities one would prima facie infer a positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance, but both, theory and empirical evidence, yield ambiguous results. The empirical part provides a list of existing studies, classified according to the theoretical categorization. In an overview some stylised facts are filtered and discussed consecutively. Most notably, it was found that related diversification strategies significantly outperform strategies of unrelated diversification. At the end of the empirical section econometric methods are applied to agricultural and industrial economic (relating to telecommunication markets) data sets. For the agricultural studies a significantly positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance was found. In contrast no significant results were obtained for the telecommunication markets. (author)
Derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity
Petti, Richard
2015-04-01
General relativity cannot describe exchange of classical intrinsic angular momentum and orbital angular momentum. Einstein-Cartan theory fixes this problem in the least invasive way. In the late 20th century, the consensus view was that Einstein-Cartan theory requires inclusion of torsion without adequate justification, it has no empirical support (though it doesn't conflict with any known evidence), it solves no important problem, and it complicates gravitational theory with no compensating benefit. In 1986 the author published a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity, with no additional assumptions or parameters. Starting without torsion, Poincaré symmetry, classical or quantum spin, or spinors, it derives torsion and its relation to spin from a continuum limit of general relativistic solutions. The present work makes the case that this computation, combined with supporting arguments, constitutes a derivation of Einstein-Cartan theory from general relativity, not just a plausibility argument. This paper adds more and simpler explanations, more computational details, correction of a factor of 2, discussion of limitations of the derivation, and discussion of some areas of gravitational research where Einstein-Cartan theory is relevant.
Consistency relations in effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)
2017-06-01
The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
some detail how Einstein evolved this theory and get a glimpse of his unique ... The Principle of Relativity: The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. .... ing on the railway platform will see them occur at different places. However ...
Connecting and unmasking relativity and quantum theory
Koning, de W.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.
2015-01-01
The answer lies right in front of us, but we refuse to see it. Both relativity and quantum theory, the two pillars of fundamental physics, are modified in this paper to make them also explain the physical phenomena they describe. With this explanation, all current inconsistencies between the two
Albert Einstein and the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlickova, E.
1975-01-01
A bibliography is presented of Albert Einstein's works, listing his correspondence, biographical literature, articles on A. Einstein published in Czech journals, principal relativity theory monographs and popular, historical and philosophical publications. The bibliographical records are listed alphabetically. Most references give the abbreviations of libraries where the publications are available. (J.P.)
Hundres Years of Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav Franek
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In 2005, all civilised worl will remind the 100 years anniversary of Publishing the original work on special theory of relativity by Albert Einstein. This contribution is a brief review of its principial ideas in the field of electrodynamics.
A test theory of special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansouri, R.; Sexl, R.U.
1977-01-01
Various second-order optical tests of special relativity are discussed within the framework of a test theory developed previously. Owing to the low accuracy of the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment, the Lorentz contraction is known by direct experiments only to an accuracy of a few percent. To improve this accuracy several experiments are suggested. (author)
Testing special relativity theory using Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Vega C, H. R.
2010-10-01
The validity of the special relativity theory has been tested using the Compton scattering. Since 1905 several experiments has been carried out to show that time, mass, and length change with the velocity, in this work the Compton scattering has been utilized as a simple way to show the validity to relativity. The work was carried out through Monte Carlo calculations and experiments with different gamma-ray sources and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3 x 3 NaI (Tl) detector. The pulse-height spectra were collected and the Compton edge was observed. This information was utilized to determine the relationship between the electron's mass and energy using the Compton -knee- position, the obtained results were contrasted with two collision models between photon and electron, one model was built using the classical physics and another using the special relativity theory. It was found that calculations and experiments results fit to collision model made using the special relativity. (Author)
New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.
2008-01-01
We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.
Special relativity and classical field theory
Susskind, Leonard
2017-01-01
Physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman are back. This time, they introduce readers to Einstein's special relativity and Maxwell's classical field theory. Using their typical brand of real math, enlightening drawings, and humor, Susskind and Friedman walk us through the complexities of waves, forces, and particles by exploring special relativity and electromagnetism. It's a must-read for both devotees of the series and any armchair physicist who wants to improve their knowledge of physics' deepest truths.
McAdoo, Ryan M; Gronlund, Scott D
2016-01-01
Many in the eyewitness identification community believe that sequential lineups are superior to simultaneous lineups because simultaneous lineups encourage inappropriate choosing due to promoting comparisons among choices (a relative judgment strategy), but sequential lineups reduce this propensity by inducing comparisons of lineup members directly to memory rather than to each other (an absolute judgment strategy). Different versions of the relative judgment theory have implicated both discrete-state and continuous mediation of eyewitness decisions. The theory has never been formally specified, but (Yonelinas, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1341-1354, 1994) dual-process models provide one possible specification, thereby allowing us to evaluate how eyewitness decisions are mediated. We utilized a ranking task (Kellen and Klauer, J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 40:1795-1804, 2014) and found evidence for continuous mediation when facial stimuli match from study to test (Experiment 1) and when they mismatch (Experiment 2). This evidence, which is contrary to a version of relative judgment theory that has gained a lot of traction in the legal community, compels reassessment of the role that guessing plays in eyewitness identification. Future research should continue to test formal explanations in order to advance theory, expedite the development of new procedures that can enhance the reliability of eyewitness evidence, and to facilitate the exploration of task factors and emergent strategies that might influence when recognition is continuously or discretely mediated.
Relativity the special and the general theory
Einstein, Albert
2015-01-01
After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was "to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics." The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. This new edition of Einstein's celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with an introduction and a reading companion by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examines the evolution of Einstein's thinking and casts his ideas in a broader present-day context. A special chapter explores the history...
Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning
Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.
2012-01-01
We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,
A theory of evidence for undeclared nuclear activities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, J.L.
1995-01-01
The IAEA has recently explored techniques to augment and improve its existing safeguards information systems as part of Program 93 + 2 in order to address the detection of undeclared activities. Effective utilization of information on undeclared activities requires a formulation of the relationship between the information being gathered and the resulting safeguards assurance. The process of safeguards is represented as the gathering of evidence to provide assurance that no undeclared activities take place. It is shown that the analysis of this process can be represented by a theory grounded in the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and the concept of possibility. This paper presents the underlying evidence theory required to support a new information system tool for the analysis of information with respect to undeclared activities. The Dempster-Shafer theory serves as the calculus for the combination of diverse sources of evidence, and when applied to safeguards information, provides a basis for interpreting the result of safeguards indicators and measurements -- safeguards assurance
Compositional models and conditional independence in evidence theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jiroušek, Radim; Vejnarová, Jiřina
2011-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 316-334 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Evidence theory * Conditional independence * multidimensional models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/jirousek-0370515.pdf
TIM Series: Theory, Evidence and the Pragmatic Manager
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven Muegge
2008-08-01
Full Text Available On July 2, 2008, Steven Muegge from Carleton University delivered a presentation entitled "Theory, Evidence and the Pragmatic Manager". This section provides the key messages from the lecture. The scope of this lecture spanned several topics, including management decision making, forecasting and its limitations, the psychology of expertise, and the management of innovation.
Constructing a chinese international relations theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, P.M.; Nielsen, R.T.
2013-01-01
Chinese scholars are debating whether, and how, to innovate a Chinese theory of International Relations (IR). This article examines the driving forces behind this theoretical debate. It challenges the commonsensical link between external events in the subject matter (i.r.) and theorizing (IR......), which suggests that the innovation of a Chinese IR theory is a natural product of China's geopolitical rise, its growing political ambitions, and discontent with Western hegemony. We propose instead a sociological approach to intellectual innovation which opens the black box of knowledge production...... attention from their peers-theorizing a Chinese IR theory being one important way of doing this. The external layer-which ranges from power politics to sociopolitical developments-affects this process indirectly by providing more research funds and autonomy to the more immediate institutional environment...
Recursive relations for a quiver gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jaemo; Sim, Woojoo
2006-01-01
We study the recursive relations for a quiver gauge theory with the gauge group SU(N 1 ) x SU(N 2 ) with bifundamental fermions transforming as (N 1 , N-bar 2 ). We work out the recursive relation for the amplitudes involving a pair of quark and antiquark and gluons of each gauge group. We realize directly in the recursive relations the invariance under the order preserving permutations of the gluons of the first and the second gauge group. We check the proposed relations for MHV, 6-point and 7-point amplitudes and find the agreements with the known results and the known relations with the single gauge group amplitudes. The proposed recursive relation is much more efficient in calculating the amplitudes than using the known relations with the amplitudes of the single gauge group
Fuzzy relational calculus theory, applications and software
Peeva, Ketty
2004-01-01
This book examines fuzzy relational calculus theory with applications in various engineering subjects. The scope of the text covers unified and exact methods with algorithms for direct and inverse problem resolution in fuzzy relational calculus. Extensive engineering applications of fuzzy relation compositions and fuzzy linear systems (linear, relational and intuitionistic) are discussed. Some examples of such applications include solutions of equivalence, reduction and minimization problems in fuzzy machines, pattern recognition in fuzzy languages, optimization and inference engines in textile and chemical engineering, etc. A comprehensive overview of the authors' original work in fuzzy relational calculus is also provided in each chapter. The attached CD-Rom contains a toolbox with many functions for fuzzy calculations, together with an original algorithm for inverse problem resolution in MATLAB. This book is also suitable for use as a textbook in related courses at advanced undergraduate and graduate level...
Ideal related K-theory with coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren
2017-01-01
In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...... to determine the new groups, and will in a companion paper be used to prove a universal multi-coefficient theorem for the one distinguished ideal case for a large class of algebras......In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...
Quantum Theory finally reconciled with Special Relativity
Tommasini, Daniele
2001-01-01
In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) pointed out that Quantum Mechanics apparently implied some mysterious, instantaneous action at a distance. This paradox is supposed to be related to the probabilistic nature of the theory, but since deterministic alternatives involving "Hidden Variables" hardly agree with the experiments, the scientific community is now accepting this ``quantum nonlocality" as if it were a reality. However, I have argued recently that Quantum Electrodynamics is free ...
Relational Compositions in Fuzzy Class Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Běhounek, Libor; Daňková, M.
2009-01-01
Roč. 160, č. 8 (2009), s. 1005-1036 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fuzzy relation * sup-T-composition * inf-R-composition * BK- pro duct * fuzzy class theory * formal truth value Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009
The special theory of relativity foundations, theory, verification, applications
Christodoulides, Costas
2016-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive, university-level introduction to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. In addition to the purely theoretical aspect, emphasis is also given to its historical development as well as to the experiments that preceded the theory and those performed in order to test its validity. The main body of the book consists of chapters on Relativistic Kinematics and Dynamics and their applications, Optics and Electromagnetism. These could be covered in a one-semester course. A more advanced course might include the subjects examined in the other chapters of the book and its appendices. As a textbook, it has some unique characteristics: It provides detailed proofs of the theorems, offers abundant figures and discusses numerous examples. It also includes a number of problems for readers to solve, the complete solutions of which are given at the end of the book. It is primarily intended for use by university students of physics, mathematics and engineering. However, as the mathematics nee...
Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.
Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
2011-01-01
The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.
[Ortega and the theory of relativity].
González de Posada, Francisco
2006-01-01
Ortega y Gasset's thinking on Einstein and relativity, set out in the course of his extensive works, is constructed in the light of three of his fundamental ideas: 1) science, a special form of belief; 2) physics, a science par excellence; and 3) relativity, the intellectual fact of the highest order of its time; dedicating special attention to the essay: "The historical meaning of Einstein's theory". And it is completed with his critical attitude to the so-called "fundamental crisis" and his diagnosis of the grave problems suffered by physics in the wake of the relativistic and quantum revolutions.
A general theory of quantum relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minic, Djordje; Tze, C.-H.
2004-01-01
The geometric form of standard quantum mechanics is compatible with the two postulates: (1) the laws of physics are invariant under the choice of experimental setup and (2) every quantum observation or event is intrinsically statistical. These postulates remain compatible within a background independent extension of quantum theory with a local intrinsic time implying the relativity of the concept of a quantum event. In this extension the space of quantum events becomes dynamical and only individual quantum events make sense observationally. At the core of such a general theory of quantum relativity is the three-way interplay between the symplectic form, the dynamical metric and non-integrable almost complex structure of the space of quantum events. Such a formulation provides a missing conceptual ingredient in the search for a background independent quantum theory of gravity and matter. The crucial new technical element in our scheme derives from a set of recent mathematical results on certain infinite-dimensional almost Kahler manifolds which replace the complex projective spaces of standard quantum mechanics
From twistor string theory to recursion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2009-01-01
Witten's twistor string theory gives rise to an enigmatic formula 1 known as the 'connected prescription' for tree-level Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. We derive a link representation for the connected prescription by Fourier transforming it to mixed coordinates in terms of both twistor and dual twistor variables. We show that it can be related to other representations of amplitudes by applying the global residue theorem to deform the contour of integration. For six and seven particles we demonstrate explicitly that certain contour deformations rewrite the connected prescription as the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten representation, thereby establishing a concrete link between Witten's twistor string theory and the dual formulation for the S matrix of the N=4 SYM recently proposed by Arkani-Hamed et al. Other choices of integration contour also give rise to 'intermediate prescriptions'. We expect a similar though more intricate structure for more general amplitudes.
Stock portfolio selection using Dempster–Shafer evidence theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gour Sundar Mitra Thakur
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Markowitz’s return–risk model for stock portfolio selection is based on the historical return data of assets. In addition to the effect of historical return, there are many other critical factors which directly or indirectly influence the stock market. We use the fuzzy Delphi method to identify the critical factors initially. Factors having lower correlation coefficients are finally considered for further consideration. The critical factors and historical data are used to apply Dempster–Shafer evidence theory to rank the stocks. Then, a portfolio selection model that prefers stocks with higher rank is proposed. Illustration is done using stocks under Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE. Simulation is done by Ant Colony Optimization. The performance of the outcome is found satisfactory when compared with recent performance of the assets. Keywords: Stock portfolio selection, Ranking, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory, Ant Colony Optimization, Fuzzy Delphi method
Introduction to the theory of relativity
Bergmann, Peter Gabriel
1976-01-01
Comprehensive coverage of special theory (frames of reference, Lorentz transformation, more), general theory (principle of equivalence, more) and unified theory (Weyl's gauge-invariant geometry, more.) Foreword by Albert Einstein.
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...
Introducing Evidence Through Research "Push": Using Theory and Qualitative Methods.
Morden, Andrew; Ong, Bie Nio; Brooks, Lauren; Jinks, Clare; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Dziedzic, Krysia S
2015-11-01
A multitude of factors can influence the uptake and implementation of complex interventions in health care. A plethora of theories and frameworks recognize the need to establish relationships, understand organizational dynamics, address context and contingency, and engage key decision makers. Less attention is paid to how theories that emphasize relational contexts can actually be deployed to guide the implementation of an intervention. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential role of qualitative research aligned with theory to inform complex interventions. We detail a study underpinned by theory and qualitative research that (a) ensured key actors made sense of the complex intervention at the earliest stage of adoption and (b) aided initial engagement with the intervention. We conclude that using theoretical approaches aligned with qualitative research can provide insights into the context and dynamics of health care settings that in turn can be used to aid intervention implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Evidence for an expectancy-based theory of avoidance behaviour.
Declercq, Mieke; De Houwer, Jan; Baeyens, Frank
2008-01-01
In most studies on avoidance learning, participants receive an aversive unconditioned stimulus after a warning signal is presented, unless the participant performs a particular response. Lovibond (2006) recently proposed a cognitive theory of avoidance learning, according to which avoidance behaviour is a function of both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In line with this theory, we found that avoidance behaviour was based on an integration of acquired knowledge about, on the one hand, the relation between stimuli and, on the other hand, the relation between behaviour and stimuli.
Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaijuan Yuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster–Shafer (D-R evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods.
Relational quadrilateralland II: The Quantum Theory
Anderson, Edward; Kneller, Sophie
2014-04-01
We provide the quantum treatment of the relational quadrilateral. The underlying reduced configuration spaces are ℂℙ2 and the cone over this. We consider exact free and isotropic HO potential cases and perturbations about these. Moreover, our purely relational kinematical quantization is distinct from the usual one for ℂℙ2, which turns out to carry absolutist connotations instead. Thus, this paper is the first to note absolute-versus-relational motion distinctions at the kinematical rather than dynamical level. It is also an example of value to the discussion of kinematical quantization along the lines of Isham, 1984. The relational quadrilateral is the simplest RPM whose mathematics is not standard in atomic physics (the triangle and four particles on a line are both based on 𝕊2 and ℝ3 mathematics). It is far more typical of the general quantum relational N-a-gon than the previously studied case of the relational triangle. We consider useful integrals as regards perturbation theory and the peaking interpretation of quantum cosmology. We subsequently consider problem of time (PoT) applications of this: quantum Kuchař beables, the Machian version of the semiclassical approach and the timeless naïve Schrödinger interpretation. These go toward extending the combined Machian semiclassical-Histories-Timeless Approach of [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D23 (2014) 1450014] to the case of the quadrilateral, which will be treated in subsequent papers.
Special theory of relativity: lectures and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, Y.
2004-01-01
This book is a clear and complete presentation of restricted relativity in which the author follows the historical path from puzzling experimental facts to the building of a new theory. It is shown how scientists had to challenge intuitive notions of time and space to explain and give consistency to experimental results. The text is spread with a lot of explanatory notes that contribute to a better understanding of the topic. This book aims at an audience of people already acquainted with general physics: students, scientists or teachers looking for a pedagogical reference book. This work is divided into 10 chapters: 1) The speed of light; 2) The Galilean transformation and optics; 3) Michelson's experiment and the relativity principle; 4) The Lorentz transformation; 5) Lorentz contraction and time dilation; 6) Relativistic kinematics; 7) Energy and momentum; 8) Relativistic dynamics; 9) Tensor calculus - Space-time, and 10) The invariance of Maxwell equations. (A.C.)
Relationalism or why diplomats find international relations theory strange
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adler-Nissen, Rebecca
2015-01-01
In this conclusion, which reflects critically on the relational approach to diplomacy and its wider consequences, I argue that diplomats are estranged from IR theory and vice versa - because International Relations scholars generally subscribe to substantialism, whereas diplomats tend to think...... by diplomatic scholars). Relationalism takes as its point of departure the idea that social phenomena making up world politics always develop in relation to other social phenomena. Thus, for example, states are not born into' this world as fully developed states that then "exist"; states are made in continuous...... scholarship and diplomatic knowledge and practice are important for how we understand (and construct) world politics, including war, international cooperation, and responses to human and natural catastrophes....
Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.
1981-01-01
Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru
Finsler geometry, relativity and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asanov, G.S.
1985-01-01
This book provides a self-contained account of the Finslerian techniques which aim to synthesize the ideas of Finslerian metrical generalization of Riemannian geometry to merge with the primary physical concepts of general relativity and gauge field theories. The geometrization of internal symmetries in terms of Finslerian geometry, as well as the formulation of Finslerian generalization of gravitational field equations and equations of motion of matter, are two key points used to expound the techniques. The Clebsch representation of the canonical momentum field is used to formulate the Hamilton-Jacobi theory for homogeneous Lagrangians of classical mechanics. As an auxillary mathematical apparatus, the author uses invariance identities which systematically reflect the covariant properties of geometrical objects. The results of recent studies of special Finsler spaces are also applied. The book adds substantially to the mathematical monographs by Rund (1959) and Rund and Bear (1972), all basic results of the latter being reflected. It is the author's hope that thorough exploration of the materrial presented will tempt the reader to revise the habitual physical concepts supported conventionally by Riemannian geometry. (Auth.)
Relating c 0 conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guruswamy, S.; Ludwig, A.W.W.
1998-03-01
A 'canonical mapping' is established between the c = -1 system of bosonic ghosts at the c = 2 complex scalar theory and, a similar mapping between the c = -2 system of fermionic ghosts and the c = 1 Dirac theory. The existence of this mapping is suggested by the identity of the characters of the respective theories. The respective c 0 theories share the same space of states, whereas the spaces of conformal fields are different. Upon this mapping from their c 0) complex scalar and the Dirac theories inherit hidden nonlocal sl(2) symmetries. (author)
Possible Experiments to test Einstein's Special Relativity Theory
de Haan, Victor Otto
2011-01-01
All of the experiments supporting Einstein's Special Relativity Theory are also supportive of the Lorentz ether theory, or many other ether theories. However, a growing number of experiments show deviations from Einstein's Special Relativity Theory, but are supporting more extended theories. Some of these experiments are reviewed and analyzed. Unfortunately, many experiments are not of high quality, never repeated and mostly both. It is proposed that the most promising experiments should be r...
Uncertainty quantification using evidence theory in multidisciplinary design optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, Harish; Renaud, John E.; Preston, Evan L.; Padmanabhan, Dhanesh
2004-01-01
Advances in computational performance have led to the development of large-scale simulation tools for design. Systems generated using such simulation tools can fail in service if the uncertainty of the simulation tool's performance predictions is not accounted for. In this research an investigation of how uncertainty can be quantified in multidisciplinary systems analysis subject to epistemic uncertainty associated with the disciplinary design tools and input parameters is undertaken. Evidence theory is used to quantify uncertainty in terms of the uncertain measures of belief and plausibility. To illustrate the methodology, multidisciplinary analysis problems are introduced as an extension to the epistemic uncertainty challenge problems identified by Sandia National Laboratories. After uncertainty has been characterized mathematically the designer seeks the optimum design under uncertainty. The measures of uncertainty provided by evidence theory are discontinuous functions. Such non-smooth functions cannot be used in traditional gradient-based optimizers because the sensitivities of the uncertain measures are not properly defined. In this research surrogate models are used to represent the uncertain measures as continuous functions. A sequential approximate optimization approach is used to drive the optimization process. The methodology is illustrated in application to multidisciplinary example problems
Perturbative Gravity and Gauge Theory Relations: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Søndergaard
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the amazing Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations, connecting perturbative gravity and gauge theories at tree level. The main focus is on n-point derivations and general properties both from a string theory and pure field theory point of view. In particular, the field theory part is based on some very recent developments.
Strategic behavior and marriage payments: theory and evidence from Senegal.
Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe
2010-01-01
This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.
Symmetry, Contingency, Complexity: Accommodating Uncertainty in Public Relations Theory.
Murphy, Priscilla
2000-01-01
Explores the potential of complexity theory as a unifying theory in public relations, where scholars have recently raised problems involving flux, uncertainty, adaptiveness, and loss of control. Describes specific complexity-based methodologies and their potential for public relations studies. Offers an account of complexity theory, its…
Can one tell Einstein's unimodular theory from Einstein's general relativity?
Alvarez, Enrique
2005-01-01
The so called unimodular theory of gravitation is compared with general relativity in the quadratic (Fierz-Pauli) regime, using a quite broad framework, and it is argued that quantum effects allow in principle to discriminate between both theories.
The role of Einstein's general relativity theory in today's physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicak, J.
The relationships are discussed of the general relativity theory to other fields of today's physics. Recent results are reported of studies into gravitational radiation, relativistic astrophysics, cosmology and the quantum theory. (Z.M.)
Unitarity relations in c=1 Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, D.A.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors consider the S-matrix of c = 1 Liouville theory with vanishing cosmological constant. The authors examine some of the constraints imposed by unitarity. These completely determine (N,2) amplitudes at tree level in terms of the (N,1) amplitudes when the plus tachyon momenta take generic values. A surprising feature of the matrix model results is the lack of particle creation branch cuts in the higher genus amplitudes. In fact, the authors show that the naive field theory limit of Liouville theory would predict such branch cuts. However, unitarity in the full string theory ensures that such cuts do not appear in genus one (N,1) amplitudes. The authors conclude with some comments about the genus one (N,2) amplitudes
70 years of the general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro Diaz-Balart, F.; Cabezas Solorzano, R.
1986-06-01
In view of the 70th anniversary of the discovery of the General Theory of Relativity, an analysis was made of the special and general theories. The basic postulates, their consequences in the formulation of the theories, the main results, some aspects related to the experimental verification and its applications are presented, as are some elements of the mathematical formalism of the theories, to facilitate the logical interrelationships between its results and consequences. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnikov, V.V.; Ponomarev, V.N.
1986-01-01
An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (g μν , Γ μν α ) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism
The theory of relativity and other essays
Einstein, Albert
2011-01-01
E=mc2: It may be Einstein's most well-known contribution to modern science, but how many people understand the thought process or physics behind this famous equation?In this collection of his seven most important essays on physics, Einstein guides his reader step-by-step through the many layers of scientific theory that formed a starting point for his discoveries. By both supporting and refuting the theories and scientific efforts of his predecessors, Einstein reveals in a clear voice the origins and meaning of such significant topics as physics and reality, the fundamentals of theoretical ph
General relativity invariance and string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.
1987-04-01
The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs
Modeling and Performing Relational Theories in the Classroom
Suter, Elizabeth A.; West, Carrie L.
2011-01-01
Although directly related to students' everyday lives, the abstract and even intimidating nature of relational theories often bars students from recognizing the immediate relevance to their relationships. The theories of symbolic interactionism, social exchange, relational dialectics, social penetration, and uncertainty reduction offer students…
Some relations of parameters in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, K.
1986-01-01
Two schemes of parameter relations, linear relation and non-linear relation are discussed. The linear relation of coupling constants is derived directly from an underlying symmetry of the classical theory and is preserved usually in the quantum theory. The non-linear relation is not derived by a same manner but is derived by more involved way which is intrinsically connected with quantum theory. An underlying symmetry which leads the linear relation is shown to be essential in the non-linear relation too. Some extension is also discussed
Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Strzelecki Tomasz
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on the use of the methods of determining the filtration coefficient on the basis of oedometer test results. The present analysis of the filtration theory equations should help interpret effective parameters of the non-steady filtration model. Moreover, equations for the flow of a gas through a porous medium and an interpretation of the filtration model effective parameters in this case are presented.
Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories
Strzelecki Tomasz; Strzelecki Michał
2015-01-01
This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on...
A Solution to the Cosmological Problem of Relativity Theory
Janzen, Daryl
After nearly a century of scientific investigation, the standard cosmological theory continues to have many unexplained problems, which invariably amount to one troubling statement: we know of no good reason for the Universe to appear just as it does, which is described extremely well by the flat ΛCDM cosmological model. Therefore, the problem is not that the physical model is at all incompatible with observation, but that, as our empirical results have been increasingly constrained, it has also become increasingly obvious that the Universe does not meet our prior expectations; e.g., the evidence suggests that the Universe began from a singularity of the theory that is used to describe it, and with space expanding thereafter in cosmic time, even though relativity theory is thought to imply that no such objective foliation of the spacetime continuum should reasonably exist. Furthermore, the expanding Universe is well-described as being flat, isotropic, and homogeneous, even though its shape and expansion rate are everywhere supposed to be the products of local energy-content---and the necessary prior uniform distribution, of just the right amount of matter for all three of these conditions to be met, could not have been causally determined to begin with. And finally, the empirically constrained density parameters now indicate that all of the matter that we directly observe should make up only four percent of the total, so that the dominant forms of energy in the Universe should be dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and cold dark matter (CDM). The most common ways of attacking these problems have been: to apply modifications to the basic physical model, e.g. as in the inflation and quintessence theories which strive to resolve the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems; to use particle physics techniques in order to formulate the description of dark matter candidates that might fit with observations; and, in the case of the Big
Generalization of the test theory of relativity to noninertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolghasem, G.H.; Khajehpour, M.R.H.; Mansouri, R.
