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Sample records for related resources chapter

  1. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  2. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  3. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  4. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  5. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  6. 106-17 Telemetry Management Resources Chapter 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    shall not be persistent except where specifically designated. Resources designated as persistent shall have their value stored in non-volatile memory ... false ”. To cancel the configuration process, a TmNSApp manager may execute either a TMA reset or a TmNSHost reset. 3. Upon receipt of the...tmnsTmaCommon:tmnsTmaCommonConfiguration:configure resource to “ false ”. e. Send a configurationCompleteNotification via the

  7. Land resources: Forest and arid lands [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. G. Ryan; S. R. Archer; R. A. Birdsey; C. N. Dahm; L. S. Heath; J. A. Hicke; D. Y. Hollinger; T. E. Huxman; G. S. Okin; R. Oren; J. T. Randerson; W. H. Schlesinger

    2008-01-01

    This synthesis and assessment report builds on an extensive scientific literature and series of recent assessments of the historical and potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and their constituent biota and processes. It identifies changes in resource conditions that are now being observed and examines whether...

  8. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  9. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  10. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  11. Temperature-Related Death and Illness. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Saha, Shubhayu; Hawkins, Michelle D.; Mills, David M.; Hess, Jeremy; Horton, Radley; Kinney, Patrick; Schwartz, Joel; St. Juliana, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Based on present-day sensitivity to heat, an increase of thousands to tens of thousands of premature heat-related deaths in the summer and a decrease of premature cold-related deaths in the winter are projected each year as a result of climate change by the end of the century. Future adaptation will very likely reduce these impacts (see Changing Tolerance to Extreme Heat Finding). The reduction in cold-related deaths is projected to be smaller than the increase in heat-related deaths in most regions. Days that are hotter than usual in the summer or colder than usual in the winter are both associated with increased illness and death. Mortality effects are observed even for small differences from seasonal average temperatures. Because small temperature differences occur much more frequently than large temperature differences, not accounting for the effect of these small differences would lead to underestimating the future impact of climate change. An increase in population tolerance to extreme heat has been observed over time. Changes in this tolerance have been associated with increased use of air conditioning, improved social responses, and or physiological acclimatization, among other factors. Expected future increases in this tolerance will reduce the projected increase in deaths from heat. Older adults and children have a higher risk of dying or becoming ill due to extreme heat. People working outdoors, the socially isolated and economically disadvantaged, those with chronic illnesses, as well as some communities of color, are also especially vulnerable to death or illness.

  12. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  13. Preserving heritage resources through responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands [Chapter 9] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada’s cultural resources (heritage resources) include archeological remains, sacred sites, historic sites, and cultural landscapes of significance to Native Americans and many other cultural groups. Locating, maintaining, and protecting these special places are part of the mandate of Nevada’s Federal and state agencies. This summary addresses Sub-goal 2.2...

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  15. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  17. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  18. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  19. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  20. Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.

    This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures

  1. Challenge theme 5: Current and future needs of energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands and the effects of their development: Chapter 7 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and extraction activities related to energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands—such as coal-fired power plants, offshore drilling, and mining—can create issues that have potentially major economic and environmental implications. Resource assessments and development projects, environmental studies, and other related evaluations help to understand some of these issues, such as power plant emissions and the erosion/denudation of abandoned mine lands. Information from predictive modeling, monitoring, and environmental assessments are necessary to understand the full effects of energy and mineral exploration, development, and utilization. The exploitation of these resources can negatively affect human health and the environment, its natural resources, and its ecological services (air, water, soil, recreation, wildlife, etc.). This chapter describes the major energy and mineral issues of the Borderlands and how geologic frameworks, integrated interdisciplinary (geobiologic) investigations, and other related studies can address the anticipated increases in demands on natural resources in the region.

  2. Scale dependency of American marten (Martes americana) habitat relations [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Shirk; Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Samuel A. Cushman; Martin G. Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Animals select habitat resources at multiple spatial scales; therefore, explicit attention to scale-dependency when modeling habitat relations is critical to understanding how organisms select habitat in complex landscapes. Models that evaluate habitat variables calculated at a single spatial scale (e.g., patch, home range) fail to account for the effects of...

  3. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  4. The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between kudu density and the relative density of habitat patches in each landscape was significant, with exponential models producing more significant statistics than linear models. Regressions of resource density against animal density are useful to understand 'carrying capacity' for wild herbivores, and ...

  5. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  6. Chapter F: Preliminary Bibliography of Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits in the Western United States and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.; Wallace, Alan R.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Bliss, James D.; Orris, Greta J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction As part of the assessment of lacustrine diatomite resources in the Western United States (fig. 1), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project members conducted a review of literature relating to the formation, location, and nature of deposits in the study area. This preliminary bibliography consists of selected publications to identify, locate, and describe the deposits to be studied, to characterize common geologic factors about the deposits, and to better understand the factors that control their formation, preservation, or destruction. The bibliography also serves as a resource for other workers to research the topic. References included in the preliminary bibliography were gathered by searching existing bibliographic data bases and library collections. Project researchers also contributed references that they found during the course of their work. This bibliography should be considered a working document that will grow as research and literature searches continue. Clearly, many significant publications may be missing from this preliminary list; therefore, USGS staff members intend to issue a revised bibliography as project work progresses. To assure completeness, input from other researchers and industry is welcome. Although the focus of this bibliography is lacustrine diatomite deposits of the Western United States, additional references that provide a foundation of knowledge for the study of diatomites, diatoms, and diatom-related processes (ecology, geology, geochemistry) and for the uses and behavior of diatomite have also been included. An index of keywords has been added to this bibliography, designed to help the user locate reports by topic or by geographic location. The letter 'A' following a number indicates that the report referenced is an abstract.

  7. Spacing conservation practice: Place-making, social learning, and adaptive governance in natural resource management [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2018-01-01

    Nature conservation constitutes an important realm of professional practice with strong connections to the discourses on nature and sustainability. In recent decades much of that discourse has taken an explicitly spatial turn, observable across numerous domains of ecological, social, and political thought (Williams et al., 2013; Wu, 2006). The aim of this chapter is to...

  8. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  9. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  10. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  11. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  12. Forestry [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger

    1997-01-01

    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with European geologists to assess resources in porphyry copper deposits in Europe, exclusive of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland) and Russia. Porphyry copper deposits in Europe are Paleozoic and Late Cretaceous to Miocene in age. A number of the 31 known Phanerozoic deposits contain more than 1 million metric tons of contained copper, including the Majdanpek deposit, Serbia; Assarel, Bulgaria; Skouries, Greece; and Rosia Poeni, Romania. Five geographic areas were delineated as permissive tracts for post-Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits. Two additional tracts were delineated to show the extent of permissive igneous rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization related to the Paleozoic Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 4,000 to 93,000 square kilometers. Although maps at a variety of different scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

  15. Forest resource economics and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters relating to forest economics. Included are the following chapters: Forecasting demand and supply of forest resources, products, and services; Wood fiber production; Forestry sector environmental effects

  16. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  17. Job-related resources and the pressures of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SAFRR tsunami scenario: Impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick; Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research.Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive

  19. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  20. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  1. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  2. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  3. Chapter 8: US geological survey Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA): Introduction and summary of organization and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has assessed undiscovered petroleum resources in the Arctic through geological mapping, basin analysis and quantitative assessment. The new map compilation provided the base from which geologists subdivided the Arctic for burial history modelling and quantitative assessment. The CARA was a probabilistic, geologically based study that used existing USGS methodology, modified somewhat for the circumstances of the Arctic. The assessment relied heavily on analogue modelling, with numerical input as lognormal distributions of sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. Probabilistic results for individual assessment units were statistically aggregated taking geological dependencies into account. Fourteen papers in this Geological Society volume present summaries of various aspects of the CARA. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  4. Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to ...... the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator....

  5. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a_wolf

    He highlights that, while social and economic inequalities and ethnicity are ... Williams puts forward the argument that neopatrimonalism is not the only element ... resources are not the central ingredient to conflict, but rather resource conflicts.

  6. Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

  7. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and Economic Implications. ... on the environment leading to pollution of land, rivers, creeks and waterways.

  8. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  9. Chapter Twenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    manipulation of their natural resource blessing from God, the crude oil, ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of pollution. This ..... 70) This is very simple and straightforward demands that can easily be ...

  10. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    resource settings showed that the use of pap smear for routine screening of women resulted in ..... Research in Mexico, Ecuador and Venezuela for Latin ... University College Hospital by Arulogun and Maxwell (2012) and contradicts a study in ...

  11. Social justice issues related to uneven distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Naomi E; Bell, Sue Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the social justice issues resulting from the uneven distribution of resources. In this article, justice theories are discussed in relation to two of these issues: lack of adequate food and shelter and inequitable access to an appropriate continuum of health care. Public health nurses have the obligation to deal with the results of poverty and the uneven distribution of resources, which pose a threat to the common good in the United States and throughout the global community.

  12. CHAPTER ONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chipo P Mubaya

    ... Tanzania through the Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) implemented a three ... 10% of the total number of households was used for household interviews. .... trends, and seasonality affecting productivity. ... in Tanzania and specific villages used as a case study. .... production, carpentry, bicycle repair, food vending,.

  13. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: To determine cost of therapy to patients of Ear Nose and Throat infections in a Nigerian ... resources are being used wisely even before the global ... economic based operational researches to improve .... calculated based on time spent in the hospital and loss ..... 2005) and may be due to low level of immunity.

  14. Household Gender and Resource Relations: Women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that although women were the major producers of income generating crops in Uganda's dominant peasant households, they were marginalised from major decisions and control of the resources. Household and meso-level marketing structures and institutions were within patriarchal power relations, and ...

  15. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  16. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  17. CHAPTER ONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN PC

    causes of job related stress to all library staff in Polytechnics in Nigeria, ... imperative for librarians and library support staff to develop new technical skills to promote ..... Continuing professional development and workplace learning: human.

  18. World uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, A.

    2014-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Series publication entitled “World Uranium Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities” (WUERPRA) will soon be published by the IAEA. The objective of the publication is to provide a comprehensive compilation of historic uranium exploration, resources, production and related activities based primarily on information from the 1966 to 2009 editions of the publication “Uranium Resources, Production and Demand”, a joint publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development commonly known as the ‘Red Book’. This has been supplemented by historic information from other reliable sources. The publications also include, where enough information was available, descriptions of the relative potential for discovery of new uranium resources on a per country basis. To recover complete historic information it is frequently necessary to refer to earlier editions of the Red Book, many of which may not be readily available. This publication aims to provide one comprehensive source for much of this type of information which will reduce the effort required to prepare future editions of the Red Book, as well as make the historic Red Book information, together with select related information from other sources, more readily available to all users with an interest in uranium. WUERPRA comprises 6 volumes containing 164 country reports, each organized by region; Volume 1: Africa (53 countries); Volume 2: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe (25 countries); Volume 3: Southeastern Asia, Pacific, East Asia (18 countries); Volume 4: Western Europe (22 countries); Volume 5: Middle East, Central and Southern Asia (19 countries), and; Volume 6: North America, Central America and South America (27 countries). The report also contains information on countries that have not reported to the Red Book. The poster will summarize select major highlights from each volume

  19. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative and antioxidant effects of crude Aqueous Leaf Extract of. Ficus exasperata (ALEFE) .... Mean relative kidney weights in control and diabetic rats with or without aqueous leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata. (ALEFE). ..... (2005): Red wine prevents brain oxidative stress and.

  20. Review: Groundwater resources and related environmental issues in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Aibing; Zhang, Yilong; Zhang, Eryong; Li, Zhenghong; Yu, Juan; Wang, Huang; Yang, Jianfeng; Wang, Yao

    2018-05-01

    As an important component of water resources, groundwater plays a crucial role in water utilization in China and an irreplaceable role in supporting economic and social development, especially in the northern arid and semi-arid plains and basin areas, which are densely populated and relatively short of surface-water resources. This paper comprehensively reviews and discusses the regional hydrogeological conditions, the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater, the groundwater quality, and the actuality of groundwater exploitation and utilization in China. Meanwhile, aiming at the environmental problems induced by overexploitation to meet the sharply increasing water demand, this paper puts forward the major tasks for the next few years in terms of groundwater exploitation control, conservation and management.

  1. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  2. Facilitating NCAR Data Discovery by Connecting Related Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2012-12-01

    Linking datasets, creators, and users by employing the proper standards helps to increase the impact of funded research. In order for users to find a dataset, it must first be named. Data citations play the important role of giving datasets a persistent presence by assigning a formal "name" and location. This project focuses on the next step of the "name-find-use" sequence: enhancing discoverability of NCAR data by connecting related resources on the web. By examining metadata schemas that document datasets, I examined how Semantic Web approaches can help to ensure the widest possible range of data users. The focus was to move from search engine optimization (SEO) to information connectivity. Two main markup types are very visible in the Semantic Web and applicable to scientific dataset discovery: The Open Archives Initiative-Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE - www.openarchives.org) and Microdata (HTML5 and www.schema.org). My project creates pilot aggregations of related resources using both markup types for three case studies: The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset and related publications, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) animation and image files from NCAR's Visualization Lab (VisLab), and the multidisciplinary data types and formats from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). This project documents the differences between these markups and how each creates connectedness on the web. My recommendations point toward the most efficient and effective markup schema for aggregating resources within the three case studies based on the following assessment criteria: ease of use, current state of support and adoption of technology, integration with typical web tools, available vocabularies and geoinformatic standards, interoperability with current repositories and access portals (e.g. ESG, Java), and relation to data citation tools and methods.

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  4. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  5. Age related distributive justice and claims on resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, S

    1996-03-01

    The ageing population structure, and claims on resources by non-working groups, are seen by many to be contributing to a growing welfare crisis. In their arguments, relations between age groups and generations will become increasingly fraught, and welfare arrangements will be undermined, as 'unacceptable' levels of taxation blight the experience of a contracting workforce, required to resource a growing welfare population. However, more seems to be known about researchers' views on distributive justice than is known about the perceptions of their subject populations. It has not been demonstrated that members of age groups share interests which are consonant with their cohort experience, or perceive their interests to be in conflict with those members of other age groups or generations. This paper analyses empirical evidence on people's perceptions of who should get, and do, what, in developing an argument that standard processes do not place age groups or generations in antagonistic relationship. Understanding the relations between age groups and generations is essential to explaining change in patterns of inequality, but the interdependence of these relations suggest that they are part of a coherent social structure, and not likely to give rise to crisis in the ways predicted.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter E, Appendix E1, Chapter L, Appendix L1: Volume 12, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility.

  7. Chapter J: Issues and challenges in the application of geostatistics and spatial-data analysis to the characterization of sand-and-gravel resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Sand-and-gravel (aggregate) resources are a critical component of the Nation's infrastructure, yet aggregate-mining technologies lag far behind those of metalliferous mining and other sectors. Deposit-evaluation and site-characterization methodologies are antiquated, and few serious studies of the potential applications of spatial-data analysis and geostatistics have been published. However, because of commodity usage and the necessary proximity of a mine to end use, aggregate-resource exploration and evaluation differ fundamentally from comparable activities for metalliferous ores. Acceptable practices, therefore, can reflect this cruder scale. The increasing use of computer technologies is colliding with the need for sand-and-gravel mines to modernize and improve their overall efficiency of exploration, mine planning, scheduling, automation, and other operations. The emergence of megaquarries in the 21st century will also be a contributing factor. Preliminary research into the practical applications of exploratory-data analysis (EDA) have been promising. For example, EDA was used to develop a linear-regression equation to forecast freeze-thaw durability from absorption values for Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks mined for crushed aggregate from quarries in Oklahoma. Applications of EDA within a spatial context, a method of spatial-data analysis, have also been promising, as with the investigation of undeveloped sand-and-gravel resources in the sedimentary deposits of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville, Utah. Formal geostatistical investigations of sand-and-gravel deposits are quite rare, and the primary focus of those studies that have been completed is on the spatial characterization of deposit thickness and its subsequent effect on ore reserves. A thorough investigation of a gravel deposit in an active aggregate-mining area in central Essex, U.K., emphasized the problems inherent in the geostatistical characterization of particle-size-analysis data. Beyond such factors

  8. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  9. Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwook Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.

  10. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.3 Terms relating....C. 1451, et seq.). Generally Accepted Accounting Principles or GAAP means accounting principles...

  11. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  12. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  13. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  14. The chapter of S. Lorenzo in Genoa. Institutional dynamics and social relations (10th-12th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Filangieri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the Genoese canonical community from the first evidence related to the presence of a nucleus of religious communal life within the cathedral church (mid-10th century up to the definitive assertion ‒ in what becomes a communal and archidiocesan context ‒ of the institution thereon referred to as Capitulum. The discussion will be articulated within a framework which defines the community’s relationship with the bishop, the hierarchy within the community itself, its landed and immovable assets, and its peculiar identity in relation to the commune and the cives, in an effort to illustrate the dynamics that typify the cathedral chapter’s first three centuries of institutional life.

  15. [Resources of Lycium species and related research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ying

    2008-09-01

    Solanaceae Lycium speices are deciduous shrubs. In ancient Chinese medicine works, Lycium plants are described to work well in nourshing liver and kidney, enhancing eyesight, enriching blood, invigorating sex, reducing rheumatism and so on. More of their functions such as immunity improvement, anti-oxydation, anti-aging, anti-cancer, growth stumulation, hemopoiesis enhancing, incretion regulating, blood sugar reducing, bearing improvement and many other new functions are conformed in modern clinic researches. Lycium is also widely used in brewing, beverage and many other products. The world Lycium-related researches are mostly on Lycium species genesis and evolution, sexual evolution, active ingredient separation and pharmacological effects. The future research direction is indicated in this article, molecular evolution and systematics rather than traditional taxonomy will do better in explanation of present global distribution of Lycium species; comparative genomics research on Lycium will be a whole new way to deep gene resources exploration; relationship of genetic diversity and active ingredient variation on L. barbarum and L. chinense will lay theory basis for new germplasm development, breeding, cultivation and production regionalization.

  16. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  18. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  19. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  20. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  1. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  2. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  3. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  4. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  5. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion): Volume 3, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations. (CBS)

  7. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  8. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  9. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  10. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...... of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based...

  11. Human interactions with the environment through time in southern Nevada [Chapter 8] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada is rich in irreplaceable cultural resources that include archeological remains, historic sites, cultural landscapes, and other areas of significance to Native Americans and other cultural groups. This chapter provides information related to Goal 2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to “Provide for responsible use of Southern Nevada’s lands...