1988-08-01
We present a generalized test theory of special relativity, using a noninertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport- and Einstein-synchronizations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disk. But in any theory with a preferred frame such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronization procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of the special relativity. (author). 13 refs
Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics
2017-01-01
ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).
Relativity, symmetry and the structure of quantum theory
Klink, William H; Schweiger, Wolfgang
Quantum theory is one of the most successful of all physical theories. Our everyday world is dominated by devices that function because of knowledge of the quantum world. Yet many, physicists and non-physicists alike, find the theory which explains the behavior of the quantum world baffling and strange. This book is the first in a series of three that argues that relativity and symmetry determine the structure of quantum theory. That is to say, the structure of quantum theory is what it is because of relativity and symmetry. There are different types of relativity, each leading to a particular type of quantum theory. This book deals specifically with what we call Newton relativity, the form of relativity built into Newtonian mechanics, and the quantum theory to which it gives rise, which we call Galilean (often misleadingly called non-relativistic) quantum theory. Key Features: • Meaning and significance of the term of relativity; discussion of the principle of relativity. • Relation of symmetry to relati...
Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...
Relations between grand unified and monopole theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, D.I.
1983-01-01
Two kinds of interrelationships between GUTs and monopole theories are discussed: how the duality conjectures could have a bearing on understanding GUTs, and how some of the mathematical technology used in monopole studies can yield simple (Dynkin) diagrammatic rules for some of the common GUT group theory calculations. A compact notation for semisimple Lie algebras is supplied by Dynkin diagrams. Minimal fundamental weights are seen to define minimal representations into which matter may be placed, and also define a special direction for the adjoint Higgs field. Minimal weights play a special role, therefore, both in defining matter multiplets and in symmetry breaking. After considering gauge groups G broken down to U(1) X K/Z (with K semisimple) by an adjoint representation (AR) Higgs, it is asked how the representations of G will look when decomposed into irreducible representations of U(1) X K, by proving two theorems as given. The point is pedagogical: using concepts like the Weyl group, practical calculations can be performed with simple Dynkin diagrams
Remarks on the relation between different (open) string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Alwis, S.P.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the different three-string vertices, related by conformal transformations, are in the same BRST cohomology class. We use this result to discuss the relation between different (open) string field theories. (orig.)
DSR Theories, Conformal Group and Generalized Commutation Relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leiva, Carlos
2006-01-01
In this paper the relationship of DSR theories and Conformal Group is reviewed. On the other hand, the relation between DSR Magueijo Smolin generators and generalized commutation relations is also shown
Economic theory and evidence on smoking behavior of adults.
Sloan, Frank A; Wang, Yang
2008-11-01
To describe: (i) three alternative conceptual frameworks used by economists to study addictive behaviors: rational, imperfectly rational and irrational addiction; (ii) empirical economic evidence on each framework and specific channels to explain adult smoking matched to the frameworks; and (iii) policy implications for each framework. A systematic review and appraisal of important theoretical and empirical economic studies on smoking. There is some empirical support for each framework. For rational and imperfectly rational addiction there is some evidence that anticipated future cigarette prices influence current cigarette consumption, and quitting costs are high for smokers. Smokers are more risk-tolerant in the financial domain than are others and tend to attach a lower value to being in good health. Findings on differences in rates of time preference by smoking status are mixed; however, short-term rates are higher than long-term rates for both smokers and non-smokers, a stylized fact consistent with hyperbolic discounting. The economic literature lends no empirical support to the view that mature adults smoke because they underestimate the probability of harm to health from smoking. In support of the irrationality framework, smokers tend to be more impulsive than others in domains not related directly to smoking, implying that they may be sensitive to cues that trigger smoking. Much promising economic research uses the imperfectly rational addiction framework, but empirical research based on this framework is still in its infancy.
Progress on study of nuclear data theory and related fields at the Theory Group of CNDC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhigang, Ge [China Nuclear Data Center, CIAE (China)
1996-06-01
The Theory Group of CNDC (China Nuclear Data Center) has made a lot of progress in nuclear reaction theory and its application as well as many other related fields in 1995. The recent progress in nuclear reaction theory study and its applications, the recent progress in the nuclear data calculation and related code development are introduced. The production rate of radioactive nuclear beam induced by 70 MeV protons on {sup 72}Ge target were calculated. The calculated results are presented.
Some relations between twisted K-theory and E8 gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathai, Varghese; Sati, Hisham
2004-01-01
Recently, Diaconescu, Moore and Witten provided a nontrivial link between K-theory and M-theory, by deriving the partition function of the Ramond-Ramond fields of Type IIA string theory from an E8 gauge theory in eleven dimensions. We give some relations between twisted K-theory and M-theory by adapting the method of Diaconescu-Moore-Witten and Moore-Saulina. In particular, we construct the twisted K-theory torus which defines the partition function, and also discuss the problem from the E8 loop group picture, in which the Dixmier-Douady class is the Neveu-Schwarz field. In the process of doing this, we encounter some mathematics that is new to the physics literature. In particular, the eta differential form, which is the generalization of the eta invariant, arises naturally in this context. We conclude with several open problems in mathematics and string theory. (author)
Foundations of relativity theory. 7. ed.; Grundzuege der Relativitaetstheorie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Einstein, Albert
2009-07-01
In the present elaboration of four speeches, which I have held at the Princeton University in May 1921 I wanted to summarize the main thoughts and mathematical methods of relativity theory. Thereby I have attempted to leave out all less essential but to treat the fundamental so that the whole can serve as introduction for all those which master the elements of advanced mathematics but want not apply all to much time and inconvenience to the object. Completeness can this short presentation self-evidently not require so much as I have not treated the more subtle, more mathematically interesting developments, which are based on the variational calculus. My main goal was to let the fundamental in the whole way of thought of the theory clearly come forward. [German] ''In der vorliegenden Ausarbeitung von vier Vortraegen, die ich an der Universitaet Princeton im Mai 1921 gehalten habe, wollte ich die Hauptgedanken und mathematischen Methoden der Relativitaetstheorie zusammenfassen. Dabei habe ich mich bemueht, alles weniger Wesentliche wegzulassen, das Grundsaetzliche aber doch so zu behandeln, dass das Ganze als Einfuehrung fuer alle diejenigen dienen kann, welche die Elemente der hoeheren Mathematik beherrschen, aber nicht allzuviel Zeit und Muehe auf den Gegenstand verwenden wollen. Auf Vollstaendigkeit kann diese kurze Darlegung selbstverstaendlich keinen Anspruch machen, zumal ich die feineren, mehr mathematisch interessanten Entwicklungen, welche sich auf Variationsrechnung gruenden, nicht behandelt habe. Mein Hauptziel war es, das Grundsaetzliche in dem ganzen Gedankengang der Theorie klar hervortreten zu lassen.'' Albert Einstein (Vorwort zur 1. Auflage der ''Vier Vorlesungen ueber Relativitaetstheorie'') (orig.)
Pure Relationality as a Sociological Theory of Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sam Whimster
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In order to explain the success of populist politicians use of social media, we need to subtract the social from relationality and separate social relationships from network theory applications. A pure theory of relationality is suggested by Werner Heisenberg’s breakthrough in quantum mechanics. It is argued that sociology, to its detriment, has failed to incorporate a theory of communication, one adequate to the explosion of social media and the recent rise of populist politics, here instanced by Donald Trump. Realizing the underlying importance of communication technology in all social relationships, and treating these two aspects in a complementary fashion, is the purpose of this essay in sociological theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuyuan Xiao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The multi-sensor data fusion technique plays a significant role in fault diagnosis and in a variety of such applications, and the Dempster–Shafer evidence theory is employed to improve the system performance; whereas, it may generate a counter-intuitive result when the pieces of evidence highly conflict with each other. To handle this problem, a novel multi-sensor data fusion approach on the basis of the distance of evidence, belief entropy and fuzzy preference relation analysis is proposed. A function of evidence distance is first leveraged to measure the conflict degree among the pieces of evidence; thus, the support degree can be obtained to represent the reliability of the evidence. Next, the uncertainty of each piece of evidence is measured by means of the belief entropy. Based on the quantitative uncertainty measured above, the fuzzy preference relations are applied to represent the relative credibility preference of the evidence. Afterwards, the support degree of each piece of evidence is adjusted by taking advantage of the relative credibility preference of the evidence that can be utilized to generate an appropriate weight with respect to each piece of evidence. Finally, the modified weights of the evidence are adopted to adjust the bodies of the evidence in the advance of utilizing Dempster’s combination rule. A numerical example and a practical application in fault diagnosis are used as illustrations to demonstrate that the proposal is reasonable and efficient in the management of conflict and fault diagnosis.
Iz ''general relativity'' necessary for the Einstein gravitation theory gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondi, G.
1982-01-01
Main principles of relativity and gravitation theories are deeply analyzed. Problems of boundaries of applicability for these theories and possible ways of their change and generalization are discussed. It is shown that the notion of general relativity does not introduce any post-newton physics - it only deals with coordinate transformations. It is supposed that ''general relativity'' is a physically senseless phrase which can be considered only as a historical remainder of an interesting philosophic discourse. The paper reveals that there exists appropriate physical substantiation of the Einstein gravitation theory not including a physically senseless concept of general relativity and promoting its fundamental relations with the experiment
Some dual relations in twistor theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarski, J.
1983-08-01
The option of employing twistors or dual twistors in integral representations, etc., is considered. In particular, dual-space analyses are presented which relate to the problem of background electromagnetic fields, and to the inverse transformation. (author)
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H.H.v.; Treder, H.J.
1984-01-01
The paper concerns Einstein's general relativity, wave mechanics and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations. The principle of equivalence and its association with both wave mechanics and quantum gravity, is discussed. (U.K.)
Introduction:Bourdieu and International Relations theory
2012-01-01
This book rethinks the key concepts of International Relations by drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu.The last few years have seen a genuine wave of publications promoting sociology in international relations. Scholars have suggested that Bourdieu’s vocabulary can be applied to study security, diplomacy, migration and global environmental politics. Yet we still lack a systematic and accessible analysis of what Bourdieu-inspired IR might look like. This book provides the answer. It offers a...
Constructing a New Theory from Old Ideas and New Evidence
Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry
2013-01-01
A central tenet of constructivist models of conceptual development is that children's initial conceptual level constrains how they make sense of new evidence and thus whether exposure to evidence will prompt conceptual change. Yet little experimental evidence directly examines this claim for the case of sustained, fundamental conceptual…
Social capital: theory, evidence, and implications for oral health.
Rouxel, Patrick L; Heilmann, Anja; Aida, Jun; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G
2015-04-01
In the last two decades, there has been increasing application of the concept of social capital in various fields of public health, including oral health. However, social capital is a contested concept with debates on its definition, measurement, and application. This study provides an overview of the concept of social capital, highlights the various pathways linking social capital to health, and discusses the potential implication of this concept for health policy. An extensive and diverse international literature has examined the relationship between social capital and a range of general health outcomes across the life course. A more limited but expanding literature has also demonstrated the potential influence of social capital on oral health. Much of the evidence in relation to oral health is limited by methodological shortcomings mainly related to the measurement of social capital, cross-sectional study designs, and inadequate controls for confounding factors. Further research using stronger methodological designs should explore the role of social capital in oral health and assess its potential application in the development of oral health improvement interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A theory of strong interactions ''from'' general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldirola, P.; Recami, E.
1979-01-01
In this paper a previous letter (where, among other things, a classical ''quark confinement'' was derived from general relativity plus dilatation-covariance), is completed by showing that the theory is compatible also with quarks ''asymptotic freedom''. Then -within a bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions- a classical field theory is proposed for the (strong) interactions between hadrons. Various consequences are briefly analysed
Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.
Fidelman, U
1991-10-01
The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzeszkowski, H. von; Treder, H.
1982-01-01
We dicusss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Einstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a ''quantization of geometry.'' However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according to limitations of measurements given by Einstein's strong principle of equivalence and the Heisenberg uncertainties for the mechanics of test bodies
Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations
Thakur, Vineet
2016-01-01
In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…
J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)
2005-01-01
textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is
Test theories of special relativity: a general critique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maciel, A.K.A.; Tiomno, J.
1988-01-01
Absolute Spacetime Theories conceived for the purpose of testing Special Relativity (SR) are reviewed. It is found that most theories proposed were in fact SR in different coordinate systems, since in general no specific SR violations were introduced. Models based on possible SR violating mechanisms are considered. Misconceptions in recently published papers are examined. (author) [pt
Equivalence of the theories of reciprocity and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.
1976-01-01
Khan's theory (Nuovo Cimento; 57B:321 (1968) and Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 6:383 (1972)) of reciprocity has been shown to be equivalent to the theory of general relativity (in a conformally flat space-time) in that the same predictions are made physically. It is is proved that, since 'centrifugal forces' are used by Khan, gravitational phenomena are being considered equal in status to electromagnetic phenomena, and hence the difference claimed to exist between Milne's theory and Khan's theory disappears. (author)
Key Elasticities in Job Search Theory : International Evidence
Addison, John T.; Centeno, Mário; Portugal, Pedro
2004-01-01
This paper exploits the informational value of search theory, after Lancaster and Chesher (1983), in conjunction with survey data on the unemployed to calculate key reservation wage and duration elasticities for most EU-15 nations.
Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity" and Related Questions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.
The mathematical theory of general relativity
Katkar, L N
2014-01-01
This book is prepared for M. Sc. Students of Mathematics and Physics. The aim of writing this book is to give the reader a feeling for the necessity and beauty of the laws of general relativity. The contents of the book will attract both mathematicians and physicists which provides motivation and applications of many ideas and powerful mathematical methods of modern analysis and differential geometry. An attempt has been made to make the presentation comprehensive, rigorous and yet simple. Most calculations and transformations have been carried out in great detail. KEY FEATURE: Numerous solved examples using the well known mathematical techniques viz., the tensors and the differential forms in each chapter.
Quantum effects from a purely geometrical relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, Homer G
2005-01-01
A purely geometrical relativity theory results from a construction that produces from three-dimensional space a happy unification of Kaluza's five-dimensional theory and Weyl's conformal theory. The theory can provide geometrical explanations for the following observed phenomena, among others: (a) visibility lifetimes of elementary particles of lengths inversely proportional to their rest masses; (b) the equality of charge magnitude among all charged particles interacting at an event; (c) the propensity of electrons in atoms to be seen in discretely spaced orbits; and (d) 'quantum jumps' between those orbits. This suggests the possibility that the theory can provide a deterministic underpinning of quantum mechanics like that provided to thermodynamics by the molecular theory of gases
Hendriks, A.; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; de Mey, H.; Witteman, C.; Janssen, G.; Egger, J.
2016-01-01
Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual interpretation of perspective-taking, proposing that this ability can be studied in more detail by examining specific perspective-taking relations. To implement relational perspective-taking measures in clin...
Theoretical physics 4 special theory of relativity
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to special relativity, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the relativistic expansion of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. The first part of the book introduces Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction and Minkowski diagrams. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the four-dimensional covariant formulation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including discussion of Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force and the covariant Lagrangian formulation. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples ...
Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires
2013-01-01
We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)
Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories
Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.
1982-01-01
Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.
Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel
2005-01-01
Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...
Dissecting Practical Intelligence Theory: Its Claims and Evidence.
Gottfredson, Linda S.
2003-01-01
The two key theoretical propositions of "Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life" are made plausible only if one ignores considerable evidence contradicting them. The six key empirical claims rest primarily on the illusion of evidence enhanced by selective reporting of results. (SLD)
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore ...
Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A
2010-06-01
Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation
Hendriks, A.L.; Barnes-Holmes, Y.; McEnteggart, C.; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Egger, J.I.M.
2016-01-01
Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual
On the mathematical theory of classical fields and general relativity
Klainerman, S
1993-01-01
From the perspective of an analyst, like myself, the General Theory of Relativity provides an extrordinary rich and vastly virgin territory. It is the aim of my lecture to provide, ﬁrst, an account of those aspects of the theory which attract me most and second a perspective of what has been accomplished so far in that respect. In trying to state our main objectives it helps to view General Relativity in the broader context of Classical Field Theory. EinsteiniVacuum equations, or shortly E—V, is already sufﬁciently complicated. I will thus restrict my attention to them.
Mapping the frontier of theory in industrial relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tapia, Maite; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Kochan, Thomas A.
2015-01-01
well industrial relations meta-theories, when combined with efforts to build middle-range theories, provide distinctive explanations and different predictions for the alternatives that have emerged to date to fill the void. We propose new directions for theory and research that expand the range...... of actors or institutions that shape employment relations and include social identities outside of the employment relationship as the basis for mobilizing collective actions and voice. Finally, we suggest using these theoretical arguments to test among alternatives as a means of revitalizing and reshaping...
Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.
2006-01-01
The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…
Meredith, Pamela Joy
2013-04-01
Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.
Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.
Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean
2015-09-01
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.
General relativity and gauge gravity theories of higher order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopleva, N.P.
1998-01-01
It is a short review of today's gauge gravity theories and their relations with Einstein General Relativity. The conceptions of construction of the gauge gravity theories with higher derivatives are analyzed. GR is regarded as the gauge gravity theory corresponding to the choice of G ∞4 as the local gauge symmetry group and the symmetrical tensor of rank two g μν as the field variable. Using the mathematical technique, single for all fundamental interactions (namely variational formalism for infinite Lie groups), we can obtain Einstein's theory as the gauge theory without any changes. All other gauge approaches lead to non-Einstein theories of gravity. But above-mentioned mathematical technique permits us to construct the gauge gravity theory of higher order (for instance SO (3,1)-gravity) so that all vacuum solutions of Einstein equations are the solutions of the SO (3,1)-gravity theory. The structure of equations of SO(3,1)-gravity becomes analogous to Weeler-Misner geometrodynamics one
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smalley, L.L.; Alabama Univ., Huntsville
1983-01-01
It is shown that (1) the proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalisations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients; 2) these theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum; and (3) the Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)
Smalley, L. L.
1983-01-01
The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.
Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.
1995-01-01
The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)
On the Role of Theory and Evidence in Macroeconomics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juselius, Katarina
This paper, which is prepared for the Inagural Conference of the Institute for New Economic Thinking in King's College, Cambridge, 8-11 April 2010, questions the preeminence of theory over empirics in economics and argues that empirical econometrics needs to be given a more important...
Huang, Yun-An; Jastorff, Jan; Van den Stock, Jan; Van de Vliet, Laura; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu
2018-05-15
Psychological construction models of emotion state that emotions are variable concepts constructed by fundamental psychological processes, whereas according to basic emotion theory, emotions cannot be divided into more fundamental units and each basic emotion is represented by a unique and innate neural circuitry. In a previous study, we found evidence for the psychological construction account by showing that several brain regions were commonly activated when perceiving different emotions (i.e. a general emotion network). Moreover, this set of brain regions included areas associated with core affect, conceptualization and executive control, as predicted by psychological construction models. Here we investigate directed functional brain connectivity in the same dataset to address two questions: 1) is there a common pathway within the general emotion network for the perception of different emotions and 2) if so, does this common pathway contain information to distinguish between different emotions? We used generalized psychophysiological interactions and information flow indices to examine the connectivity within the general emotion network. The results revealed a general emotion pathway that connects neural nodes involved in core affect, conceptualization, language and executive control. Perception of different emotions could not be accurately classified based on the connectivity patterns from the nodes of the general emotion pathway. Successful classification was achieved when connections outside the general emotion pathway were included. We propose that the general emotion pathway functions as a common pathway within the general emotion network and is involved in shared basic psychological processes across emotions. However, additional connections within the general emotion network are required to classify different emotions, consistent with a constructionist account. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Many-Body Theory of Pyrochlore Iridates and Related Materials
Wang, Runzhi
In this thesis we focus on two problems. First we propose a numerical method for generating optimized Wannier functions with desired properties. Second we perform the state of the art density functional plus dynamical mean-field calculations in pyrochlore iridates, to investigate the physics induced by the cooperation of spin-orbit coupling and electron correlation. We begin with the introduction for maximally localized Wannier functions and other related extensions. Then we describe the current research in the field of spin-orbit coupling and its interplay with correlation effects, followed by a brief introduction of the `hot' materials of iridates. Before the end of the introduction, we discuss the numerical methods employed in our work, including the density functional theory; dynamical mean-field theory and its combination with the exact diagonalization impurity solver. Then we propose our approach for constructing an optimized set of Wannier functions, which is a generalization of the functionality of the classic maximal localization method put forward by Marzari and Vanderbilt. Our work is motivated by the requirement of the effective description of the local subspace of the Hamiltonian by the beyond density functional theory methods. In extensions of density functional theory such as dynamical mean-field theory, one may want highly accurate description of particular local orbitals, including correct centers and symmetries; while the basis for the remaining degrees of freedom is unimportant. Therefore, we develop the selectively localized Wannier function approach which allows for a greater localization in the selected subset of Wannier functions and at the same time allows us to fix the centers and ensure the point symmetries. Applications in real materials are presented to demonstrate the power of our approach. Next we move to the investigation of pyrochlore iridates, focussing on the metal-insulator transition and material dependence in these compounds. We
A spatial Mankiw-Romer-Weil model: Theory and evidence
Fischer, Manfred M.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical growth model that extends the Mankiw-Romer-Weil [MRW] model by accounting for technological interdependence among regional economies. Interdependence is assumed to work through spatial externalities caused by disembodied knowledge diffusion. The transition from theory to econometrics leads to a reduced-form empirical spatial Durbin model specification that explains the variation in regional levels of per worker output at steady state. A system ...
Bureaucratic Minimal Squawk Behavior: Theory and Evidence from Regulatory Agencies
Clare Leaver
2009-01-01
This paper argues that bureaucrats are susceptible to `minimal squawk` behavior. I develop a simple model in which a desire to avoid criticism can prompt, otherwise public-spirited, bureaucrats to behave inefficiently. Decisions are taken to keep interest groups quiet and mistakes out of the public eye. The policy implications of this behavior are at odds with the received view that agencies should be structured to minimise the threat of `capture`. I test between theories of bureaucratic beha...
Interpreting doubly special relativity as a modified theory of measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt
2005-01-01
In this article we develop a physical interpretation for the deformed (doubly) special relativity theories (DSRs), based on a modification of the theory of measurement in special relativity. We suggest that it is useful to regard the DSRs as reflecting the manner in which quantum gravity effects induce Planck-suppressed distortions in the measurement of the 'true' energy and momentum. This interpretation provides a framework for the DSRs that is manifestly consistent, nontrivial, and in principle falsifiable. However, it does so at the cost of demoting such theories from the level of fundamental physics to the level of phenomenological models - models that should in principle be derivable from whatever theory of quantum gravity one ultimately chooses to adopt
Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.
Whitney, Cynthia K
2008-03-01
This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.
Export Growth and Factor Market Competition: Theory and Some Evidence
J. Emami Namini (Julian); G. Facchini (Giovanni); R.A. Lopez (Ricrado)
2011-01-01
textabstractEmpirical evidence suggests that sectoral export growth decreases exporters' survival probability, whereas this is not true for non-exporters. Models with firm heterogeneity in total factor productivity (TFP) predict the opposite. To solve this puzzle, we develop a two{factor framework
Global Sourcing of Heterogeneous Firms: Theory and Evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel
2015-01-01
The share of international trade within firm boundaries varies greatly across countries. This column presents new evidence on how the productivity of a firm affects the choice between vertical integration and outsourcing, as well as between foreign and domestic sourcing. The productivity effects...
Blue Ocean versus Competitive Strategy: Theory and Evidence
A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)
2009-01-01
textabstractBlue ocean strategy seeks to turn strategic management on its head by replacing ‘competitive advantage’ with ‘value innovation’ as the primary goal where firms must create consumer demand and exploit untapped markets. Empirical analysis has been focused on case study evidence and so
The Bjorken-Paschos relation in the unified gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, S.K.
1980-07-01
We have examined in the unified gauge theory with the integrally-charged quark model the Bjorken-Paschos relation within the impulse approximation of the parton picture. We find that the relation is valid for the forward scattering region and provides a reliable way to test the charge assignment of the quarks and the gluons. (author)
Testing the Contingency Theory of Accommodation in Public Relations.
Cancel, Amanda E.; Mitrook, Michael A.; Cameron, Glen T.
1999-01-01
Interviews 18 public-relations professionals to provide grounding and refinement of the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations. Supports a continuum from pure accommodation to pure advocacy and a matrix of variables affecting the continuum. Concludes that the practitioners' view of their communication world offers validity to the…
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1979-01-01
The canonical commutation relations are analyzed in detail in the indefinite-metric quantum field theory of gravity based on the vierbein formalism. It is explicitly verified that the BRS charge, the local-Lorentz-BRS charge and the Poincare generators satisfy the expected commutation relations. (author)
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1978-01-01
The canonical commutation relations are analyzed in detail in the manifestly covariant quantum field theory of general relativity proposed previously. It is explicitly proved that the BRS charge is indeed the generator of the BRS transformation both in the Landau gauge and in the non-Landau one. The equivalence between the field equations and the Heisenberg equations is confirmed. (author)
Current Account Adjustment: Some New Theory and Evidence
Jiandong Ju; Shang-Jin Wei
2007-01-01
This paper aims to provide a theory of current account adjustment that generalizes the textbook version of the intertemporal approach to current account and places domestic labor market institutions at the center stage. In general, in response to a shock, an economy adjusts through a combination of a change in the composition of goods trade (i.e., intra-temporal trade channel) and a change in the current account (i.e., intertemporal trade channel). The more rigid the labor market, the slower ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carol A. Gordon
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Objective – Part I of this paper aims to create a framework for an emerging theory of evidence based information literacy instruction. In order to ground this framework in existing theory, a holistic perspective views inquiry as a learning process that synthesizes information searching and knowledge building. An interdisciplinary approach is taken to relate user-centric information behavior theory and constructivist learning theory that supports this synthesis. The substantive theories that emerge serve as a springboard for emerging theory. A second objective of this paper is to define evidence based information literacy instruction by assessing the suitability of performance based assessment and action research as tools of evidence based practice.Methods – An historical review of research grounded in user-centered information behavior theory and constructivist learning theory establishes a body of existing substantive theory that supports emerging theory for evidence based information literacy instruction within an information-to-knowledge approach. A focused review of the literature presents supporting research for an evidence based pedagogy that is performance assessment based, i.e., information users are immersed in real-world tasks that include formative assessments. An analysis of the meaning of action research in terms of its purpose and methodology establishes its suitability for structuring an evidence based pedagogy. Supporting research tests a training model for school librarians and educators which integrates performance based assessment, as well as action research. Results – Findings of an historical analysis of information behavior theory and constructivist teaching practices, and a literature review that explores teaching models for evidence based information literacy instruction, point to two elements of evidence based information literacy instruction: the micro level of information searching behavior and the macro level of
Chemolli, Emanuela; Gagné, Marylène
2014-06-01
Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of motivation in which the different regulations are said to fall along a continuum of self-determination. The continuum has been used as a basis for using a relative autonomy index as a means to create motivational scores. Rasch analysis was used to verify the continuum structure of the Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale and of the Academic Motivation Scale. We discuss the concept of continuum against SDT's conceptualization of motivation and argue against the use of the relative autonomy index on the grounds that evidence for a continuum structure underlying the regulations is weak and because the index is statistically problematic. We suggest exploiting the full richness of SDT's multidimensional conceptualization of motivation through the use of alternative scoring methods when investigating motivational dynamics across life domains.
Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.
Kuo, Ben C H
2013-01-01
A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This
Targeting the Real Exchange Rate; Theory and Evidence
Carlos A. Végh Gramont; Guillermo Calvo; Carmen Reinhart
1994-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of policies aimed at setting a more depreciated level of the real exchange rate. An intertemporal optimizing model suggests that, in the absence of changes in fiscal policy, a more depreciated level of the real exchange can only be attained temporarily. This can be achieved by means of higher inflation and/or higher real interest rates, depending on the degree of capital mobility. Evidence for Brazil, Chile, and Colombia supports the mo...
Women in the Workplace and Management Practices: Theory and Evidence
Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi
2017-01-01
We review recent studies on management practices and their consequences for women in the workplace. First, the High Performance Work System (HPWS) is associated with greater gender diversity in the workplace while there is little evidence that the HPWS reduces the gender pay gap. Second, work-life balance practices with limited face-to-face interactions with coworkers may hamper women’s career advancement. Third, individual incentive linking pay to objective performance may enhance gender div...
Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1984-01-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David
2013-01-01
Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought
Relating the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutzig, Thomas, E-mail: tcreutzig@mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Fachbereich Mathematik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ridout, David, E-mail: david.ridout@anu.edu.au [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2013-07-21
Logarithmic conformal field theory is a rich and vibrant area of modern mathematical physics with well-known applications to both condensed matter theory and string theory. Our limited understanding of these theories is based upon detailed studies of various examples that one may regard as archetypal. These include the c=−2 triplet model, the Wess–Zumino–Witten model on SL(2;R) at level k=−1/2 , and its supergroup analogue on GL(1|1). Here, the latter model is studied algebraically through representation theory, fusion and modular invariance, facilitating a subsequent investigation of its cosets and extended algebras. The results show that the archetypes of logarithmic conformal field theory are in fact all very closely related, as are many other examples including, in particular, the SL(2|1) models at levels 1 and −1/2 . The conclusion is then that the archetypal examples of logarithmic conformal field theory are practically all the same, so we should not expect that their features are in any way generic. Further archetypal examples must be sought.
Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.
2016-01-01
This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…
What is the Role of Legal Systems in Financial Intermediation? Theory and Evidence
Bottazzi, L.; Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.
2008-01-01
We develop a theory and empirical test of how the legal system affects the relationship between venture capitalists and entrepreneurs. The theory uses a double moral hazard framework to show how optimal contracts and investor actions depend on the quality of the legal system. The empirical evidence
Relativistic theory of gravitation and nonuniqueness of the predictions of general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Loskutov, Yu.M.
1986-01-01
It is shown that while the predictions of relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) for the gravitational effects are unique and consistent with the experimental data available, the relevant predictions of general relativity theory are not unique. Therewith the above nonuniqueness manifests itself in some effects in the first order in the gravitational interaction constant in others in the second one. The absence in GRT of the energy-momentum and angular momentum conservation laws for the matter and gravitational field taken together and its inapplicability to give uniquely determined predictions for the gravitational phenomena compel to reject GRT as a physical theory
Evidence on the relation between public capital and Government efficiency
Francisca Guedes de Oliveira
2010-01-01
This paper intends to contribute to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the relation between public capital stock and government efficiency. We present some objective indicators fo government efficiency and explore the mentioned relation. we find a positive and significant relation between both variables that survives the introduction of controls and robustness checking.
Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics
Weissauer, Rainer; CFT 2011
2014-01-01
This book, part of the series Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences, reviews recent developments in the theory of vertex operator algebras (VOAs) and their applications to mathematics and physics. The mathematical theory of VOAs originated from the famous monstrous moonshine conjectures of J.H. Conway and S.P. Norton, which predicted a deep relationship between the characters of the largest simple finite sporadic group, the Monster, and the theory of modular forms inspired by the observations of J. MacKay and J. Thompson. The contributions are based on lectures delivered at the 2011 conference on Conformal Field Theory, Automorphic Forms and Related Topics, organized by the editors as part of a special program offered at Heidelberg University that summer under the sponsorship of the MAThematics Center Heidelberg (MATCH).
A new interpretation of the special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buonomano, V.
1975-01-01
Assuming the 'Big Bang' theory as well as the usual axioms in the Special Theory of Relativity, the time dilations and length contractions are treated as real physical effects. This becomes possible by relating everything to the hypothetical frame, Ssub(a), at rest relative to the 'Big Bang' event. This frame in many senses plays the role of the classical aether frame. A clock's real rhythm, as opposed to its rhythm observed by restricted methods, is then a function of its velocity relative to Ssub(a) (assuming a uniform gravitational field). It is further assumed that gravitational radiation is composed of 'electromagnetic-like' waves. Therefore when a clock changes its velocity in a uniform gravitational field it must receive a a different total energy due to the average frequency shift (Doppler effect), the time dilations are then caused by the change in energy due to this frequency shift. That is, no two clocks can be in the 'same' gravitational field unless they have no relative velocity, and therefore the Special Theory of Relativity is a special case of the General Theory from this viewpoint. Two feasible experimental tests, using the Moessbauer effect, are described that would decide on these viewpoints. The principle of equivalence and the 'twin paradox' are also discussed. (author)
From Newton's laws to Einstein's theory of relativity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fang, Li-chih; Chʻu, Yao-chʻüan; Fang, Li Zhi; Fang, L. Z; Li, Zhi Fang; Fang, Lizhi
1987-01-01
...-Morley Experiment Constant New Velocity of Light Speed The of COMPOSITION OF SPEED OF LIGHT The Law of CHAPTER Salviati's Theory of W h o IV TO ship Two Relativity Shot First? CHAPTER V A ROD Space and * T h e Lifetime Moving Lorentz F R O M GALILEO'S PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY THE S P E C I A L T H E O R Y OF RELATIVITY principles of th...
Applications of Jarzynski's relation in lattice gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nada, Alessandro; Caselle, Michele; Costagliola, Gianluca
2016-01-01
Jarzynski's equality is a well-known result in statistical mechanics, relating free-energy differences between equilibrium ensembles with fluctuations in the work performed during non-equilibrium transformations from one ensemble to the other. In this work, an extension of this relation to lattice...... gauge theory will be presented, along with numerical results for the ℤ2 gauge model in three dimensions and for the equation of state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, further applications will be discussed, in particular for the Schrödinger functional and for the study of QCD...
The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Orozco
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.
An Econometric Validation of Malthusian Theory: Evidence in Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Musa Abdullahi Sakanko
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Rising population is an asset, provided, the skills of the workforce are used to the maximum extent. If not appropriately channelized, it can be a liability for a nation. A skilled and hardworking population can emerge as a foundation for a country’s development. This study examines the validity of Malthusian Theory in Nigeria using time series data from 1960 to 2016, employs the ARDL bound test techniques. The result shows that in the long-run, population growth and food production move proportionately, while population growth poses a depleting effect on food production in the short-run, thus validating the incidence of Malthusian impact in Nigerian economy in the short-run. The researcher recommended the government should strategize plans, which will further intensify family planning and birth control measure, compulsory western education and revitalization of the agricultural sector.DOI: 10.150408/sjie.v7i1.6461
Short-run Exchange-Rate Dynamics: Theory and Evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlson, John A.; Dahl, Christian Møller; Osler, Carol L.
Recent research has revealed a wealth of information about the microeconomics of currency markets and thus the determination of exchange rates at short horizons. This information is valuable to us as scientists since, like evidence of macroeconomic regularities, it can provide critical guidance...... of currency markets, it accurately reflects the constraints and objectives faced by the major participants, and it fits key stylized facts concerning returns and order flow. With respect to macroeconomics, the model is consistent with most of the major puzzles that have emerged under floating rates....
Financial Structure and Macroeconomic Volatility : Theory and Evidence
Huizinga, H.P.; Zhu, D.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a simple model capturing differences between debt and equity finance to examine how financial structure matters for macroeconomic volatility. Debt finance is relatively cheap in the sense that debt holders need to verify relatively few profitability states, but debt finance may
van Grootel, Leonie; van Wesel, Floryt; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; Hox, Joop; Boeije, Hennie
2017-09-01
This study describes an approach for the use of a specific type of qualitative evidence synthesis in the matrix approach, a mixed studies reviewing method. The matrix approach compares quantitative and qualitative data on the review level by juxtaposing concrete recommendations from the qualitative evidence synthesis against interventions in primary quantitative studies. However, types of qualitative evidence syntheses that are associated with theory building generate theoretical models instead of recommendations. Therefore, the output from these types of qualitative evidence syntheses cannot directly be used for the matrix approach but requires transformation. This approach allows for the transformation of these types of output. The approach enables the inference of moderation effects instead of direct effects from the theoretical model developed in a qualitative evidence synthesis. Recommendations for practice are formulated on the basis of interactional relations inferred from the qualitative evidence synthesis. In doing so, we apply the realist perspective to model variables from the qualitative evidence synthesis according to the context-mechanism-outcome configuration. A worked example shows that it is possible to identify recommendations from a theory-building qualitative evidence synthesis using the realist perspective. We created subsets of the interventions from primary quantitative studies based on whether they matched the recommendations or not and compared the weighted mean effect sizes of the subsets. The comparison shows a slight difference in effect sizes between the groups of studies. The study concludes that the approach enhances the applicability of the matrix approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1978-01-01
Quantum field theory of Einstein's general relativity is formulated in the indefinitemetric Hilbert space in such a way that asymptotic fields are manifestly Lorentz covariant and the physical S-matrix is unitary. The general coordinate transformation is transcribed into a q-number transformation, called the BRS transformation. Its abstract definition is presented on the basis of the BRS transformation for the Yang-Mills theory. The BRS transformation for general relativity is then explicitly constructed. The gauge-fixing Lagrangian density and the Faddeev-Popov one are introduced in such a way that their sum behaves like a scalar density under the BRS transformation. One can then proceed in the same way as in the Kugo-Ojima formalism of the Yang-Mills theory to establish the unitarity of the physical S-matrix. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferreira Isabel
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.
Statistical polarization in greenhouse gas emissions: Theory and evidence.
Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen
2017-11-01
The current debate on climate change is over whether global warming can be limited in order to lessen its impacts. In this sense, evidence of a decrease in the statistical polarization in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could encourage countries to establish a stronger multilateral climate change agreement. Based on the interregional and intraregional components of the multivariate generalised entropy measures (Maasoumi, 1986), Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) proposed to study the statistical polarization concept from a multivariate view. In this paper, we apply this approach to study the evolution of such phenomenon in the global distribution of the main GHGs. The empirical analysis has been carried out for the time period 1990-2011, considering an endogenous grouping of countries (Aghevli and Mehran, 1981; Davies and Shorrocks, 1989). Most of the statistical polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern that was similar regardless of the number of groups considered. Finally, some policy implications are commented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Numerical evidence of chiral magnetic effect in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buividovich, P. V.; Chernodub, M. N.; Luschevskaya, E. V.; Polikarpov, M. I.
2009-01-01
The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current of quarks along an external magnetic field in the background of topologically nontrivial gluon fields. There is recent evidence that this effect is observed by the STAR Collaboration in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. In our paper we study qualitative signatures of the chiral magnetic effect using quenched lattice simulations. We find indications that the electric current is indeed enhanced in the direction of the magnetic field both in equilibrium configurations of the quantum gluon fields and in a smooth gluon background with nonzero topological charge. In the confinement phase the magnetic field enhances the local fluctuations of both the electric charge and chiral charge densities. In the deconfinement phase the effects of the magnetic field become smaller, possibly due to thermal screening. Using a simple model of a fireball we obtain a good agreement between our data and experimental results of STAR Collaboration.
Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Hsin-Chia; California Univ., Berkeley, CA
1996-01-01
Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K 0 μ + , weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs
Resconi, Germano; Klir, George J.; Pessa, Eliano
Recognizing that syntactic and semantic structures of classical logic are not sufficient to understand the meaning of quantum phenomena, we propose in this paper a new interpretation of quantum mechanics based on evidence theory. The connection between these two theories is obtained through a new language, quantum set theory, built on a suggestion by J. Bell. Further, we give a modal logic interpretation of quantum mechanics and quantum set theory by using Kripke's semantics of modal logic based on the concept of possible worlds. This is grounded on previous work of a number of researchers (Resconi, Klir, Harmanec) who showed how to represent evidence theory and other uncertainty theories in terms of modal logic. Moreover, we also propose a reformulation of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics in terms of Kripke's semantics. We thus show how three different theories — quantum mechanics, evidence theory, and modal logic — are interrelated. This opens, on one hand, the way to new applications of quantum mechanics within domains different from the traditional ones, and, on the other hand, the possibility of building new generalizations of quantum mechanics itself.
An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surdin, Maurice
1960-01-01
The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr
Interacting bosons model and relation with BCS theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diniz, R.
1990-01-01
The Nambu mechanism for BCS theory is extended with inclusion of quadrupole pairing in addition to the usual monopole pairing. An effective Hamiltonian is constructed and its relation to the IBM is discussed. The faced difficulties and a possible generalization of this model are discussed. (author)
The program ORTOCARTAN for applications in the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasinski, A.
1985-01-01
A general outline of the program ORTOCARTAN for algebraic computing in the relativity theory is presented. A short history of the program is given. The base-programming language is LISP. The details of the calculation are presented. An example of application of the ORTOCARTAN is given
Exploring Spiritual Beliefs in Relation to Adlerian Theory.
Polanski, Patricia J.
2002-01-01
This article describes one counselor's exploration of her spiritual beliefs in relation to Adler's theory of counseling and human development in an effort to move toward ideological consistency and to enhance competence in addressing spiritual dimensions of clients' development. (Contains 34 references.) (GCP)
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Can quantum theory and special relativity peacefully coexist?
Seevinck, M.P.; Briggs, A.
2010-01-01
This white paper aims to identify an open problem in ‘Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality’—namely whether quantum theory and special relativity are formally compatible—, to indicate what the underlying issues are, and put forward ideas about how the problem might be addressed.
Violations of Einstein's Relativity: Motivations, Theory, and Phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, Ralf
2011-01-01
One of the most difficult questions in present-day physics concerns a fundamental theory of space, time, and matter that incorporates a consistent quantum description of gravity. There are various theoretical approaches to such a quantum-gravity theory. Nevertheless, experimental progress is hampered in this research field because many models predict deviations from established physics that are suppressed by some power of the Planck scale, which currently appears to be immeasurably small. However, tests of relativity theory provide one promising avenue to overcome this phenomeno-logical obstacle: many models for underlying physics can accommodate a small breakdown of Lorentz symmetry, and numerous feasible Lorentz-symmetry tests have Planck reach. Such mild violations of Einstein's relativity have therefore become the focus of recent research efforts. This mini course provides a brief survey of the key ideas in this research field and is geared at both experimentalists and theorists. In particular, several theoretical mechanisms leading to deviations from relativity theory are presented; the standard theoretical framework for relativity violations at currently accessible energy scales (i.e., the SME) is reviewed, and various present and near-future experimental efforts within this field are discussed.
Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories.
1985-03-01
Desegregated Classroom: The Effects of Cooperation on Prosocial Behavior and Academic Performance. Working Paper, Department of Psychology. Santa Cruz, CA... Behavior Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories Clayton P. .Alderfer Working Paper #66 DTIC ~ELECTE0 B DITRUTION STATEMENTA...unfavorable stereotypes of blacks, they have less reason to change. White stereotypes have long served as rationalizations for white dominance. In
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Zazzara
2013-11-01
Full Text Available On June 3rd 2013, in Turin, Italy, the Swiss industrialist Schmidheiny has been sentenced to 18 years imprisonment for intentional disaster for 3,000 asbestos-linked tumours in Italian workers at cement multinational Eternit. The indiscriminate use of asbestos, however, continues worldwide. Although many studies have shown that asbestos is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, denial theories were spread over time, showing how the logic of profit governs the production of asbestos. We examined the history of the epidemiological evidence of asbestos related risks and, second, the main sources of exposure in Italy and in the world, occupational, non-occupational, and post-disaster exposure (as occurred after L’Aquila earthquake in April 2009. The theme of inequality and social justice is ever so alarming in the fight against asbestos and its lobbies.
Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility: evidence for the theory of attentional inertia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabel Introzzi
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discriminate the differential contribution of different inhibitory processes -perceptual, cognitive and behavioral inhibition- to switching cost effect associated with alternation cognitive tasks. A correlational design was used. Several experimental paradigms (e.g., Stop signal, visual search, Stemberg´s experimental and Simon paradigm were adapted and included in a computerized program called TAC (Introzzi & Canet Juric, 2014 to the assessment of the different cognitive processes. The final sample consisted of 45 adults (18-50 years. Perceptual and behavioral inhibition shows moderate and low correlations with attentional cost, cognitive inhibition shows no relation with flexibility and only perceptual inhibition predicts switching costs effects, suggesting that different inhibitory processes contribute differentially to switch cost. This could be interpreted as evidence to Attentional Inertia Theory main argument which postulates that inhibition plays an essential role in the ability to flexibly switch between tasks and/or representations.
INNOVATION AND DIFFUSION IN SMALL FIRMS - THEORY AND EVIDENCE
NOOTEBOOM, B
1994-01-01
The article provides an inventory of the strengths and weaknesses of small firms in a dynamic context. To do this it considers verbal accounts of the processes of innovation and diffusion, as well as quantitative studies testing cause-effect relations. ft consider both economic and noneconomic
Statistical polarization in greenhouse gas emissions: Theory and evidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen
2017-01-01
The current debate on climate change is over whether global warming can be limited in order to lessen its impacts. In this sense, evidence of a decrease in the statistical polarization in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could encourage countries to establish a stronger multilateral climate change agreement. Based on the interregional and intraregional components of the multivariate generalised entropy measures (Maasoumi, 1986), Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) proposed to study the statistical polarization concept from a multivariate view. In this paper, we apply this approach to study the evolution of such phenomenon in the global distribution of the main GHGs. The empirical analysis has been carried out for the time period 1990–2011, considering an endogenous grouping of countries (Aghevli and Mehran, 1981; Davies and Shorrocks, 1989). Most of the statistical polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern that was similar regardless of the number of groups considered. Finally, some policy implications are commented. - Highlights: • We study the evolution of global polarization in GHG emissions. • We consider the four main GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O and F-gases. • We use the multidimensional polarization indices (). • We consider an endogenous grouping of countries (). • Most of the polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern.
Singing for respiratory health: theory, evidence and challenges.
Gick, Mary L; Nicol, Jennifer J
2016-09-01
The premise that singing is a health promoting activity for people with respiratory conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is a growing area of interest being investigated by researchers from various disciplines. The preliminary evidence, a theoretical framework and identification of methodological challenges are discussed in this perspective article with an eye to recommendations for further research to advance knowledge. After a brief summary of main research findings on singing in healthy people to provide background context, research is reviewed on singing in people with COPD and asthma. Studies include published research and as yet unpublished work by the authors. Methodological challenges arising from the reviewed studies are identified such as attrition from singing or control groups based on weak and strong, respectively, beliefs about singing's effectiveness. Potential solutions for these problems are considered with further recommendations made for other singing research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hands, S.J.; Kogut, J.B.; Morrison, S.E.; Sinclair, D.K.
2001-01-01
We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) 'colour' at finite chemical potential, μ for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for μ large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour
Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hands, S. J.; Kogut, J. B.; Morrison, S. E.; Sinclair, D. K.
2000-01-01
We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) colour at finite chemical potential, p for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for p large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour
On complicated continuum models in general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsypkin, A.G.
1987-01-01
A set of Euler's equations is obtained in the framework of the general relativity theory from the variational equation in the supposition that lagrangian of the material depends on additional (in comparison with classical theories) thermodynamic parameters and taking into account possible irreversible processes. Momentum equations for continuous medium of a thermodynamic closed set are shown to be the consequence of field equations. The problem about the type of energy-momentum material tensor in the presence of derivatives from additional thermodynamic parameters in the number of lagrangian arguments is considered
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1979-01-01
The indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity is extended to the coupled system of the gravitational field and a Dirac field on the basis of the vierbein formalism. The six extra degrees of freedom involved in vierbein are made unobservable by introducing an extra subsidiary condition Q sub(s) + phys> = 0, where Q sub(s) denotes a new BRS charge corresponding to the local Lorentz invariance. It is shown that a manifestly covariant, unitary, canonical theory can be constructed consistently on the basis of the vierbein formalism. (author)
On experiments to detect possible failures of relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.
1985-01-01
Two recently proposed experiments by Kolen and Torr, designed to show failures of Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) are analysed. It is pointed out that these papers contain a number of imprecisions and misconceptions which are cleared out. Also the very spread misconception about anysotropy of propagation of light in vacuum in Lorentz Aether Theory (LAT) is analysed showing that the anysotropy is only a coordinate effect. Comparison of the correct results in LAT theory, leading to violation of SR, with new theoretical and experimental results of Torr et al is made. Some of these new results are shown to be incorrect and/or inconsistent with both SR and LAT. (Author) [pt
Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.
Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela
2015-01-01
The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
2015-04-15
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.
Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo
2015-01-01
Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed
Stevens, Tyler; Conwell, Darwin L; Zuccaro, Gregory
2004-11-01
In the past several decades, four prominent theories of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis have emerged: the toxic-metabolic theory, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the stone and duct obstruction theory, and the necrosis-fibrosis hypothesis. Although these traditional theories are formulated based on compelling scientific observations, substantial contradictory data also exist for each. Furthermore, the basic premises of some of these theories are directly contradictory. Because of the recent scientific progress in the underlying genetic, cellular, and molecular pathophysiology, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis. This paper will provide an evidence-based review and critique of the traditional pathogenic theories, followed by a discussion of the new advances in pancreatic fibrogenesis. Moreover, we will discuss plausible pathogenic sequences applied to each of the known etiologies.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein’s pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein’s gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pordt, A.
1985-10-01
The author describes the Mayer expansion in Euclidean lattice field theory by comparing it with the statistical mechanics of polymer systems. In this connection he discusses the Borel summability and the analyticity of the activities on the lattice. Furthermore the relations between renormalization and the Mayer expansion are considered. (HSI)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konrad Graf
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.
Theory and experiments in general relativity and other metric theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciufolini, I.
1984-01-01
In Chapter I, after an introduction to theories of gravity alternative to general relativity, metric theories, and the post-Newtonian parameterized (PNN) formalism, a new class of metric theories of gravity is defined. As a result the post-Newtonian approximation of the new theories is not described by the PPN formalism. In fact under the weak field and slow motion hypothesis, the post-Newtonian expression of the metric tensor contains an infinite set of new terms and correspondingly an infinite set of new PPN parameters. Chapter II, III, and IV are devoted to new experiments to test general relativity and other metric theories of gravity. In particular, in chapter IV, it is shown that two general relativistics effects, the Lense-Thirring and De Sitter-Fokker precessions of the nodal lines of an Earth artificial satellite are today detectable using high altitude laser ranged artificial satellites such as Lageos. The orbit of this satellite is known with unprecedented accuracy. The author then describes a method of measuring these relativistic precessions using Lageos together with another high altitude laser ranged similar satellite with appropriately chosen orbital parameters
Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory
Chandra, Akhilesh
This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the
Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle; Lehner, Thierry
2006-01-01
Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a nondifferentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ''scale-space.'' We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description
Social Captial and Relative Income Concerns: Evidence from 26 Countries
Fischer, Justina A. V.; Torgler, Benno
2007-01-01
Research evidence on the impact of relative income position on individualsâ€™ attitudes and behaviour is sorely lacking. Therefore, using the International Social Survey Programme 1998 data from 26 countries this paper investigates the impact of relative income on 14 measurements of social capital. We find support for a considerable deleterious positional concern effect of persons below the reference income. This effect is more sizeable by far than the beneficial impact of a relative income a...
International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert
Temporary migration, though empirically relevant, is often ignored in formal models. This paper proposes a migration model with heterogeneous agents and persistent cross country income differentials that features temporary migration. In equilibrium there exists a positive relation between the stock...... of migrants and the income differential, while the net migration flow becomes zero. Consequently, existing empirical migration models, estimating net migration flows, instead of stocks, may be misspecified. This suspicion appears to be confirmed by our investigation of the cointegration relationships...... of German migration stocks and flows since 1967. We find that (i) panel-unit root tests reject the hypothesis that migration flows and the explanatory variables are integrated of the same order, while migration stocks and the explanatory variables are all I(1) variables, and (ii) the hypothesis...
A Synthetic Fusion Rule for Salient Region Detection under the Framework of DS-Evidence Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naeem Ayoub
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Saliency detection is one of the most valuable research topics in computer vision. It focuses on the detection of the most significant objects/regions in images and reduces the computational time cost of getting the desired information from salient regions. Local saliency detection or common pattern discovery schemes were actively used by the researchers to overcome the saliency detection problems. In this paper, we propose a bottom-up saliency fusion method by taking into consideration the importance of the DS-Evidence (Dempster–Shafer (DS theory. Firstly, we calculate saliency maps from different algorithms based on the pixels-level, patches-level and region-level methods. Secondly, we fuse the pixels based on the foreground and background information under the framework of DS-Evidence theory (evidence theory allows one to combine evidence from different sources and arrive at a degree of belief that takes into account all the available evidence. The development inclination of image saliency detection through DS-Evidence theory gives us better results for saliency prediction. Experiments are conducted on the publicly available four different datasets (MSRA, ECSSD, DUT-OMRON and PASCAL-S. Our saliency detection method performs well and shows prominent results as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms.
Amplitude relations in heterotic string theory and Einstein-Yang-Mills
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2016-11-11
We present all-multiplicity evidence that the tree-level S-matrix of gluons and gravitons in heterotic string theory can be reduced to color-ordered single-trace amplitudes of the gauge multiplet. Explicit amplitude relations are derived for up to three gravitons, up to two color traces and an arbitrary number of gluons in each case. The results are valid to all orders in the inverse string tension α{sup ′} and generalize to the ten-dimensional superamplitudes which preserve 16 supercharges. Their field-theory limit results in an alternative proof of the recently discovered relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes and those of pure Yang-Mills theory. Similarities and differences between the integrands of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae and the heterotic string are investigated.
Penckofer, Sue; Byrn, Mary; Mumby, Patricia; Ferrans, Carol Estwing
2011-04-01
Recruitment and retention of persons participating in research is one of the most significant challenges faced by investigators. Although incentives are often used to improve recruitment and retention, evidence suggests that the relationship of the patient to study personnel may be the single, most important factor in subject accrual and continued participation. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations provides a framework to study the nurse-patient relationship during the research process. In this paper the authors provide a brief summary of research strategies that have been used for the recruitment and retention of subjects and an overview of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations including its use in research studies. In addition, a discussion of how this theory was used for the successful recruitment and retention of women with type 2 diabetes who participated in a clinical trial using a nurse-delivered psychoeducational intervention for depression is addressed.