  12. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  13. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  14. A summary of available Rietveld and related software resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranswick, L.M.D

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is a wide variety of Rietveld software available from both commercial and academic institutions. These resources will be reviewed along with the importance of validating Rietveld quantitative analysis results and gaining skills in complementary areas. This part of the workshop will mention a number of relevant programs and their main functionality: Rietveld software, Rietveld utilities, Rietveld friendly software and other powder diffraction utilities. Some of the main benefits of appreciating the availability of a wide range of software include: cross validation of results, data quality and diffractometer alignment, exploring new areas of research and analysis, solving new problems, nuances that occur as part of Rietveld analysis. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  15. Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

  16. Essays in economics of renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulte, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    In chapter 2 the basics of renewable resource management are described, based on a brief literature review. Key issues are (1) optimum stock size; (2) approach dynamics; (3) extinction; (4) property rights; and (5) tropical deforestation. Chapter 3 focuses on tropical deforestation in more detail. The distinction between primary, undisturbed forests and secondary, or selectively logged, forests is crucial for understanding deforestation. With a model that explicitly recognizes the transformation of primary forests into secondary forests, the validity of two widely held presumptions is theoretically examined. First, we examine the claim that encroachment is necessarily detrimental for nature conservation. Second, we investigate whether high discount rates accelerate deforestation, as conventional wisdom implies. Chapter 4 also deals with deforestation. The usefulness of providing international transfers to developing countries to promote conservation of tropical forests is examined. In chapter 5 a fairly standard renewable resource model is constructed to study the impact of the trade ban on ivory on the optimum elephant population tion as perceived by the govermnent of African countries. Chapter 6 follows naturally from the previous chapter, where the performance of a trade ban is explored. The central issue is whether, from an economic point of view, trade bans should have been implemented mented in the first place. The case examined relates to commercial (minke) whaling, which has been subject to a commercial moratorium since the mid-1980s. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 are about fisheries policies. Chapter 7 goes back to the property rights problems, discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 8 is a more formal theoretical model of fishing policies. In chapter 9 an instrument is discussed that could be used to facilitate implementation of quota cuts next to other management instruments that have the potential to meet resistance from the sector. Chapters 10 and 11 are based on

  17. Readability analysis of online resources related to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kathleen D; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Chuang, Danielle J; Weiss, Jonathan; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-11-01

    Patients seeking health information commonly use the Internet as the first source for material. Studies show that well-informed patients have increased involvement, satisfaction, and healthcare outcomes. As one-third of Americans have only basic or below basic health literacy, the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend patient-directed health resources be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study evaluates the readability of commonly accessed online resources on lung cancer. A search for "lung cancer" was performed using Google and Bing, and the top 10 websites were identified. Location services were disabled, and sponsored sites were excluded. Relevant articles (n = 109) with patient-directed content available directly from the main sites were downloaded. Readability was assessed using 10 established methods and analyzed with articles grouped by parent website. The average reading grade level across all sites was 11.2, with a range from 8.8 (New Fog Count) to 12.2 (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook). The average Flesch Reading Ease score was 52, corresponding with fairly difficult to read text. The readability varied when compared by individual website, ranging in grade level from 9.2 to 15.2. Only 10 articles (9%) were written below a sixth-grade level and these tended to discuss simpler topics. Patient-directed online information about lung cancer exceeds the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Readability varies between individual websites, allowing physicians to direct patients according to level of health literacy. Modifications to existing materials can significantly improve readability while maintaining content for patients with low health literacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  19. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  20. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winteringham, F P.W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture

    1980-03-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation.

  1. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  2. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Human resource management and labour relations in the Indian industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Soumi

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses gaps in research related to study and understanding of Human Resource Management in the context of Indian Automobile sector. The review is based on the available and published literature in peer reviewed journals of reputation and academic standing. A total of 138 papers were reviewed related to the general context of Human Resource Management practices. Of these, about 65 papers were found relevant and relating to understanding of HRM practices in India specifically in t...

  4. Relational Resources of a University as a Source of Education Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasaryan, Irina; Vasilyeva, Zoya; Almabekova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers high quality educational services provided by a university being the highest priority and assumes relational resources as valuable sources that can facilitate and enhance quality assurance. Each university with a unique resource base is connected with a variety of entities--other universities, non-profit and for-profit…

  5. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  6. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  7. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  8. Chapter 5: Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  9. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  10. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  11. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  12. THE UNITED RESCUE SYSTEM IN BULGARIA. CURRENT RESOURCE RELATED ISSUES AND PROSPECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Baleva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems related to securing the Bulgarian system for disaster management with the necessary resources for its proper functioning. The main challenges for the united rescue system in the country are analyzed, including those related to ensuring the system with the necessary material, financial and human resources. Some possibilities for solving these problems with the use of funds from the European Union are presented.

  13. Resource Letter MP-3: The Manhattan Project and Related Nuclear Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2016-10-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to the earlier Resource Letters MP-1 and MP-2, and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related research. Books, review papers, journal articles, videos, and websites are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime nuclear programs and related allied intelligence, the use of the bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki, technical papers of historical interest, postwar policy and technical developments, and educational materials. Together, these three Resource Letters describe nearly 400 sources of information on the Manhattan Project.

  14. Evaluating broad scale patterns among related species using resource experiments in tropical hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-08-01

    A challenge in community ecology is connecting biogeographic patterns with local scale observations. In Neotropical hummingbirds, closely related species often co-occur less frequently than expected (overdispersion) when compared to a regional species pool. While this pattern has been attributed to interspecific competition, it is important to connect these findings with local scale mechanisms of coexistence. We measured the importance of the presence of competitors and the availability of resources on selectivity at experimental feeders for Andean hummingbirds along a wide elevation gradient. Selectivity was measured as the time a bird fed at a feeder with a high sucrose concentration when presented with feeders of both low and high sucrose concentrations. Resource selection was measured using time-lapse cameras to identity which floral resources were used by each hummingbird species. We found that the increased abundance of preferred resources surrounding the feeder best explained increased species selectivity, and that related hummingbirds with similar morphology chose similar floral resources. We did not find strong support for direct agonism based on differences in body size or phylogenetic relatedness in predicting selectivity. These results suggest closely related hummingbird species have overlapping resource niches, and that the intensity of interspecific competition is related to the abundance of those preferred resources. If these competitive interactions have negative demographic effects, our results could help explain the pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion observed at regional scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Percieved resources as a predictor of satisfaction with food-related life among Chilean elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobos, G.; Schnettler, B.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785...... participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. Results: The results led to different considerations: First, older adults’ perceived levels of resources...... are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as ‘highly important’ to explain older adults’ satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity...

  16. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  17. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  18. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  19. Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention.

  20. Unpacking Social Media’s Role in Resource Provision: Variations across Relational and Communicative Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Vitak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies (ICTs challenge existing beliefs regarding the exchange of social resources within a network. The present study examines individuals’ perceived access to social, emotional, and instrumental resources by analyzing relational and Facebook-specific characteristics of dyadic relationships. Results suggest that the social and technical affordances of the site—including visibility of content and connections, as well as streamlined processes for interacting with a large audience—may augment existing perceptions of resource access for some ties while providing a major (or sole outlet to interact and exchange resources with others. Specifically, weaker ties appear to benefit more than strong ties from engagement in directed communication and relationship maintenance strategies, while additional variations were observed across relationship category, dyad composition, and geographic proximity. In summary, these findings provide new evidence for how positive relational gains may be derived from site use.

  1. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  2. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  3. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  4. Resources on Campus Governance and Employment Relations, 1967-1977. With Essay, Annotations, and Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.

    An annotated bibliography containing 1,110 items from 1967 through early 1977 and other relevant resources covers virtually all the significant material on campus collective bargaining and closely related issues regarding campus governance and employment relations. It complements five publications from 1972-76 and indexes both authors and…

  5. Community Relations: DOD’s Approach for Using Resources Reflects Sound Management Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    COMMUNITY RELATIONS DOD’s Approach for Using Resources Reflects Sound Management Principles Report to...Sound Management Principles What GAO Found The Department of Defense’s (DOD) approach for determining which community relations activities to...undertake reflects sound management principles —both for activities requested by non-DOD entities and for activities initiated by the department. DOD and

  6. Salutogenic resources in relation to teachers' work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Andersson, Ingemar

    2017-01-01

    Experiencing work-life balance is considered a health promoting resource. To counter-balance the negative development of teachers' work situation, salutogenic resources need to be examined among teachers. To examine resources related to teachers' experience of their work-life balance. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was distributed to 455 teachers in compulsory schools in a Swedish community. A total of 338 teachers participated (74%). A multiple linear regression method was used for the analysis. Four variables in the regression model significantly explained work-life balance and were thereby possible resources: time experience at work; satisfaction with everyday life; self-rated health; and recovery. The strongest association with work-life balance was time experience at work. Except time experience at work, all were individual-related. This study highlights the importance of school management's support in reducing teachers' time pressure. It also emphasizes the need to address teachers' individual resources in relation to work-life balance. In order to support teachers' work-life balance, promote their well-being, and preventing teachers' attrition, we suggest that the school management would benefit from creating a work environment with strengthened resources.

  7. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  8. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  9. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  10. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  11. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklas, M.P.; Lefevre, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

  13. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  14. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E.

  15. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report.

  16. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE's System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E

  17. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE's System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report

  18. Resources for Public Relations Teaching: Facilitating the Growth of Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses briefly events (including a 1998 summer conference, a report, and a 1999 Pre-Conference) leading up to this themed issue on public relations teaching. Introduces the seven remaining articles in the issue which represent six different content areas to be covered in a public relations curriculum, and which reflects recommendations for…

  19. Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

  20. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  1. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  2. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  3. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  4. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  5. Chapter 15. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  6. The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2014-11-01

    Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes.

  7. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  8. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  9. Gender Relations in Access to and Control over Resources in Awra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores gender relations in access to and control over resources in Awra Amba Community of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study employed primary and secondary data sources. The primary data were gathered through semistructured interviews with selected community members and key informants, focus ...

  10. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  11. Traditional and Health-Related Philanthropy : The Role of Resources and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2006-01-01

    I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving:

  12. Traditional and health-related philanthropy : The role of resources and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2006-01-01

    I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving:

  13. Theory of Mind Is Related to Children's Resource Allocations in Gender Stereotypic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic…

  14. Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

  15. Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2005-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

  16. Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne; Williams, Aled

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  18. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  19. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  20. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  1. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  2. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  3. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  4. Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlesworth B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study was conducted to garner expert opinion on clinical sequelae and resource use associated with dressing-related trauma in a UK setting.Methods: This was an exploratory study with two phases: qualitative pilot interviews with six wound care specialists to explore dressing-related trauma concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization; and online quantitative research with 30 wound care specialists to validate and quantify the concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization explored in the first phase of the study. Data were collected on mean health care professional time, material costs, pharmaceutical costs, and inpatient management per sequela occurrence until resolution. Data were analyzed to give total costs per sequela and concept occurrence.Results: The results demonstrate that dressing-related trauma is a clinically relevant concept. The main types of dressing-related trauma concepts included skin reactions, adherence to the wound, skin stripping, maceration, drying, and plugging of the wound. These were the foundation for a number of clinical sequelae, including wound enlargement, increased exudate, bleeding, infection, pain, itching/excoriation, edema, dermatitis, inflammation, and anxiety. Mean total costs range from £56 to £175 for the complete onward management of each occurrence of the six main concepts.Conclusion: These results provide insight into the hidden costs of dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. This research successfully conceptualized

  5. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.; Raats, Monique M.

    2008-01-01

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own...... that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction......-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also...

  6. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  7. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  8. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  9. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  10. The impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, IJmert

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions by studying the pathways (fatigue and work enjoyment) from resources to retirement intentions, the buffering role of resources for psychological job demands, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal timeframe. Longitudinal results on a subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 1642) from the Maastricht Cohort Study suggest that over four years of follow-up personal resources like personal mastery and perceived health related to less (prolonged) fatigue and more work enjoyment. Personal mastery also related to later retirement intentions. A work-related resource like decision authority related to less prolonged fatigue. (Prolonged) fatigue related to earlier retirement intentions, suggesting that fatigue may be a pathway to early retirement. Finally, little evidence was found for effect modification by resources. This prospective study indicates that work-related and personal resources may be useful for prolonging working careers. Practitioner Summary: To date, the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions is rarely studied. As this prospective study shows that resources may impact older workers' (prolonged) fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions, the monitoring and fostering of resources is of importance for prolonging their working careers.

  11. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  12. Introduction, Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.T. Driscoll; C.L. Goodale

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides a scientific synthesis of the current state of research and knowledge about the response of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to nitrogen (N) inputs (N deposition or N additions), and, where possible, identifi es critical loads for atmospheric N deposition. It also targets policy makers and resource managers who are seeking a scientific basis...

  13. Chapter 1: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Danubian lowland between Bratislava and Komarno is an inland delta formed in the past by river sediments form the Danube. Human influence has gradually changed the hydrological regime in the area. Construction of dams upstream of Bratislava together with exploitation of river sediments has significantly deepened the river bed and lowered the the water level in the river. The objective of the project is to provide technical/scientific based management tools for the Slovakian authorities and through interaction with decision makers to apply these tools for addressing selected problems. Thus, on the one hand, the role of the project is not to define management objectives nor to establish a management decision framework for water resources. On the other hand, the project shall in accordance with the Terms of Reference prepare expert suggestion for the government to be used for technical decisions as well as for policy making. The project deals with the water resources problems in the entire Danubian Lowland area. The Gabcikovo is only one, although at present the largest, of the man induced impacts which has to be studied. The project deals with modelling of the water resources on the Slovakian side of the Danube. No recent data is available to the project from the Hungarian side, and the project can therefore only make predictions dealing with the effects of the Gabcikovo scheme for Slovakian areas. Thus, the project cannot address questions regarding e.g. the ecological consequences of the Gabcikovo scheme for Hungarian areas. Due to the very significant water resources problems in the area comprehensive activities are currently being carried out both with regard to monitoring and to studies. Thus many professional organizations are involved in various aspects of water resources activities in the project area. The purpose of the project is to cooperate with all these activities in order to avoid duplication of work and to ensure maximum dissemination of project

  14. The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.H.; Kelter, D.

    2001-01-01

    Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and

  15. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization related projects. [Article content in Chinese

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF ENERGY RESOURCES IN DEVELOPING “PRAGMATIC” RELATIONS BETWEEN AZERBAIJAN AND THE WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to research the way energy resources shaped Azerbaijan’s foreign policy and contributed to developing its strategic relations with western actors trying, at the same time, to bring arguments whether or not the democratic deficit in Azerbaijan is related to the”resource nationalism”. The author makes a retrospective analysis of the most important events that have influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy since the collapse of USSR. In this regard, it is assessed the impact of the “Contract of the Century” on the evolution of the country, forasmuch the signing of the document is considered the first strategic move made by Azerbaijan since 1991. Because Nagorno-Karabakh is a crucial priority for the country’s territorial integrity, it is examined the manner in which Azerbaijani authorities are trying to make use of the energy resources projects in order to speed up the settlement of the protracted conflict, but without success so far. Last but not least, are analysed the EU-Azerbaijan relations, both on the energy and political level, highlighting on the one hand, the reluctance of Azerbaijan towards the democratic reforms promoted within the Eastern Partnership, but on the other hand, the interest of Baku to negotiate the unwanted agreements with Brussels, counting on its advantage as a supplier of energy resources on the European market. Consequently, some key questions have emerged: Is the EU’s strategic objective to ensure its energy security more important than promoting and encouraging its partners to adopt the fundamental values of the EU? What impact may have the Strategic modernization partnership on the EU-Azerbaijan relations? Is European Union’s credibility in danger, by having so diverse approaches towards the Eastern Partnership countries?

  17. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  18. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Mortality-related resource utilization in the inpatient care of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, David A; Karels, Quentin; Kulkarni, Aparna; Hussain, Aysha; Xiao, Yunbin; Kutty, Shelby

    2015-10-22

    Quantifying resource utilization in the inpatient care of congenital heart diease is clinically relevant. Our purpose is to measure the investment of inpatient care resources to achieve survival in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and to determine how much of that investment occurs in hospitalizations that have a fatal outcome, the mortality-related resource utilization fraction (MRRUF). A collaborative administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) containing data for 43 children's hospitals, was queried by primary diagnosis for HLHS admissions of patients ≤21 years old during 2004-2013. Institution, patient age, inpatient deaths, billed charges (BC) and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. In all, 11,122 HLHS admissions were identified which account for total LOS of 277,027 inpatient-days and $3,928,794,660 in BC. There were 1145 inpatient deaths (10.3%). LOS was greater among inpatient deaths than among patients discharged alive (median 17 vs. 12, p providers and consumers that current practices often result in major resource expenditure for inpatient care of HLHS that does not result in survival to hospital dismissal. They highlight the need for data-driven critical review of standard practices to identify patterns of care associated with success, and to modify approaches objectively.

  20. Perspectives on Sharing Models and Related Resources in Computational Biomechanics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Hunter, Peter J; Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Loew, Leslie M; Middleton, John; Jacobs, Christopher R; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Löhner, Rainlad; Wei, Guowei; Winkelstein, Beth A; Barocas, Victor H; Guilak, Farshid; Ku, Joy P; Hicks, Jennifer L; Delp, Scott L; Sacks, Michael; Weiss, Jeffrey A; Ateshian, Gerard A; Maas, Steve A; McCulloch, Andrew D; Peng, Grace C Y

    2018-02-01

    The role of computational modeling for biomechanics research and related clinical care will be increasingly prominent. The biomechanics community has been developing computational models routinely for exploration of the mechanics and mechanobiology of diverse biological structures. As a result, a large array of models, data, and discipline-specific simulation software has emerged to support endeavors in computational biomechanics. Sharing computational models and related data and simulation software has first become a utilitarian interest, and now, it is a necessity. Exchange of models, in support of knowledge exchange provided by scholarly publishing, has important implications. Specifically, model sharing can facilitate assessment of reproducibility in computational biomechanics and can provide an opportunity for repurposing and reuse, and a venue for medical training. The community's desire to investigate biological and biomechanical phenomena crossing multiple systems, scales, and physical domains, also motivates sharing of modeling resources as blending of models developed by domain experts will be a required step for comprehensive simulation studies as well as the enhancement of their rigor and reproducibility. The goal of this paper is to understand current perspectives in the biomechanics community for the sharing of computational models and related resources. Opinions on opportunities, challenges, and pathways to model sharing, particularly as part of the scholarly publishing workflow, were sought. A group of journal editors and a handful of investigators active in computational biomechanics were approached to collect short opinion pieces as a part of a larger effort of the IEEE EMBS Computational Biology and the Physiome Technical Committee to address model reproducibility through publications. A synthesis of these opinion pieces indicates that the community recognizes the necessity and usefulness of model sharing. There is a strong will to facilitate

  1. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  2. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  3. Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II] and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale. Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2% and female (71% employed adults (N = 355 at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field. Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment. Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

  4. Workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees: The moderating effect of control-related resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Yael; Goussinsky, Ruhama

    2018-03-01

    Workplace bullying is a widespread and challenging problem in healthcare organizations, bearing negative consequences for individuals and organizations. Drawing on the job demands-resources theory, in this study, we examined the relationship between workplace bullying and burnout among healthcare employees, as well as the moderating role of job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy in this relationship. Using a cross-sectional design with anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from two samples of 309 healthcare employees in a mental health facility, and 105 nurses studying for their bachelor degree in health systems administration. The findings indicated that workplace bullying was positively related to burnout dimensions, and that this relationship was moderated by job autonomy and occupational self-efficacy resources. Job autonomy interacted with workplace bullying in predicting emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; the interaction of bullying with occupational self-efficacy significantly predicted depersonalization. These results underscore the importance of control-related resources in mitigating the harmful effects of workplace bullying on employees. Implications for research and managerial practices are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Chapter 7: Transport and load of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Related to the topic, the chapter 7 presents: 1) import License; 2) transport; 3) loading the irradiator. The information presented in this chapter is based on the Brazilian legislation, but said legislation is based on international guidelines; therefore there will be several common and different points from country to country.