Categories of relations as models of quantum theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Heunen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.
From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickering, A.
1989-01-01
The authors chart the history of quantum field theory (QFT) in the 1950s with reference to the ideas of dispersion relations. QFT failed to explain strong interaction physics and so was discarded. Connections are drawn between a central group of particle theorists working on applying Kramers-Kronig light scattering relations to high energy particle scattering and the way physics developed. The concepts of single and double dispersion relations and Regge poles, when connected with the large quantity of empirical data from the large particle accelerators of the 1950s, could not be embodied within QFT, which then fell into decline. (UK)
Taking Root: a grounded theory on evidence-based nursing implementation in China.
Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y
2018-06-01
Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert
2016-01-01
In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.
Squark and slepton mass relations in grand unified theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, H.; Hall, L.J.
1995-01-01
In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, assuming universal scalar masses at large energies, there are four intragenerational relations between the masses of the squarks and sleptons for each light generation. In this paper we study the scalar mass relations which follow only from the assumption that at large energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle. Two new intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. In addition, a third mass relation is found which relates the Higgs boson masses, the masses of the third generation scalars, and the masses of the scalars of the lighter generations. Verification of a fourth mass relation, involving only the charged slepton masses, provides a signal for SO(10) unification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glidewell Elizabeth
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to
Some foundational problems in the special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jammer, M.
1979-01-01
Attention is drawn to some of the issues of the foundations of special relativity with the aim of contributing possibly to their clarification. Roemer's determination of the velocity of light is reviewed and important issues on the historical development of the theory outlined. The group-theoretical and light-geometrical approaches are discussed and the nature of length contraction considered. (Auth./C.F.)
One hundred years of the special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.
2006-01-01
Special theory of relativity is considered here as an episode from non-Euclidean geometry. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the replacement of the fifth Euclidean postulate with the Lobachevsky postulate about the parallel straight lines in the velocity space of a material point leads to the replacement of the postulate about one and the same time rate with the postulate about one and the same light velocity in all inertial reference systems
Covariant theory of gravitation in the framework of special relativity
Vieira, R. S.; Brentan, H. B.
2018-04-01
In this work, we study the magnetic effects of gravity in the framework of special relativity. Imposing covariance of the gravitational force with respect to the Lorentz transformations, we show from a thought experiment that a magnetic-like force must be present whenever two or more bodies are in motion. The exact expression for this gravitomagnetic force is then derived purely from special relativity and the consequences of such a covariant theory are developed. For instance, we show that the gravitomagnetic fields satisfy a system of differential equations similar to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics. This implies that the gravitational waves spread out with the speed of light in a flat spacetime, which is in agreement with the recent results concerning the gravitational waves detection. We also propose that the vector potential can be associated with the interaction momentum in the same way as the scalar potential is usually associated with the interaction energy. Other topics are also discussed, for example, the transformation laws for the fields, the energy and momentum stored in the gravitomagnetic fields, the invariance of the gravitational mass and so on. We remark that is not our intention here to propose an alternative theory of gravitation but, rather, only a first approximation for the gravitational phenomena, so that it can be applied whenever the gravitational force can be regarded as an ordinary effective force field and special relativity can be used with safety. To make this point clear we present briefly a comparison between our approach and that based on the (linearized) Einstein's theory. Finally, we remark that although we have assumed nothing from the electromagnetic theory, we found that gravity and electricity share many properties in common -these similarities, in fact, are just a requirement of special relativity that must apply to any physically acceptable force field.
Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories
Guney, Ali; Al, Selda
2012-01-01
There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...
Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North
2011-12-01
Russians continue to retain their long-range strategic bombing fleets, consisting of the TU-160 Supersonic ( Blackjack ), an all-weather aircraft with...icebreakers, and the only operational heavy icebreaker, it is already beyond service life expectations and recently suffered a major engine failure...DISPUTES: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY IN THE HIGH NORTH by Darrin D. Davis December 2011 Thesis Co-Advisors: Anne L. Clunan
Structural reliability analysis under evidence theory using the active learning kriging model
Yang, Xufeng; Liu, Yongshou; Ma, Panke
2017-11-01
Structural reliability analysis under evidence theory is investigated. It is rigorously proved that a surrogate model providing only correct sign prediction of the performance function can meet the accuracy requirement of evidence-theory-based reliability analysis. Accordingly, a method based on the active learning kriging model which only correctly predicts the sign of the performance function is proposed. Interval Monte Carlo simulation and a modified optimization method based on Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions are introduced to make the method more efficient in estimating the bounds of failure probability based on the kriging model. Four examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
Evidence-based decision making in health care settings: from theory to practice.
Kohn, Melanie Kazman; Berta, Whitney; Langley, Ann; Davis, David
2011-01-01
The relatively recent attention that evidence-based decision making has received in health care management has been at least in part due to the profound influence of evidence-based medicine. The result has been several comparisons in the literature between the use of evidence in health care management decisions and the use of evidence in medical decision making. Direct comparison, however, may be problematic, given the differences between medicine and management as they relate to (1) the nature of evidence that is brought to bear on decision making; (2) the maturity of empirical research in each field (in particular, studies that have substantiated whether or not and how evidence-based decision making is enacted); and (3) the context within which evidence-based decisions are made. By simultaneously reviewing evidence-based medicine and management, this chapter aims to inform future theorizing and empirical research on evidence-based decision making in health care settings.
Features of projectile motion in the special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahin, Ghassan Y
2006-01-01
A relativistic projectile motion in a vacuum is examined by means of elementary consequences of special relativity. Exact analytical expressions were found for the kinematics variables using basic mathematical tools. The trajectory equation was established and the area under the trajectory traversed by the relativistic projectile was determined. It was found that, unlike non-relativistic projectile motion, the launching angles that maximize both the horizontal range as well as the area under the trajectory are functions of the initial speed. It is anticipated that this paper will be consistent with the intuition of students and serve as a resource for further problems usually encountered in the special theory of relativity
Remarks on doubly special relativity theories and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinterleitner, F
2008-01-01
Modifications of special relativity by the introduction of an invariant energy and/or momentum level (so-called doubly special relativity theories, DSR) or by an energy-momentum dependence of the Planck constant (generalized uncertainty principle, GUP) are compared with classical gravitational effects in an interaction process. For the low-energy limit of the usual formulations of DSR to be equivalent to Newtonian gravity, a restrictive condition is found. GUP yields an effective repulsion, in analogy to gravitational repulsion in loop quantum cosmology
Approximate theory the electromagnetic energy of solenoid in special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prastyaningrum, I; Kartikaningsih, S.
2017-01-01
Solenoid is a device that is often used in electronic devices. A solenoid is electrified will cause a magnetic field. In our analysis, we just focus on the electromagnetic energy for solenoid form. We purpose to analyze by the theoretical approach in special relativity. Our approach is begun on the Biot Savart law and Lorentz force. Special theory relativity can be derived from the Biot Savart law, and for the energy can be derived from Lorentz for, by first determining the momentum equation. We choose the solenoid form with the goal of the future can be used to improve the efficiency of the electrical motor. (paper)
Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnino, Giorgio
2009-01-01
A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.
Chiral trace relations in Ω-deformed N=2 theories
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Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Ennio De Giorgi,Università del Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN - Sezione di LecceVia Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)
2017-05-04
We consider N=2SU(2) gauge theories in four dimensions (pure or mass deformed) and discuss the properties of the simplest chiral observables in the presence of a generic Ω-deformation. We compute them by equivariant localization and analyze the structure of the exact instanton corrections to the classical chiral ring relations. We predict exact relations valid at all instanton number among the traces 〈Trφ{sup n}〉, where φ is the scalar field in the gauge multiplet. In the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, such relations may be explained in terms of the available quantized Seiberg-Witten curves. Instead, the full two-parameter deformation enjoys novel features and the ring relations require non trivial additional derivative terms with respect to the modular parameter. Higher rank groups are briefly discussed emphasizing non-factorization of correlators due to the Ω-deformation. Finally, the structure of the deformed ring relations in the N=2{sup ⋆} theory is analyzed from the point of view of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa correspondence proving consistency as well as some interesting universality properties.
Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying
2016-01-01
Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.
Hyperscaling relations in mass-deformed conformal gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Zwicky, Roman
2010-01-01
We present a number of analytical results which should guide the interpretation of lattice data in theories with an infrared fixed point (IRFP) deformed by a mass term δL=-mqq. From renormalization group (RG) arguments we obtain the leading scaling exponent, F∼m η F , for all decay constants of the lowest lying states other than the ones affected by the chiral anomaly and the tensor ones. These scaling relations provide a clear cut way to distinguish a theory with an IRFP from a confining theory with heavy fermions. Moreover, we present a derivation relating the scaling of ∼m η qq to the scaling of the density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator ρ(λ)∼λ η qq . RG arguments yield η qq =(3-γ * )/(1+γ * ) as a function of the mass anomalous dimension γ * at the IRFP. The arguments can be generalized to other condensates such as 2 >∼m 4/(1+γ * ) . We describe a heuristic derivation of the result on the condensates, which provides interesting connections between different approaches. Our results are compared with existing data from numerical studies of SU(2) with two adjoint Dirac fermions.
On special and general relativity theory. 24. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Einstein, Albert
2009-01-01
The present booklet shall mediate to such an as possible exact view in relativity theory, who are especially interested for the theory from a generally scientific, philosophical, point of view, without mastering the mathematical apparatus. The lecture presupposes some maturity knowledge and - in spite of the shortness of the booklet - quite much perseverance and strength of mind. The author has token very much efforts in order to present the main thoughts as distinctly and simply as possible, in the whole in such a sequence and in such connection, as it has really been arose. With the aim of distinctiveness it seemed to me unavoidable to repeat myself frequently without paying the smallest regard to the elegance of the presentation; I maintained conscientiously the prescription of the ingenious theoretician L. Boltzmann, elegance should by the object of the taylors ans shoemakers [de
Is the special theory of relativity logically inconsistent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honig, W.
1980-01-01
The author's aim is to illustrate that the controversial subject of the logical inconsistency of STR is capable of two interpretations. If one retains a fidelity to the Einstein operational assumptions and methods then one may conclude that logical inconsistencies cannot be derived. If however, one wishes to base a theory upon a single world view with a single set of consistent assumptions, then STR is logically inconsistent. This inconsistency is at the present time not operationally evident. The usefulness of this second view is in its heuristic and future usefulness in the elucidation of natural phenomena. It is hoped that this discussion may somewhat reduce the contention and emotion in this field. (Auth.)
Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo
2016-06-01
Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory
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Brad Lowell Stone
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.
A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity
Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.
1988-01-01
Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Zhan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Unlike the strategy of cognitive regulation that relies heavily on the top-down control function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which was recently found may be critically impaired in stressful situations, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views different types of emotionality as having mutual promotion and counteraction (MPMC relationships, implying a novel approach that requires less cognition to emotional regulation. Actually, our previous studies have indicated that anger responses could be successfully regulated via the induction of sadness, and this efficiency could not be influenced by stress, thus providing evidences for the hypothesis of “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA proposed by the MPMC theory of emotionality (Zhan et al., 2015, 2017. In this study, we experimentally examined the MPMC hypothesis that “anger counteracts rumination” (ACR which postulates that rumination may be alleviated by the anger emotion. In Study 1, all participants were initially caused state rumination and then induced anger, joy or neutral mood, the results showed that the rumination-related affect was alleviated after anger induction relative to that after joy or neutral mood induction. In Study 2, female participants with high trait rumination were recruited and divided into two groups for exposure to an anger or neutral emotion intervention, the result indicated that the anger intervention group exhibited a greater decline in trait rumination than the neutral emotion intervention group. These findings provided preliminary evidence supporting the hypothesis of ACR, which suggested a new strategy that employs less cognitive resources to regulating state and trait rumination by inducing anger.
Zhan, Jun; Tang, Fan; He, Mei; Fan, Jin; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing
2017-01-01
Unlike the strategy of cognitive regulation that relies heavily on the top-down control function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which was recently found may be critically impaired in stressful situations, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views different types of emotionality as having mutual promotion and counteraction (MPMC) relationships, implying a novel approach that requires less cognition to emotional regulation. Actually, our previous studies have indicated that anger responses could be successfully regulated via the induction of sadness, and this efficiency could not be influenced by stress, thus providing evidences for the hypothesis of “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA) proposed by the MPMC theory of emotionality (Zhan et al., 2015, 2017). In this study, we experimentally examined the MPMC hypothesis that “anger counteracts rumination” (ACR) which postulates that rumination may be alleviated by the anger emotion. In Study 1, all participants were initially caused state rumination and then induced anger, joy or neutral mood, the results showed that the rumination-related affect was alleviated after anger induction relative to that after joy or neutral mood induction. In Study 2, female participants with high trait rumination were recruited and divided into two groups for exposure to an anger or neutral emotion intervention, the result indicated that the anger intervention group exhibited a greater decline in trait rumination than the neutral emotion intervention group. These findings provided preliminary evidence supporting the hypothesis of ACR, which suggested a new strategy that employs less cognitive resources to regulating state and trait rumination by inducing anger. PMID:29249998
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryukov, A
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is ''made'' of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.
Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.
Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica
2016-06-01
Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Theories of International Relations and the Explanation of Foreign Aid
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PAUSELLI, Gino
2013-06-01
Full Text Available 50 years after the publication of the first and influential article in international relations (IR analyzing foreign aid motivations, A theory of foreign aid, by Hans Morgenthau, IR scholarship has not yet accomplished a consistent theoretical body explaining international development cooperation. Most of the empirical studies on foreign aid have been contributions from other disciplines, especially economics. Research from the field of international relations has been mostly descriptive or poorly connected with IR paradigms.This article proposes to analyze motivations of foreign aid allocations decisions of donors. These motivations will be examined from the theoretical perspective of the international relations scholarship. In this way, it is sought to contribute, from the discipline of IR, to the explanation of the process in which developed countries make transfers of resources to developing countries.
Theory of Nonlocal Point Transformations in General Relativity
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Massimo Tessarotto
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discussion of the functional setting customarily adopted in General Relativity (GR is proposed. This is based on the introduction of the notion of nonlocal point transformations (NLPTs. While allowing the extension of the traditional concept of GR-reference frame, NLPTs are important because they permit the explicit determination of the map between intrinsically different and generally curved space-times expressed in arbitrary coordinate systems. For this purpose in the paper the mathematical foundations of NLPT-theory are laid down and basic physical implications are considered. In particular, explicit applications of the theory are proposed, which concern (1 a solution to the so-called Einstein teleparallel problem in the framework of NLPT-theory; (2 the determination of the tensor transformation laws holding for the acceleration 4-tensor with respect to the group of NLPTs and the identification of NLPT-acceleration effects, namely, the relationship established via general NLPT between particle 4-acceleration tensors existing in different curved space-times; (3 the construction of the nonlocal transformation law connecting different diagonal metric tensors solution to the Einstein field equations; and (4 the diagonalization of nondiagonal metric tensors.
Non-Western International Relations Theory: Myth or Reality?
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Marina Mikhailovna Lebedeva
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, Russian and foreign literature increasingly raises the question on national theories of international relations. A special interest is manifested towards non-Western theories of international relations. The article analyzes the reasons for such interest. It is noted that the main motive for scholars to search for national schools is the transformation of the political organization of the world that emerged in the West and was developing largely on the Western model. This transformation encompasses three levels of political organization of the modern world: the Westphalian system, the system of international (interstate relations and the political systems of a state. Three levels of political organization of the world changing at the same time today reinforce each other and generate synergies. With such a large-scale transformation, when all three levels are “moving”, the world is facing for the first time, although the change of the second and especially the third levels were before. As far as the system of political organization of the world undergoes major changes, IR theories, which appeared in the West, are in crisis. Researchers’ attention to non-Western, primarily Asian TMO to find answers due to the following reasons: 1 the rapid economic growth of the region; 2 the development of scientific research in Asia; 3 the crisis of the Western model of political organization in the world that encourages the search for solutions in other civilizational structures. The article substantiates the necessity and possibility of “project activities” for reforming the political organization of the world and include practices that exist in different regions of the world. In order to implement such activities, the work of specialists from different brunches of social sciences is required.
Spatial analogies pervade complex relational reasoning: Evidence from spontaneous gestures.
Cooperrider, Kensy; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
2016-01-01
How do people think about complex phenomena like the behavior of ecosystems? Here we hypothesize that people reason about such relational systems in part by creating spatial analogies, and we explore this possibility by examining spontaneous gestures. In two studies, participants read a written lesson describing positive and negative feedback systems and then explained the differences between them. Though the lesson was highly abstract and people were not instructed to gesture, people produced spatial gestures in abundance during their explanations. These gestures used space to represent simple abstract relations (e.g., increase ) and sometimes more complex relational structures (e.g., negative feedback ). Moreover, over the course of their explanations, participants' gestures often cohered into larger analogical models of relational structure. Importantly, the spatial ideas evident in the hands were largely unaccompanied by spatial words. Gesture thus suggests that spatial analogies are pervasive in complex relational reasoning, even when language does not.
Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity
Weinstein, Galina
2015-01-01
This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein's journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flu
Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.
Guilhot, Nicolas
2011-01-01
International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.
1979-07-01
It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references
Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.
1979-07-01
It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references.
Implicit ligand theory for relative binding free energies
Nguyen, Trung Hai; Minh, David D. L.
2018-03-01
Implicit ligand theory enables noncovalent binding free energies to be calculated based on an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF)—the binding free energy between a flexible ligand and rigid receptor—over a precomputed ensemble of receptor configurations. In the original formalism, receptor configurations were drawn from or reweighted to the apo ensemble. Here we show that BPMFs averaged over a holo ensemble yield binding free energies relative to the reference ligand that specifies the ensemble. When using receptor snapshots from an alchemical simulation with a single ligand, the new statistical estimator outperforms the original.
Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario
2017-11-01
Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.
Neurath's ship: The constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories of rationality
Waldmann, Michael R.
2011-01-01
I defend the claim that in psychological theories concerned with theoretical or practical rationality there is a constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories: Normative theories provide idealized descriptive accounts of rational agents. However, we need to resist the temptation to collapse descriptive theories with any specific normative theory. I show how a partial separation is possible. peerReviewed
The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory.
Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A; Barton, Nicholas H
2007-02-01
Evolution at multiple gene positions is complicated. Direct selection on one gene disturbs the evolutionary dynamics of associated genes. Recent years have seen the development of a multilocus methodology for modeling evolution at arbitrary numbers of gene positions with arbitrary dominance and epistatic relations, mode of inheritance, genetic linkage, and recombination. We show that the approach is conceptually analogous to social evolutionary methodology, which focuses on selection acting on associated individuals. In doing so, we (1) make explicit the links between the multilocus methodology and the foundations of social evolution theory, namely, Price's theorem and Hamilton's rule; (2) relate the multilocus approach to levels-of-selection and neighbor-modulated-fitness approaches in social evolution; (3) highlight the equivalence between genetical hitchhiking and kin selection; (4) demonstrate that the multilocus methodology allows for social evolutionary analyses involving coevolution of multiple traits and genetical associations between nonrelatives, including individuals of different species; (5) show that this methodology helps solve problems of dynamic sufficiency in social evolution theory; (6) form links between invasion criteria in multilocus systems and Hamilton's rule of kin selection; (7) illustrate the generality and exactness of Hamilton's rule, which has previously been described as an approximate, heuristic result.
General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.
2006-01-01
The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.
Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Hartong, Jelle; Huebscher, Mechthild; OrtIn, Tomas
2009-01-01
We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 ≤ p ≤ D, which realize an off-shell algebra of bosonic gauge transformations. We show how these tensor hierarchies can be put on-shell by introducing a set of duality relations, thereby introducing additional scalars and a metric tensor. These so-called duality hierarchies encode the equations of motion of the bosonic part of the most general gauged supergravity theories in those dimensions, including the (projected) scalar equations of motion. We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of the same fields in the tensor hierarchy.
Unified field theory on the basis of the projective theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lessner, G.
1982-01-01
A unified field theory is developed on the basis of the five-dimensional vacuum equations R/sub munu/ = 0 in the projective theory of relativity. The four-dimensional field equations following from R/sub munu/ = 0 by projection are a generalized Einstein-Maxwell theory, for which the generalization is given by a scalar field. The particle concept based on these equations represents the intrinsic particle properties, which are the rest mass, or the energy in case of photons and neutrinos, the charge and the spin by integrals of the field distribution extended over spacelike hypersurfaces. The energy concept is based on Moller's energy-momentum complex. Moller's argument against his energy-momentum complex is discussed and refuted. The spin concept is derived from the axial symmetry of the field distribution. The stationary axially symmetric field is studied in detail. In the spherically symmetric static case the solutions of the field equations are given and investigated for their particle properties. It is shown that one and only one type of solution yields a good approach to the distribution of charge and rest mass in the proton. However, none of the spherically symmetric solutions represents the electron
Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?
Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H
2009-07-22
Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.
Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalin V Buhusi
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.
[Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].
Kensche, M; Schweiger, U
2015-05-01
Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo, C.K.; Zio, E.
2015-01-01
In nuclear power plant (NPP) probability risk assessment (PRA) practice, a ranking of the contribution of the single Basic Events (BE) to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) is performed by computing importance measures, such as the Fussel-Vesely (F-V), Risk Achievement Worth (RAW) and Risk Reduction Worth (RRW) indices. Traditionally, these importance indices are calculated as point (e.g., mean) values without accounting for the epistemic uncertainty affecting the parameters (e.g., BE probabilities, failures rates...) of PRA models. On the other hand, such epistemic uncertainty has a significant impact on the evaluation of the importance indices (that are thus not described by a single point value, but rather by a distribution of possible values): this obviously affects the BE ranking and the corresponding safety-related decisions. In this paper, the epistemic uncertainty in the BE probabilities of NPP PRA modes is represented by belief/plausibility functions within a Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence (DSTE) framework: as a consequence, also the corresponding importance indices are described by Dempster-Shafer structures. Due to the overlap and the dependences of focal intervals of component important measures, it is difficult to rank them. We propose a method called RAWC to rank the BE importance with accounting for the uncertainty. However, RWAC can only give us an overall picture about ranking
Greville-Harris, Maddy; Bostock, Jennifer; Din, Amy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; Liossi, Christina; O'Riordan, Tim; White, Peter; Yardley, Lucy; Bishop, Felicity L
2016-06-10
According to established ethical principles and guidelines, patients in clinical trials should be fully informed about the interventions they might receive. However, information about placebo-controlled clinical trials typically focuses on the new intervention being tested and provides limited and at times misleading information about placebos. We aimed to create an informative, scientifically accurate, and engaging website that could be used to improve understanding of placebo effects among patients who might be considering taking part in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Our approach drew on evidence-, theory-, and person-based intervention development. We used existing evidence and theory about placebo effects to develop content that was scientifically accurate. We used existing evidence and theory of health behavior to ensure our content would be communicated persuasively, to an audience who might currently be ignorant or misinformed about placebo effects. A qualitative 'think aloud' study was conducted in which 10 participants viewed prototypes of the website and spoke their thoughts out loud in the presence of a researcher. The website provides information about 10 key topics and uses text, evidence summaries, quizzes, audio clips of patients' stories, and a short film to convey key messages. Comments from participants in the think aloud study highlighted occasional misunderstandings and off-putting/confusing features. These were addressed by modifying elements of content, style, and navigation to improve participants' experiences of using the website. We have developed an evidence-based website that incorporates theory-based techniques to inform members of the public about placebos and placebo effects. Qualitative research ensured our website was engaging and convincing for our target audience who might not perceive a need to learn about placebo effects. Before using the website in clinical trials, it is necessary to test its effects on key outcomes
Theory and evidence for using the economy-of-scale law in power plant economics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phung, D.L.
1987-05-01
This report compiles theory and evidence for the use of the economy-of-scale law in energy economics, particularly in the estimation of capital costs for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The economy-of-scale law is widely used in its simplest form: cost is directly proportional to capacity raised to an exponent. An additive constant is an important component that is not generally taken into account. Also, the economy of scale is perforce valid only over a limited size range. The majority of engineering studies have estimated an economy of scale exponent of 0.7 to 0.9 for coal-fired plants and an exponent of 0.4 to 0.6 for nuclear plants in the capacity ranges of 400 to 1000 MWe. However, the majority of econometric analyses found little or no economy of scale for coal-fired plants and only a slight economy of scale for nuclear plants. This disparity is explained by the fact that economists have included regulatory and time-related costs in addition to the direct and indirect costs used by the engineers. Regulatory and time-related costs have become an increasingly larger portion of total costs during the last decade. In addition, these costs appeared to have either a very small economy of scale or to be increasing as the size of the power plant increased. We conclude that gains in economy of scale can only be made by reducing regulatory and time-related costs through design standardization and regulatory stability, in combination with more favorable economic conditions. 59 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiangwen Wan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available For wireless sensor networks (WSNs, many factors, such as mutual interference of wireless links, battlefield applications and nodes exposed to the environment without good physical protection, result in the sensor nodes being more vulnerable to be attacked and compromised. In order to address this network security problem, a novel trust evaluation algorithm defined as NBBTE (Node Behavioral Strategies Banding Belief Theory of the Trust Evaluation Algorithm is proposed, which integrates the approach of nodes behavioral strategies and modified evidence theory. According to the behaviors of sensor nodes, a variety of trust factors and coefficients related to the network application are established to obtain direct and indirect trust values through calculating weighted average of trust factors. Meanwhile, the fuzzy set method is applied to form the basic input vector of evidence. On this basis, the evidence difference is calculated between the indirect and direct trust values, which link the revised D-S evidence combination rule to finally synthesize integrated trust value of nodes. The simulation results show that NBBTE can effectively identify malicious nodes and reflects the characteristic of trust value that ‘hard to acquire and easy to lose’. Furthermore, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of illustrating the real contribution of different nodes to trust evaluation.
Feng, Renjian; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiang; Wan, Jiangwen
2011-01-01
For wireless sensor networks (WSNs), many factors, such as mutual interference of wireless links, battlefield applications and nodes exposed to the environment without good physical protection, result in the sensor nodes being more vulnerable to be attacked and compromised. In order to address this network security problem, a novel trust evaluation algorithm defined as NBBTE (Node Behavioral Strategies Banding Belief Theory of the Trust Evaluation Algorithm) is proposed, which integrates the approach of nodes behavioral strategies and modified evidence theory. According to the behaviors of sensor nodes, a variety of trust factors and coefficients related to the network application are established to obtain direct and indirect trust values through calculating weighted average of trust factors. Meanwhile, the fuzzy set method is applied to form the basic input vector of evidence. On this basis, the evidence difference is calculated between the indirect and direct trust values, which link the revised D-S evidence combination rule to finally synthesize integrated trust value of nodes. The simulation results show that NBBTE can effectively identify malicious nodes and reflects the characteristic of trust value that 'hard to acquire and easy to lose'. Furthermore, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of illustrating the real contribution of different nodes to trust evaluation.
Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S
2015-01-01
The European Association for Palliative Care has initiated a comprehensive program to achieve an over-all review of the evidence of multiple cancer pain management strategies in order to extend the current guideline for treatment of cancer pain. The present systematic review analyzed the existing...... evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 155. No controlled studies were identified. Sixteen papers presented a total of 79 cases. The blocks applied were paravertebral blocks (10 cases), blocks in the head region (2 cases), plexus blocks (13 cases), intercostal blocks (43 cases) and others (11 cases). In general, most cases reported...
Contextualization of drug-mediator relations using evidence networks.
Tran, Hai Joey; Speyer, Gil; Kiefer, Jeff; Kim, Seungchan
2017-05-31
Genomic analysis of drug response can provide unique insights into therapies that can be used to match the "right drug to the right patient." However, the process of discovering such therapeutic insights using genomic data is not straightforward and represents an area of active investigation. EDDY (Evaluation of Differential DependencY), a statistical test to detect differential statistical dependencies, is one method that leverages genomic data to identify differential genetic dependencies. EDDY has been used in conjunction with the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (CTRP), a dataset with drug-response measurements for more than 400 small molecules, and RNAseq data of cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) to find potential drug-mediator pairs. Mediators were identified as genes that showed significant change in genetic statistical dependencies within annotated pathways between drug sensitive and drug non-sensitive cell lines, and the results are presented as a public web-portal (EDDY-CTRP). However, the interpretability of drug-mediator pairs currently hinders further exploration of these potentially valuable results. In this study, we address this challenge by constructing evidence networks built with protein and drug interactions from the STITCH and STRING interaction databases. STITCH and STRING are sister databases that catalog known and predicted drug-protein interactions and protein-protein interactions, respectively. Using these two databases, we have developed a method to construct evidence networks to "explain" the relation between a drug and a mediator. RESULTS: We applied this approach to drug-mediator relations discovered in EDDY-CTRP analysis and identified evidence networks for ~70% of drug-mediator pairs where most mediators were not known direct targets for the drug. Constructed evidence networks enable researchers to contextualize the drug-mediator pair with current research and knowledge. Using evidence networks, we were
The theory behind the age-related positivity effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew E Reed
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.
Rolling bearing fault diagnosis based on information fusion using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory
Pei, Di; Yue, Jianhai; Jiao, Jing
2017-10-01
This paper presents a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearing based on information fusion. Acceleration sensors are arranged at different position to get bearing vibration data as diagnostic evidence. The Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory is used to fuse multi-sensor data to improve diagnostic accuracy. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the high speed train transmission test bench. The results of experiment show that the proposed method in this paper improves the rolling bearing fault diagnosis accuracy compared with traditional signal analysis methods.
Restoring primacy in amnesic free recall: evidence for the recency theory of primacy.
Dewar, Michaela; Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio
2011-09-01
Primacy and recency effects at immediate recall are thought to reflect the independent functioning of a long-term memory store (primacy) and a short-term memory store (recency). Key evidence for this theory comes from amnesic patients who show severe long-term memory storage deficits, coupled with profoundly attenuated primacy. Here we challenge this dominant dual-store theory of immediate recall by demonstrating that attenuated primacy in amnesic patients can reflect abnormal working memory rehearsal processes. D.A., a patient with severe amnesia, presented with profoundly attenuated primacy when using her preferred atypical noncumulative rehearsal strategy. In contrast, despite her severe amnesia, she showed normal primacy when her rehearsal was matched with that of controls via an externalized cumulative rehearsal schedule. Our data are in keeping with the "recency theory of primacy" and suggest that primacy at immediate recall is dependent upon medial temporal lobe involvement in cumulative rehearsal rather than long-term memory storage.
Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E
2016-08-01
This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD.
Bays, Harold
2005-05-01
Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.
Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping
Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E
2013-01-01
Fear arousal—vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors—is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Interv...
Purchasing power parity theory in three East Asian economies: New evidence
Ahmad, Mahyudin; Marwan, Nur Fakhzan
2012-01-01
To an otherwise extensive literature with yet mixed findings on the long run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) theory, this paper extends the evidence against the PPP hypothesis in three East Asian economies namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand based on quarterly data spanning forty years (1968:Q1-2008:Q1). The testing of PPP hypothesis in this study employs two methods namely Engle-Granger procedure and Johansen multivariate cointegration method.
Evidence-Based Theory of Market Manipulation And Application: The Malaysian Case
Heong, Yin Yun
2010-01-01
According to Part IX Division 1 in Securities Industry Act 1983 of Malaysia Law, stock market manipulation is defined as unlawful action taken either direct or indirectly by any person, to affect the price of securities of the corporation on a stock market in Malaysia for the purpose which may include the purpose of inducing other persons. Extending the framework of Allen and Gale (1992), the Author presents a theory based on the empirical evidence from prosecuted stock market manipulation ca...
Relation of a unified quantum field theory of spinors to the structure of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, Martin
2009-01-01
Based on a unified quantum field theory of spinors assumed to describe all matter fields and their interactions we construct the space-time structure of general relativity according to a general connection within the corresponding spinor space. The tetrad field and the corresponding metric field are composed from a space-time dependent basis of spinors within the internal space of the fundamental matter field. Similar to twistor theory the Minkowski signature of the space-time metric is related to this spinor nature of elementary matter, if we assume the spinor space to be endowed with a symplectic structure. The equivalence principle and the property of background independence arise from the fact that all elementary fields are composed from the fundamental spinor field. This means that the structure of space-time according to general relativity seems to be a consequence of a fundamental theory of matter fields and not a presupposition as in the usual setting of relativistic quantum field theories.
Theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena
Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.; Ren, Yang
2015-12-01
Pre-martensitic phenomena, also called martensite precursor effects, have been known for decades while yet remain outstanding issues. This paper addresses pre-martensitic phenomena from new theoretical and experimental perspectives. A statistical mechanics-based Grüneisen-type phonon theory is developed. On the basis of deformation-dependent incompletely softened low-energy phonons, the theory predicts a lattice instability and pre-martensitic transition into elastic-phonon domains via 'phonon spinodal decomposition.' The phase transition lifts phonon degeneracy in cubic crystal and has a nature of phonon pseudo-Jahn-Teller lattice instability. The theory and notion of phonon domains consistently explain the ubiquitous pre-martensitic anomalies as natural consequences of incomplete phonon softening. The phonon domains are characterised by broken dynamic symmetry of lattice vibrations and deform through internal phonon relaxation in response to stress (a particular case of Le Chatelier's principle), leading to previously unexplored new domain phenomenon. Experimental evidence of phonon domains is obtained by in situ three-dimensional phonon diffuse scattering and Bragg reflection using high-energy synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction, which observes exotic domain phenomenon fundamentally different from usual ferroelastic domain switching phenomenon. In light of the theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena, currently existing alternative opinions on martensitic precursor phenomena are revisited.
Quantification of margins and mixed uncertainties using evidence theory and stochastic expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, Harsheel; Hosder, Serhat; Winter, Tyler
2015-01-01
The objective of this paper is to implement Dempster–Shafer Theory of Evidence (DSTE) in the presence of mixed (aleatory and multiple sources of epistemic) uncertainty to the reliability and performance assessment of complex engineering systems through the use of quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology. This study focuses on quantifying the simulation uncertainties, both in the design condition and the performance boundaries along with the determination of margins. To address the possibility of multiple sources and intervals for epistemic uncertainty characterization, DSTE is used for uncertainty quantification. An approach to incorporate aleatory uncertainty in Dempster–Shafer structures is presented by discretizing the aleatory variable distributions into sets of intervals. In view of excessive computational costs for large scale applications and repetitive simulations needed for DSTE analysis, a stochastic response surface based on point-collocation non-intrusive polynomial chaos (NIPC) has been implemented as the surrogate for the model response. The technique is demonstrated on a model problem with non-linear analytical functions representing the outputs and performance boundaries of two coupled systems. Finally, the QMU approach is demonstrated on a multi-disciplinary analysis of a high speed civil transport (HSCT). - Highlights: • Quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) methodology with evidence theory. • Treatment of both inherent and epistemic uncertainties within evidence theory. • Stochastic expansions for representation of performance metrics and boundaries. • Demonstration of QMU on an analytical problem. • QMU analysis applied to an aerospace system (high speed civil transport)
The anatomy and relations of evidence-based medicine.
McDonald, I G; Daly, J M
2000-06-01
Current tensions between evidence-based medicine (EBM) and some clinicians are counterproductive and unnecessary. The most contentious issues concern (a) the limitations of efficacy data from randomised trials as evidence; (b) differences in attitudes to medical diagnosis and clinical judgement; and (c) political concerns about the use of the concept of clinical evidence and guidelines to restrict physician autonomy. Health services research has evolved in response to a bureaucratic need to study health care, including clinical practice, in order to improve its effectiveness (defined mainly in terms of technological interventions), and to contain costs. Its perspective is from the top-down representing the interests of bureaucracy and managed care, and articulates with political demands for professional accountability and cost-containment. EBM has established its place as an important contributor to the methodological toolbox for health services research. There is a need for a corresponding coherent programme of clinical practice research which would locate EBM in the clinical environment beside quality assurance, the study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of interventions, and multidisciplinary research related to the art of medicine and supportive aspects of clinical care. EBM would then be seen as one organ in relation to many others making their contribution to the body of knowledge needed for clinical decisions and policy making. A 'centre for the study of clinical practice' would be an appropriate structure to support such a comprehensive programme of clinical practice research in a tertiary hospital. The bottom-up perspective of clinical practice research would complement the current top-down perspective of most health services research, providing information to doctors, patients and administrators concerning local quality of care and health outcomes, information which could also be aggregated for guidance of health policy makers. It would also
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Shoichi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Shiba, Shotaro
2010-01-01
We give some evidences of the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa-Wyllard relation between SU(3) quiver gauge theories and A 2 Toda theory. In particular, we derive the explicit form of 5-point correlation functions in the lower orders and confirm the agreement with Nekrasov's partition function for SU(3)xSU(3) quiver gauge theory. The algorithm to derive the correlation functions can be applied to a general n-point function in A 2 Toda theory, which will be useful to establish the relation for more generic quivers. Partial analysis is also given for the SU(3)xSU(2) case, and we comment on some technical issues that need clarification before establishing the relation.
Yumak, A.; Boubaker, K.; Petkova, P.; Yahsi, U.
2015-10-01
In is known that short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with single chlorine content. Due to their physical properties (viscosity, flame resistance) they are used in many different applications, such as lubricant additives, metal processing, leather fat-liquoring, plastics softening, PVC plasticizing and flame retardants in paints, adhesives and sealants. SCCPs are studied here in terms of processing-linked molecular structure stability, under Simha and Somcynsky-EOS theory calculations and elements from Simha-Somcynsky-related Lattice Compatibility Theory. Analyses were carried out on 1-chloropropane, 2-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloro 2-methylane, and 2-chloro 2-methylane as (SCCPs) universal representatives. This paper gives evidence to this stability and reviews the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for further research in order to improve future (SCCPs) monitoring efforts.
Does general relativity theory possess the classical newtonian limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.
1980-01-01
A detailed comparison of newtonian approximation of the Einstein theory and the Newton theory of gravity is made. A difference of principle between these two theories is clarified at the stage of obtaining integrals of motion. Exact eqautions of motion and Einstein equations shows the existence only zero integrals of motion as well as in the newtonian approximation. A conclusion is that GRT has no classical newtonian limit, since the integrals of motion in the Newton theory of gravity and in the newtonian approximation of the Einstein theory do not coincide [ru
Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C
2008-08-01
Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.
Weighted score-level feature fusion based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory for action recognition
Zhang, Guoliang; Jia, Songmin; Li, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Xiangyin
2018-01-01
The majority of human action recognition methods use multifeature fusion strategy to improve the classification performance, where the contribution of different features for specific action has not been paid enough attention. We present an extendible and universal weighted score-level feature fusion method using the Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory based on the pipeline of bag-of-visual-words. First, the partially distinctive samples in the training set are selected to construct the validation set. Then, local spatiotemporal features and pose features are extracted from these samples to obtain evidence information. The DS evidence theory and the proposed rule of survival of the fittest are employed to achieve evidence combination and calculate optimal weight vectors of every feature type belonging to each action class. Finally, the recognition results are deduced via the weighted summation strategy. The performance of the established recognition framework is evaluated on Penn Action dataset and a subset of the joint-annotated human metabolome database (sub-JHMDB). The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed feature fusion method can adequately exploit the complementarity among multiple features and improve upon most of the state-of-the-art algorithms on Penn Action and sub-JHMDB datasets.
Concreteness effects in semantic processing: ERP evidence supporting dual-coding theory.
Kounios, J; Holcomb, P J
1994-07-01
Dual-coding theory argues that processing advantages for concrete over abstract (verbal) stimuli result from the operation of 2 systems (i.e., imaginal and verbal) for concrete stimuli, rather than just 1 (for abstract stimuli). These verbal and imaginal systems have been linked with the left and right hemispheres of the brain, respectively. Context-availability theory argues that concreteness effects result from processing differences in a single system. The merits of these theories were investigated by examining the topographic distribution of event-related brain potentials in 2 experiments (lexical decision and concrete-abstract classification). The results were most consistent with dual-coding theory. In particular, different scalp distributions of an N400-like negativity were elicited by concrete and abstract words.
A comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Jr, W.A.; Buonamano, V.
1976-01-01
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity
Comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Jr, W A [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); Buonamano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica
1976-08-11
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity.
How to test the special theory of relativity on rotating earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolghasem, H.; Khadjehpoor, M.R.; Mansouri, R.
1988-02-01
In the framework of a one parameter test theory of special relativity, the difference between Transport- and Einstein synchronization on the rotating earth is calculated. For the special theory of relativity this difference vanishes. Therefore, experiments in which these synchronization procedures are compared, test the special theory of relativity. (author). 8 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kober, Martin
2010-07-01
The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.
Familial recurrences of FOXG1-related disorder: Evidence for mosaicism.
McMahon, Kelly Q; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ma, Mandy; Barry, Brenda J; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Dobyns, William B; Scott, Richard H; Trump, Natalie; Kurian, Manju A; Paciorkowski, Alex R
2015-12-01
FOXG1-related disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in FOXG1 and result in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes including postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, chorea, and corpus callosum abnormalities. The recurrence risk for de novo mutations in FOXG1-related disorders is assumed to be low. Here, we describe three unrelated sets of full siblings with mutations in FOXG1 (c.515_577del63, c.460dupG, and c.572T > G), representing familial recurrence of the disorder. In one family, we have documented maternal somatic mosaicism for the FOXG1 mutation, and all of the families presumably represent parental gonadal (or germline) mosaicism. To our knowledge, mosaicism has not been previously reported in FOXG1-related disorders. Therefore, this report provides evidence that germline mosaicism for FOXG1 mutations is a likely explanation for familial recurrence and should be considered during recurrence risk counseling for families of children with FOXG1-related disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, J. D. (Prostat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Storlie, Curtis B. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC)
2006-10-01
Evidence theory provides an alternative to probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions that derives from epistemic uncertainty in model inputs, where the descriptor epistemic is used to indicate uncertainty that derives from a lack of knowledge with respect to the appropriate values to use for various inputs to the model. The potential benefit, and hence appeal, of evidence theory is that it allows a less restrictive specification of uncertainty than is possible within the axiomatic structure on which probability theory is based. Unfortunately, the propagation of an evidence theory representation for uncertainty through a model is more computationally demanding than the propagation of a probabilistic representation for uncertainty, with this difficulty constituting a serious obstacle to the use of evidence theory in the representation of uncertainty in predictions obtained from computationally intensive models. This presentation describes and illustrates a sampling-based computational strategy for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions with evidence theory. Preliminary trials indicate that the presented strategy can be used to propagate uncertainty representations based on evidence theory in analysis situations where naive sampling-based (i.e., unsophisticated Monte Carlo) procedures are impracticable due to computational cost.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harder, M.
2005-01-01
The chase after a world formula is presently the most iridescent task for natural science. By the development of a radical new scientistic theory, unifying not only relativity and quantum theory as also astrophysics and string theory to a common view, the author lances the first serious candidate for a TOE (Theory of Everything) in the scientific discussion. The General Theory of Duality (GDT) offers not only surprising answers to fundamental questions of physics, but also discovers the smallest component of our universe, which is still known since a longer time, which we ignored: Planck's Constant. May be possible that by this book a new world view in physics can be created. (GL)
Genetic Evidence for Modifying Oceanic Boundaries Relative to Fiji.
Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; N'Yeurt, Antoine D R; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J
2016-07-01
We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians. In particular, Rotuman and Lau Islander NRY chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and Rotuman mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 region haplotypes more closely resemble those of Polynesians, while genetic markers of the other populations more closely resemble those of the Near Oceanic Melanesians. Our findings provide genetic evidence supportive of modifying regional boundaries relative to Fiji, as has been suggested by others based on a variety of nongenetic evidence. Specifically, for the traditional Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia scheme, our findings support moving the Melanesia-Polynesia boundary to include Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Polynesia. For the newer Near/Remote Oceania scheme, our findings support keeping Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Remote Oceania and locating the other Fijian island populations in an intermediate or "Central Oceania" region to better reflect the great diversity of Oceania.
On the relation between gene flow theory and genetic gain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woolliams John A
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In conventional gene flow theory the rate of genetic gain is calculated as the summed products of genetic selection differential and asymptotic proportion of genes deriving from sex-age groups. Recent studies have shown that asymptotic proportions of genes predicted from conventional gene flow theory may deviate considerably from true proportions. However, the rate of genetic gain predicted from conventional gene flow theory was accurate. The current note shows that the connection between asymptotic proportions of genes and rate of genetic gain that is embodied in conventional gene flow theory is invalid, even though genetic gain may be predicted correctly from it.
Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems
Radin, Dean I.; Nelson, Roger D.
1989-12-01
Speculations about the role of consciousness in physical systems are frequently observed in the literature concerned with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. While only three experimental investigations can be found on this topic in physics journals, more than 800 relevant experiments have been reported in the literature of parapsychology. A well-defined body of empirical evidence from this domain was reviewed using meta-analytic techniques to assess methodological quality and overall effect size. Results showed effects conforming to chance expectation in control conditions and unequivocal non-chance effects in experimental conditions. This quantitative literature review agrees with the findings of two earlier reviews, suggesting the existence of some form of consciousness-related anomaly in random physical systems.
Some issues related to evidence-based implantology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gunnar E Carlsson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article reviews relevant dental literature to answer some frequent questions related to evidence-based implantology. There are hundreds of implant systems on the market, but the majority lack clinical documentation. Recommended number of implants for full-arch fixed prostheses is four or five in the mandible but at least six in the maxilla. Less expensive implant-retained overdentures make implant treatment available to a greater portion of edentulous subjects. Mandibular overdentures on two implants, and even one implant, have shown excellent long-term outcomes. In the maxilla, less than four implants are not recommended for good results. Single implant restorations have good prognosis, but placement of the implant should be postponed until adulthood. Osseointegrated implants have revolutionized clinical dentistry. However, in a global perspective, implants make up only a small part of all prosthodontic treatment. Knowledge and skill in conventional prosthodontics must be maintained as it will remain the most common part of the specialty.
Leue, Anja; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard
2009-11-01
Task- and personality-related modulations of the N2 were probed within the framework of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Using an appetitive choice task, we investigated 58 students with extreme scores on the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales. The baseline-to-peak N2 amplitude was sensitive to the strength of decision conflict and demonstrated RST-related personality differences. In addition to the baseline N2 amplitude, temporal PCA results suggested two N2 components accounting for a laterality effect and capturing different N2 patterns for BIS/BAS groups with increasing conflict level. Evidence for RST-related personality differences was obtained for baseline-to-peak N2 and tPCA components in the present task. The results support the RST prediction that BAS sensitivity modulates conflict processing and confirm the cognitive-motivational conflict concept of RST.
Attachment and the Processing of Social Information across the Life Span: Theory and Evidence
Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude
2011-01-01
Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the…
Evidence for Deficits on Different Components of Theory of Mind in Huntington's Disease
Allain, P.; Havel-Thomassin, V.; Verny, C.; Gohier, B.; Lancelot, C.; Besnard, J.; Fasotti, L.; Le Gall, D.
2011-01-01
Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Huntington's disease (HD) on cognitive and affective Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities. The relation of ToM performance and executive functions was also examined. Method: Eighteen HD patients, early in the course of the disease,
Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny
2008-03-01
It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.
Gift Exchange Theory: a critique in relation to organ transplantation.
Sque, M; Payne, S A
1994-01-01
Organ transplantation is becoming more important as a viable method of treatment for certain severe medical conditions. It is a complex and demanding process for all involved. Nursing as a developing science must respond to cultural and economic changes. Therefore, a need exists to develop a body of empirically based knowledge to understand and support the process of organ transplantation. This paper will argue that as trading in organs is unacceptable to the moral standards of western society and outlawed in many countries, an alternative framework must be considered for understanding the mechanisms through which organs are donated and utilized. The donating and receiving of organs may be equated with gift-giving, as there is no barter of commodities involved. Therefore, a useful framework to explore this phenomenon will be one that underpins the process of giving and receiving of gifts. Gift Exchange Theory will be evaluated and critically examined in relation to organ transplantation and the role of nurses in this process.
The role of time in relational quantum theories
Gryb, S.; Thebault, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the classical dynamics of the full system. We propose a new strategy for
Phonon dispersion relations in monoatomic superlattices: a transfer matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, E.L. de; Fulco, P.
1986-01-01
We present a lattice dynamical theory for monoatomic superlattices consisting of alternating layers of two different materials. Using a transfer matrix method we obtain explicit the equation for dispersion of the phonon's bulk modes, including the well known result in the long wave-length limit which can be obtained by elasticity theory. An illustation is shown and its features discussed. (Author) [pt
Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping
Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E
2014-01-01
Fear arousal—vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors—is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol helps program planners to optimize chances for effectiveness. IM describes the intervention development process in six steps: (1) assessing the problem and community capacities, (2) specifying program objectives, (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications, (4) designing and organizing the program, (5) planning, adoption, and implementation, and (6) developing an evaluation plan. Authors who used IM indicated that it helped in bringing the development of interventions to a higher level. PMID:24811880
Post, Brady; Buchmueller, Tom; Ryan, Andrew M
2017-08-01
Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support. We find some support for vertical foreclosure as a framework for explaining the observed results. We suggest a conceptual model and identify directions for future research. Based on our analysis, we conclude that vertical integration poses a threat to the affordability of health services and merits special attention from policymakers and antitrust authorities.
Organizational dimensions of relationship-centered care. Theory, evidence, and practice.
Safran, Dana Gelb; Miller, William; Beckman, Howard
2006-01-01
Four domains of relationship have been highlighted as the cornerstones of relationship-centered health care. Of these, clinician-patient relationships have been most thoroughly studied, with a rich empirical literature illuminating significant linkages between clinician-patient relationship quality and a wide range of outcomes. This paper explores the realm of clinician-colleague relationships, which we define to include the full array of relationships among clinicians, staff, and administrators in health care organizations. Building on a stream of relevant theories and empirical literature that have emerged over the past decade, we synthesize available evidence on the role of organizational culture and relationships in shaping outcomes, and posit a model of relationship-centered organizations. We conclude that turning attention to relationship-centered theory and practice in health care holds promise for advancing care to a new level, with breakthroughs in quality of care, quality of life for those who provide it, and organizational performance.
Moral Judgment and Its Relation to Second-Order Theory of Mind
Fu, Genyue; Xiao, Wen S.; Killen, Melanie; Lee, Kang
2014-01-01
Recent research indicates that moral judgment and 1st-order theory of mind abilities are related. What is not known, however, is how 2nd-order theory of mind is related to moral judgment. In the present study, we extended previous findings by administering a morally relevant theory of mind task (an accidental transgressor) to 4- to 7-year-old…
A Reflection on Research, Theory, Evidence-based Practice, and Quality Improvement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eesa Mohammadi
2016-04-01
While each process is associated with its unique characteristics, overlaps are likely to appear between each of the two processes. For instance, in the EBP process, if one discovers (theory that evidence is inadequate to implement a certain intervention, it highlights the need for research on that specific subject. Similarly, QI may lead to the identification of new questions, which could be used for research purposes. All the discussed processes, as well as their scientific and professional dimensions, are essential to nursing disciplines in healthcare systems.
Perturbative Quantum Gravity and its Relation to Gauge Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bern Zvi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on $D$-dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input thegravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.
Extended Nambu models: Their relation to gauge theories
Escobar, C. A.; Urrutia, L. F.
2017-05-01
Yang-Mills theories supplemented by an additional coordinate constraint, which is solved and substituted in the original Lagrangian, provide examples of the so-called Nambu models, in the case where such constraints arise from spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. Some explicit calculations have shown that, after additional conditions are imposed, Nambu models are capable of reproducing the original gauge theories, thus making Lorentz violation unobservable and allowing the interpretation of the corresponding massless gauge bosons as the Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A natural question posed by this approach in the realm of gauge theories is to determine under which conditions the recovery of an arbitrary gauge theory from the corresponding Nambu model, defined by a general constraint over the coordinates, becomes possible. We refer to these theories as extended Nambu models (ENM) and emphasize the fact that the defining coordinate constraint is not treated as a standard gauge fixing term. At this level, the mechanism for generating the constraint is irrelevant and the case of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is taken only as a motivation, which naturally bring this problem under consideration. Using a nonperturbative Hamiltonian analysis we prove that the ENM yields the original gauge theory after we demand current conservation for all time, together with the imposition of the Gauss laws constraints as initial conditions upon the dynamics of the ENM. The Nambu models yielding electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theories and linearized gravity are particular examples of our general approach.
A Panorama of Modern Operator Theory and Related Topics
Dym, Harry; Lancaster, Peter
2012-01-01
This book is dedicated to the memory of Israel Gohberg (1928-2009) - one of the great mathematicians of our time - who inspired innumerable fellow mathematicians and directed many students. The volume reflects the wide spectrum of Gohberg's mathematical interests. It consists of more than 25 invited and peer-reviewed original research papers written by his former students, co-authors and friends. Included are contributions to single and multivariable operator theory, commutative and non-commutative Banach algebra theory, the theory of matrix polynomials and analytic vector-valued functions, se
The Role of Adolescent Development in Social Networking Site Use: Theory and Evidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Drew P. Cingel
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Using survey data collected from 260 children, adolescents, and young adults between the ages of 9 and 26, this paper offers evidence for a relationship between social networking site use and Imaginary Audience, a developmental variable in which adolescents believe others are thinking about them at all times. Specifically, after controlling for a number of variables, results indicate a significant, positive relationship between social networking site use and Imaginary Audience ideation. Additionally, results indicate a positive relationship between Imaginary Audience ideation and Facebook customization practices. Together, these findings provide evidence, based on Vygotskian developmental theory, for a general consideration of the role that currently available tools, in this case social networking sites, can have on development. Thus, findings implicate both the role of development on social networking site use, as well as the role of social networking site use on development. Overall, these findings have important implications for the study of media and human development, which are discussed in detail.
Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H
2014-09-01
In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Reply to the "Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borissova L.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper answers twelve most common questions on the basics of Einstein's theory of relativity. The answers remove most key problems with a real, solid understanding of the theory.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wright, J
2000-01-01
...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...
Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--Feb 77
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, D.W.
1977-04-01
Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included, as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations
Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.
Time Is Brain: The Stroke Theory of Relativity.
Gomez, Camilo R
2018-04-25
Since the introduction of the philosophical tenet "Time is Brain!," multiple lines of research have demonstrated that other factors contribute to the degree of ischemic injury at any one point in time, and it is now clear that the therapeutic window of acute ischemic stroke is more protracted than it was first suspected. To define a more realistic relationship between time and the ischemic process, we used computational modeling to assess how these 2 variables are affected by collateral circulatory competence. Starting from the premise that the expression "Time=Brain" is mathematically false, we reviewed the existing literature on the attributes of cerebral ischemia over time, with particular attention to relevant clinical parameters, and the effect of different variables, particularly collateral circulation, on the time-ischemia relationship. We used this information to construct a theoretical computational model and applied it to categorically different yet abnormal cerebral perfusion scenarios, allowing comparison of their behavior both overall (i.e., final infarct volume) and in real-time (i.e., instantaneous infarct growth rate). Optimal collateral circulatory competence was predictably associated with slower infarct growth rates and prolongation of therapeutic window. Modeling of identifiable specific types of perfusion maps allows forecasting of the fate of the ischemic process over time. Distinct cerebral perfusion map patterns can be readily identified in patients with acute ischemic stroke. These patterns have inherently different behaviors relative to the time-ischemia construct, allowing the possibility of improving parsing and treatment allocation. It is clearly evident that the effect of time on the ischemic process is relative. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ståhl, Christian; Costa-Black, Katia; Loisel, Patrick
2018-04-01
This article explores and applies theories for analyzing socio-political aspects of implementation of work disability prevention (WDP) strategies. For the analysis, theories from political science are explained and discussed in relation to case examples from three jurisdictions (Sweden, Brazil and Québec). Implementation of WDP strategies may be studied through a conceptual framework that targets: (1) the institutional system in which policy-makers and other stakeholders reside; (2) the ambiguity and conflicts regarding what to do and how to do it; (3) the bounded rationality, path dependency and social systems of different stakeholders; and (4) coalitions formed by different stakeholders and power relations between them. In the case examples, the design of social insurance systems, the access to and infrastructure of healthcare systems, labor market policies, employers' level of responsibility, the regulatory environment, and the general knowledge of WDP issues among stakeholders played different roles in the implementation of policies based on scientific evidence. Future research may involve participatory approaches focusing on building coalitions and communities of practice with policy-makers and stakeholders, in order to build trust, facilitate cooperation, and to better promote evidence utilization. Implications for Rehabilitation Implementation of work disability prevention policies are subject to contextual influences from the socio-political setting and from relationships between stakeholders Stakeholders involved in implementing strategies are bound to act based on their interests and previous courses of action To promote research uptake on the policy level, stakeholders and researchers need to engage in collaboration and translational activities Political stakeholders at the government and community levels need to be more directly involved as partners in the production and utilization of evidence.
The curious history of relativity how Einstein's theory of gravity was lost and found again
Eisenstaedt, Jean
2006-01-01
Black holes may obliterate most things that come near them, but they saved the theory of general relativity. Einstein's theory was quickly accepted as the true theory of gravity after its publication in 1915, but soon took a back seat in physics to quantum mechanics and languished for decades on the blackboards of mathematicians. Not until the existence of black holes by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s, after Einstein's death, was the theory revived. Almost one hundred years after general relativity replaced Newton's theory of gravitation, The Curious History of Relativity tells the story of both events surrounding general relativity and the techniques employed by Einstein and the relativists to construct, develop, and understand his almost impenetrable theory. Jean Eisenstaedt, one of the world's leading experts on the subject, also discusses the theory's place in the evolution of twentieth-century physics. He describes the main stages in the development of general relativity: its beginnings,...
Condition Evaluation of Storage Equipment Based on Improved D-S Evidence Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Xiao-yu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Assessment and prediction of the storage equipment’s condition is always a difficult aspect in PHM technology. The current Condition evaluation of equipment lacks of the state level, and a single test data can’t reflect the change of equipment’s state. To solve the problem, this paper proposes an evaluation method based on improved D-S evidence theory. Firstly, use analytic hierarchy process (AHP to establish a hierarchical structure model of equipment and divide the qualified state into 4 grades. Then respectively compare the test data with the last test value, historical test mean value and standard value. And the triangular fuzzy function to calculate the index membership degree, combined with D-S evidence theory to fuse information from multiple sources, to achieve such equipment real-time state assessment. Finally, the model is used to a servo mechanism. The result shows that this method has a good performance in condition evaluation for the storage equipment
Leeman, Jennifer; Calancie, Larissa; Kegler, Michelle C; Escoffery, Cam T; Herrmann, Alison K; Thatcher, Esther; Hartman, Marieke A; Fernandez, Maria E
2017-02-01
Public health and other community-based practitioners have access to a growing number of evidence-based interventions (EBIs), and yet EBIs continue to be underused. One reason for this underuse is that practitioners often lack the capacity (knowledge, skills, and motivation) to select, adapt, and implement EBIs. Training, technical assistance, and other capacity-building strategies can be effective at increasing EBI adoption and implementation. However, little is known about how to design capacity-building strategies or tailor them to differences in capacity required across varying EBIs and practice contexts. To address this need, we conducted a scoping study of frameworks and theories detailing variations in EBIs or practice contexts and how to tailor capacity-building to address those variations. Using an iterative process, we consolidated constructs and propositions across 24 frameworks and developed a beginning theory to describe salient variations in EBIs (complexity and uncertainty) and practice contexts (decision-making structure, general capacity to innovate, resource and values fit with EBI, and unity vs. polarization of stakeholder support). The theory also includes propositions for tailoring capacity-building strategies to address salient variations. To have wide-reaching and lasting impact, the dissemination of EBIs needs to be coupled with strategies that build practitioners' capacity to adopt and implement a variety of EBIs across diverse practice contexts.
Evidence for the epistemic view of quantum states: A toy theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spekkens, Robert W.
2007-01-01
We present a toy theory that is based on a simple principle: the number of questions about the physical state of a system that are answered must always be equal to the number that are unanswered in a state of maximal knowledge. Many quantum phenomena are found to have analogues within this toy theory. These include the noncommutativity of measurements, interference, the multiplicity of convex decompositions of a mixed state, the impossibility of discriminating nonorthogonal states, the impossibility of a universal state inverter, the distinction between bipartite and tripartite entanglement, the monogamy of pure entanglement, no cloning, no broadcasting, remote steering, teleportation, entanglement swapping, dense coding, mutually unbiased bases, and many others. The diversity and quality of these analogies is taken as evidence for the view that quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge rather than states of reality. A consideration of the phenomena that the toy theory fails to reproduce, notably, violations of Bell inequalities and the existence of a Kochen-Specker theorem, provides clues for how to proceed with this research program
Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervushin, V.N.
1986-01-01
A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development
Venables, Noah C; Hall, Jason R; Yancey, James R; Patrick, Christopher J
2015-05-01
The Two-Process theory of psychopathy posits that distinct etiological mechanisms contribute to the condition: (a) a weakness in defensive (fear) reactivity related to affective-interpersonal features, and (b) impaired cognitive-executive functioning, marked by reductions in brain responses such as P3, related to impulsive-antisocial features. The current study examined relations between psychopathy factors and electrocortical response to emotional and neutral pictures in male offenders (N = 139) assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Impulsive-antisocial features of the PCL-R (Factor 2) were associated with reduced amplitude of earlier P3 brain response to pictures regardless of valence, whereas the affective-interpersonal dimension (Factor 1) was associated specifically with reductions in late positive potential response to aversive pictures. Findings provide further support for the Two-Process theory and add to a growing body of evidence linking the impulsive-antisocial facet of psychopathy to the broader construct of externalizing proneness. Findings are discussed in terms of current initiatives directed at incorporating neuroscientific concepts into psychopathology classification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Venables, Noah C.; Hall, Jason R.; Yancey, James R.; Patrick, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
The Two-Process theory of psychopathy posits distinct etiological mechanisms contribute to the disorder: 1) a weakness in defensive (fear) reactivity related to affective-interpersonal features, and 2) impaired cognitive-executive functioning, marked by reductions in brain responses such as P3, related to impulsive-antisocial features. The current study examined relations between psychopathy factors and electrocortical response to emotional and neutral pictures in male offenders (N=139) assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Impulsive-antisocial features of the PCL-R (Factor 2) were associated with reduced amplitude of earlier P3 brain response to pictures regardless of valence, whereas the affective-interpersonal dimension (Factor 1) was associated specifically with reductions in late positive potential response to aversive pictures. Findings provide further support for the Two-Process theory and add to a growing body of evidence linking the impulsive-antisocial facet of psychopathy to the broader construct of externalizing proneness. Findings are discussed in terms of current initiatives directed at incorporating neuroscientific concepts into psychopathology classification. PMID:25603361
The Birth of Model Theory Lowenheim's Theorem in the Frame of the Theory of Relatives
Badesa, Calixto
2008-01-01
Löwenheim's theorem reflects a critical point in the history of mathematical logic, for it marks the birth of model theory--that is, the part of logic that concerns the relationship between formal theories and their models. However, while the original proofs of other, comparably significant theorems are well understood, this is not the case with Löwenheim's theorem. For example, the very result that scholars attribute to Löwenheim today is not the one that Skolem--a logician raised in the algebraic tradition, like Löwenheim--appears to have attributed to him. In The Birth of Model Theory, Cali
Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory
Malament, David B
2012-01-01
In Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory, David B. Malament presents the basic logical-mathematical structure of general relativity and considers a number of special topics concerning the foundations of general relativity and its relation to Newtonian gravitation theory. These special topics include the geometrized formulation of Newtonian theory (also known as Newton-Cartan theory), the concept of rotation in general relativity, and Gödel spacetime. One of the highlights of the book is a no-go theorem that can be understood to show that there is
Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 825 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 202 Old Field House, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Seigar, Marc S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)
2013-06-01
We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.
International Conference on Ergodic Theory and Related Topics
Richter, Karin; Warstat, Volker
1992-01-01
The purpose of the conference was to represent recent developments in measure theoretic, differentiable and topological dynamical systems as well as connections to probability theory, stochastic processes, operator theory and statistical physics. Only original research papers that do not appear elsewhere are included in the proceedings. Their topics include: C(2)-diffeomorphisms of compact Riemann manifolds, geodesic flows, chaotic behaviour in billards, nonlinear ergodic theory, central limit theorems for subadditive processes, Hausdorff measures for parabolic rational maps, Markov operators, periods of cycles, Julia sets, ergodic theorems. From the Contents: L.A. Bunimovich: On absolutely focusing mirrors.- M. Denker, M. Urbanski: The dichotomy of Hausdorff measures and equilibrium states for parabolic rational maps.- F. Ledrappier: Ergodic properties of the stable foliations.- U. Wacker: Invariance principles and central limit theorems for nonadditive stationary processes.- J. Schmeling, R. Siegmund-Schult...
Charting Relations between Intersectionality Theory and the Neurodiversity Paradigm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lauren Rose Strand
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This essay explores central elements and applications of intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. First, the histories and tenets of intersectionality theory and neurodiversity paradigm are provided. Then, areas are explored where each of the two approaches might further engage with the principles of the other. Finally, the essay concludes by broadly considering the efforts made by the Black Lives Matter movement and the Autistic Self Advocacy Network to bring attention to and end police violence as both networks employ and attend to elements of intersectionality and neurodiversity. The way these two networks draw on both intersectionality and neurodiversity to further their mission could be a possible site for scholars to consider in the interest of advancing dialogues between intersectionality theory and the neurodiversity paradigm. Ultimately, the essay calls for a continued exploration of the potentials for intersectionality and neurodiversity to complement and complicate one another, both in terms of theoretical development and coalition building.
Adenzato, Mauro; Todisco, Patrizia; Ardito, Rita B
2012-01-01
The findings of the few studies that have to date investigated the way in which individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) navigate their social environment are somewhat contradictory. We undertook this study to shed new light on the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN, analysing Theory of Mind and emotional functioning. Starting from previous evidence on the role of the amygdala in the neurobiology of AN and in the social cognition, we hypothesise preserved Theory of Mind and impaired emotional functioning in patients with AN. Thirty women diagnosed with AN and thirty-two women matched for education and age were involved in the study. Theory of Mind and emotional functioning were assessed with a set of validated experimental tasks. A measure of perceived social support was also used to test the correlations between this dimension and the social-cognitive profile of AN patients. The performance of patients with AN is significantly worse than that of healthy controls on tasks assessing emotional functioning, whereas patients' performance is comparable to that of healthy controls on the Theory of Mind task. Correlation analyses showed no relationship between scores on any of the social-cognition tasks and either age of onset or duration of illness. A correlation between social support and emotional functioning was found. This latter result seems to suggest a potential role of social support in the treatment and recovery of AN. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis. They may be useful to help us better understand the social-cognitive profile of patients with AN and to contribute to the development of effective interventions based on the ways in which patients with AN actually perceive their social environment.
Methods of qualitative theory of differential equations and related topics
Lerman, L; Shilnikov, L
2000-01-01
Dedicated to the memory of Professor E. A. Leontovich-Andronova, this book was composed by former students and colleagues who wished to mark her contributions to the theory of dynamical systems. A detailed introduction by Leontovich-Andronova's close colleague, L. Shilnikov, presents biographical data and describes her main contribution to the theory of bifurcations and dynamical systems. The main part of the volume is composed of research papers presenting the interests of Leontovich-Andronova, her students and her colleagues. Included are articles on traveling waves in coupled circle maps, b
Unification of General Relativity with Quantum Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni Jun
2011-01-01
In the frame of quantum field theory, instead of using the action principle, we deduce the Einstein equation from purely the general covariant principle and the homogeneity of spacetime. The Einstein equation is shown to be the gauge equation to guarantee the local symmetry of spacetime translation. Gravity is an apparent force due to the curvature of spacetime resulted from the conservation of energy-momentum. In the action of quantum field theory, only electroweak-strong interactions should be considered with the curved spacetime metric determined by the Einstein equation. (general)
Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat
2018-03-01
Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Huanwu
2005-01-01
Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h-bar as well as Boltzmann's k B by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasser Al-Horais
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:auto; mso-para-margin-right:1.0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:auto; mso-para-margin-left:2.0cm; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky (1993, 1995. In that time, Chomsky (1998: 5 presents Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the art of minimalist approach to the theory of grammar. In this regard, this paper discusses some new ideas articulated recently by Chomsky, and have led to several fundamental improvements in syntactic theory such as changing the function of movement and the Extended Projection Principle (EPP feature, or proposing new theories such as Phases and Feature Inheritance. In order to evidence the significance of these fundamental improvements, the current paper provides a minimalist analysis to account for agreement and word-order asymmetry in Stranded Arabic. This fresh minimalist account meets the challenges (to the basic tenets of syntactic theory occurred
Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines
Gim, Jinyeong
2016-01-01
South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…
Epistemonikos: a free, relational, collaborative, multilingual database of health evidence.
Rada, Gabriel; Pérez, Daniel; Capurro, Daniel
2013-01-01
Epistemonikos (www.epistemonikos.org) is a free, multilingual database of the best available health evidence. This paper describes the design, development and implementation of the Epistemonikos project. Using several web technologies to store systematic reviews, their included articles, overviews of reviews and structured summaries, Epistemonikos is able to provide a simple and powerful search tool to access health evidence for sound decision making. Currently, Epistemonikos stores more than 115,000 unique documents and more than 100,000 relationships between documents. In addition, since its database is translated into 9 different languages, Epistemonikos ensures that non-English speaking decision-makers can access the best available evidence without language barriers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogolubov, N.N. Jr.; Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Ufuk Taneri
2008-07-01
The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of de- vised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The Maxwell electrodynamic theory is revisited and newly derived from the suggested vacuum field structure principles and the classical special relativity theory relationship between the energy and the corresponding point particle mass is revisited and newly obtained. The Lorentz force expression with respect to arbitrary non-inertial reference frames is revisited and discussed in detail, and some new interpretations of relations between the special relativity theory and quantum mechanics are presented. The famous quantum-mechanical Schroedinger type equations for a relativistic point particle in the external potential and magnetic fields within the quasiclassical approximation as the Planck constant (h/2π) → 0 and the light velocity c → ∞ are obtained. (author)
Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra
2017-09-01
This paper is drawn from a grounded theory study that aimed to investigate processes undertaken by academics when integrating evidence-based practice into undergraduate curricula. This paper focuses on how nurse academics facilitated students to apply evidence-based practice in theory and practice. Facilitating undergraduate nursing students to develop skills within an evidence-based practice framework is vital to achieving evidence-based care. Studies on evidence-based practice conducted globally suggests that there is a need to investigate approaches used by nurse academics in facilitating students' understanding and use of evidence-based practice during their nurse education. Employing constructivist grounded theory approach, 23 nurse academics across Australian universities were interviewed and nine observed during their teaching. Some study participants shared their unit guides to enrich analysis. Data analysis was performed by following Charmaz's approach of coding procedures; as a result, four categories were constructed. This paper focuses on the category conceptualised as Envisaging the use of evidence-based practice. Findings revealed that most academics-assisted students to use evidence in academic-related activities. Recognising the importance of evidence-based practice in practice, some also expected students to apply evidence-based practice during clinical experiences. However, the level of students' appreciation for evidence-based practice during clinical experiences was unknown to participants and was influenced by practice-related barriers. Acknowledging these challenges, academics were engaged in dialogue with students and suggested the need for academia-practice collaboration in combating the cited barriers. Ensuring academics are supported to emphasise clinical application of evidence-based practice requires strategies at school and practice levels. Faculty development, engagement of clinical nurses with evidence-based practice, supportive
Social Behaviour in Police Interviews: Relating Data to Theories
Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura
2015-01-01
We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories
Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories
Guney, A.; Al, S.
2012-01-01
There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just
Schr"odinger's Unified Field Theory: Physics by Public Relations
Halpern, Paul
2009-05-01
We will explore the circumstances surrounding Erwin Schr"odinger's announcement in January 1947 that he had developed a comprehensive unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. We will speculate on Schr"odinger's motivations for the mode and tone of his statements, consider the reaction of the international press within the context of the postwar era, and examine Einstein's response.
Survival units as the point of departure for a relational social theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Gabriel, Norman
Relational social theory can be found in the works of Hegel, Marx, Simmel, Mannheim, Mead, Saussure, Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault and Bourdieu. However, one of the most consistent relational thinkers is Norbert Elias. In order to develop his figurational and relational social theory Elias...
Overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity
Latruffe, Laure
2017-01-01
This is a brief overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity: concept of competitiveness, measurement of competitiveness, determinants of competitiveness.
An Exact Relation for N=1 Orientifold Field Theories with Arbitrary Superpotential
Armoni, Adi; Shifman, M
2004-01-01
We discuss a nonperturbative relation for orientifold parent/daughter pairs of supersymmetric theories with an arbitrary tree-level superpotential. We show that super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with matter in the adjoint representation at N-->infinity, is equivalent to a SYM theory with matter in the antisymmetric representation and a related superpotential. The gauge symmetry breaking patterns match in these theories too. The moduli spaces in the limiting case of a vanishing superpotential are also discussed. Finally we argue that there is an exact mapping between the effective superpotentials of two finite-N theories belonging to an orientifold pair.
Non-Performance Pay and Relational Contracting: Evidence from CEO Compensation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeVaro, Jed; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Vikander, Nick
2017-01-01
compensation by invoking the idea of informal agreements, specifically the theory of relational contracting. We derive observable implications to distinguish relational from formal contracting and, using ExecuComp data, find that CEOs' annual cash and equity incentive payments positively correlate...... with the cyclical component of sales and respond to measures of persistence as relational contracting theory predicts....
Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations: application in emergency and rural nursing.
Senn, Joanne F
2013-01-01
The author in this column highlights aspects of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations and its use both in emergency nursing and rural nursing. Long and Weinert identified the concepts of rural nursing. Some differences between Peplau's theory and rural nursing can be identified through definitions of theory and conceptual models. Despite these differences, there are some common themes between both theories that are described and compared.
Test theory of special relativity: What it is and why we need it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansouri, R.
1988-03-01
After a critical overview on the traditional way of expressing the accuracy of experiments testing the postulates of the special theory of relativity, the four-parameter test theory is briefly introduced. The existing experiments are then classified and their accuracies are expressed in terms of the parameter of the test theory. By changing the convention of synchronization of distant clocks, it is shown how different equivalent theories can be formulated. (author). 23 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia-Zhong Zheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hydropower project construction is a high-risk operation, where accidents occur frequently. Moreover, the factors leading to accidents are often human factors, so safety evaluation of these factors for the hydropower projects’ work system is very significant. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS framework is applied to build evaluation system. In the evaluation process, correlation analysis is used to form the intercriteria analysis matrix that helps the decision makers to build impact relation matrix. Factor weights are calculated by the Analytic Network Process (ANP. In the index value determination step, the evidence theory is used to eliminate the conflicts of three decision makers and the index values are then calculated. The faulty behavior risk (FBR assessment value is finally obtained. The proposed method is practical and its applicability is proved by an example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulyabov, D.S.
2010-01-01
Full text: (author)In the construction of physical theories are several paradigms (according to Vladimirov Yu. S.). Depending on the number of entities are used paradigms include trialist (3 entities), dualist (2 entities) and monistic (1 entity). In trialist paradigm uses the following entities: geometry (G), particle (P) and field (F). Go to the dualist paradigms performed in the following ways: two entities take over the functions of the third, two entities merged into a single synthesis. Is also possible to limit the dualistic theory, which summarized the essence in addition assume the functions of a third. In turn, by way of grouping the entities dualistic theory can be divided into geometric (unification of geometry and field), relational (unification of geometry and particles) and field (unification of fields and particles). For the connection of the two theories should be to go to the common denominator: to trialist or monistic theories. Since the monistic theory at the moment completely unknown, may be used only trialist theory. General relativity is a typical representative of the geometric dualistic paradigm. However geometrized only gravity. Other fields non-geometrized. In turn, the relativistic theory of gravitation is a typical trialist theory. To establish a correspondence between theories should to geometrize material field in the general theory of relativity. It is proposed to implement this on the basis of a multi-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory
Clear evidence of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egawa, H.S.; Horata, S.; Yukawa, T.
2002-01-01
Four-dimensional (4D) simplicial quantum gravity coupled to both scalar fields (N X ) and gauge fields (N A ) has been studied using Monte-Carlo simulations. The matter dependence of the string susceptibility exponent γ (4) is estimated. Furthermore, we compare our numerical results with Background-Metric-Independent (BMI) formulation conjectured to describe the quantum field theory of gravity in 4D. The numerical results suggest that the 4D simplicial quantum gravity is related to the conformal gravity in 4D. Therefore, we propose a phase structure in detail with adding both scalar and gauge fields and discuss the possibility and the property of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henry T Palowski
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This paper traces the development of cost driver theory in the Strategy literature and reflects on misinterpretations of the strategic significance of the theory in related academic disciplines, notably Management Accounting. Management Accounting has largely been responsible for informing costing practice in a wide range of organizational settings. The paper considers one such application- i.e. the case of the Higher Education Funding Council’s (HEFC costing and pricing initiative for UK universities. The project was completed just under five years ago, although details of implementation are still ongoing, to a degree. The systems in place incorporate most of the theoretical flaws outlined in this paper. Rather than providing cost driver analysis to aid the strategic management process in universities, the system appears to represent little more than a compliance and reporting framework between university central administrations and the funding provider, HEFC.
Social Usefulness: Theory and Evidence Concerning a Late Life Identity Construct.
Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Sevigny, Andrée
2016-10-01
To clarify the construct of social usefulness by merging several influential theoretical perspectives on the findings of a qualitative investigation of late life prosociality. In-depth interviews with 20 older adults probed the meaning and psychological significance of the socially useful relationships they maintained with people and organizations. Based on identity theory, the thematic analysis yielded nine classes and more than 100 distinct properties of social usefulness. Self-determination theory was employed to organize and interpret the findings in relation to older adults' needs for relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Also addressed are the study's implications for multidimensional measurement of social usefulness in future epidemiological and psychosocial studies. © The Author(s) 2016.
Harnessing International Relations Theory to Security Cooperation Program Design
2012-03-22
behavior. One of the most famous Liberal theorists is the philosopher Immanuel Kant , whose theory of “Perpetual Peace” centered on a vision where “free...democratic states would retain their sovereignty while working together to avoid war.”17 Kant ‟s vision has repeatedly been channeled into a desire...Interdependence and Liberal Institutionalist thinkers share roots with Grotius and Kant , and believe that there is a larger civil society where interstate
Educating Occupational Therapists in the Use of Theory and Evidence to Enhance Supervision Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melanie J. Roberts
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a unique learning experience aimed at enhancing the quality of supervision practice in occupational therapy at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service. The package was designed by experienced occupational therapy educators based on adult, blended, and flipped learning approaches with content developed following administration of a standardized tool and semi-structured interviews. The learning package focused particularly on the logistics of supervision and the use of occupational therapy theory and evidence with supervision. The training for supervising therapists included a workshop and pre and post workshop learning activities. This collaborative research approach to designing and implementing a learning package as well as the specific content of the ongoing education opportunities could also be transferred to other services.
Theory of own mind in autism: Evidence of a specific deficit in self-awareness?
Williams, David
2010-09-01
Assuming that self-awareness is not a unitary phenomenon, and that one can be aware of different aspects of self at any one time, it follows that selective impairments in self-awareness can occur. This article explores the idea that autism involves a particular deficit in awareness of the 'psychological self', or 'theory of own mind'. This hypothesised deficit renders individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at least as impaired at recognising their own mental states as at recognising mental states in other people. This deficit, it is argued, stands in contrast to an apparently typical awareness of the 'physical self' amongst people with autism. Theoretical implications of the empirical evidence are discussed.
Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf
2008-01-01
static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...
The Standard-Relational Theory of 'Ought' and the Oughtistic Theory of Reasons
Evers, Daan
2011-01-01
The idea that normative statements implicitly refer to standards has been around for quite some time. It is usually defended by normative antirealists, who tend to be attracted to Humean theories of reasons. But this is an awkward combination: 'A ought to X' entails that there are reasons for A to
Adapting evidence-based interventions using a common theory, practices, and principles.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Becker, Kimberly D
2014-01-01
Hundreds of validated evidence-based intervention programs (EBIP) aim to improve families' well-being; however, most are not broadly adopted. As an alternative diffusion strategy, we created wellness centers to reach families' everyday lives with a prevention framework. At two wellness centers, one in a middle-class neighborhood and one in a low-income neighborhood, popular local activity leaders (instructors of martial arts, yoga, sports, music, dancing, Zumba), and motivated parents were trained to be Family Mentors. Trainings focused on a framework that taught synthesized, foundational prevention science theory, practice elements, and principles, applied to specific content areas (parenting, social skills, and obesity). Family Mentors were then allowed to adapt scripts and activities based on their cultural experiences but were closely monitored and supervised over time. The framework was implemented in a range of activities (summer camps, coaching) aimed at improving social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Successes and challenges are discussed for (a) engaging parents and communities; (b) identifying and training Family Mentors to promote children and families' well-being; and (c) gathering data for supervision, outcome evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. To broadly diffuse prevention to families, far more experimentation is needed with alternative and engaging implementation strategies that are enhanced with knowledge harvested from researchers' past 30 years of experience creating EBIP. One strategy is to train local parents and popular activity leaders in applying robust prevention science theory, common practice elements, and principles of EBIP. More systematic evaluation of such innovations is needed.
Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants. Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shadbegian, R.; Wolverton, A.
2010-01-01
Economists have long been interested in explaining the spatial distribution of economic activity, focusing on what factors motivate profit-maximizing firms when they choose to open a new plant or expand an existing facility. We begin our paper with a general discussion of the theory of plant location, including the role of taxes and agglomeration economies. However, our paper focuses on the theory, evidence, and implications of the role of environmental regulations in plant location decisions. On its face, environmental regulation would not necessarily be expected to alter location decisions, since we would expect Federal regulation to affect all locations in the United States essentially equally. It turns out, however, that this is not always the case as some geographic areas are subject to greater stringency. Another source of variation is differences across states in the way they implement and enforce compliance with Federal regulation. In light of these spatial differences in the costs of complying with environmental regulations, we discuss three main questions in this survey: Do environmental regulations affect the location decisions of polluting plants? Do states compete for polluting plants through differences in environmental regulation? And, do firms locate polluting plants disproportionately near poor and minority neighborhoods?.
Mothersill, Omar; Tangney, Noreen; Morris, Derek W; McCarthy, Hazel; Frodl, Thomas; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary
2017-06-01
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI. Based on seed regions from previous studies, we examined functional connectivity of the default, cognitive control, affective and attention networks. Effects of symptom severity and theory of mind performance on functional connectivity were also examined. Patients showed increased connectivity between key nodes of the default network including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex compared to controls (pmind performance were both associated with altered connectivity of default regions within the patient group (pmind performance. Extending these findings by examining the effects of emerging social cognition treatments on both default connectivity and theory of mind performance is now an important goal for research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants. Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadbegian, R.; Wolverton, A.
2010-06-15
Economists have long been interested in explaining the spatial distribution of economic activity, focusing on what factors motivate profit-maximizing firms when they choose to open a new plant or expand an existing facility. We begin our paper with a general discussion of the theory of plant location, including the role of taxes and agglomeration economies. However, our paper focuses on the theory, evidence, and implications of the role of environmental regulations in plant location decisions. On its face, environmental regulation would not necessarily be expected to alter location decisions, since we would expect Federal regulation to affect all locations in the United States essentially equally. It turns out, however, that this is not always the case as some geographic areas are subject to greater stringency. Another source of variation is differences across states in the way they implement and enforce compliance with Federal regulation. In light of these spatial differences in the costs of complying with environmental regulations, we discuss three main questions in this survey: Do environmental regulations affect the location decisions of polluting plants? Do states compete for polluting plants through differences in environmental regulation? And, do firms locate polluting plants disproportionately near poor and minority neighborhoods?.
Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping.
Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E
2014-04-01
Fear arousal-vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors-is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol helps program planners to optimize chances for effectiveness. IM describes the intervention development process in six steps: (1) assessing the problem and community capacities, (2) specifying program objectives, (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications, (4) designing and organizing the program, (5) planning, adoption, and implementation, and (6) developing an evaluation plan. Authors who used IM indicated that it helped in bringing the development of interventions to a higher level. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley © Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinnebrock, Werner
2011-01-01
The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.
Nissen, Poul
2011-01-01
In this paper, a model for assessment and intervention is presented. This model explains how to perform theory- and evidence- based as well as practice-based assessment and intervention. The assessment model applies a holistic approach to treatment planning, which includes recognition of the influence of community, school, peers, family and the…
Generalisation of the test theory of special relativity to non-inertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolghasem, G.H.; Khajehpour, M.R.H.; Mansouri, R.
1989-01-01
We present a generalised test theory of special relativity, using a non-inertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport and Einstein synchronisations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disc. But in any theory with a preferred frame, such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronisation procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the Earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of special relativity. (Author)
Frederiksen, Claus S.
2009-01-01
This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...
General relativity: An introduction to the theory of the gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephani, H.
1985-01-01
The entire treatment presented here is framed by questions which led to and now lead out of the general theory of relativity: can an absolute acceleration be defined meaningfully? Do gravitational effects propagate with infinite velocity as Newton required? Can the general theory correctly reflect the dynamics of the whole universe while consistently describing stellar evolution? Can a theory which presupposes measurement of properties of space through the interaction of matter be made compatible with a theory in which dimensions of the objects measured are so small that location loses meaning? The book gives the mathematics necessary to understand the theory and begins in Riemannian geometry. Contents, abridged: Foundations of Riemannian geometry. Foundations of Einstein's theory of gravitation. Linearised theory of gravitation, far fields and gravitational waves. Invariant characterisation of exact solutions. Gravitational collapse and black holes. Cosmology. Non-Einsteinian theories of gravitation. Index
Should Unemployment Insurance Vary with the Unemployment Rate? Theory and Evidence
Kroft, Kory; Notowidigdo, Matthew J.
2012-01-01
We study how optimal unemployment insurance (UI) benefits vary over the business cycle by estimating how the moral hazard cost and the consumption smoothing benefit of UI vary with the unemployment rate. We find that the moral hazard cost is procyclical, greater when the unemployment rate is relatively low. By contrast, our evidence suggests that the consumption smoothing benefit of UI is acyclical. Using these estimates to calibrate our job search model, we find that a one standard deviation...
Nonextensive kinetic theory and H-theorem in general relativity
Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Lima, J. A. S.
2017-11-01
The nonextensive kinetic theory for degenerate quantum gases is discussed in the general relativistic framework. By incorporating nonadditive modifications in the collisional term of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and entropy current, it is shown that Tsallis entropic framework satisfies a H-theorem in the presence of gravitational fields. Consistency with the 2nd law of thermodynamics is obtained only whether the entropic q-parameter lies in the interval q ∈ [ 0 , 2 ] . As occurs in the absence of gravitational fields, it is also proved that the local collisional equilibrium is described by the extended Bose-Einstein (Fermi-Dirac) q-distributions.
Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini
2015-12-01
According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Mathematical aspects of the BCS theory of superconductivity and related theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braeunlich, Gerhard Albert
2014-01-01
The present work starts with a introduction to the BCS theory, describing superconductivity and superfluidity. The main part consist of a collection of three publications and a paper included in a conference proceedings. The introduction (Chapter 1) includes a brief historical review of the research in the field of superconductivity and superfluidity. It ends with a short summary of the technical applications of superconductivity. In Chapter 2, a derivation of the BCS functional from quantum statistics is presented. Chapter 3 explains the results of the publications mentioned above. In a first work, the validity of the negligence of the direct and exchange energy in the derivation of the BCS functional is examined. Another work addresses the connection between the BCS theory and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
A Relation Between Topological Quantum Field Theory and the Kodama State
Oda, Ichiro
2003-01-01
We study a relation between topological quantum field theory and the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state. It is shown that the Kodama (Chern-Simons) state describes a topological state with unbroken diffeomorphism invariance in Yang-Mills theory and Einstein's general relativity in four dimensions. We give a clear explanation of "why" such a topological state exists.
Pratt, Cornelius B.
1994-01-01
Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)
Wilks, Duffy
2003-01-01
This review traces the development of counseling theory in relation to the philosophical constructs of free will and determinism. Problems associated with free will are discussed, and an analysis of related theoretical trends and convergent paradigms is provided. Results indicate that no major theory of counseling addresses the free will versus…
Longitudinal Relations between Theory of Mind and Metacognition and the Impact of Language
Ebert, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between children's theory of mind and their metacognitive knowledge with a special focus on the impact of language on this relation. Measures of theory-of-mind understanding and metamemory knowledge were assessed in 133 3-year-old children at 4 measurement points separated by half-year intervals.…
Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice.
Cornelissen, Joep P.
2000-01-01
Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…
Teruo, KISHIMOTO; Tetsuo, KAMMURI; Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba; Department of Physics, Osaka University
1990-01-01
With the Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory (DNFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff representation we examine higher order corrections in the vibrational mode of a spherical nuclear system. Due to the effects of bubble diagrams, the perturbation expansion in terms of the unrenormalized coupling strength and boson energy fails at full self-consistency. On the other hand, it becomes applicable in the form of linked-cluster expansion when we use thses constants renormalized by the effect of bubble diagrams, in t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reeves Scott
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract The Improved Clinical Effectiveness through Behavioural Research Group (ICEBeRG authors assert that a key weakness in implementation research is the unknown applicability of a given intervention outside its original site and problem, and suggest that use of explicit theory offers an effective solution. This assertion is problematic for three primary reasons. First, the presence of an underlying theory does not necessarily ease the task of judging the applicability of a piece of empirical evidence. Second, it is not clear how to translate theory reliably into intervention design, which undoubtedly involves the diluting effect of "common sense." Thirdly, there are many theories, formal and informal, and it is not clear why any one should be given primacy. To determine whether explicitly theory-based interventions are, on average, more effective than those based on implicit theories, pragmatic trials are needed. Until empirical evidence is available showing the superiority of theory-based interventions, the use of theory should not be used as a basis for assessing the value of implementation studies by research funders, ethics committees, editors or policy decision makers.
Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory angle. ... a team is about understanding human relation, that is, the manager understanding the ... The problem ranges from membership isolation to lack of communication and ...
The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarkrog, Vibe
2018-01-01
Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...
Conceptual strategies and inter-theory relations: The case of nanoscale cracks
Bursten, Julia R.
2018-05-01
This paper introduces a new account of inter-theory relations in physics, which I call the conceptual strategies account. Using the example of a multiscale computer simulation model of nanoscale crack propagation in silicon, I illustrate this account and contrast it with existing reductive, emergent, and handshaking approaches. The conceptual strategies account develops the notion that relations among physical theories, and among their models, are constrained but not dictated by limitations from physics, mathematics, and computation, and that conceptual reasoning within those limits is required both to generate and to understand the relations between theories. Conceptual strategies result in a variety of types of relations between theories and models. These relations are themselves epistemic objects, like theories and models, and as such are an under-recognized part of the epistemic landscape of science.
Color categories: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis
Roberson, Debi; Davidoff, Jules B.; Davies, Ian R. L.; Shapiro, Laura R.
2005-01-01
The question of whether language affects our categorization of perceptual continua is of particular interest for the domain of color where constraints on categorization have been proposed both within the visual system and in the visual environment. Recent research (Roberson, Davies, & Davidoff, 2000; Roberson et al., in press) found substantial evidence of cognitive color differences between different language communities, but concerns remained as to how representative might be a tiny, extrem...
Theories And Success Stories Of Advertising And Public Relations
Wilardjo, Setia Budhi
2012-01-01
Now that we are looked at overall integrated marketing communication planning, we dig more deeply into the specific marketing communications tools. In this article, we explore advertising and public relations. Advertising involves communicating the company's or brand's value proposition by using paid media to inform, persuade, and remind consumers. Public relations involves building good relations with various company publics – from consumers and the general public to the media, investor, don...
GRG computer algebra system in gravitation and general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnikov, V.V.; Obukhova, I.G.
1985-01-01
The main concepts and capabilities of the GRG specialized computer agebra system intended for performing calculations in the gravitation theory are described. The GRG system is written in the STANDARD LISP language. The program consists of two parts: the first one - for setting initial data, the second one - for specifying a consequence of calculations. The system can function in three formalisms: a coordinate, a tetradic with the Lorentz basis and a spinor ones. The major capabilities of the GRG system are the following: calculation of connectivity and curvature according to the specified metrics, tetrad and torsion; metric type determination according to Petrov; calculation of the Bianchi indentities; operation with an electromagnetic field; tetradic rotations; coordinate conversions
Relations between correlation functions in gauge field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.
1997-01-01
Exact relations between vacuum correlations of non-Abelian field strengths are obtained. With the aid of exterior differentiation, the invariant parts of a given correlation function are expressed in terms of higher order correlation functions. The corollaries of these relations for the behavior of nonperturbative correlation functions at small and large distances are deduced
War and Peace in International Relations Theory: A Classroom Simulation
Sears, Nathan Alexander
2018-01-01
Simulations are increasingly common pedagogical tools in political science and international relations courses. This article develops a classroom simulation that aims to facilitate students' theoretical understanding of the topic of war and peace in international relations, and accomplishes this by incorporating important theoretical concepts…
Uncertainty relation and simultaneous measurements in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busch, P.
1982-01-01
In this thesis the question for the interpretation of the uncertainty relation is picked up, and a program for the justification of its individualistic interpretation is formulated. By means of quantum mechanical models for the position and momentum measurement a justification of the interpretaton has been tried by reconstruction of the origin of the uncertainties from the conditions of the measuring devices and the determination of the relation of the measured results to the object. By means of a model of the common measurement it could be shown how the uncertainty relation results from the not eliminable mutual disturbance of the devices and the uncertainty relation for the measuring system. So finally the commutation relation is conclusive. For the illustration the split experiment is discussed, first according to Heisenberg with fixed split, then for the quantum mechanical, movable split (Bohr-Einstein). (orig./HSI) [de
A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.
Noble, Denis
2012-02-06
Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.
Assessing landslide susceptibility by applying fuzzy sets, possibility evidence-based theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibsen Chivatá Cárdenas
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility model was developed for the city of Manizales, Colombia; landslides have been the city’s main environmental problem. Fuzzy sets and possibility and evidence-based theories were used to construct the mo-del due to the set of circumstances and uncertainty involved in the modelling; uncertainty particularly concerned the lack of representative data and the need for systematically coordinating subjective information. Susceptibility and the uncertainty were estimated via data processing; the model contained data concerning mass vulnerability and uncer-tainty. Output data was expressed on a map defined by linguistic categories or uncertain labels as having low, me-dium, high and very high susceptibility; this was considered appropriate for representing susceptibility. A fuzzy spec-trum was developed for classifying susceptibility levels according to perception and expert opinion. The model sho-wed levels of susceptibility in the study area, ranging from low to high susceptibility (medium susceptibility being mo-re frequent. This article shows the details concerning systematic data processing by presenting theories and tools regarding uncertainty. The concept of fuzzy parameters is introduced; this is useful in modelling phenomena regar-ding uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear performance, showing that susceptibility modelling can be feasible. The paper also shows the great convenience of incorporating uncertainty into modelling and decision-making. However, quantifying susceptibility is not suitable when modelling identified uncertainty because incorporating model output information cannot be reduced into exact or real numerical quantities when the nature of the variables is particularly uncertain. The latter concept is applicable to risk assessment.
Relational Climate and Health Care Costs: Evidence From Diabetes Care.
Soley-Bori, Marina; Stefos, Theodore; Burgess, James F; Benzer, Justin K
2018-01-01
Quality of care worries and rising costs have resulted in a widespread interest in enhancing the efficiency of health care delivery. One area of increasing interest is in promoting teamwork as a way of coordinating efforts to reduce costs and improve quality, and identifying the characteristics of the work environment that support teamwork. Relational climate is a measure of the work environment that captures shared employee perceptions of teamwork, conflict resolution, and diversity acceptance. Previous research has found a positive association between relational climate and quality of care, yet its relationship with costs remains unexplored. We examined the influence of primary care relational climate on health care costs incurred by diabetic patients at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs between 2008 and 2012. We found that better relational climate is significantly related to lower costs. Clinics with the strongest relational climate saved $334 in outpatient costs per patient compared with facilities with the weakest score in 2010. The total outpatient cost saving if all clinics achieved the top 5% relational climate score was $20 million. Relational climate may contribute to lower costs by enhancing diabetic treatment work processes, especially in outpatient settings.
Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DrNneka
history and diplomacy, political and administrative sciences, strategic studies and international relations, international law and organizations, and general readers ...... to assess others without considerations for historical and social differences.
On experiments to detect possible failures on relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.
1982-01-01
Conditions under which is expected the failure of Einstein's Relativity are analysed. A complete analysis of a recently proposed experiment by Kolen-Torr is also given showing that it must give a negative result. (Author) [pt
Theory of mind reasoning in schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic relatives.
Cassetta, Briana; Goghari, Vina
2014-08-15
Research consistently demonstrates that schizophrenia patients have theory of mind (ToM) impairments. Additionally, there is some evidence that family members of schizophrenia patients also demonstrate impairments in ToM, suggesting a genetic vulnerability for the disorder. This study assessed ToM abilities (i.e., sarcasm comprehension) in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives during video-taped social interactions, to be representative of real-world interactions and to assess for disease-specific and/or genetic liability effects. Additionally, we assessed whether ToM abilities predicted social and global functioning in schizophrenia patients, and whether symptoms were associated with ToM deficits. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in sarcasm comprehension compared to controls and relatives, whereas relatives showed intact comprehension. Symptoms of schizophrenia significantly predicted worse ToM abilities. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM reasoning predicted worse social and global functioning. Given schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in ToM reasoning in a task that resembles real-life interactions, this might be a key area for remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carol A. Gordon
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory for the use of action research as a tool of evidence based practice for information literacy instruction in school libraries. The emerging theory is intended to capture the complex phenomenon of information skills teaching as it is embedded in school curricula. Such a theory is needed to support research on the integrated approach to teaching information skills and knowledge construction within the framework of inquiry learning. Part 1 of this paper, in the previous issue, built a foundation for emerging theory, which established user‐centric information behavior and constructivist learning theory as the substantive theory behind evidence based library instruction in schools. Part 2 continues to build on the Information Search Process and Guided Inquiry as foundational to studying the information‐to‐knowledge connection and the concepts of help and intervention characteristic of 21st century school library instruction.Methods – This paper examines the purpose and methodology of action research as a tool of evidence based instruction. This is accomplished through the explication of three components of theory‐building: paradigm, substantive research, and metatheory. Evidence based practice is identified as the paradigm that contributes values and assumptions about school library instruction. It establishes the role of evidence in teaching and learning, linking theory and practice. Action research, as a tool of evidence based practice is defined as the synthesis of authentic learning, or performance‐based assessment practices that continuously generate evidence throughout the inquiry unit of instruction and traditional data collection methods typically used in formal research. This paper adds social psychology theory from Lewin’s work, which contributes methodology from Gestalt psychology, field theory, group dynamics, and change theory. For Lewin the purpose of action
Kriukova, Olga; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel
2013-10-01
Though associative recognition memory is thought to rely primarily on recollection, recent research indicates that familiarity might also make a substantial contribution when to-be-learned items are integrated into a coherent structure by means of an existing semantic relation. It remains unclear how different types of semantic relations, such as categorical (e.g., dancer-singer) and thematic (e.g., dancer-stage) relations might affect associative recognition, however. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we addressed this question by manipulating the type of semantic link between paired words in an associative recognition memory experiment. An early midfrontal old/new effect, typically linked to familiarity, was observed across the relation types. In contrast, a robust left parietal old/new effect was found in the categorical condition only, suggesting a clear contribution of recollection to associative recognition for this kind of pairs. One interpretation of this pattern is that familiarity was sufficiently diagnostic for associative recognition of thematic relations, which could result from the integrative nature of the thematic relatedness compared to the similarity-based nature of categorical pairs. The present study suggests that the extent to which recollection and familiarity are involved in associative recognition is at least in part determined by the properties of semantic relations between the paired associates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treatise on classical elasticity theory and related problems
Teodorescu, Petre P
2013-01-01
Deformable solids have a particularly complex character; mathematical modeling is not always simple and often leads to inextricable difficulties of computation. One of the simplest mathematical models and, at the same time, the most used model, is that of the elastic body – especially the linear one. But, notwithstanding its simplicity, even this model of a real body may lead to great difficulties of computation. The practical importance of a work about the theory of elasticity, which is also an introduction to the mechanics of deformable solids, consists of the use of scientific methods of computation in a domain in which simplified methods are still used. This treatise takes into account the consideration made above, with special attention to the theoretical study of the state of strain and stress of a deformable solid. The book draws on the known specialized literature, as well as the original results of the author and his 50+ years experience as Professor of Mechanics and Elasticity at the University o...
Relational description of the measurement process in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.
2002-01-01
We have recently introduced a realistic, covariant, interpretation for the reduction process in relativistic quantum mechanics. The basic problem for a covariant description is the dependence of the states on the frame within which collapse takes place. A suitable use of the causal structure of the devices involved in the measurement process allowed us to introduce a covariant notion for the collapse of quantum states. However, a fully consistent description in the relativistic domain requires the extension of the interpretation to quantum fields. The extension is far from straightforward. Besides the obvious difficulty of dealing with the infinite degrees of freedom of the field theory, one has to analyse the restrictions imposed by causality concerning the allowed operations in a measurement process. In this paper we address these issues. We shall show that, in the case of partial causally connected measurements, our description allows us to include a wider class of causal operations than the one resulting from the standard way of computing conditional probabilities. This alternative description could be experimentally tested. A verification of this proposal would give stronger support to the realistic interpretations of the states in quantum mechanics. (author)
Mulherin, Katrina; Walter, Sheila; Cox, Craig D
2018-03-01
Priority #3 of the Canadian Experiential Education Project for Pharmacy provided evidence-based guidance for the design and implementation of a national approach to preceptor development. In this first article (of three), findings from the project and recommendations to achieve a high-quality preceptor development program (PDP) are presented. A multi-method approach including detailed semi-structured interviews, classic literature review, and advisory committee feedback was employed. The research team performed an integrated analysis of all data to achieve the objectives of Priority #3. Fifteen formal interviews, 167 articles and two stakeholder meetings informed findings. Experiential Education programs exhibited commonality in content and usually delivered programs online using modules or live lectures. Not all programs required preceptor education despite it being mandated by academic accreditors. Academics' perceptions varied regarding pharmacists' baseline knowledge, skills and attitudes prior to engaging in the preceptor role. A national approach to a PDP was desired if jurisdictional content was accommodated. Copious interprofessional literature of generally fair quality did not identify superior preceptor development approaches although there were numerous descriptions of interventions. Only 29 articles measured educational outcomes. Outcomes included satisfaction rates, self-efficacy and perceived knowledge, skill retention, skill implementation and participation rates. Twelve recommendations were identified to guide successful development of a national PDP. In the absence of good evidence, adult educational theory provided a basis for an effective PDP. Findings from Priority #3 may be relevant not only to pharmacy in Canada but other health professions and counterparts in other western nations with similar approaches to professional education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Resolution of a cosmological paradox using concepts from general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverman, A.N.
1986-01-01
According to the big bang theory, the universe began about 15 billion years ago and has been continually expanding ever since. If certain elementary physical concepts are naively applied to this cosmological theory, it can lead to a paradox in which distant astronomical objects seem to have lain at distances from the Earth larger than the possible size of the universe. The paradox is resolved by using concepts from general relativity theory. These concepts may appear startling to some readers
Limit Formulae and Jump Relations of Potential Theory in Sobolev Spaces
Raskop, Thomas; Grothaus, Martin
2009-01-01
In this article we combine the modern theory of Sobolev spaces with the classical theory of limit formulae and jump relations of potential theory. Also other authors proved the convergence in Lebesgue spaces for integrable functions. The achievement of this paper is the L2 convergence for the weak derivatives of higher orders. Also the layer functions F are elements of Sobolev spaces and a two dimensional suitable smooth submanifold in R3, called regular Cm-surface. We are considering the pot...
Bubeck, Philip; Wouter Botzen, W J; Laudan, Jonas; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Thieken, Annegret H
2017-11-17
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards. More insight into flood-coping appraisals of PMT, therefore, are needed to better understand the decision-making process of individuals and to develop effective risk communication strategies. This study presents the results of two surveys among more than 1,600 flood-prone households in Germany and France. Five hypotheses were tested using multivariate statistics regarding factors related to flood-coping appraisals, which were derived from the PMT framework, related literature, and the literature on social vulnerability. We found that socioeconomic characteristics alone are not sufficient to explain flood-coping appraisals. Particularly, observational learning from the social environment, such as friends and neighbors, is positively related to flood-coping appraisals. This suggests that social norms and networks play an important role in flood-preparedness decisions. Providing risk and coping information can also have a positive effect. Given the strong positive influence of the social environment on flood-coping appraisals, future research should investigate how risk communication can be enhanced by making use of the observed social norms and network effects. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.
Relative pay and job satisfaction: some new evidence
Nguyen, Anh; Taylor, Jim; Bradley, Steve
2003-01-01
This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The determinants of interest include actual pay, relative pay, hours of work, job autonomy and several personal characteristics. We also investigate the determinants of satisfaction with pay conditional on a worker's satisfaction with other domains of job satisfaction, such as satisfaction with job security. We find that relative pay is statistically significant but that i...
Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence
2013-01-01
The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least
About the origins of the general theory of relativity: Einstein's search for the truth
Trainer, M.
2005-01-01
On the 20th June 1933 Professor Einstein addressed a large and enthusiastic audience in the Victorian Gothic Bute Hall of the University of Glasgow. Einstein spoke 'About the Origins of the General Theory of Relativity'. In 1905 Einstein had changed the face of physics forever with the publication of his radical new ideas on special relativity. His general theory of relativity was introduced to the world in 1915. However in 1933, Einstein faced another challenge—survival in a world of change....
A rule of the equilibrium of forces in the Hermitian theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoci, S.
1987-01-01
When the behaviour of the singularities, which are used to represent masses, charges or currents in exact solutions to the field equations of the Hermitian theory of relativity, is restricted by a no-jump rule, conditions are obtained, which determine the relative positions of masses, charges and currents. Due to these conditions the Hermitian theory of relativity appears to provide a unified description of gravitational, colour and electromagnetic forces. (author)
Einstein's relativity theory and its relevance to recent cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aichelburg, P.C.
1990-01-01
The Newtonian physics is based on absolute time and absolute space, simultaneity is unique and universal. In the Special Relativity the concept of absolute simultaneity is abandoned and time is dependent on the motion state. But both in Newtonian physics and Special Relativity time and space form a rigid background for the dynamics of matter. In General Relativity space and time are incorporated into the dynamics. The geometrical behaviour of bodies and the pace of clocks is dependent on space-time geometry which in turn is influenced by matter. In cosmology this mutual influence is driven to the extreme. Space-time is 'created together with matter'. Geometry is determined by the matter contained in the space. 14 refs., 5 figs. (Author, transl.)
Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application
Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.
1989-01-01
The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.
Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G
2009-09-01
The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.
Value-at-risk estimation with wavelet-based extreme value theory: Evidence from emerging markets
Cifter, Atilla
2011-06-01
This paper introduces wavelet-based extreme value theory (EVT) for univariate value-at-risk estimation. Wavelets and EVT are combined for volatility forecasting to estimate a hybrid model. In the first stage, wavelets are used as a threshold in generalized Pareto distribution, and in the second stage, EVT is applied with a wavelet-based threshold. This new model is applied to two major emerging stock markets: the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) and the Budapest Stock Exchange (BUX). The relative performance of wavelet-based EVT is benchmarked against the Riskmetrics-EWMA, ARMA-GARCH, generalized Pareto distribution, and conditional generalized Pareto distribution models. The empirical results show that the wavelet-based extreme value theory increases predictive performance of financial forecasting according to number of violations and tail-loss tests. The superior forecasting performance of the wavelet-based EVT model is also consistent with Basel II requirements, and this new model can be used by financial institutions as well.