  6. Chapter 5: Organizational structures suited to ISPRM's evolving role as an international non-governmental organization in official relation with the world health organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Groote, Per M; Reinhardt, Jan D; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold

    2009-09-01

    International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in official relation with the World Health Organization (WHO) face organizational challenges against the background of legitimate representation of their membership and accountable procedures within the organization. Moreover, challenges arise in the light of such an international NGO's civil societal mandate to help reach the "health-for-all" goals as defined by WHO and to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The objective of this paper is to examine how such an international NGO using the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) as a case in point can address these challenges. The specific aims are to analyse ISPRM's structures and procedures of internal organs and external relations and to develop solutions. These possible solutions will be presented as internal organizational scenarios and a yearly schedule of meetings closely aligned to that of WHO to facilitate an efficient internal and external interaction.

  7. Female human resource professionals’ job embeddedness in relation to commitment foci: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Managers and human resource practitioners who are concerned about managing talent as a critical resource need to recognise how employees’ job embeddedness relates to their commitment foci within the organisation. By understanding this relationship, gaps can be identified and talent can be managed optimally. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was, firstly, to establish whether a significant relationship exists between job embeddedness and a set of commitment foci and, secondly, to identify the variables that contribute the most to the relationship. Motivation for the study: Organisations increasingly devote more attention to initiatives that enhance the commitment and job embeddedness of their employees in order to assist in the design of a sound talent management plan to close the talent gaps. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was used in this study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design to achieve the objective of the study. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were conducted. The participants were primarily black women at an early stage of their career, who were employed in the human resource management field in a professional capacity. Main findings: The results indicated that job embeddedness significantly and positively accounted for the variance in organisational and occupational commitment foci of the participants. Practical and managerial implications: Human resource practitioners and managers need to consider how the job embeddedness of employees – specifically female employees – affects their commitment foci in developing talent management plans as part of the organisational strategy. Conclusions: The findings of the study provided empirical confirmation of theoretical views on the psychological aspects that keep employees embedded in their jobs and how these aspects relate to their commitment foci.

  8. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  9. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  10. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  12. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  13. The application of microfocal radiography to neuroanatomy and neuropathology research, and its relation to cerebral magnification angiography and brain scan interpretation. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.L. de C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Microfocal radiography is used to study post mortem, the microcirculatory and neuronal organization of the normal and diseased brain, as well as to interpret the images obtained clinically by the new techniques of cerebral magnification angiography and X-ray brain scanning. An outline of the basic technique underlying CT scanning and magnification radiography of the living human brain is given to facilitate the understanding of why microfocal radiography is central to magnification radiography and complementary to CT scanning. Microangiography, one of the microfocal radiographic techniques, is discussed at length in relation to the microvasculature of the human cerebral cortex, the vasculature of the subcortical or medullary white matter, the microvascular patterns of the central grey matter and internal capsule, the vascular patterns of the visual cortex and hippocampus; the application of microangiography to the spinal cord and nerve roots is also discussed. Another microfocal radiographic technique described is cerebral historadiography, i.e. X-ray studies of brain histology, with particular reference to the human hippocampal formation. Finally, the correlation of microfocal X-ray and brain CT scan images is discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Chance Encounters: Rap Music as a Relational and Pedagogical Resource in Clinical Pastoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Music has long been regarded as a valuable tool for educators. Over the last three decades, rap music has grown to become a global phenomenon. However, due to historical and cultural factors, rap music is often underutilized in Clinical Pastoral Education. This article discusses the social significance of rap music, highlights how rap music informed my supervision of a clinical pastoral education student, and examines Chance the Rapper's mixtape Coloring Book as a case study on the utilization of rap music as a relational and pedagogical resource in spiritual education.

  15. Stressors and coping resources of Australian kidney transplant recipients related to medication taking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jac Kee; Crawford, Kimberley; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2017-06-01

    To understand the stressors related to life post kidney transplantation, with a focus on medication adherence, and the coping resources people use to deal with these stressors. Although kidney transplantation offers enhanced quality and years of life for patients, the management of a kidney transplant post surgery is a complex process. A descriptive exploratory study. Participants were recruited from five kidney transplant units in Victoria, Australia. From March-May 2014, patients who had either maintained their kidney transplant for ≥8 months or had experienced a kidney graft loss due to medication nonadherence were interviewed. All audio-recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and underwent Ritchie and Spencer's framework analysis. Participants consisted of 15 men and 10 women aged 26-72 years old. All identified themes were categorised into: (1) Causes of distress and (2) Coping resources. Post kidney transplantation, causes of distress included the regimented routine necessary for graft maintenance, and the everlasting fear of potential graft rejection, contracting infections and developing cancer. Coping resources used to manage the stressors were first, a shift in perspective about how easy it was to manage a kidney transplant than to be dialysis-dependent and second, receiving external help from fellow patients, family members and health care professionals in addition to using electronic reminders. An individual well-equipped with coping resources is able to deal with stressors better. It is recommended that changes, such as providing regular reminders about the lifestyle benefits of kidney transplantation, creating opportunities for patients to share their experiences and promoting the usage of a reminder alarm to take medications, will reduce the stress of managing a kidney transplant. Using these findings to make informed changes to the usual care of a kidney transplant recipient is likely to result in better patient outcomes. © 2016 John

  16. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  17. Analogical reasoning in working memory: resources shared among relational integration, interference resolution, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohyun; Holyoak, Keith J; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2007-09-01

    We report a series of experiments using a pictorial analogy task designed to manipulate relational integration, interference resolution, and active maintenance simultaneously. The difficulty of the problems was varied in terms of the number of relations to be integrated, the need for interference resolution, and the duration of maintenance required to correctly solve the analogy. The participants showed decreases in performance when integrating multiple relations, as compared with a single relation, and when interference resolution was required in solving the analogy. When the participants were required to integrate multiple relations while simultaneously engaged in interference resolution, performance was worse, as compared with problems that incorporated either of these features alone. Maintenance of information across delays in the range of 1-4.5 sec led to greater decrements in visual memory, as compared with analogical reasoning. Misleading information caused interference when it had been necessarily attended to and maintained in working memory and, hence, had to be actively suppressed. However, sources of conflict within information that had not been attended to or encoded into working memory did not interfere with the ongoing controlled information processing required for relational integration. The findings provide evidence that relational integration and interference resolution depend on shared cognitive resources in working memory during analogical reasoning.

  18. Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ hardiness is increasingly recognised as an aspect of their well-being and feelings of career success. Psychological well-being and feelings of subjective career success have positive implications for the motivation, satisfaction, performance and commitment of young talented staff.Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II] and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2% and female (71% employed adults (N = 355 at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field.Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment.Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

  19. Chloroplast genome resources and molecular markers differentiate rubber dandelion species from weedy relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxiao; Iaffaldano, Brian J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Cardina, John; Cornish, Katrina

    2017-02-02

    Rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, TK) is being developed as a domestic source of natural rubber to meet increasing global demand. However, the domestication of TK is complicated by its colocation with two weedy dandelion species, Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TB) and the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO). TB is often present as a seed contaminant within TK accessions, while TO is a pandemic weed, which may have the potential to hybridize with TK. To discriminate these species at the molecular level, and facilitate gene flow studies between the potential rubber crop, TK, and its weedy relatives, we generated genomic and marker resources for these three dandelion species. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of TK (151,338 bp), TO (151,299 bp), and TB (151,282 bp) were obtained using the Illumina GAII and MiSeq platforms. Chloroplast sequences were analyzed and annotated for all the three species. Phylogenetic analysis within Asteraceae showed that TK has a closer genetic distance to TB than to TO and Taraxacum species were most closely related to lettuce (Lactuca sativa). By sequencing multiple genotypes for each species and testing variants using gel-based methods, four chloroplast Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) variants were found to be fixed between TK and TO in large populations, and between TB and TO. Additionally, Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resources developed for TO and TK permitted the identification of five nuclear species-specific SNP markers. The availability of chloroplast genomes of these three dandelion species, as well as chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers, will provide a powerful genetic resource for germplasm differentiation and purification, and the study of potential gene flow among Taraxacum species.

  20. Long-term data series relating to Southern Africa's renewable natural resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macdonald, IAW

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available agricultural and veterinary data series. The remaining five chapters are of a more synthetic nature and examine the topics of palaeoenvironmental changes, environmental-forcing mechanisms, linkages between ecosyterns, the analysis and storage of long-term data...

  1. Propagation environments [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of all factors influencing plant growth in a nursery environment is needed for the successful growth and production of high-quality container plants. Propagation structures modify the atmospheric conditions of temperature, light, and relative humidity. Native plant nurseries are different from typical horticultural nurseries because plants must be...

  2. Chapter 20. Chenopod shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stephen B. Monsen

    2004-01-01

    Chenopod plants (Family Chenopodiaceae) are distributed worldwide but are especially prominent in some wet and dry saline or alkaline situations. Chenopods are both herbaceous and woody. The relative proportions of life-forms in the family is demonstrated by data from the important center of chenopod diversity in south-central Asia, where n = 341 species: 76 percent...

  3. Chapter 11: Research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Janie Agyagos; Deborah M. Finch; Tracy McCarthey; Jamie Uyehara; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    Until the southwestern willow flycatcher was proposed for listing as an endangered species in 1993, it was subject to relatively little scientific scrutiny, in part because it is drab, prone to inhabiting dense, wet thickets, and difficult to identify and observe. Consequently, it remained one of the lesser-known of North American birds. Since that time, it has become...

  4. The relative importance of seed competition, resource competition and perturbations on community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities. Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE (Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation, a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition. The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence. Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.

  5. Expecting a boomtown? Exploring potential housing – related impacts of large scale resource developments in Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Ennis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Darwin is a city in the Northern Territory of Australia expecting a ‘boomtown’ scenario due to significant natural resource developments in the Greater Darwin area. The experience of ‘booming’ has a range of impacts upon communities. Housing is a key area of impact, particularly for the most vulnerable members of a population, who may not reap the benefits of the ‘boom’. In Darwin, new resource developments will begin in the context of record high house prices, high rents and high homelessness rates. This literature review explores what is known about the housing-related impacts of boomtowns and considers the likely housing-related impacts of a boomtown scenario in Darwin. While the city’s diverse economy and population size may provide some insulation from severe boomtown impacts, housing availability and affordability is likely to be negatively impacted. The implications of this for the most vulnerable members of the greater Darwin population require careful consideration.

  6. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value...... creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks...... raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically...

  7. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  8. Thick-joint welding process. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)

  9. Chapter 8: Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The main efforts of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) have been focused on inspection of quality assurance programmes of Slovak Power Stations, plc. and its daughter companies at Bohunice and Mochovce. Two quality assurance inspections in the area of periodical in service inspections (V-2 units) and tests of selected equipment (NPP V-2 units) and operation control (V-1 units) has been performed at NPPs Bohunice. One violation of decree on quality assurance of selected equipment has been found in the area of documentation archiving. The inspection concerning the implementation of quality assurance programme for operation of NPP Mochovce in the area of operation control has been performed focused on safety aspects of operation, operational procedures, control of operational events and feedback from operational experience. The results of this inspection were positive. Inspection of implementation of quality assurance programme for operation of radioactive waste repository (RU RAW) at the Mochovce location has been performed focused on receiving of containers, with radioactive wastes, containers handling, radiation monitoring, activities of documentation control and radiation protection at the repository site. No serious deficiencies have been found out. Also one inspection of experimental nuclear installations of VUJE Trnava at Jaslovske Bohunice site has been performed focused on procurement control, quality audits, documentation and quality records control when performing activities at experimental nuclear installations. The activity on development of internal quality assurance system continued. The implementation of this system will assure quality and effective fulfilment enlarged tasks of UJD with limited resources for its activity. The analyses of possible use of existing internal administrative control documentation as a basis for future quality system procedures was performed in co-operation with an external specialised organisation. The

  10. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling

  12. The role of human resource management in open innovation: exploring the relation between HR practices and OI

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    How do human resource practices strengthen open innovation activities? This inductive study of six cases led to propositions exploring that question. I thereby investigated the role of human resource management in open innovation, specifically the relation between HR practices and an employee's willingness to embrace open innovation.

  13. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvoravongchai Piya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from

  14. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  15. Healthy time use in the encore years: do work, resources, relations, and gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Sarah M; Moen, Phyllis

    2015-03-01

    Social engagement is theorized to promote health, with ages 55 to 75-what some call "encore" adulthood-potentially being a time for ongoing engagement or social isolation. We use the American Time Use Survey (N = 11,952) and a life course perspective to examine associations between paid work, resources, relations, and healthy time use for men and women in the first (55-64) and second (65-74) halves of the encore years. Work limits sufficient sleep (full-time working men) and television watching (all workers) but also time spent in physical activity (full-time workers). College-educated and healthy encore adults-across age and gender divides-are more likely to exercise and watch less television. Marriage and caregiving encourage socializing and limit television watching, despite differential effects on physical activity and sleep. These findings fit well with a gendered life course perspective suggesting socially patterned (by work, resources, relationships, gender, age) health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  16. Healthy Time Use in the Encore Years: Do Work, Resources, Relations, and Gender Matter?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Sarah M.; Moen, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Social engagement is theorized to promote health, with ages 55 to 75 – what some call “encore” adulthood – potentially a time for ongoing engagement or social isolation. We use the American Time Use Survey (N=11,952) and a life course perspective to examine associations between paid work, resources, relations, and healthy time use for men and women in the first (55–64) and second (65–74) halves of the encore years. Work limits sufficient sleep (full-time working men) and television watching (all workers) but also time spent in physical activity (full-time workers). College-educated and healthy encore adults – across age and gender divides – are more likely to exercise and watch less television. Marriage and caregiving encourage socializing and limit television watching, despite differential effects on physical activity and sleep. These findings fit well with a gendered life course perspective suggesting socially patterned (by work, resources, relationships, gender, age) health behaviors. PMID:25722126

  17. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  18. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  19. Ultrasound Imaging. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    In the conventional method of ultrasonography, images are acquired in reflection, or pulse echo, mode. An array of small piezoelectric elements transmits a focused pulse along a specified line of sight known as a scan line. Echoes returning from the tissue are received by the same array, focused via the delay-and-sum beam forming process reviewed in Section 13.2, and demodulated to obtain the magnitude, or envelope, of the echo signal. The scanner measures the arrival time of the echoes relative to the time the pulse was transmitted and maps the arrival time to the distance from the array, using an assumed speed of sound. The earliest ultrasound systems would display the result of a single pulse acquisition in 1-D A-mode (amplitude mode) format by plotting echo magnitude as a function of distance. A 2-D or 3-D B-mode (brightness mode) image is acquired by performing a large number of pulse echo acquisitions, incrementally increasing the scan line direction between each pulse echo operation, to sweep out a 2-D or 3-D field of view (FOV). The term B-mode imaging reflects the fact that the echo magnitude from each point in the FOV is mapped to the grey level, or brightness, of the corresponding pixel in the image.

  20. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  1. Job Demand and Job Resources related to the turnover intention of public health nurses: An analysis using a Job Demands-Resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Aya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the job demands and job resources of public health nurses based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, and to build a model that can estimate turnover intention based on job demands and job resources.Method By adding 12 items to the existing questionnaire, the author created a questionnaire consisting of 10 factors and 167 items, and used statistical analysis to examine job demands and job resources in relation to turnover intention.Results Out of 2,668 questionnaires sent, 1993 (72.5%) were returned. Considering sex-based differences in occupational stress, I analyzed women's answers in 1766 (66.2%) mails among the 1798 valid responses. The average age of respondents was 41.0±9.8 years, and the mean service duration was 17.0±10.0 years. For public health nurses, there was a turnover intention of 9.2%. The "job demands" section consisted of 29 items and 10 factors, while the "job resources" section consisted of 54 items and 22 factors. The result of examining the structure of job demands and job resources, leading to turnover intention was supported by the JD-R model. Turnover intention was strong and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) is low in those who had many job demands and few job resources (experiencing 'burn-out'). Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention was weak in those who had many job resources. This explained approximately 60% of the dispersion to "burn-out", and approximately 40% to "work engagement", with four factors: work suitability, work significance, positive work self-balance, and growth opportunity of job resources.Conclusion This study revealed that turnover intention is strong in those who are burned out because of many job demands. Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention is weak in those with many job resources. This suggests that suitable staffing and organized efforts to raise awareness of job significance are effective in reducing

  2. [Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA) and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS) in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

  3. Human resource in tourism and hospitality industry: Relation between level of education and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a concise summary of current problems including the impact of education on (dissatisfaction of human resources in tourism and hospitality industry. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the phenomena of the relation between level of education and job satisfaction of the employees in tourism organizations as it is well known that employee satisfaction enhance competitiveness and efficiency in business. A current issue was set as the fundamental goal in designing this paper, and the basic parameter of the research is employee satisfaction with business operations and working conditions, or to be more precise, examining the extent of (dissatisfaction with the given segments depending on the employees' educational level. This paper represents a synthesis of the electronic research, the analysis of available references, as well as the use of descriptive, analytical and synthetic methods, and it will result in a critical analysis and confirmation (denial of certain hypotheses.

  4. Introduction: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Inman, Richard D.; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Thomas E.; Leitner, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Mohave ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus mohavensis), named just over a century ago (Merriam 1889), is precinctive to the western Mojave Desert in California, USA, and occupies portions of Kern, Los Angeles, Inyo and San Bernardino counties (Best 1995). Early estimates of the geographic range of the squirrel are just 20,000 km2 in area (Hall 1981, Zeiner et al. 1988‐ 1990), one of the smallest distributions among North American ground squirrel species (Hoyt 1972, P. Leitner – pers. obs.). The closest living relative of the Mohave ground squirrel (MGS) is the round‐tailed ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus tereticaudus). Mohave ground squirrels have a “shorter tail with distichous hairs and white undersurface”, but visual differences between the two species are subtle (Hafner and Yates 1983). Speciation likely occurred when portions of the parent population were isolated 4‐1.6 million years ago during the accelerated uplift of the Sierra Nevada, the Transverse Ranges and the Mojave River system, resulting in separation and isolation with MGS evolving in refugia (Hafner 1992, Bell et al. 2009). Subsequently, fluvial‐ lacustrine systems in the Mojave River basin provided vicariance features during the Pleistocene (Hafner 1992, Bell et al. 2009). Responding to previous climate change, the two species potentially migrated into their current ranges from southern refugia after the Last Glacial Maximum, eventually abutting each other along the Mojave River (Hafner and Yates 1983). The species are capable of hybridizing, but intercrosses appear to be rare, and sampling near the zones of potential hybridization remains limited (Bell and Matocq 2011). The only other similar sized squirrel occupying the range of MGS is the white‐tailed antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus) whose range entirely overlaps MGS, but is easily distinguished by its bright white dorso‐lateral stripes (Best 1995)

  5. Estimation of the renewable power resource (Chapter 2 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso energetico renovable (Capitulo 2 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Most of the information in this chapter is obtained from 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9 annexes. It is worthwhile to clarify that in most of the cases they are estimations of the available resources, such as: trash, geothermal, solar energy, wind energy, biomass and mini and micro-hydro-energy. In several cases punctual measurements have been made, which do not represent a generic value of a national reserve. [Spanish] La mayor parte de la informacion en este capitulo es obtenida de los anexos 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 y 9. Cabe aclarar que en la mayoria de los casos son estimaciones de los recursos disponibles, tales como: la basura, la geotermia, la energia solar, la energia eolica, la biomasa y, la mini y la micro-hidroenergia. En varios casos se han realizado mediciones puntuales, las cuales no representan un valor generico de una reserva nacional.

  6. Climatic changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zereini, Fathi [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hoetzl, Heinz (eds.) [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. Geologie

    2008-07-01

    ''Climatic Change and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa'' is dedicated to high-priority topics related to the impact of climate change on water resources in a water scarce region. The subject is described and discussed in three main chapters and different case studies. The three main chapters are (1) Climatic changes - sources and effects on the water cycle, (2) Impact of climate change on water resources, (3) Water resources and water management. These chapters are split up into further 26 sections. A total of 64 individuals from many countries have made contributions to this book. All topics in this book are complimentary and contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between global climate change, world water cycle and water resources. A valuable and meaningful interdisciplinary mixture of topics is combined in this book which will be of great interest to many scientists. (orig.)

  7. Exploring Early Adolescents' Evaluation of Academic and Commercial Online Resources Related to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Carita; Leu, Donald J.; Marttunen, Miika; Hautala, Jarkko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of 426 students (ages 12-13) to critically evaluate two types of online locations on health issues: an academic resource and a commercial resource. The results indicated limited evaluation abilities, especially for the commercial resource, and only a small, partial association with prior stance and offline reading…

  8. Committee Representation and Medicare Reimbursements-An Examination of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y Nina

    2018-04-06

    The Resource-Based Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) submits recommended reimbursement values for physician work (wRVUs) under Medicare Part B. The RUC includes rotating representatives from medical specialties. To identify changes in physician reimbursements associated with RUC rotating seat representation. Relative Value Scale Update Committee members 1994-2013; Medicare Part B Relative Value Scale 1994-2013; Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master File 2007; Part B National Summary Data File 2000-2011. I match service and procedure codes to specialties using 2007 Medicare billing data. Subsequently, I model wRVUs as a function of RUC rotating committee representation and level of code specialization. An annual RUC rotating seat membership is associated with a statistically significant 3-5 percent increase in Medicare expenditures for codes billed to that specialty. For codes that are performed by a small number of physicians, the association between reimbursement and rotating subspecialty representation is positive, 0.177 (SE = 0.024). For codes that are performed by a large number of physicians, the association is negative, -0.183 (SE = 0.026). Rotating representation on the RUC is correlated with overall reimbursement rates. The resulting differential changes may exacerbate existing reimbursement discrepancies between generalist and specialist practitioners. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  10. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  11. A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David R; Lubarsky, David A; Vigoda, Michael M; Birnbach, David J; Harris, Eric A; Behrens, Vicente; Bazan, Richard E; Williams, Steve M; Arheart, Kristopher; Candiotti, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative value system (RBRVS) that preserves the time unit component of the anesthesia service and disaggregates anesthesia billing into component parts (preoperative evaluation, intraoperative management, and postoperative evaluation). The study was designed as an observational chart and billing data review of current and proposed payments, in the setting of a preoperative holing area, intraoperative suite, and post anesthesia care unit. In total, 1,195 charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status 1 through 5 patients were reviewed. No direct patient interventions were undertaken. Spearman correlations between the proposed RBRVS billing matrix payments and the current ASA relative value guide methodology payments were strong (r=0.94-0.96, Pbilling matrix yielded payments that were 3.0%±1.34% less than would have been expected from commercial insurers, using standard rates for commercial ASA relative value units and RBRVS relative value units. Compared with current Medicare reimbursement under the ASA relative value guide, reimbursement would almost double when converting to an RBRVS billing model. The greatest increases in Medicare reimbursement between the current system and proposed billing model occurred as anesthetic management complexity increased. The new crosswalk correlates with existing evaluation and management and intensive care medicine codes in an essentially revenue neutral manner when applied to the market-based rates of commercial insurers. The new system more highly values delivery of care to more complex patients undergoing more complex surgery and better represents the true value of anesthetic case management.

  12. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  13. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  14. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  15. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  16. Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated

  17. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  18. Pain, health related quality of life and healthcare resource utilization in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Paul; Pérez Hernández, Concepción; Margarit Ferri, César; Ruiz Hidalgo, Domingo; Lubián López, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between the experience of pain, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and healthcare resource utilization in Spain. The analysis contrasts the contribution of pain severity and frequency of pain reported against respondents reporting no pain in the previous month. Data are from the 2010 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) for Spain. Single equation generalized linear regression models are used to evaluate the association of pain with the physical and mental component scores of the SF-12 questionnaire as well as health utilities generated from the SF-6D. In addition, the role of pain is assessed in its association with self-reported healthcare provider visits, emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the previous 6 months. The results indicate that the experience of pain, notably severe and frequent pain, is substantial and is significantly associated with the SF-12 physical component scores, health utilities and all aspects of healthcare resource utilization, which far outweighs the role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, health risk factors (in particular body mass index) and the presence of comorbidities. In the case of severe daily pain, the marginal contribution of the SF-12 physical component score is a deficit of -17.86 compared to those reporting no pain (population average score 46.49), while persons who are morbidly obese report a deficit of only -6.63 compared to those who are normal weight. The corresponding association with health utilities is equally dramatic with a severe daily pain deficit of -0.186 compared to those reporting no pain (average population utility 0.71). The impact of pain on healthcare resource utilization is marked. Severe daily pain increases traditional provider visits by 208.8%, emergency room visits by 373.0% and hospitalizations by 348.5%. As an internet-based survey there is the possibility of bias towards those with internet access, although telephone

  19. Certification prerequisites for activities related to the trading of demand response resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel; Calpe, Carmen; Theisen, Thomas; Rodríguez-García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Certification according to international standards brings many benefits to the society, including technical, economic and environmental aspects. In this context, this paper highlights the benefits of certification of Demand Response, including the additional credibility which provides to the trading of flexibility and higher confidence between different players. The consequence is a dynamic environment which facilitates the market acceptance of Demand Response services and products, providing significant benefits to providers and users of such services. A methodology for the systematic certification of different activities related to the transaction of Demand Response resources has been developed and it is presented here. In particular, three types of certificate have been specified, considering the certification of the entity providing the resource (Demand Response Provider), the contractual framework between the provider and the requester (Demand Response Product) and the physical platform to enable and guarantee such transaction (Demand Response Energy Service Trader). The results of this paper may help regulators and standardization bodies in the design and specification of a future norm to allow the certification of the above-mentioned activities, or a further development of existing regulation for certification of energy efficiency systems (like ISO (International Standard Organization) 50001), where certification of Demand Response activities could be complementary. - Highlights: • Inexistence of a standard on Demand Response limits the application of demand flexibility. • Demand flexibility is essential for the cost-effective integration of renewable generation technologies. • Benefits of certification of activities in the trading of Demand Response are highlighted. • Necessary activities for a standard interchange of Demand Response are identified. • The specifications of a new standard for Demand Response certification are given.

  20. Access and management of HIV-related diseases in resource-constrained settings: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimba, Eao; Yengopal, V; Joshua, E; Thavarajah, R; Balasundaram, S

    2016-04-01

    With advancement of medical interventions, the lifespan of people living with HIV has increased globally. However, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) which bear the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic face a constant challenge in addressing the treatment needs of immune-suppressed patients. An analysis of the current management protocols and access to medication in resource-poor settings was conducted at this workshop, with emphasis on the situation in resource-poor settings. The participants developed a consensus document based on the need to respond to the constantly changing HIV pandemic. Provision of oral health care must be guided by interconnecting principles based on population based strategies that address upstream determinants of health. Basic oral health coverage in developing countries can only be realized with a strong foundation at the primary health level. Early diagnosis of HIV-related comorbidities including the adverse effects of ARVs is essential for the improvement of treatment outcomes. Standardization of oral health care delivery mechanisms will facilitate evaluation at national and regional levels. Oral health care workers have a moral obligation to participate in sustained campaigns to reduce the social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS in their work places at every stage of the referral chain. Future research also needs to realign itself towards prevention using the common risk factor approach, which has a broader impact on non-communicable diseases, which are increasingly affecting patients with HIV/AIDS as their life expectancies increase. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Plutonium research and related activities at the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Beard, C.A.; Barnes, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia are reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles. What to do with the materials from thousands of excess nuclear weapons is an important international challenge. How to handle the remaining US stockpile to ensure safe storage and reliability, in light of the aging support infrastructure, is an important national challenge. To help address these challenges and related issues, the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is working on behalf of the State of Texas with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The center directs three major programs that address the key aspects of the plutonium management issue: (1) the Communications, Education, Training and Community Involvement Program, which focuses on informing the public about plutonium and providing technical education at all levels; (2) the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Program, which investigates the key ES and H impacts of activities related to the DOE weapons complex in Texas; and (3) the Nuclear and Other Materials Program, which is aimed at minimizing safety and proliferation risks by helping to develop and advocate safe stewardship, storage, and disposition of nuclear weapons materials. This paper provides an overview of the center's nuclear activities described in four broad categories of international activities, materials safety, plutonium storage, and plutonium disposition

  2. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  3. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  4. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  5. Review on management of horticultural plant germplasm resources and construction of related database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jingxian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The advances of databases on horticulture germplasm resources from China and abroad was briefly reviewed and the key technologies were discussed in details,especially in descriptors of data collection of germplasm resources. The prospective and challenges of databases were also discussed. It was evident that there was an urgent need to develop the databases of horticulture germplasm resources,with increasing diversity of germplasm,more user friendly and systematically access to the databases.

  6. Long-term relationships of major macro-variables in a resource-related economic model of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, Charles; Hoa, T. van

    1993-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a simple cointegration analysis applied to bivariate causality models using data on resource output, oil prices, terms of trade, current account and output growth to investigate the long-term relationships among these major macroeconomic aggregates in a resource-related economic model of Australia. For the period 1960-1990, the empirical evidence indicates that these five macro-variables, as formulated in our model, are not random walks. In addition, resource production and oil prices are significantly cointegrated, and they are also significantly cointegrated with the current account, terms of trade and economic growth. These findings provide support to the long-term adjustments foundation of our resource-related model. (author)

  7. The relation between flexibility of human resources and performance indexes of selected hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Alibakhshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, flexibility has turned to one of important issues in management theories and policies and most current discussions about flexibility patterns focus on management policies, so that these patterns are one of important aspects of human resources strategic management. This study was performed with the aim of assessing the flexibility rate of human resources and performance indexes of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals and determining the possible relation between these variables. The present study is descriptive – analytical which was conducted in cross-sectional form in 2015. The statistical population was selected by stratifies random sampling method as 317 persons from nursing, administrative and financial personnel of 5 hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University. Data collecting toll was hospitals performance indexes form and Wright & Snell flexibility questionnaire of human resources. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software and with the aid of descriptive statistical indexes and linear regression analysis. The results showed that personnel ( human resources had high flexibility = 4.16.\tthere was a significant relation between total flexibility and the index of bed circulation so that by one unit increase in bed circulation space, normally, the average of total flexibility decreased 0.64 units ( p-value<0.05. The results showed that human resources of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals have high flexibility, so authorities and policy makers are suggested to adopt policies of human resources management for creating flexibility in human resources and improving hospitals performance and amending hospitals status.

  8. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  9. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  10. Resources to cope with stigma related to HIV status, gender identity, and sexual orientation in gay men and transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arístegui, Inés; Radusky, Pablo D; Zalazar, Virginia; Lucas, Mar; Sued, Omar

    2018-02-01

    The stigma related to HIV status, gender identity, and sexual orientation has negative implications for the quality of life of individuals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the resources that these stigmatized groups recognize as tools to cope with stigma and maintain their psychological well-being. Four focus groups were conducted with gay men and transgender women divided by HIV status. A thematic analysis revealed that individual, interpersonal, and institutional resources are commonly recognized as coping resources. This article discusses the importance of enhancing self-acceptance, social support, and a legal framework that legitimizes these groups as right holders.

  11. A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair DR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Sinclair,1 David A Lubarsky,1 Michael M Vigoda,1 David J Birnbach,1 Eric A Harris,1 Vicente Behrens,1 Richard E Bazan,1 Steve M Williams,1 Kristopher Arheart,2 Keith A Candiotti1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative value system (RBRVS that preserves the time unit component of the anesthesia service and disaggregates anesthesia billing into component parts (preoperative evaluation, intraoperative management, and postoperative evaluation. The study was designed as an observational chart and billing data review of current and proposed payments, in the setting of a preoperative holing area, intraoperative suite, and post anesthesia care unit. In total, 1,195 charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status 1 through 5 patients were reviewed. No direct patient interventions were undertaken. Results: Spearman correlations between the proposed RBRVS billing matrix payments and the current ASA relative value guide methodology payments were strong (r=0.94–0.96, P<0.001 for training, test, and overall. The proposed RBRVS-based billing matrix yielded payments that were 3.0%±1.34% less than would have been expected from commercial insurers, using standard rates for commercial ASA relative value units and RBRVS relative value units. Compared with current Medicare reimbursement under the ASA relative value guide, reimbursement would almost double when converting to an RBRVS billing model. The greatest increases in Medicare reimbursement between the current system and proposed billing model occurred as anesthetic management complexity increased. Conclusion: The new crosswalk correlates with existing evaluation and management and intensive care medicine codes in an

  12. Out on the Web: The Relationship between Campus Climate and GLBT-Related Web-based Resources in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the perceived campus environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students at colleges and universities and how academic libraries have deployed GLBT-related resources on the Web. Recommendations are made for increasing GLBT-related materials and information in academic libraries.…

  13. Prevalence of diabetic macular oedema and related health and social care resource use in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, D C; Owens, D R; Reidy, A

    2012-03-01

    To address the absence from the public health ophthalmology literature of age- and sex-specific prevalence and related resource use for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in England, UK. Calculation of age- and sex-specific rates from primary source clinical data, and application to the demographic structure of England to estimate the number of cases affected by DMO. A public health commissioner and provider of social care perspective was adopted in a standard cost of illness study. The number of people with diabetes in England in 2010 was estimated at 2,342,951 of which 2,334,550 were aged ≥ 12 years. An estimated 166,325 (7.12%) had DMO in one or both eyes, and of these, 64,725 individuals had clinically significant DMO reducing the visual acuity to poorer than 6/6 in at least one eye. The overall health and social care costs in 2010, on the pathway from screening to rehabilitation and care in the home, are estimated at £116,296,038. The outcomes of this study should alert public health commissioners and clinical providers to the burden of DMO. The methods employed should also encourage the use of clinical ophthalmic data at the interface between local population and hospital-based recording systems.

  14. Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Manzanares Rivera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10. The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

  15. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  16. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  17. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  18. Financial development and oil resource abundance-growth relations: evidence from panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Siong Hook; Moradbeigi, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates whether financial development dampens the negative impact of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Because of substantial cross-sectional dependence in our data, which contain a core sample of 63 oil-producing countries from 1980 through 2010, we use the common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG) estimator to account for the high degree of heterogeneity and drop the outlier countries. The empirical results reveal that oil resource abundance affects the growth rate in output contingent on the degree of development in financial markets. More developed financial markets can channel the revenues from oil into more productive activities and thus offset the negative effects of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Thus, better financial development can reverse resource curse or enhance resource blessing in oil-rich economies.

  19. The relevance of the psychometrist category as a professional resource: Training-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Eeden

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: The aim was to explore if the training of student psychometrists contributes to the relevance of this category in terms of the demographic profile of student psychometrists, the scope of services potentially provided by them and the content of training programmes. Motivation for the study: There is a paucity of research on training in the psychometrist category. Research design, approach and method: Data were obtained from the files of a cohort of student psychometrists who were registered in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Africa (UNISA. Follow-up surveys on training and work contexts were conducted amongst these students and their in-practice supervisors to confirm and supplement the data. In addition, a survey on the national availability of training programmes for psychometrists was conducted at South African universities. Main findings: Gender and racial skewness in terms of the demographic profile of the UNISA students seemed to reflect a national trend. In terms of the scope of services, training opportunities and perceived job opportunities for psychometrists seemed limited and despite the utilisation of the skills area in all the applied contexts, concerns related to the sectors being served were identified. With regard to the content of the training programmes, students and in-practice supervisors expressed a need for greater preparation in test use before related practical experience takes place. The importance of the university’s involvement during the practicum was also emphasised. Practical/managerial implications: Recommendations are made regarding the structure and content of training programmes. This information could be applied in adapting existing programmes and in developing new programmes. Contribution/value-add: Ultimately, these recommendations could contribute to the value of the psychometrist category as a professional resource relevant to a variety of settings.

  20. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesler Laura E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded

  1. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level

  2. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E

    2010-05-22

    With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level social formations and their ability to

  3. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    ) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  4. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.; Burk, K.W.; Driver, C.J.; Liljegren, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Schwartz, M.N.; Dana, M.T.; Laws, G.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Rhoads, K.

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

  5. International human resources management challenges and changes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the issues related to human resource management (HRM) in an international context. It gives perspectives and future direction in International HRM research. The chapters explore the models, tools and processes used by international organizations in order to assist international managers to better face the challenges and changes in HRM. It is suitable to HR managers, engineers, entrepreneurs, practitioners, academics and researchers in the field.

  6. Synthesizing community wisdom: A model for sharing cancer-related resources through social networking and collaborative partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jacob B; Lorenzi, Nancy M; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2008-11-06

    Despite the availability of community-based support services, cancer patients and survivors are not aware of many of these resources. Without access to community programs, cancer survivors are at risk for lower quality of care and lower quality of life. At the same time, non-profit community organizations lack access to advanced consumer informatics applications to effectively promote awareness of their services. In addition to the current models of print and online resource guides, new community-driven informatics approaches are needed to achieve the goal of comprehensive care for cancer survivors. We present the formulation of a novel model for synthesizing a local communitys collective wisdom of cancer-related resources through a combination of online social networking technologies and real-world collaborative partnerships. This approach can improve awareness of essential, but underutilized community resources.

  7. The northern pike, a prized native but disastrous invasive: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, David; Massengill, Robert L.; Sepulveda, Adam; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2018-01-01

    As the chapters in this book describe, the northern pike Esox lucius Linneaus, 1758 is a fascinating fish that plays an important ecological role in structuring aquatic communities (chapter 8), has the capacity to aid lake restoration efforts (chapter 11), and contributes substantially to local economies, both as a highlysought after sport fish (chapter 12) and as a commercial fishing resource (chapter 13). However, despite the magnificent attributes of this fish, there is another side to its story. Specifically, what happens when northern pike, a highly efficient predator, becomes established outside its natural range? To explore this question, this chapter will investigate observed consequences from many locations where northern pike (hereafter referred to as “pike”) have been introduced and discuss potential reasons why pike, under the right circumstances, can be considered an invasive species.

  8. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Whitesell, Matthew E; Wade, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution.

  9. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  10. Participation in voluntary associations : relations with resources, personality, and political values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    Participation in voluntary associations is explained by different theories in sociology, psychology and political science. Sociologists have emphasized the effects of resources such as human and social capital. Psychologists have demonstrated the role of empathy and extraversion as aspects of

  11. Participation in voluntary associations : Relations with resources, personality, and political values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    Participation in voluntary associations is explained by different theories in sociology, psychology, and political science. Sociologists have emphasized the effects of resources such as human and social capital. Psychologists have demonstrated the role of empathy and extraversion as aspects of

  12. The exploration of medical resources utilization among inguinal hernia repair in Taiwan diagnosis-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Kung, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi

    2017-11-09

    This study centered on differences in medical costs, using the Taiwan diagnosis-related groups (Tw-DRGs) on medical resource utilization in inguinal hernia repair (IHR) in hospitals with different ownership to provide suitable reference information for hospital administrators. The 2010-2011 data for three hospitals under different ownership were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. A retrospective method was applied to analyze the age, sex, length of stay, diagnosis and surgical procedure code, and the change in financial risk of medical costs in IHR cases after introduction of Tw-DRGs. The study calculated the cost using Tw-DRG payment principles, and compared it with estimated inpatient medical costs calculated using the fee-for-service policy. There were 723 IHR cases satisfying the Tw-DRGs criteria. Cost control in the medical care corporation hospital (US$764.2/case) was more efficient than that in the public hospital (US$902.7/case) or nonprofit proprietary hospital (US$817.1/case) surveyed in this study. For IHR, anesthesiologists in the public hospital preferred to use general anesthesia (86%), while those in the two other hospitals tended to administer spinal anesthesia. We also discovered the difference in anesthesia cost was high, at US$80.2/case on average. Because the Tw-DRG-based reimbursement system produces varying hospital costs, hospital administrators should establish a financial risk assessment system as early as possible to improve healthcare quality and financial management efficiency. This would then benefit the hospital, patient, and Bureau of National Health Insurance.

  13. The exploration of medical resources utilization among inguinal hernia repair in Taiwan diagnosis-related groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study centered on differences in medical costs, using the Taiwan diagnosis-related groups (Tw-DRGs on medical resource utilization in inguinal hernia repair (IHR in hospitals with different ownership to provide suitable reference information for hospital administrators. Methods The 2010–2011 data for three hospitals under different ownership were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. A retrospective method was applied to analyze the age, sex, length of stay, diagnosis and surgical procedure code, and the change in financial risk of medical costs in IHR cases after introduction of Tw-DRGs. The study calculated the cost using Tw-DRG payment principles, and compared it with estimated inpatient medical costs calculated using the fee-for-service policy. Results There were 723 IHR cases satisfying the Tw-DRGs criteria. Cost control in the medical care corporation hospital (US$764.2/case was more efficient than that in the public hospital (US$902.7/case or nonprofit proprietary hospital (US$817.1/case surveyed in this study. For IHR, anesthesiologists in the public hospital preferred to use general anesthesia (86%, while those in the two other hospitals tended to administer spinal anesthesia. We also discovered the difference in anesthesia cost was high, at US$80.2/case on average. Conclusions Because the Tw-DRG-based reimbursement system produces varying hospital costs, hospital administrators should establish a financial risk assessment system as early as possible to improve healthcare quality and financial management efficiency. This would then benefit the hospital, patient, and Bureau of National Health Insurance.

  14. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  15. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  16. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  17. Managing work–family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of working conditions and individual resources on work–family conflict (WFC) using data collected from physicians working at German clinics. Material and methods This is a cross-sectional study of 727 physicians working in German hospitals. The work environment, WFC and individual resources were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the WFC Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism. Descriptive, correlation and linear regression analyses were applied. Results Clinical doctors working in German hospitals perceived high levels of WFC (mean=76). Sociodemographic differences were found for age, marital status and presence of children with regard to WFC. No significant gender differences were found. WFCs were positively related to high workloads and quantitative job demands. Job resources (eg, influence at work, social support) and personal resources (eg, resilient coping behaviour and self-efficacy) were negatively associated with physicians’ WFCs. Interaction terms suggest that job and personal resources buffer the effects of job demands on WFC. Conclusions In this study, WFC was prevalent among German clinicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WFC. Our results give a strong indication that both individual and organisational factors are related to WFC. Results may play an important role in optimising clinical care. Practical implications for physicians’ career planning and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25941177

  18. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere

  19. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  20. Antiepileptic Drug Titration and Related Health Care Resource Use and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jesse; Kalilani, Linda; Song, Yan; Swallow, Elyse; Wild, Imane

    2018-02-27

    Unexpected breakthrough seizures resulting from suboptimal antiepileptic drug (AED) dosing during the titration period, as well as adverse events resulting from rapid AED titration, may influence the titration schedule and significantly increase health care resource use (HRU) and health care costs. To assess the relationship between AEDs, HRU, and costs during AED titration and maintenance. Practicing neurologists were recruited from a nationwide panel to provide up to 3 patient records each for this retrospective medical chart review. Patients with epilepsy who were aged ≥ 18 years and had initiated an AED between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2016, were followed for 6 months from AED initiation. Titration duration was the time from AED initiation to the beginning of treatment maintenance as determined by the physician. Outcomes were epilepsy-specific HRU (hospitalizations, emergency department visits, outpatient visits, physician referral, laboratory testing/diagnostic imaging, and phone calls) and related costs that occurred during the titration or maintenance treatment periods. Of 811 patients, 156, 128, 125, 120, 114, 107, and 61 initiated the following AEDs: levetiracetam, lamotrigine, lacosamide, valproate, topiramate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, respectively. Most patients (619/803 [77.1%] with complete AED data) received monotherapy. Baseline characteristics were similar across AEDs (mean [SD] age, 36.6 [14.4] years; 59.0% male). Kaplan-Meier estimates of titration duration ranged from 3.3 weeks (phenytoin) to 8.1 weeks (lamotrigine). From titration to maintenance, the overall incidence of HRU per person-month decreased 54.5%-89.3% for each HRU measure except outpatient visits (24.6% decrease). Total epilepsy-related costs decreased from $80.48 to $42.77 per person-month, or 46.9% from titration to maintenance. AED titration periods had higher HRU rates and costs than AED maintenance, suggesting that use of AEDs with shorter titration requirements

  1. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  2. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  3. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  4. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  5. [Do parental resources mediate between social inequality and health-related quality of life of children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold-Kerri, S; Sperlich, S

    2010-02-01

    The present study examines the influence of socioeconomic position and the family's living conditions on children's self-reported quality of life. The aim is to analyse to what extent these relationships are mediated by maternal parenting resources (coping strategies, psychological health and maternal self-efficacy). We used data from 691 children (aged 8 - 12 years) and their mothers, collected in mother-child rehabilitation centres in Germany. The children's quality of life was measured by the KID-KINDL (self-report). Maternal parenting resources were measured by the SVF-60 (coping strategies), the SCL-K-9 (psychological health) and the FKE-K (maternal self-efficacy). Analyses of variance were used for estimating the effects of social factors on children's self-reported quality of life and on parenting resources. The relationship between children's quality of life and maternal parenting resources was assessed by computing correlation measures. The mediating effects of parenting resources on relationships between social factors and children's quality of life were estimated by means of multiple regression. Overall girls and boys showed high quality of life levels. A social gradient was only found for girls. The most significant influence was shown by receiving social welfare (t-test, p=0.000), flat size (VA, p=0.011) and single motherhood (t-test, p=0.011). The influence depends on the type of indicator for family living conditions as well as on specific dimensions of quality of life. Overall the influence of living conditions on the quality of life was small. Probably this is due to the sample being drawn from a clinical population. A social gradient was also found for maternal parenting resources: Psychological health as well as maternal self-efficacy were significantly different depending on whether families received social welfare or not (t-test, p=0.000; p=0.001). Single mothers showed more negative coping strategies and lower psychological health and maternal

  6. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  7. Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  8. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale. Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services. Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables. Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

  9. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  10. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  11. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)

    2014-09-15

    whole body DXA systems in use worldwide. Lastly, this chapter reviews the process of sectional image formation through non-computational methods with the use of relative motion of the X ray source and image receptor.

  12. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  13. Costing in Radiotherapy. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Lievens, Y.; Levin, V.C.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The available literature on the cost of radiotherapy yields a large variation in data related to the specifics of the methodology used (the viewpoint of the analysis, time frame, health care system, etc.) and to the cost components and radiotherapy activities included. To overcome this difficulty, the reimbursement paid by medical insurance is commonly used as a proxy for the actual radiotherapy costs. Costs, however, generally bear little or no resemblance to charges, as the latter also include allowances for non-capacity use and profit margins. Accurate resource cost data are therefore more valid and should ideally be used in the context of economic evaluations and public health provisions. In addition to the theoretical problems related to obtaining accurate costs, it is difficult to interpret cost data across country borders because of differences in economics. If this is already the case for high income countries, using these cost data for low and middle income countries (LMICs) is even more problematic. Thus, there clearly is a need for calculations performed from the viewpoint of LMICs to prevent misapprehensions based on conclusions derived from data from their high income counterparts. The IAEA endeavours to assist Member States in accumulating appropriate and sufficient cost data for the initiation or expansion of radiation oncology services. Although relatively simple and easy to understand, the IAEA has found that in many countries where it has been involved in the establishment of new radiotherapy departments, the basic principles of cost calculation for radiotherapy facilities were not followed by the local planners. Radiotherapy needs careful planning, organization and a strong quality assurance (QA) programme in order to deliver safe treatments, due to the complexity of the planning and treatment process and the possibility of systematic errors. Administrators should be aware that the cost of building a radiotherapy facility and buying machines

  14. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To investigate the psychological health - in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress - among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Methods:  Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the

  15. Students' "Uses and Gratification Expectancy" Conceptual Framework in Relation to E-Learning Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondi, Makingu; Woods, Peter; Rafi, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the systematic development of a "Uses and Gratification Expectancy" (UGE) conceptual framework which is able to predict students' "Perceived e-Learning Experience." It is argued that students' UGE as regards e-learning resources cannot be implicitly or explicitly explored without first examining underlying communication…

  16. Resources and Guidelines for Teaching about the Holocaust [and Related Brochures and Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource packet presents a variety of ideas, lesson plans and activities to teach about the Holocaust. Lesson plans in this packet include: (1) "Human Behavior"; (2) "The Teachings of Contempt--Entry Points for Examining the Holocaust: Prejudice, Bigotry, Racism, Stereotypes, Scapegoating"; (3) "The Holocaust";…

  17. Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.; Aris, I.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost...

  18. Space Mathematics, A Resource for Teachers Outlining Supplementary Space-Related Problems in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas D.; And Others

    This compilation of 138 problems illustrating applications of high school mathematics to various aspects of space science is intended as a resource from which the teacher may select questions to supplement his regular course. None of the problems require a knowledge of calculus or physics, and solutions are presented along with the problem…

  19. Gender Relations in Access to and Control over Resources in Awra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    According to this perspective, “gender is dynamic and culturally determined .... management of economic resources/incomes as well as holding power to lead and .... agricultural activities to the community's economic sector is very low due to the .... and Tourism Office indicates that the Awra Amba community generated over.

  20. Human Resource Management Strategies and Teacher's Efficiency within Schools: A Co-Relational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study Human Resource Management and Development (HRMD) strategies and their effect on teachers' efficiency within the Catholic Board of Education (CBE) schools of Pakistan whose teachers are graduates in educational leadership courses from a private teacher education institutes in Karachi. The study endeavored to build a…

  1. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  2. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  3. Individual difficulties and resources – a qualitative analysis in patients with advanced lung cancer and their relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparla A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anika Sparla,1 Sebastian Flach-Vorgang,1 Matthias Villalobos,2 Katja Krug,1 Martina Kamradt,1 Kadiatou Coulibaly,1 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Michael Thomas,2 Sinikka Gusset-Bährer,2 Dominik Ose1,3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, Heidelberg University Hospital, 2Internistische Onkologie der Thoraxtumoren, Thoraxklinik im Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany; 3University of Utah, Department of Population Health Sciences, Health System Innovation and Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Purpose: Lung cancer is a disease with a high percentage of patients diagnosed in an advanced stage. In a situation of palliative treatment, both patients and their relatives experience diverse types of distress and burden. Little research has been done to identify the individual difficulties and resources for patients with advanced lung cancer and their relatives. Especially, standardized questionnaire-based exploration may not assess the specific distressing issues that pertain to each individual on a personal level. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore and compare individual difficulties and resources for lung cancer patients and their relatives within the palliative care context.Methods: Data were collected by qualitative interviews. A total of 18 participants, nine patients diagnosed with advanced lung cancer (International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, diagnosis C-34, stage IV starting or receiving palliative treatment and nine relatives, were interviewed. Data were interpreted through qualitative content analysis.Results: We identified four main categories of difficulties: communication and conflicts, home and everyday life, thinking about cancer, and treatment trajectory. In general, difficulties were related to interpersonal relationships as well as to impact of chemotherapy. Family

  4. Children's Programs in an Era of Scarce Resources [Chapter Five].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Carl E.; And Others

    This analysis is the fifth of a series of seven reports on the ways that the urban fiscal crisis has affected children. Children's services in New Jersey have not suffered unduly from recent Federal budget cuts, but the combination of depressed revenues, continuing inflation, state aid reductions and Federal budget cuts have had a negative…

  5. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  6. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  7. Marine Resource Management in the Hawaiian Archipelago: The Traditional Hawaiian System in Relation to the Western Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Jokiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of many centuries the Polynesians who inhabited Hawai‘i developed a carefully regulated and sustainable “ahupua‘a” management system that integrated watershed, freshwater and nearshore marine resources based on the fundamental linkages between all ecosystems from the mountain tops to the sea. This traditional scheme employed adaptive management practices keyed to subtle changes in natural resources. Sophisticated social controls on resource utilization were an important component of the system. Over the past two centuries a “Western system” gradually replaced much of the traditional Hawaiian system. There are major differences between the two systems in the areas of management practices, management focus, knowledge base, dissemination of information, resource monitoring, legal authority, access rights, stewardship and enforcement. However, there is a recent shift toward incorporating elements of the traditional scheme using methods and terminology acceptable and appropriate to present day realities. This trend is exemplified by the management plan for the newly formed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This is one of the largest protected areas in the world and is being managed with a focus on Native Hawaiian cultural values in relation to conservation, ecological, historical, scientific, and educational resource protection.

  8. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  9. Proceedings of Seminar on Water Resources and Environment: application of nuclear and related technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Isotope techniques have been used in solving problems in the fields of hydrology and environment since 1950s. It is acknowledged that of all the methods used to understand hydrologic processes, applications of tracers in particular have been the most useful in terms of providing new insights into the processes. Isotope techniques have been applied in the investigation of seepage losses from dams and canals, coastal sediment dynamics, surface water and groundwater resources, groundwater age dating, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation, sediment movement and transport pathways, streamflow measurements, pollution transport behaviour and others. A total of sixteen papers were presented by Malaysian researchers involved in the field. The papers covered areas in dam surveillance, river management, water resources and stream flow measurement, estuary and coastal studies and slope stability investigations

  10. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ronald C; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the psychological health--in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress--among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the western part of Northern Ireland. The questionnaire consisted of 'Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)', 'Job Demands in Dentistry measure', 'Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)', 'Job Resources in dentistry measure', and 'General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)'. Overall response rate among all staff members was 45% (for general dental practitioners: 65%). Burnout mean scores were unfavourable when compared with MBI manual norm scores, 26% had scores in the 'high' categories of both emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP). This is an indication of severe burnout risk. Time pressure, financial worries, and difficult patients appeared to be the most prominent work demands (mean scores >3). All job demands' scales correlated significantly (P r UWES, and all job resources' subscales were all well above each subscale's range midpoint. Treatment results appeared the most prominent work resource. GHQ mean score for all was 1.05 (SD = 0.51). No difference in mean score was found between dentists and other staff (F(1,123) = 1.08, NS). With 'case level' set at a score >3 as a cut-off point, 25% of the subjects have to be considered cases. Burnout is a serious threat for the dental team in this region of Northern Ireland, especially among general dental practitioners. One-quarter of the dentists were categorized as having a serious burnout risk. Dentists appeared to have most trouble with the work environment aspects: time pressure and financial worries. Furthermore, the proportion of those suffering from psychological distress was unusually high. In contrast to these findings, encouraging levels of engagement were identified. It is recommended that attention for burnout risk is given priority by dental

  11. All in transition: human resource management and labour relations in the Chinese industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper is a literature study reviewing the development of human resource management in China, with a particular focus (where possible) on the automobile industry. It presents the Chinese context for HRM discussing the normative debate about the adaptation of Western management methods and the heritage of Chinese philosophy and values, and it describes the economic, cultural, and transition-specific factors which influence HRM in China. In more detail, the paper deals with work ...

  12. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A. Dorothea; Otten, Leun J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual ...

  13. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  14. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  15. Available processing resources influence encoding-related brain activity before an event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Giulia; Gebert, A Dorothea; Otten, Leun J

    2013-09-01

    Effective cognitive functioning not only relies on brain activity elicited by an event, but also on activity that precedes it. This has been demonstrated in a number of cognitive domains, including memory. Here, we show that brain activity that precedes the effective encoding of a word into long-term memory depends on the availability of sufficient processing resources. We recorded electrical brain activity from the scalps of healthy adult men and women while they memorized intermixed visual and auditory words for later recall. Each word was preceded by a cue that indicated the modality of the upcoming word. The degree to which processing resources were available before word onset was manipulated by asking participants to make an easy or difficult perceptual discrimination on the cue. Brain activity before word onset predicted later recall of the word, but only in the easy discrimination condition. These findings indicate that anticipatory influences on long-term memory are limited in capacity and sensitive to the degree to which attention is divided between tasks. Prestimulus activity that affects later encoding can only be engaged when the necessary cognitive resources can be allocated to the encoding process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  17. Managing work-family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2015-05-03

    This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of working conditions and individual resources on work-family conflict (WFC) using data collected from physicians working at German clinics. This is a cross-sectional study of 727 physicians working in German hospitals. The work environment, WFC and individual resources were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the WFC Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism. Descriptive, correlation and linear regression analyses were applied. Clinical doctors working in German hospitals perceived high levels of WFC (mean=76). Sociodemographic differences were found for age, marital status and presence of children with regard to WFC. No significant gender differences were found. WFCs were positively related to high workloads and quantitative job demands. Job resources (eg, influence at work, social support) and personal resources (eg, resilient coping behaviour and self-efficacy) were negatively associated with physicians' WFCs. Interaction terms suggest that job and personal resources buffer the effects of job demands on WFC. In this study, WFC was prevalent among German clinicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WFC. Our results give a strong indication that both individual and organisational factors are related to WFC. Results may play an important role in optimising clinical care. Practical implications for physicians' career planning and recommendations for future research are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Climate related projections on future water resources and human adaptation in the Great Ruaha River Basin in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liwenga, Emma; Pauline, Noah; Tumbo, Madaka

    - Temperatures will likely increase by 1-2 degrees by the middle of the century and 3-4 degrees by the end of the century. - A likely overall increase in precipitation and larger seasonal variation might lead to water related stress during a prolonged dry season and flood risks during the wet...... season. - The overall climate related effect on water resources is a status quo. - Increased rainy season rainfall offers opportunities for rain fed agriculture and water storage for hydro-power and irrigation. - Local governments are already effectively dealing with these climate related impacts...

  19. Resource interaction in relation to power: how startups strategize to cope with the challenges of mobilizing and leveraging resources in asymmetrical power relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oukes, Tamara; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.

    2014-01-01

    The resource interaction approach provides a set of basic principles concerning how resources interact at a network level. This paper further elaborates on the resource interaction approach by investigating the role of power in the technological development of a medical device over time. In the

  20. Essays in renewable resource economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdlenbruch, K.

    2005-03-01

    This thesis constitutes a study on renewable resource economics. Chapter 2 presents two types of extracting behaviour in two optimal control models, continuous and impulse control. Chapter 3 analyses stock dependent instruments and shows their advantages. Chapter 4 compares the two types of extracting behaviour and demonstrates that the impulse control generates higher gains, whereas fiscal revenues and stocks are not always higher. Chapter 5 establishes a dynamic game and shows that the scope for cooperation between heterogeneous agents is greatest for intermediary levels of heterogeneity. Chapter 6 studies forest exploitation and fiscal- and regulatory systems of the forest sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in France. Finally, chapter 7 presents a study on forest biodiversity and indicates the economic criteria and cutting strategies that are beneficial for biodiversity preservation. (author)

  1. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  2. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermens, P.A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  4. Children enrolled in public pre-K: the relation of family life, neighborhood quality, and socioeconomic resources to early competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar; Bryant, Donna; McCandies, Terry; Burchinal, Margaret; Early, Diane; Clifford, Richard; Pianta, Robert; Howes, Carollee

    2006-04-01

    This article presents data on the family and social environments of 501 children enrolled in public sponsored pre-K in 5 states and tests the relation of these resources to child competence. Structured interviews and questionnaires provide information from parents about the family's social and economic status. Direct assessments and teacher reports provide data on children's literacy, numeracy, and behavioral problems. A majority of the children served in public pre-K lived in poverty and showed decrements in language but not in other domains. A socioeconomic resource factor consisting of parental education, household income, and material need predicted all domains of children's functioning. Children from households high in socioeconomic resources entered pre-K with more well developed language and math skill but fewer behavioral problems than their disadvantaged peers. Neighborhood quality status was related to language competence and mother's marital status to math competence. Neighborhood quality and income level may have their impact on child competence through their relation to dyadic quality and the health and the psychological well-being of the parents. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Applying Semantic Web technologies to improve the retrieval, credibility and use of health-related web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Miguel A; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Kukurikos, Antonis; Karkaletsis, Vangelis; Stamatakis, Kostas; Villarroel, Dagmar; Leis, Angela

    2011-06-01

    The number of health-related websites is increasing day-by-day; however, their quality is variable and difficult to assess. Various "trust marks" and filtering portals have been created in order to assist consumers in retrieving quality medical information. Consumers are using search engines as the main tool to get health information; however, the major problem is that the meaning of the web content is not machine-readable in the sense that computers cannot understand words and sentences as humans can. In addition, trust marks are invisible to search engines, thus limiting their usefulness in practice. During the last five years there have been different attempts to use Semantic Web tools to label health-related web resources to help internet users identify trustworthy resources. This paper discusses how Semantic Web technologies can be applied in practice to generate machine-readable labels and display their content, as well as to empower end-users by providing them with the infrastructure for expressing and sharing their opinions on the quality of health-related web resources.

  6. Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bec

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

  7. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.; Hawkins, W.L.; Mathews, M.; Henderson, R.W.; Thompson, J.L.; Maestas, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes research done at Los Alamos in FY 1993 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. The US Department of Energy funds this research through two programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): defense and groundwater characterization. Los Alamos personnel have continued to study the high-pressure zone created in the aquifer under Yucca Flat. We analyzed data from a hole in this area (U-7cd) and drilled another hole and installed a water monitoring tube at U-4t. We analyzed water from a number of locations on the NTS where we know there are radionuclides in the groundwater and critiqued the effectiveness of this monitoring effort. Our program for analyzing postshot debris continued with material from the last nuclear test in September 1992. We supported both the defense program and the groundwater characterization program by analyzing water samples from their wells and by reviewing documents pertaining to future drilling. We helped develop the analytical methodology to be applied to water samples obtained in the environmental restoration and waste management efforts at the NTS. Los Alamos involvement in the Hydrologic Resources Management Program is reflected in the appended list of documents reviewed, presentations given, papers published, and meetings attended

  8. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and ground waters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for southern Nevada. Chapter 3 outlines...

  9. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  10. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  11. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  12. Impacts on integrated spatial and infrastructure planning (Chapter18)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, Elsona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the implications of shale gas development (SGD) in the Karoo are explored in the context of 1) local development realities, 2) legal requirements and associated development pressures related to land development and land-use change, 3...

  13. Cascade probabilistic function and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, alpha-particles and ions with Markov's chain is shown. The algorithms for CPF calculation with accounting energy losses are given

  14. A supply chain approach to biochar systems [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Richard D. Bergman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Biochar systems are designed to meet four related primary objectives: improve soils, manage waste, generate renewable energy, and mitigate climate change. Supply chain models provide a holistic framework for examining biochar systems with an emphasis on product life cycle and end use. Drawing on concepts in supply chain management and engineering, this chapter presents...

  15. Soils [Chapter 4.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Johannes W. A. Langeveld

    2015-01-01

    Soils are crucial for profitable and sustainable biomass feedstock production. They provide nutrients and water, give support for plants, and provide habitat for enormous numbers of biota. There are several systems for soil classification. FAO has provided a generic classification system that was used for a global soil map (Bot et al., 2000). The USDA Natural Resources...

  16. Introduction and overview [chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanosk

    2011-01-01

    Streams and riparian ecosystems are a particularly valuable resource in the arid to semi-arid Great Basin, supplying water for agriculture and domestic uses, forage for livestock, and habitat for diverse aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In upland watersheds of the central Great Basin, many of the streams and riparian ecosystems have been severely degraded (Chambers...

  17. Soils and water [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Berndes; Heather Youngs; Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester; Heitor Cantarella; Annette L. Cowie; Graham Jewitt; Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Dan Neary

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy production can have positive or negative impacts on soil and water. To best understand these impacts, the effects of bioenergy systems on water and soil resources should be assessed as part of an integrated analysis considering environmental, social and economic dimensions. Bioenergy production systems that are strategically integrated in the landscape to...

  18. Icelandic nurses' beliefs, skills, and resources associated with evidence-based practice and related factors: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Hrund S

    2013-05-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential to the improvement of patient outcomes and the quality of care. Nurses' use of evidence in practice, however, remains limited. Assessing nurses' readiness for EBP where it is not as prominent as in countries leading EBP research was of particular interest. To determine Icelandic registered nurses' (RNs') ability to provide care based on evidence as measured by their beliefs, perception of skills, and access to resources associated with EBP. A descriptive survey was used in which a random sample of 540 Icelandic RNs completed the translated and modified version of the Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice and the translated EBP Beliefs Scale. Descriptive statistics, correlations, chi-square tests, t tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Participants strongly believed in the value of EBP for patient care, but were less confident regarding their own knowledge and skills needed for EBP. Most (82%) of the respondents (i.e., RNs) turned to peers when in need of information, rather than peer-reviewed resources. Although over half of the RNs (54%) had received instructions in the use of electronic databases, only a third indicated success in using them. They considered "lack of search skills" as the primary barrier to use of research in practice. Using research findings in practice was associated with positive EBP beliefs, familiarity with EBP and other EBP-related activities. Clinical RNs were found to be at a disadvantage when it came to access to EBP-related resources and participated less frequently in EBP-related activities other than using research in practice. Icelandic RNs' beliefs regarding EBP are similar to those of RNs in other countries. Their access to EBP resources is generally good, but they lack the skills and knowledge needed for EBP. Strategies aimed at changing the organizational and practice context need to be developed. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-12-15

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. LEGAL ISSUES AND ASPECTS RELATED TO THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT REGARDING THE SELECTION OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration selects its servants exclusively on competence criteria (the so-called merit system. The selection of civil servants is performed by contest, organized within the limit of vacant public positions provided annually for this purpose, by the plan for occupation of public positions. As a general rule, the contest is organized on a quarterly basis. Any individual who meets the general conditions provided by law and the specific conditions established by law for occupying a certain public position may participate at the selection contest organized for the occupation of a public position. Among other aspects, in this study we underline an inconsistency regarding the recruitment defined in the field of Human Resources Management and its definition from The Statute of the Civil Servants.

  1. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  2. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  3. The Controversial Classroom: Institutional Resources and Pedagogical Strategies for a Race Relations Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ana-Maria; Perez, Eduardo T.; Deegan, Mary Jo; Sanchez, Thomas W.; Applegate, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    Offers a model for a collective strategy that can be used to deal more effectively with problems associated with race relations courses. Presents a multidimensional analysis of the constraints that create problems for race relations instructors and highlights a multidimensional approach to minimizing these problems. Includes references. (CMK)

  4. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  5. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  6. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  7. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  8. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  9. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  10. Climate change and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younos, Tamim; Grady, Caitlin A.

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

  11. Climate change and water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younos, Tamim [The Cabell Brand Center for Global Poverty and Resource Sustainability Studies, Salem, VA (United States); Grady, Caitlin A. (ed.) [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Ecological Sciences and Engineering Program

    2013-07-01

    This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

  12. Gender Relations in Access to and Control over Resources in Awra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    participant observation of gender roles and relations in the study community. ..... in domestic and public spheres, access to and control over locally available ...... Proposal on Leadership Initiatives in Awra Amba Community Case Study on.

  13. The efficient and sustainable use of environmental resource systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, R.

    1999-02-01

    numerical results suggest that the biogeochemical cycles represent an immense value, and confirm the earlier findings that future generations do not benefit from the efficiency gain achieved by grandfathering. Chapter 4 focuses on sustainability. The literature has shown that competitive equilibria are capable of producing unsustainable allocations in which future welfare drops to zero. To prevent this from happening, we develop additional policy measures that ensure sustainability. Our main result is to show that a trust fund can be set up to perform this task while obeying relatively simple and recursive decentralized rules of conduct. The illustration of Chapter 3 is pursued in Chapter 4, now focusing on the sustainability aspects associated to the use of an exhaustible resource with amenity value. The result of Chapter 3 is elaborated , and it is shown that if environmental resources exhibit time delays (characteristic four), an unsustainable equilibrium in which welfare levels decrease to zero becomes more probable. Application of the theoretical findings to the numerical model with climate change shows that the trust fund can significantly raise welfare and reduce optimal GHG emission levels. In Chapter 5, the scope is broadened and some of the abstractions adopted in the formal analysis are reviewed, starting with a further elaboration of the numerical illustration for climate change that includes explicit physical variables such as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and global average temperatures. Thereafter, in more general terms, physical environmental processes fit with the regular economic production structure are discussed. The amenity value of environmental resources is connected to the distinction between the quality and quantity of environmental resources. Finally, Malthus' concerns on environmental resource scarcity are dealt with. In an OLG economy with endogenous fertility, where the parents decide about fertility with the best interests of their unborn

  14. The impact of climate change on agriculture and related resources in the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the four Great Plains states Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (MINK), using the anomalously hot and dry weather of the 1930s as a model for climate in the year 2030 and a mechanistic crop simulation model known as the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), are described. EPIC was modified for climate impact analysis by compiling data sets providing detailed descriptions of farms representative of the MINK region, representing the effect of increased carbon dioxide on crop water use and photosynthetic efficiency, and incorporating daily temperature and precipitation data, monthly solar radiation and humidity levels. Technologies assumed to become available include advances in breeding and biotechnology to increase harvest index, boosting of photosynthetic efficiency, and advances in pest management. If no technological adjustment was incorporated, corn yielded 20% less than baseline, soybeans 15% less and sorghum 8% less. Wheat and alfalfa yielded slightly higher. Incorporation of technological advances greatly reduced negative effects of climate change, with yields raised above baseline for every crop but corn

  15. Latvian health care competitiveness in relation to its infrastructure and available resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources are one of the essential indicators for the functioning of the health care system. Better health care provision is an essential prerequisite for the export of services. Traditionally a competitive health care system is linked to a number of factors (price, quality, reliability, products and services largely determined by the new technologies, innovations and implementation the new methods. The authors of this article analyzed and collected data from the European Commission Eurostat and OECD data. Current situation in health care in Latvia is characterized by populations’ restricted access to health care services, high out-of-pocket payments and poor health outcomes of the population. More than 10% of Latvian population can’t afford medical care. The ratio of public funding for healthcare in Latvia is among the lowest in EU countries. Latvia spends 5.3% (USD PPP 1217 of GDP on health, lower than the OCED country average of 8.9% (USD PPP 3453. Latvia is facing a dramatic gap between the availability of hospital beds and long term care beds and the lowest prevalence of general medical practitioners among all Baltic States 321.6 per 100 000. These mentioned factors may hinder the development of health care in Latvia and reduce the ability to participate in international health service market.

  16. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  17. Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U 3 O 8 ) production limited to 2.2 x 10 5 kg (4.9 x 10 5 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

  18. Online resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS: an analysis of HIV-related webpages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Harwood, Eileen M; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; McFarlane, Mary; Fisher, Holly; Dickenson, Tina; Kachur, Rachel; Rosser, B R Simon; O'Leary, Ann

    2010-07-01

    The Internet is a major source of HIV-related information and resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (PRDHA). This study examined the types of HIV-related websites that appear as a result of HIV-related keyword searches and the extent to which website information targets PRDHA. The first page of HIV-related webpages from 18 keyword searches was coded. Among 137 webpages meeting inclusion criteria, 63% represented HIV-informational websites, 31% targeted HIV-positive individuals, and over half contained or provided access to HIV prevention, treatment, and transmission information. Thirty-three percent of webpages contained or provided access to PRDHA-targeted information, with a greater percentage of those webpages having mobile, non-English, and "Ask the Expert" features compared with non-PRDHA targeted webpages. Implications for PRDHA include the following: (1) they should explore HIV-related websites to gain insight into the credibility of the information contained on those sites; (2) PRDHA must be aware that HIV-related websites have the potential to elicit dated, emotionally distressing, or irrelevant information; and (3) to obtain information that relates to their demographic and situational profile, they may wish to use specific key terms (e.g., "HIV women") rather than attempting to navigate webpages that arise from general search terms (e.g., "HIV"). Recommendations for future development of online resources for PRDHA include providing HIV-relevant information in a stepwise fashion, providing demographically targeted HIV information, and greater utilization of mobile technology.

  19. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    or specific grain yield composition are wanted. Keywords: Competition dynamics; Grain quality; Hordeum vulgare; Intercropping; Nitrogen use; Organic farming; Pisum sativum; Weeds; Yield Abbreviations: IC, mixed intercropping; LER, land equivalent ratio; N, nitrogen; REIc, relative efficiency index; SC, sole...... not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake. Changes in the competitive...... and tillering ability of barley are seen as likely explanations of lower weed load in the barley dominated crop treatments. This study points at the potential of employing density and relative crop frequency as "regulators" when specific intercrop objectives such as increased competitiveness towards weeds...

  20. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  1. New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

  2. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  3. Impact of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome on health-related quality of life and resource utilisation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Rosanna; Ricca, Giada; Nyanzi-Wakholi, Barbara; Medina-Lara, Antonieta

    2016-03-01

    Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively impacts patients' quality of life (QoL) and increases the burden on healthcare resources. To review published CACS data regarding health-related QOL (HRQoL) and its economic impact on the healthcare system. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and NHS EED databases. A total of 458 HRQoL and 189 healthcare resources utilisation abstracts were screened, and 42 and 2 full-text articles were included, respectively. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and FAACT instruments were most favoured for assessing HRQOL but none of the current tools cover all domains affected by CACS. Economic estimates for managing CACS are scarce, with studies lacking a breakdown of healthcare resource utilisation items. HRQoL instruments that can better assess and incorporate all the domains affected by CACS are required. Rigorous assessment of costs and benefits of treatment are needed to understand the magnitude of the impact of CACS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XX...

  5. [The Murcia Twin Registry. A resource for research on health-related behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Carrillo, Eduvigis; González-Javier, Francisca; Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Morosoli-García, José J; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Martínez-Selva, José M

    Genetically informative designs and, in particular, twin studies, are the most widely used methodology to analyse the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to inter-individual variability. These studies basically compare the degree of phenotypical similarity between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In addition to the traditional estimate of heritability, this kind of registry enables a wide variety of analyses which are unique due to the characteristics of the sample. The Murcia Twin Registry is population-based and focused on the analysis of health-related behaviour. The observed prevalence of health problems is comparable to that of other regional and national reference samples, which guarantees its representativeness. Overall, the characteristics of the Registry facilitate developing various types of research as well as genetically informative designs, and collaboration with different initiatives and consortia. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Rivers

    Full Text Available Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas. Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection and negative (avoidance effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development. Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize

  7. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  8. Education and Training of Radiotherapists. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.

    2017-01-01

    The radiotherapist (RTT) is a member of the multidisciplinary team responsible for the preparation and delivery of a course of radiotherapy to cancer patients. The roles and responsibilities of the RTT vary significantly among countries and, in some instances, within countries. They are a reflection of both the local or broader national factors and the available resources, but must always incorporate accurate and safe practice. Irrespective of the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities, any educational programme developed for this professional group must not only prepare the RTTs for current practice, but enable them to adapt to future developments and challenges. Quality and equality of care for all patients receiving radiotherapy are the ultimate goals. To achieve these goals, educational programmes must include the subjects underpinning accurate and safe practice and must integrate academic and clinical components. Health care is undergoing reform in many countries, with a much stronger emphasis on patient centred care. However, reform of the delivery and quality of health care cannot be achieved without the parallel reform in health professional education. This need for reform is emphasized in the report on health professions education issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, wherein it is stated that “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics” [17.1]. This chapter deals with health care education in the United States of America, but the sentiment is equally applicable to the delivery of high quality health care for cancer patients throughout the world.

  9. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  10. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  11. Chapter 15--chew before you swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, James P

    2011-01-01

    The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry. He then tackled the question of how the CPG itself was modulated by different types of sensory and cortical inputs. Another series of studies focused on the organization of the subpopulations of neurons forming the CPG, their intrinsic and network properties. Shortly before his untimely passing, he had turned his attention to the potential contribution of muscle spindle afferents to the patterning of mastication as well as to the development of chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  13. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  14. Hydrology, water resources and the epidemiology of water-related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Water-borne and water-based diseases are infections in which the causative agent (or one of its hosts) spends at least part of its lifecycle in water [1]. They still represent a major threat to human health, especially in the developing world. As an example, diarrhoea, commonly linked to water-borne diseases like cholera, is responsible for the death of about 525,000 children under five every year (out of nearly 1.7 billion cases globally), thus representing one of the leading causes of death among infants and children in low-income countries [2]. A wide range of micro- (protozoa, bacteria, viruses, algae) and macro-parasites (mostly flatworms and roundworms) is associated with water-borne and water-based diseases. Infection is generally caused by ingestion of, or exposure to, contaminated water, and is thus tightly linked to water excess, scarcity, availability or quality. More broadly, the term water-related diseases may also include vector-borne infections in which the ecology of the vector population is closely related to the presence of environmental water. This is the case, for instance, of mosquitoes acting as vectors of deadly diseases like malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever. Malaria alone exacted a toll of 429,000 deaths in 2015 (out of 212 million cases globally), according to the latest WHO estimates [3].

  15. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  17. Bridge Over an Aging Population: Examining Longitudinal Relations Among Human Resource Management, Social Support, and Employee Outcomes Among Bridge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, Klaske N.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; De Lange, Annet H.; Emans, Ben J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This two-wave complete panel study aims to examine human resource management (HRM) bundles of practices in relation to social support [i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX), coworker exchange (CWX)] and employee outcomes (i.e., work engagement, employability, and health), within a context of workers aged 65+. Based upon the social exchange theory and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework, it was hypothesized that HRM bundles at Time 1 would increase bridge workers' outcomes at Time 2, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceptions of LMX and CWX at Time 2. Using a longitudinal design, hypotheses were tested in a unique sample of Dutch bridge employees (N = 228). Results of several structural equation modeling analyses revealed no significant associations between HRM bundles, and social support, moreover, no significant associations were found in relation to employee outcomes. However, the results of the best-fitting final model revealed the importance of the impact of social support on employee (65+) outcomes over time. PMID:29755386

  18. Bridge Over an Aging Population: Examining Longitudinal Relations Among Human Resource Management, Social Support, and Employee Outcomes Among Bridge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaske N. Veth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This two-wave complete panel study aims to examine human resource management (HRM bundles of practices in relation to social support [i.e., leader–member exchange (LMX, coworker exchange (CWX] and employee outcomes (i.e., work engagement, employability, and health, within a context of workers aged 65+. Based upon the social exchange theory and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R framework, it was hypothesized that HRM bundles at Time 1 would increase bridge workers' outcomes at Time 2, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceptions of LMX and CWX at Time 2. Using a longitudinal design, hypotheses were tested in a unique sample of Dutch bridge employees (N = 228. Results of several structural equation modeling analyses revealed no significant associations between HRM bundles, and social support, moreover, no significant associations were found in relation to employee outcomes. However, the results of the best-fitting final model revealed the importance of the impact of social support on employee (65+ outcomes over time.

  19. Bridge Over an Aging Population: Examining Longitudinal Relations Among Human Resource Management, Social Support, and Employee Outcomes Among Bridge Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, Klaske N; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; De Lange, Annet H; Emans, Ben J M

    2018-01-01

    This two-wave complete panel study aims to examine human resource management (HRM) bundles of practices in relation to social support [i.e., leader-member exchange (LMX), coworker exchange (CWX)] and employee outcomes (i.e., work engagement, employability, and health), within a context of workers aged 65+. Based upon the social exchange theory and the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework, it was hypothesized that HRM bundles at Time 1 would increase bridge workers' outcomes at Time 2, and that this relationship would be mediated by perceptions of LMX and CWX at Time 2. Using a longitudinal design, hypotheses were tested in a unique sample of Dutch bridge employees ( N = 228). Results of several structural equation modeling analyses revealed no significant associations between HRM bundles, and social support, moreover, no significant associations were found in relation to employee outcomes. However, the results of the best-fitting final model revealed the importance of the impact of social support on employee (65+) outcomes over time.

  20. Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production.

  1. Problem solving in relation to resources in everyday life in families of children with disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylvén, Regina; Granlund, Mats; Persson, Carina

    2012-06-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a skill, helping families of children with disabilities to manage problems in everyday life. Family problem-solving skills may therefore be seen as an important outcome of a child and youth habilitation service. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the design of a future web-based questionnaire study focusing on problem-solving patterns in relation to resources in families of children with disabilities. The descriptive statistical analyses built on data from 13 families and findings showed an overall satisfactory score distribution for three of the included instruments, whereas two instruments showed floor effects in one third of the items. Findings indicated design problems with data collection related to adapting questionnaires to a web-based survey format and to problems with the stop function that was added. Implementing the main study using web-based surveys needs critical considerations according to the choice of the web tool and the recruitment process.

  2. The Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Finnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article discusses the creation, philosophy, and future directions of the Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter, a grassroots crowdfunding initiative incubated within Library Pipeline.

  3. The reinvigorated South African GRSS Chapter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, the South African GRSS Chapter is investigating the possibility of organizing a meeting with local GRSS members, universities, and other remote-sensing organizations with the purpose of engaging undergraduate and early postgraduate...

  4. Chapter 8: Final thought on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter presents the objective of implementing and maintaining a good safety system: to prevent the occurrence of accidents and incidents (the abnormalities must be the exception) and if they occur their consequences should be mitigated. And make other considerations.

  5. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  6. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  7. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  8. Chapter 7: Renewable Energy Options and Considerations for Net Zero Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Samuel

    2017-03-15

    This chapter focuses on renewable energy options for military installations. It discusses typical renewable technologies, project development, and gives examples. Renewable energy can be combined with conventional energy sources to provide part or all of the energy demand at an installation. The appropriate technology mix for an installation will depend on site-specific factors such as renewable resources, energy costs, local energy policies and incentives, available land, mission compatibility, and other factors. The objective of this chapter is to provide basic background information and resources on renewable energy options for NATO leaders and energy personnel.

  9. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  10. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  11. Student chapters: effective dissemination networks for informal optics and photonics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dirk; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Van Overmeire, Sara

    2009-06-01

    Professional societies sponsor student chapters in order to foster scholarship and training in photonics at the college and graduate level, but they are also an excellent resource for disseminating photonics knowledge to pre-college students and teachers. Starting in 2006, we tracked the involvement of SPIE student chapter volunteers in informal pre-college education settings. Chapter students reached 2800, 4900 and 11800 pre-college students respectively from 2006-2008 with some form of informal instruction in optics and photonics. As a case study, the EduKit, a self-contained instruction module featuring refractive and diffractive micro-optics developed by the European Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics (NEMO), was disseminated through student chapters in Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States. We tracked the movement of this material through the network, up to the student-teacher feedback stage. The student chapter network provided rapid dissemination of the material, translation of the material into the local language, and leveraged existing chapter contacts in schools to provide an audience. We describe the student chapter network and its impact on the development of the EduKit teaching module.

  12. Integrating anthropogenic hazard data to facilitate research related to the exploitation of geo-resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Blanke, Aglaja; Olszewska, Dorota; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanisław; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Nevalainen, Jouni; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Schaming, Marc; Bigarre, Pascal; Kinscher, Jannes-Lennart; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Garcia, Alexander; Cassidy, Nigel; Toon, Sam; Mutke, Grzegorz; Sterzel, Mariusz; Szepieniec, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    The Thematic Core Service "Anthropogenic Hazards" (TCS AH) integrates data and provides various data services in a form of complete e-research infrastructure for advanced analysis and geophysical modelling of anthropogenic hazard due to georesources exploitation. TCS AH is based on the prototype built in the framework of the IS-EPOS project POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00 (https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/). The TCS AH is currently being further developed within EPOS Implementation phase (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). The TCS AH aims to have a measurable impact on innovative research and development by providing a comprehensive, wide-scale and high quality research infrastructure available to the scientific community, industrial partners and public. One of the main deliverable of TCS AH is the access to numerous induced seismicity datasets called "episodes". The episode is defined as a comprehensive set of data describing the geophysical process induced or triggered by technological activity, which under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. The episode is a time-correlated, standardized collection of geophysical, technological and other relevant geodata forming complete documentation of seismogenic process. In addition to the 6 episodes already implemented during previous phase of integration, and 3 episodes integrated within SHEER project, at least 18 new episodes related to conventional hydrocarbon extraction, reservoir treatment, underground mining and geothermal energy production are currently being integrated into the TCS AH. The heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data from different episodes are subjected to an extensive quality control (QC) procedure composed of five steps and involving the collaborative work of data providers, quality control team, IT team, that is being supervised by the quality control manager with the aid of Redmine platform. The first three steps of QC are performed at local data center

  13. Gaia DR1 documentation Chapter 6: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Rimoldini, L.; Guy, L.; Holl, B.; Clementini, G.; Cuypers, J.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; De Ridder, J.; Charnas, J.; Nienartowicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    This chapter describes the photometric variability processing of the Gaia DR1 data. Coordination Unit 7 is responsible for the variability analysis of over a billion celestial sources. In particular the definition, design, development, validation and provision of a software package for the data processing of photometrically variable objects. Data Processing Centre Geneva (DPCG) responsibilities cover all issues related to the computational part of the CU7 analysis. These span: hardware provisioning, including selection, deployment and optimisation of suitable hardware, choosing and developing software architecture, defining data and scientific workflows as well as operational activities such as configuration management, data import, time series reconstruction, storage and processing handling, visualisation and data export. CU7/DPCG is also responsible for interaction with other DPCs and CUs, software and programming training for the CU7 members, scientific software quality control and management of software and data lifecycle. Details about the specific data treatment steps of the Gaia DR1 data products are found in Eyer et al. (2017) and are not repeated here. The variability content of the Gaia DR1 focusses on a subsample of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars around the South ecliptic pole, showcasing the performance of the Gaia photometry with respect to variable objects.

  14. Environment and science: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Alaska is part of an international circumpolar North, which makes the United States an Arctic nation. Alaska is a place of Indigenous ingenuity and adaptation, a place where environmental extremes challenge the ways of living. In its more recent history, Alaska has been a place of resources and influx-a land known best for what it provides. This frontier persona, with its sourdoughs and prospectors, has not been easily shed, but Alaska today is pivotal because it represents America's North and a complex and changing Arctic. North: Finding Place in Alaska explores the state's various facets through exhibitions and artifacts at the Anchorage Museum and the words of a diverse selection of writers, curators, historians, anthropologists, and artists. From romantic landscapes by Rockwell Kent and Thomas Hill, to the art and spirituality of Alaska's Native peoples represented by a bentwood feast dish and a uniquely carved hook for catching halibut, this collection examines connections throughout the circumpolar North. No longer as remote as once thought, Alaska serves as a narrative for our future.

  15. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  16. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual

  17. Kaynak Bağımlılığı Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizliği ve Müşteri -Tedarikçi Arasındaki İlişkisel Değişime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan UYSAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

  18. Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

  19. Women with urinary incontinence in Spain: Health-related quality of life and the use of healthcare resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoro, Renata; Merino, María; Hidalgo-Vega, Alvaro; Jiménez, Margarita; Martínez, Lucía; Aracil, Javier

    2016-12-01

    To describe Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and healthcare resource utilization in women aged 60 and over in Spain. Descriptive analysis of primary data from the Spanish National Health Survey, 2012. Utility indices were obtained through the EQ5D5L questionnaire included in the survey, and utilization rates of consultations, hospitalizations, emergency services, and medication intake. HRQOL and utilization rates were systematically compared between women diagnosed with UI, women diagnosed with other chronic conditions (OCC) and healthy women of the same age. Utility indices were 0.47 in UI women versus 0.78 and 0.96 in women diagnosed with OCC and healthy women, respectively. Each year 351,675 Quality Adjusted Life Years are lost in Spain due to UI in the population of women aged 60 and over. Resource utilization of these women was significantly higher than that of other women. UI has a larger impact on both HRQOL and healthcare consumption in women who are aged 60 and over, than OCC. Appropriate treatment of UI might entail an important gain in terms of HRQOL and a significant reduction in healthcare consumption in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

  1. Perceived Resources as a Predictor of Satisfaction with Food-Related Life among Chilean Elderly: An Approach with Generalized Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, G; Schnettler, B; Grunert, K G; Adasme, C

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to show why perceived resources are a strong predictor of satisfaction with food-related life in Chilean older adults. Design, sampling and participants: A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in 30 communes of the Maule Region with 785 participants over 60 years of age who live in their own homes. The Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale was used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used for the regression analysis. The results led to different considerations: First, older adults' perceived levels of resources are a good reflection of their actual levels of resources. Second, the individuals rated the sum of the perceived resources as 'highly important' to explain older adults' satisfaction with food-related life. Third, SWFL was predicted by satisfaction with economic situation, family importance, quantity of domestic household goods and a relative health indicator. Fourth, older adults who believe they have more resources compared to others are more satisfied with their food-related life. Finally, Poisson and binomial logistic models showed that the sum of perceived resources significantly increased the prediction of SWFL. The main conclusion is that perceived personal resources are a strong predictor of SWFL in Chilean older adults.

  2. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  3. Chapter 5-Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.

    2010-01-01

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to advance nuclear science. It was this defense

  4. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  6. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  7. Populations of concern: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Janet; Balbus, John; Berger, Martha; Bouye, Karen; Campbell, Vince; Chief, Karletta; Conlon, K.; Crimmins, Allison; Flanagan, Barry; Gonzalez-Maddux, C.; Hallisey, E.; Hutchins, S.; Jantarasami, L.; Khoury, S.; Kiefer, M.; Kolling, J.; Lynn, K.; Manangan, A.; McDonald, M.; Morello-Frosch, R.; Hiza, Margaret; Sheffield, P.; Thigpen Tart, K.; Watson, J.; Whyte, K.P.; Wolkin, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is already causing, and is expected to continue to cause, a range of health impacts that vary across different population groups in the United States. The vulnerability of any given group is a function of its sensitivity to climate change related health risks, its exposure to those risks, and its capacity for responding to or coping with climate variability and change. Vulnerable groups of people, described here as populations of concern, include those with low income, some communities of color, immigrant groups (including those with limited English proficiency), Indigenous peoples, children and pregnant women, older adults, vulnerable occupational groups, persons with disabilities, and persons with preexisting or chronic medical conditions. Planners and public health officials, politicians and physicians, scientists and social service providers are tasked with understanding and responding to the health impacts of climate change. Collectively, their characterization of vulnerability should consider how populations of concern experience disproportionate, multiple, and complex risks to their health and well-being in response to climate change. Some groups face a number of stressors related to both climate and non-climate factors. For example, people living in impoverished urban or isolated rural areas, floodplains, coastlines, and other at-risk locations are more vulnerable not only to extreme weather and persistent climate change but also to social and economic stressors. Many of these stressors can occur simultaneously or consecutively. Over time, this “accumulation” of multiple, complex stressors is expected to become more evident1 as climate impacts interact with stressors associated with existing mental and physical health conditions and with other socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  8. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  9. Chapter No.11. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) being the central state body of the Slovak Republic provides in the framework of its competence the information on safety of nuclear facilities independently of their operators. UJD enables the public and mass media to review data and information on nuclear facilities. The important point of being informed is to prove, that the area of nuclear energy use has its obligatory rules in the Slovak Republic and their observing is controlled by state through the independent institution - UJD. An establishment of UJD Information Centre as early as in 1995, the basis of conception of informing the public on UJD activities and on nuclear facilities safety was created. The Centre secures the communication with the public and mass media that helps create a positive picture on the independent regulatory authority supervising nuclear safety. Over the last year, the important attention was given to implementation of Act No 211/2000 of Coll. on Free Access to Information that entered into force on 1 January 2001. The Act established the right of the public to access to information at the disposal of state bodies, i.e. inter al ia UJD, territorial self-governing bodies and other bodies managing the public resources. The Act obliges the state bodies to make basic and standard information on their activities automatically public, in order to make the information generally available and to make public administration easier and more transparent. On 4 January 2001 UJD has issued the Regulation on Implementation of Act No 211/2000 of Coll. on Free Access to Information as amended regulating the implementation of the Act in the conditions of UJD. The information boards with the basic data on making information available pursuant to the Act were established in UJD premises in Bratislava and in Trnava. On 4 January 2002, UJD Regulation with emphasised place, time, way and new e-mail contact for making the information available

  10. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  11. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  12. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, P. B. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book.

  13. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.

    1984-01-01

    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  14. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  15. Effects of climate change on ecosystem services in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack; Megan Lawson; S. Karen Dante-Wood

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the ecosystem services provided to people who visit, live adjacent to, or otherwise benefit from natural resources on public lands. Communities in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, are highly dependent on ecosystem...

  16. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötter T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on

  17. Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Related Health Information on Pregnancy Resource Center Websites: A Statewide Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Newton-Levinson, Anna; Feuchs, Ashley E; Phillips, Ashley L; Hickey, Jennifer; Steiner, Riley J

    Pregnancy resource centers (PRCs) are nonprofit organizations with a primary mission of promoting childbirth among pregnant women. Given a new state grant program to publicly fund PRCs, we analyzed Georgia PRC websites to describe advertised services and related health information. We systematically identified all accessible Georgia PRC websites available from April to June 2016. Entire websites were obtained and coded using defined protocols. Of 64 reviewed websites, pregnancy tests and testing (98%) and options counseling (84%) were most frequently advertised. However, 58% of sites did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for abortion, and 53% included false or misleading statements regarding the need to make a decision about abortion or links between abortion and mental health problems or breast cancer. Advertised contraceptive services were limited to counseling about natural family planning (3%) and emergency contraception (14%). Most sites (89%) did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for contraceptives. Two sites (3%) advertised unproven "abortion reversal" services. Approximately 63% advertised ultrasound examinations, 22% sexually transmitted infection testing, and 5% sexually transmitted infection treatment. None promoted consistent and correct condom use; 78% with content about condoms included statements that seemed to be designed to undermine confidence in condom effectiveness. Approximately 84% advertised educational programs, and 61% material resources. Georgia PRC websites contain high levels of false and misleading health information; the advertised services do not seem to align with prevailing medical guidelines. Public funding for PRCs, an increasing national trend, should be rigorously examined. Increased regulation may be warranted to ensure quality health information and services. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between psoriasis and health-related quality of life, work productivity, and healthcare resource use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Carvalho, André Vicente Esteves de; Souza, Cacilda da Silva; Squiassi, Haline Bianca; Ferreira, Cristina Nunes

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune mediated inflammatory condition that affects a significant amount of the global population. Yet geographic variability in the consequences of psoriasis warrants region-level analyses. The current study contributes to the psoriasis outcomes literature by offering a comprehensive assessment of the humanistic and economic burden in Brazil. The 2012 Brazil National Health and Wellness Survey (N=12,000) was used to assess health-related quality of life (Short Form-12, version 2), work productivity, and healthcare resource use associated with experiencing psoriasis vs. no psoriasis, along with varying levels of psoriasis severity. A total of 210 respondents reported diagnosis of psoriasis (N=157, 42, and 11 reporting mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis, respectively). Compared with controls, respondents with psoriasis reported diminished mental component summary scores and health utilities, as well as increased presenteeism, activity impairment, and physician visits over the past six months, adjusting for covariates. Among those with psoriasis, physical health decreased as psoriasis severity increased. Although work productivity and healthcare resource utilization did not differ with psoriasis severity, the high rates of productivity loss (e.g. 45.5% presenteeism in the severe psoriasis group) suggest an economic burden. Cost analyses were not performed, and cross-sectional patient-reported data limit causal conclusions and may reflect reporting biases. Nevertheless, these results suggest a significant burden to patients with psoriasis across both humanistic and economic outcomes. The association between psoriasis and mental health aspects and health utilities were particularly strong and exceeded what would be considered clinically meaningful.

  19. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  20. Physics of Ultrasound. Chapter 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modality, accounting for approximately 25% of all imaging examinations performed worldwide at the beginning of the 21st century. The success of ultrasound may be attributed to a number of attractive characteristics, including the relatively low cost and portability of an ultrasound scanner, the non-ionizing nature of ultrasound waves, the ability to produce real time images of blood flow and moving structures such as the beating heart, and the intrinsic contrast among soft tissue structures that is achieved without the need for an injected contrast agent. The latter characteristic enables ultrasound to be used for a wide range of medical applications, which historically have primarily included cardiac and vascular imaging, imaging of the abdominal organs and, most famously, in utero imaging of the developing fetus. Ongoing technological improvements continue to expand the use of ultrasound for many applications, including cancer imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, ophthalmology and others. The term ultrasound refers specifically to acoustic waves at frequencies greater than the maximum frequency audible to humans, which is nominally 20 kHz. Diagnostic imaging is generally performed using ultrasound in the frequency range of 2–15 MHz. The choice of frequency is dictated by a trade off between spatial resolution and penetration depth, since higher frequency waves can be focused more tightly but are attenuated more rapidly by tissue. The information contained in an ultrasonic image is influenced by the physical processes underlying propagation, reflection and attenuation of ultrasound waves in tissue.

  1. Hepeviruses of fish: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Originally reported from California, the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) has now been isolated from eight species of salmonids in North America. Early work focused on the replication and physical characteristics of the small, round virus, but not until 20 years later was it determined to be most closely related to viruses causing hepatitis E in humans or infecting avian and mammalian hosts. The genome of CTV consists of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a genome organization similar to other members of the family Hepeviridae, although the amino acid sequence identity appears low enough to support creation of a novel genus. While CTV has not been associated with acute disease in fish, the virus was able to form persistently infected cell cultures that may aid research in treatment of hepatitis E-like viruses affecting humans or other animals. Interestingly, trout exposed to CTV were protected for about a month against subsequent exposure to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Replicating agents suspected to be CTV can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.

  2. Chapter 12. Nullification of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed

  3. Fragmented pictures revisited: long-term changes in repetition priming, relation to skill learning, and the role of cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Rodrigue, Karen M; Raz, Naftali

    2007-01-01

    Whereas age-related declines in declarative memory have been demonstrated in multiple cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, the effect of age on non-declarative manifestations of memory, such as repetition priming and perceptual skill learning, are less clear. The common assumption, based on cross-sectional studies, is that these processes are only mildly (if at all) affected by age. To investigate long-term changes in repetition priming and age-related differences in identification of fragmented pictures in a 5-year longitudinal design. Healthy adults (age 28-82 years) viewed drawings of objects presented in descending order of fragmentation. The identification threshold (IT) was the highest fragmentation level at which the object was correctly named. After a short interval, old pictures were presented again along with a set of similar but novel pictures. Five years later the participants repeated the experiment. At baseline and 5-year follow-up alike, one repeated exposure improved IT for old (priming) and new (skill acquisition) pictures. However, long-term retention of priming gains was observed only in young adults. Working memory explained a significant proportion of variance in within-occasion priming, long-term priming, and skill learning. Contrary to cross-sectional results, this longitudinal study suggests perceptual repetition priming is not an age-invariant phenomenon and advanced age and reduced availability of cognitive resources may contribute to its decline. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Chapter 13. Personnel and economic data of the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The results achieved by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in the area of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 were also backed up by the quality of work resulting from the UJD financial policy and personnel management. As of 31 December 2000, a staff of 82 in natural persons were in the employ of UJD, of which 30 women and 52 men. The total share of the employed women accounts for 36.6 %. Of total staff, 44 employees carried out a direct inspection activity of nuclear safety, of which 4 women. The staff education pattern had a direct impact on the professional level of UJD. As many as 77% of staff are university graduates, 21% received full secondary education, as did 2% secondary vocational education. The position of UJD as a central state administrative authority means also its independent position and action in the process of financial policy and budgeting in relation to the state budget. Funding of the performance of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 was realised from public funds through UJD's chapter of budget. In addition to this financial resource, funding from assistance funds by the Swiss government under the projects SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP, EVITA and IAEA projects was provided to beef up and complete lacking resources. The aggregate volume of expense drawn came to 73,222 th. slovak crowns (SKK) (including extra-budgetary funds). A sum of 69,135 th. SKK was expended toward the UJD current activities, while funds totalling 4,087 th. SKK were drawn to procure capital assets. Following the deduction of extra-budgetary funds running at 1,219 th. SKK, the actual draw down of public funds amounted to 72,003 th. SKK. According to the provided financial resource, the draw down in 2000 under the basic type classification spending in th. SKK was as follows: In the current budgetary expenditure structure, the highest share was held by payments for current transfers to abroad totalling 24,512 th. SKK, i.e. the

  5. Paramyxoviruses of fish: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Theodore R.; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.

  6. Paediatric Radiation Oncology. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Y.; Zaghloul, M.; Laskar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer is a typical disease of ageing adults, it can be seen at any age and cancer diagnosis in a child is not a rare situation. Every day around the world, many teenagers, young children and even infants are diagnosed with cancer. Cancer in children is an important health care problem, not only for the individual patient and medical staff, but also for families, teachers, friends and society as a whole. In every culture, children are considered innocent human beings and the diagnosis of such an ‘evil’ disease in a young child always induces feelings of unfairness and anguish. Most childhood cancers are curable; using the best treatment options, more than 80% of children with cancer may survive to adulthood. However, cure alone is not the ultimate goal for paediatric cancer treatment; late effects of treatment impact the quality of life of patients. Cure from cancer in a child means adding at least 50–60 years to his or her life, which is long enough to develop serious late effects of the treatment and the induction of secondary cancers. Thus, treatment should be tailored to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues to chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Cancer treatment can be a painful process, often involving surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and requiring very long treatment periods, which impair the motor and mental development of the child, and his or her educational activities and relations with society. Childhood cancer survivors sometimes have modest to severe sequelae of the disease itself and the treatment used, which may disrupt their development to a healthy adulthood. These cancer survivors should be fully integrated into society and be allowed to live productive lives even when lifelong rehabilitation is required to keep them active.

  7. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, H.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  8. Snow and ice: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy; McAfee, Stephanie A.; O'Neel, Shad; Sass, Louis; Burgess, Evan; Colt, Steve; Clark, Paul; Hayward, Gregory D.; Colt, Steve; McTeague, Monica L.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and precipitation are key determinants of snowpack levels. Therefore, climate change is likely to affect the role of snow and ice in the landscapes and hydrology of the Chugach National Forest region.Downscaled climate projections developed by Scenarios Network for Alaska and Arctic Planning (SNAP) are useful for examining projected changes in snow at relatively fine resolution using a variable called “snowday fraction (SDF),” the percentage of days with precipitation falling as snow.We summarized SNAP monthly SDF from five different global climate models for the Chugach region by 500 m elevation bands, and compared historical (1971–2000) and future (2030–2059) SDF. We found that:Snow-day fraction and snow-water equivalent (SWE) are projected to decline most in late autumn (October to November) and at lower elevations.Snow-day fraction is projected to decrease 23 percent (averaged across five climate models) from October to March, between sea level and 500 m. Between sea level and 1000 m, SDF is projected to decrease by 17 percent between October and March.Snow-water equivalent is projected to decrease most in autumn (October and November) and at lower elevations (below 1500 m), an average of -26 percent for the 2030–2059 period compared to 1971– 2000. Averaged across the cool season and the entire domain, SWE is projected to decrease at elevations below 1000 m because of increased temperature, but increase at higher elevations because of increased precipitation.Compared to 1971–2000, the percentage of the landscape that is snowdominant in 2030–2059 is projected to decrease, and the percentage in which rain and snow are co-dominant (transient hydrology) is projected to increase from 27 to 37 percent. Most of this change is at lower elevations.Glaciers on the Chugach National Forest are currently losing about 6 km3 of ice per year; half of this loss comes from Columbia Glacier (Berthier et al. 2010).Over the past decade, almost all

  9. Chapter 21: Estimating Net Savings - Common Practices. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Violette, Daniel M. [Navigant, Boulder, CO (United States); Rathbun, Pamela [Tetra Tech, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM and V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to a program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings but does not prescribe methods.

  10. Chapter No.4. Safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the activity in the field of safety analyses was focused on verification of the safety analyses reports for NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce concerning the new profiled fuel and probabilistic safety assessment study for NPP Mochovce. The calculation safety analyses were performed and expert reviews for the internal UJD needs were elaborated. An important part of work was performed also in solving of scientific and technical tasks appointed within bilateral projects of co-operation between UJD and its international partnership organisations as well as within international projects ordered and financed by the European Commission. All these activities served as an independent support for UJD in its deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear installations. A special attention was paid to a review of probabilistic safety assessment study of level 1 for NPP Mochovce. The probabilistic safety analysis of NPP related to the full power operation was elaborated in the study and a contribution of the technical and operational improvements to the risk decreasing was quantified. A core damage frequency of the reactor was calculated and the dominant initiating events and accident sequences with the major contribution to the risk were determined. The target of the review was to determine the acceptance of the sources of input information, assumptions, models, data, analyses and obtained results, so that the probabilistic model could give a real picture of the NPP. The review of the study was performed in co-operation of UJD with the IAEA (IPSART mission) as well as with other external organisations, which were not involved in the elaboration of the reviewed document and probabilistic model of NPP. The review was made in accordance with the IAEA guidelines and methodical documents of UJD and US NRC. In the field of calculation safety analyses the UJD activity was focused on the analysis of an operational event, analyses of the selected accident scenarios

  11. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  12. Chapter 3. Current management situation: Flammulated owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The flammulated owl (Otus flammeolus) is a western mountain species associated mainly with ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests in the United States and Canada (see Chapter 4). As a neotropical migrant, this small forest owl occurs on national forests in the United States during...

  13. Chapter 8. Current management situation: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The range of boreal owls (Aegolius funereus) in the United States includes Alaska, the mountains of the western United States, and the northern tier states from the Atlantic to Pacific (see Chapter 9). Based on the species' documented distribution (see National Geographic Society 1987, Hayward et al. 1987, Johnsgard 1988, and others) the owl may...

  14. The Chapter I Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose

    Chapter I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is the largest federally-funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students to meet the special needs of educationally deprived students who reside in areas with high concentrations of low-income families. The 1994-95 school year is the last year of…

  15. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  16. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  17. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  18. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  20. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  1. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  2. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  3. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  4. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  5. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  6. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  7. Science, practice, and place [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Place-oriented inquiry and practice are proposed as keys to overcoming the persistent gap between science and practice. This chapter begins by describing some of the reasons science fails to simplify conservation practice, highlighting the challenges associated with the social and ecological sciences of multi-scaled complexity. Place concepts help scientists and...

  8. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  9. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  10. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  11. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  12. Global peat resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, E. [ed.] [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The book provides a detailed review of the world`s peat and peatland resources and their role in the biosphere. It was compiled by 68 peat experts. Reports present the valuable mire ecosystem, its characteristics, and the use of peatlands. Maps and photographs illustrate the distribution of mines and their special characteristics, including raised bogs, aapa mires, blanket bogs, mangrove swamps, swamp forests etc. The book contains a total of 57 chapters, the bulk of then giving surveys of peat resources and use in individual countries. They are grouped under the headings: peatlands in biosphere; general review; Europe; Asia; Africa; North America; Central and South America; Australia (and New Zealand); and use of peatlands. One chapter has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM. 7 apps.

  13. Human resources in innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    2007-01-01

    Human resources in innovation systems: With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firms This thesis has two purposes: (1) a ‘general' purpose to enhance our knowledge on the relationship between innovation, technological and organisational change, and human resources......, including knowledge and skills embodied in human resources, and (2) a more ‘specific' purpose to enhance our knowledge on introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms. Chapter 1 establishes the relevance of this research interest, and it also states...... stemming from human resources - such as insight, understanding, creativity, and action - are inherently important to all innovation processes. The chapter also suggests a tentative conceptual and analytical framework for studying human resources and their development within a system of innovation approach...

  14. Emotional job resources and emotional support seeking as moderators of the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion : A two-wave panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ven, B.; van den Tooren, M.; Vlerick, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion was investigated, as was the moderating role of emotional job resources and emotional support seeking on this relation. We hypothesized a positive lagged effect of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion,

  15. Colonisation and extinction in relation to competition and resource partitioning in acanthocephalans of freshwater fishes of the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, A R; Kennedy, C R

    2001-01-01

    This paper challenges two paradigms long held in relation to the ecology of parasites in freshwater systems: (1) autogenic species are poorer colonisers than allogenic ones; and (2) parasites with direct life cycles are more successful colonisers than those with complex life cycles. Using new and existing data for Acanthocephala in freshwater fish from the British Isles, it is suggested that all six species present have been able to colonise and persist successfully, in spite of the supposed limitations of their autogenic life-style. It is proposed that these parasites have overcome these limitations by a variety of means, which apply equally to all species considered. Foremost among these is the utilisation of a migratory fish host as either a preferred or a suitable host in their life cycle, allowing colonisation of new areas and rescue effects in established areas, whilst equally important is the use of a common and widespread crustacean as the intermediate host. In addition, all six species appear to exhibit resource partitioning by host at either or both the larval and adult stages, thus reducing the potential for competition and further facilitating colonisation and survival. This hypothesis is supported by data from previous studies both on acanthocephalans from Europe and North America and on other autogenic parasites. It also provides an explanation for the apparently atypical host utilisation patterns of some acanthocephalan species in areas on the edge of their distributions, notably in Ireland.

  16. Exploring workplace related health resources from a salutogenic perspective. Results from a focus group study among healthcare workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringsén, Asa; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran; Troein, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore healthcare workers' opinions on workplace related health resources relevant to promotion of their health. 16 registered nurses and 19 assistant nurses, from a medical emergency ward at a medium sized hospital in the south of Sweden, participated in the study. Eight focus group interviews were conducted, the material was condensed and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to elicit and identify patterns in the expressed opinions of the participants. The analysis yielded four themes that were labelled the reward, the team, the mission and the context. An explanatory model was constructed consisting of concentric circles, with the reward at the core. The qualitative analysis also revealed two divergent patterns; some of the participants associated positive health with stability while others referred to flexibility. The results from this study have contributed to the body of knowledge regarding salutogenic health indicators in the field of work and health research in particular as well as in health promotion in general. The findings show that individuals can have diverse responses to any given work situation, and this should be taken into account before implementation of salutogenic health promotion programs.

  17. The 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-11-15

    Professional Paper 1824 comprises 30 chapters by various U.S. Geological Survey authors, including introduction and methodology chapters, which together provide documentation of the geological basis and methodology of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, results of which were first released in August 2008.  Twenty-eight chapters summarize the petroleum geology and resource potential of individual, geologically defined provinces north of the Arctic Circle, including those of northern Alaska, northern Canada, east and west Greenland, and most of Arctic Russia, as well as certain offshore areas of the north Atlantic Basin and the Polar Sea. Appendixes tabulate the input and output information used during the assessment.

  18. Genomic resources for gene discovery, functional genome annotation, and evolutionary studies of maize and its close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shi, Xue; Liu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Kudrna, David A; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Hao; Dai, Zhaozhao; Zheng, Yonglian; Lai, Jinsheng; Jin, Weiwei; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wing, Rod A; Luo, Meizhong

    2013-11-01

    Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics.

  19. Elite capture and the development of natural resource linkages in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Monjane, Celso Marcos

    2017-01-01

    for a more fair distribution of opportunities for local firms to gain from large-scale natural resource investments and for learning and spillover effects to other parts of the economy. In a longer term perspective, it is a potential key source of economic transformation towards higher value added activities......This chapter explores these broader processes from the perspective of linkage creation in Mozambique related to mega-projects in natural resource extraction and development from a political economy perspective. From a resource fairness perspective, linkage creation is essential as it allows...

  20. Access and Inequities in Radiotherapy. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Rodríguez, R.; De Sousa Neves, D.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the result of very complex interactions between environmental factors (e.g. inhalation of tobacco smoke, infectious diseases, unhealthy diets) and genetic susceptibility. The vast majority of cancers in adults are not genetically inherited, but rather are related to associated co-morbidities and exposure to carcinogenic substances. Historically, the incidence of cancer has been higher in developed countries than in developing countries. The recent demographic growth observed in the developing world as a consequence of the successful management of communicable diseases, which had caused substantial premature death, is inevitably making these populations more susceptible to cancer. In fact, of the estimated 14 million new cancer cases