Sensor Data Fusion for Accurate Cloud Presence Prediction Using Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesse S. Jin
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Sensor data fusion technology can be used to best extract useful information from multiple sensor observations. It has been widely applied in various applications such as target tracking, surveillance, robot navigation, signal and image processing. This paper introduces a novel data fusion approach in a multiple radiation sensor environment using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The methodology is used to predict cloud presence based on the inputs of radiation sensors. Different radiation data have been used for the cloud prediction. The potential application areas of the algorithm include renewable power for virtual power station where the prediction of cloud presence is the most challenging issue for its photovoltaic output. The algorithm is validated by comparing the predicted cloud presence with the corresponding sunshine occurrence data that were recorded as the benchmark. Our experiments have indicated that comparing to the approaches using individual sensors, the proposed data fusion approach can increase correct rate of cloud prediction by ten percent, and decrease unknown rate of cloud prediction by twenty three percent.
Combining morphometric evidence from multiple registration methods using dempster-shafer theory
Rajagopalan, Vidya; Wyatt, Christopher
2010-03-01
In tensor-based morphometry (TBM) group-wise differences in brain structure are measured using high degreeof- freedom registration and some form of statistical test. However, it is known that TBM results are sensitive to both the registration method and statistical test used. Given the lack of an objective model of group variation is it difficult to determine a best registration method for TBM. The use of statistical tests is also problematic given the corrections required for multiple testing and the notorius difficulty selecting and intepreting signigance values. This paper presents an approach to address both of these issues by combining multiple registration methods using Dempster-Shafer Evidence theory to produce belief maps of categorical changes between groups. This approach is applied to the comparison brain morphometry in aging, a typical application of TBM, using the determinant of the Jacobian as a measure of volume change. We show that the Dempster-Shafer combination produces a unique and easy to interpret belief map of regional changes between and within groups without the complications associated with hypothesis testing.
The Function of Gas Vesicles in Halophilic Archaeaand Bacteria: Theories and Experimental Evidence
Oren, Aharon
2012-01-01
A few extremely halophilic Archaea (Halobacterium salinarum, Haloquadratum walsbyi, Haloferax mediterranei, Halorubrum vacuolatum, Halogeometricum borinquense, Haloplanus spp.) possess gas vesicles that bestow buoyancy on the cells. Gas vesicles are also produced by the anaerobic endospore-forming halophilic Bacteria Sporohalobacter lortetii and Orenia sivashensis. We have extensive information on the properties of gas vesicles in Hbt. salinarum and Hfx. mediterranei and the regulation of their formation. Different functions were suggested for gas vesicle synthesis: buoying cells towards oxygen-rich surface layers in hypersaline water bodies to prevent oxygen limitation, reaching higher light intensities for the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, positioning the cells optimally for light absorption, light shielding, reducing the cytoplasmic volume leading to a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio (for the Archaea) and dispersal of endospores (for the anaerobic spore-forming Bacteria). Except for Hqr. walsbyi which abounds in saltern crystallizer brines, gas-vacuolate halophiles are not among the dominant life forms in hypersaline environments. There only has been little research on gas vesicles in natural communities of halophilic microorganisms, and the few existing studies failed to provide clear evidence for their possible function. This paper summarizes the current status of the different theories why gas vesicles may provide a selective advantage to some halophilic microorganisms. PMID:25371329
Theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Rivera, A.L.
1989-01-01
Waste is a cost of doing business. This cost can be considered in terms of the potential adverse health and environmental impacts, or the waste management costs associated with avoiding, minimizing, and controlling those impacts. There is an anticipated increase in the cost of waste management as a result of the increasing requirements for regulatory compliance. To meet the total waste management capacity needs of the organization and the compliance requirements, low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste management will need demonstrated technologies strategically managed as a technology portfolio. The role of the decision maker is to select the optimum mix of technologies and facilities to provide the waste management capacity needed for the next twenty years. The waste management system resulting from this mix includes multiple small-scale fixed facilities, large-scale centralized facilities, and waste management subcontracts. This study was conducted to examine the theory and evidence of economies of scale in the development of waste management systems as as exploratory research on the economic considerations in the process of technology selection and implementation. 25 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs
Survey on Dirac equation in general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paillere, P.
1984-10-01
Starting from an infinitesimal transformation expressed with a Killing vector and using systematically the formalism of the local tetrades, we show that, in the area of the general relativity, the Dirac equation may be formulated only versus the four local vectors which determine the gravitational potentials, their gradients and the 4-vector potential of the electromagnetic field [fr
Projective interpretation of some doubly special relativity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafari, N.; Shariati, A.
2011-01-01
A class of projective actions of the orthogonal group on the projective space is being studied. It is shown that the Fock-Lorentz and Magueijo-Smolin transformations known as doubly special relativity are such transformations. The formalism easily leads to new types of transformations.
Generalized virial relations and the theory of subdynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obcemea, Ch.; Froelich, P.; Braandas, E.J.
1981-05-01
In this paper, we discuss the implication of the generalized virial relations in the spectral analysis of Liouville operators. In particular, we refer to the existence problem of the analytic continuation of these super-operators and their resolvents occurring in the reduced dynamics description of open systems. For completeness, we outline the main ideas of the subdynamics approach. (author)
Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Hohm, Olaf; Huebscher, Mechthild; Ortin, Tomas; Hübscher, Mechthild
We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of
The general theory of relativity: the first thirty years
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrasekhar, S.
1980-01-01
The principal landmarks in the development of general relativity (exclusive of cosmology) during the first 30 years after its founding are presented. The emergence of the new gravitational laws, their experimental consequences and the consequent growth of the present concern with gravitational collapse and black holes are traced. (U.K.)
Relation between entropy functional of Keizer and information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidkin, E.S.; Nettleton, R.E.
1990-01-01
An equation given by Keizer which relates the second-order functional derivative of the steady-state entropy to the inverse fluctuation correlation function is satisified by the information-theoretic entropy if the equation is extended to arbitrary nonequilibrium states
The theory of relativity and super-light-speeds-I: Kinematical part
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Shenglin.
1987-05-01
According to some local properties of Lorentz transformation, Einstein stated: ''Velocities greater than that of light have no possibility of existence''. He neglected to point out the applicable range of the special theory of relativity. In fact, it could only be applied to the sub-light-speed. This paper shows that if we think of the possibility of the existence of the super-light-speed and redescribe the special theory of relativity following Einstein's way, a new kinematical theory would be founded. The new theory would retain all kinematical meaning of the special theory of relativity when matters move with sub-light-speed and would give new content when matters move with super-light-speed. The paper also discusses the observation principle for the motions with the super-light-speed. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig
Theory and practice of corrosion related to ashes and deposits in a WtE boiler.
Verbinnen, Bram; De Greef, Johan; Van Caneghem, Jo
2018-03-01
Corrosion of heat-exchanging components is one of the main operational problems in Waste-to-Energy plants, limiting the electrical efficiency that can be reached. Corrosion is mainly related to the devolatilization and/or formation of chlorides, sulphates and mixtures thereof on the heat-exchanging surfaces. Theoretical considerations on this corrosion were already put forward in literature, but this paper now for the first time combines theory with a large scale sampling campaign of several Waste-to-Energy plants. Based on the outcome of elemental and mineralogical analysis, the distribution of Cl and S in ashes sampled throughout the plant during normal operation is explained. Cl concentrations are high (15-20%) in the first empty pass, decrease in the second and third empty pass, but increase again in the convective part, whereas the S concentrations show an inverse behavior, with the highest concentrations (30%) observed in the second and third empty pass. Sampling of deposits on specific places where corrosion possibly occurred, gives a better insight in the mechanisms related to corrosion phenomena in real-scale WtE plants and provides practical evidence for some phenomena that were only assumed on the basis of theory or lab scale experiments before. More specific, it confirms the role of oxygen content, temperatures in the different stages of the boiler, the presence of polysulphates, Pb and Zb, and the concentrations of HCl and SO 2 in the flue gas for different types of boiler corrosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evidence of the relative age effect in football in Australia.
van den Honert, Robin
2012-01-01
The birth date distributions of elite male and female footballers in Australia, from junior youth (age 14 and upwards) to senior (professional) players, were examined. A statistically significant relative age effect was found among junior male players, reducing in effect with increasing age. An inter-year relative age effect that became apparent among the players at national level in the Under-17 and Under-20 age groups, due to the timing of the respective World Cups for those age groups, was also identified. It is conjectured that this might lead to players born in certain years having a curtailed pathway in the elite game, leading to drop-out among this very elite group. In the case of women elite players, no significant relative age effect was found among youth players, possibly due to less fierce competition for places, although a significant effect was found to exist at senior elite level.
Dual-process models of health-related behaviour and cognition: a review of theory.
Houlihan, S
2018-03-01
The aim of this review was to synthesise a spectrum of theories incorporating dual-process models of health-related behaviour. Review of theory, adapted loosely from Cochrane-style systematic review methodology. Inclusion criteria were specified to identify all relevant dual-process models that explain decision-making in the context of decisions made about human health. Data analysis took the form of iterative template analysis (adapted from the conceptual synthesis framework used in other reviews of theory), and in this way theories were synthesised on the basis of shared theoretical constructs and causal pathways. Analysis and synthesis proceeded in turn, instead of moving uni-directionally from analysis of individual theories to synthesis of multiple theories. Namely, the reviewer considered and reconsidered individual theories and theoretical components in generating the narrative synthesis' main findings. Drawing on systematic review methodology, 11 electronic databases were searched for relevant dual-process theories. After de-duplication, 12,198 records remained. Screening of title and abstract led to the exclusion of 12,036 records, after which 162 full-text records were assessed. Of those, 21 records were included in the review. Moving back and forth between analysis of individual theories and the synthesis of theories grouped on the basis of theme or focus yielded additional insights into the orientation of a theory to an individual. Theories could be grouped in part on their treatment of an individual as an irrational actor, as social actor, as actor in a physical environment or as a self-regulated actor. Synthesising identified theories into a general dual-process model of health-related behaviour indicated that such behaviour is the result of both propositional and unconscious reasoning driven by an individual's response to internal cues (such as heuristics, attitude and affect), physical cues (social and physical environmental stimuli) as well as
A generalized DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient for an indirect relation matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Hsiang-Chuan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient of indirect relation matrix is proposed, and a useful validity index, called Liu’s validity index, is also proposed for evaluating the performance of any DEMATEL model. If the shrinkage coefficient of an indirect relation matrix is equal to 1, then this new theory is identical to the traditional theory; in other words, it is a generalization of the traditional theory. Furthermore, the indirect relation is always considerably greater than the direct one in traditional DEMATEL theory, which is unreasonable and unfair because it overemphasizes the influence of the indirect relation. We prove in this paper that if the shrinkage coefficient is equal to 0.5, then the indirect relation is less than its direct relation. Because the shrinkage coefficient belongs to [0.5, 1], according to Liu’s validity index, we can find a more appropriate shrinkage coefficient to obtain a more efficient DEMATEL method. Some crucial properties of this new theory are discussed, and a simple example is provided to illustrate the advantages of the proposed theory.
On a relation between massive Yang-Mills theories and dual string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mickelsson, J.
1983-01-01
The relations between mass terms in Yang-Mills theories, projective representations of the group of gauge transformations, boundary conditions on vector potentials and Schwinger terms in local charge algebra commutation relations are discussed. The commutation relations (with Schwinger terms) are similar to the current algebra commutation relations of the SU(N) extended dual string model. (orig.)
Kretschmer, A.; Lampmann, S.A.; Altgassen, A.M.
2014-01-01
The aims of the present study were to investigate relations between moral reasoning, executive functioning and Theory of Mind in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to typically developing children and to apply the dual aspect theory of Lind (1978, 2008) to moral reasoning in
Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach
Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy
2004-01-01
The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…
Trust in regulatory relations: how new insights from trust research improve regulation theory
Six, F.E.
2013-01-01
Regulatory oversight is a key feature of public governance. This study argues - based on recent trust research - that the way in which the relation between trust and control is conceptualized in the dominant responsive regulation theory (RRT) may be improved using self determination theory (SDT).
Short Cuts and Extended Techniques: Rethinking Relations between Technology and Educational Theory
Thumlert, Kurt; de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer
2015-01-01
Building upon a recent call to renew actor-network theory (ANT) for educational research, this article reconsiders relations between technology and educational theory. Taking cues from actor-network theorists, this discussion considers the technologically-mediated networks in which learning actors are situated, acted upon, and acting, and traces…
Relativity theory (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1970--1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, D.W.
1976-03-01
Research studies are presented on special and general relativity. Gravitational theory, field theory, and space--time studies are included as are studies involving the Minkowski space, the Schrodinger equations, the Dirac equations, and the Lorentz transformations. (This updated bibliography contains 136 abstracts, 4 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)
THE EVOLUTION OF CURRENCY RELATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF MAJOR EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENT THEORIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergiy TKACH
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of major exchange rate adjustment theories on the global monetary system. The reasons of the previous organization forms of monetary relations collapse at the global level are defined. The main achievements and failures of major exchange rate theories are described.
Processing Distracting Non-face Emotional Images: No Evidence of an Age-Related Positivity Effect.
Madill, Mark; Murray, Janice E
2017-01-01
Cognitive aging may be accompanied by increased prioritization of social and emotional goals that enhance positive experiences and emotional states. The socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this may be achieved by giving preference to positive information and avoiding or suppressing negative information. Although there is some evidence of a positivity bias in controlled attention tasks, it remains unclear whether a positivity bias extends to the processing of affective stimuli presented outside focused attention. In two experiments, we investigated age-related differences in the effects of to-be-ignored non-face affective images on target processing. In Experiment 1, 27 older (64-90 years) and 25 young adults (19-29 years) made speeded valence judgments about centrally presented positive or negative target images taken from the International Affective Picture System. To-be-ignored distractor images were presented above and below the target image and were either positive, negative, or neutral in valence. The distractors were considered task relevant because they shared emotional characteristics with the target stimuli. Both older and young adults responded slower to targets when distractor valence was incongruent with target valence relative to when distractors were neutral. Older adults responded faster to positive than to negative targets but did not show increased interference effects from positive distractors. In Experiment 2, affective distractors were task irrelevant as the target was a three-digit array and did not share emotional characteristics with the distractors. Twenty-six older (63-84 years) and 30 young adults (18-30 years) gave speeded responses on a digit disparity task while ignoring the affective distractors positioned in the periphery. Task performance in either age group was not influenced by the task-irrelevant affective images. In keeping with the socioemotional selectivity theory, these findings suggest that older adults preferentially
Neurodevelopment of Conflict Adaptation: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Xiuying; Liu, Tongran; Shangguan, Fangfang
2018-01-01
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different a...... to better assimilate and accommodate potential environmental conflicts. The results may also indicate that the development of conflict adaption is affected by the specific characteristic of the different types of conflict.......Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different...... ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation...
Relational Contracting Under the Threat of Expropriation – Experimental Evidence
Brown, M.; Serra Garcia, M.
2010-01-01
We examine how relational contracting in credit and investment relationships is affected by the potential expropriation of funds. We implement credit relationships in which repayment is not third-party enforceable, i.e. borrowers can default on their loans. In our main treatment the borrower can
Indefinite-metric quantum field theory of general relativity, 15
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakanishi, Noboru
1982-01-01
In the manifestly covariant canonical formalism of quantum gravity, it is known that the equal-time commutator between a tensor field and the B field b sub(rho) is consistent with the rules of tensor analysis. Another tensorlike commutation relation is shown to exist for the equal-time commutator between a tensor and b sub(rho), but at the same time its limitation is clarified. The quantum-gravity extension of the invariant D function is defined and provied to be affine-invariant. The four-dimensional commutation relation between a tensor and b sub(rho) is investigated, and it is shown that the commutator consists of a completely tensorlike, manifestly affine-covariant part and a remainder, which is clearly distinguishable from the former. (author)
Dirichlet and Related Distributions Theory, Methods and Applications
Ng, Kai Wang; Tang, Man-Lai
2011-01-01
The Dirichlet distribution appears in many areas of application, which include modelling of compositional data, Bayesian analysis, statistical genetics, and nonparametric inference. This book provides a comprehensive review of the Dirichlet distribution and two extended versions, the Grouped Dirichlet Distribution (GDD) and the Nested Dirichlet Distribution (NDD), arising from likelihood and Bayesian analysis of incomplete categorical data and survey data with non-response. The theoretical properties and applications are also reviewed in detail for other related distributions, such as the inve
Ethical Selves : A Sketch for a Theory of Relational Authenticity
Fletcher, Natalie
2013-01-01
Philosophers who show interest in authenticity tend to narrowly focus on its capacity to help people evade conformity and affirm individuality, a simplistic reduction that neglects authenticity’s moral potential and gives credence to the many critics who dismiss it as a euphemism for excessive individualism. Yet when conceived relationally, authenticity can also allow for worthy human flourishing without falling prey to conformity’s opposite extreme—egoism. This essay proposes a sketch for a ...
Evidence of disease-related amphibian decline in Colorado
Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Pessier, Allan P.; Green, D. Earl
2003-01-01
The recent discovery of a pathogenic fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) associated with declines of frogs in the American and Australian tropics, suggests that at least the proximate cause, may be known for many previously unexplained amphibian declines. We have monitored boreal toads in Colorado since 1991 at four sites using capturea??recapture of adults and counts of egg masses to examine the dynamics of this metapopulation. Numbers of male toads declined in 1996 and 1999 with annual survival rate averaging 78% from 1991 to 1994, 45% in 1995 and 3% between 1998 and 1999. Numbers of egg masses also declined. An etiological diagnosis of chytridiomycosis consistent with infections by the genus Batrachochytrium was made in six wild adult toads. Characteristic histomorphological features (i.e. intracellular location, shape of thalli, presence of discharge tubes and rhizoids) of chytrid organisms, and host tissue response (acanthosis and hyperkeratosis) were observed in individual toads. These characteristics were indistinguishable from previously reported mortality events associated with chytrid fungus. We also observed epizootiological features consistent with mortality events associated with chytrid fungus: an increase in the ratio of female:male toads captured, an apparent spread of mortalities within the metapopulation and mortalities restricted to post metamorphic animals. Eleven years of population data suggest that this metapopulation of toads is in danger of extinction, pathological and epizootiological evidence indicates that B. dendrobatidis has played a proximate role in this process
Creemers, B.P.M.; Kyriakides, L.
2010-01-01
This paper refers to a dynamic perspective of educational effectiveness and improvement stressing the importance of using an evidence-based and theory-driven approach. Specifically, an approach to school improvement based on the dynamic model of educational effectiveness is offered. The recommended
Dentoni, D.; Ross, R.
2013-01-01
Part Two of our Special Issue on wicked problems in agribusiness, “Towards a Theory of Managing Wicked Problems through Multi-Stakeholder Engagements: Evidence from the Agribusiness Sector,” will contribute to four open questions in the broader fields of management and policy: why, when, which and
Theory of Mind and the Brain in Anorexia Nervosa: Relation to Treatment Outcome
Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Mainz, Verena; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin
2012-01-01
Objective: Converging evidence suggests deficits in theory-of-mind (ToM) processing in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The present study aimed at elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying ToM-deficits in AN. Method: A total of 19 adolescent patients with AN and 21 age-matched controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance…
Klink, William H.; Schweiger, Wolfgang
2018-03-01
This book covers relativistic quantum theory from the point of view of a particle theory, based on the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, the group that expresses the symmetry of Einstein relativity. There are several ways of formulating such a theory; this book develops what is called relativistic point form quantum mechanics, which, unlike quantum field theory, deals with a fixed number of particles in a relativistically invariant way. A chapter is devoted to applications of point form quantum mechanics to nuclear physics.
Cosmological term in general relativity theory and localization of de Sitter and Einstein groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunyak, V.N.
1984-01-01
The theory of gauge gravitational field with the de Sitter group localization is formulated. proceeding from the de Sitter Universe tetrad components the relationship between Riemann metrics and de Sitter gauge field is established. It is shown that General relativity theory (GRT) with a cosmological term is the simplest variant of the de Sitter gauge gravitation theory passing in the limit of infinite curvature radius of the de Sitter Universe into the Poincare - invariant GRT without cosmological term. Similarly the theory of gauge gravitational field at localization of the dynamical group of the Einstein homogeneous static Universe (Einstein group RxSO(4)) is formulated
Inadequate Evidence for Multiple Intelligences, Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence Theories
Waterhouse, Lynn
2006-01-01
I (Waterhouse, 2006) argued that, because multiple intelligences, the Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theories have inadequate empirical support and are not consistent with cognitive neuroscience findings, these theories should not be applied in education. Proponents countered that their theories had sufficient empirical support, were…
Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey
2016-06-01
Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.
Delagran, Louise; Vihstadt, Corrie; Evans, Roni
2015-09-01
Online educational interventions to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) are a promising mechanism for overcoming some of the barriers to incorporating research into practice. However, attention must be paid to aligning strategies with adult learning theories to achieve optimal outcomes. We describe the development of a series of short self-study modules, each covering a small set of learning objectives. Our approach, informed by design-based research (DBR), involved 6 phases: analysis, design, design evaluation, redesign, development/implementation, and evaluation. Participants were faculty and students in 3 health programs at a complementary and integrative educational institution. We chose a reusable learning object approach that allowed us to apply 4 main learning theories: events of instruction, cognitive load, dual processing, and ARCS (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). A formative design evaluation suggested that the identified theories and instructional approaches were likely to facilitate learning and motivation. Summative evaluation was based on a student survey (N=116) that addressed how these theories supported learning. Results suggest that, overall, the selected theories helped students learn. The DBR approach allowed us to evaluate the specific intervention and theories for general applicability. This process also helped us define and document the intervention at a level of detail that covers almost all the proposed Guideline for Reporting Evidence-based practice Educational intervention and Teaching (GREET) items. This thorough description will facilitate the interpretation of future research and implementation of the intervention. Our approach can also serve as a model for others considering online EBP intervention development.
Electrophysiological Evidence in Schizophrenia in Relation to Treatment Response
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuki Sueyoshi
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Several domains of cognitive function, e.g., verbal memory, information processing, fluency, attention, and executive function are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia have attracted interests as a treatment target, because they are considered to greatly affect functional outcome. Electrophysiological markers, including electroencephalogram (EEG, particularly, event-related potentials, have contributed to psychiatric research and clinical practice. In this review, we provide a summary of studies relating electrophysiological findings to cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Electrophysiological indices may provide an objective marker of cognitive processes, contributing to the development of effective interventions to improve cognitive and social outcomes. Further efforts to understand biological mechanisms of cognitive disturbances, and develop effective therapeutics are warranted.
Internationalisation and technological innovation: empirical evidence on their relation
Filipescu, Diana-Andreea
2010-01-01
Descripció del recurs: el 25 d'octubre de 2011 Internationalisation and innovation of the firms have been considered two of the most important factors determining business success over the last decade (Buckler and Zien, 1996; Wind and Mahajan, 1997; Zahra and George, 2002; Vila and Kuster, 2007). The purpose of this dissertation is to understand better the relation which exists between these two factors. To do so, we undertake empirical investigation which consists of three studies (an ini...
A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity
Everitt, C. W. F.
1978-01-01
Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.
Naïveté in novel ecological interactions: lessons from theory and experimental evidence.
Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B
2014-11-01
The invasion of alien species into areas beyond their native ranges is having profound effects on ecosystems around the world. In particular, novel alien predators are causing rapid extinctions or declines in many native prey species, and these impacts are generally attributed to ecological naïveté or the failure to recognise a novel enemy and respond appropriately due to a lack of experience. Despite a large body of research concerning the recognition of alien predation risk by native prey, the literature lacks an extensive review of naïveté theory that specifically asks how naïveté between novel pairings of alien predators and native prey disrupts our classical understanding of predator-prey ecological theory. Here we critically review both classic and current theory relating to predator-prey interactions between both predators and prey with shared evolutionary histories, and those that are ecologically 'mismatched' through the outcomes of biological invasions. The review is structured around the multiple levels of naïveté framework of Banks & Dickman (2007), and concepts and examples are discussed as they relate to each stage in the process from failure to recognise a novel predator (Level 1 naïveté), through to appropriate (Level 2) and effective (Level 3) antipredator responses. We discuss the relative contributions of recognition, cue types and the implied risk of cues used by novel alien and familiar native predators, to the probability that prey will recognise a novel predator. We then cover the antipredator response types available to prey and the factors that predict whether these responses will be appropriate or effective against novel alien and familiar native predators. In general, the level of naïveté of native prey can be predicted by the degree of novelty (in terms of appearance, behaviour or habitat use) of the alien predator compared to native predators with which prey are experienced. Appearance in this sense includes cue types
Incompatibility of the quantum and relativity theories and a possible resolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachs, M.
1982-01-01
This paper presents a comparison of the conceptual bases of the quantum theory and the theory of relativity, each considered as fundamental theories of elementary matter. From a study of the irreducible axiomatic bases of these respective approaches to elementary matter, it is concluded that they cannot peacefully co-exist because of logical incompatibility. Among the reasons discussed for this conclusion, one is the implication of the Hamiltonian form of quantum mechanics yielding an irreducible absolute frame of reference - that of the measuring apparatus - in the basic expression for the laws of elementary particles. This difficulty leads to logical inconsistency as well as a formulation of relativistic quantum field theory that is not demonstrably mathematically consistent. In spite of their logical incompatiability, it is argued that each of these theories logically requires the other, within its own framework. The conclusion is reached that, to make further progress in our understanding of elementary matter, it is necessary to abandon the axiomatic basis of one of these theories for the other, while keeping the formal structure of the abandoned theory as an accurate mathematical approximation (under special physical conditions) for a generalized form of the retained theory. An argument is presented for the author's retention of the theory of relativity as an authentic basis of elementary matter, and how its generalization is achieved by incorporating a fully (generally) covariant expression of the inertial manifestations of matter with its force manifestations
Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: theory and evidence.
Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude
2011-01-01
Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patterns of results that have emerged from these studies. The central proposition is that individuals who possess secure experience-based internal working models of attachment will process--in a relatively open manner--a broad range of positive and negative attachment-relevant social information. Moreover, secure individuals will draw on their positive attachment-related knowledge to process this information in a positively biased schematic way. In contrast, individuals who possess insecure internal working models of attachment will process attachment-relevant social information in one of two ways, depending on whether the information could cause the individual psychological pain. If processing the information is likely to lead to psychological pain, insecure individuals will defensively exclude this information from further processing. If, however, the information is unlikely to lead to psychological pain, then insecure individuals will process this information in a negatively biased schematic fashion that is congruent with their negative attachment-related experiences. In a comprehensive literature review, we describe studies that illustrate these patterns of attachment-related information processing from childhood to adulthood. This review focuses on studies that have examined specific components (e.g., attention and memory) and broader aspects (e.g., attributions) of social information processing. We also provide general conclusions and suggestions for future research.
Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne
2010-04-08
Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour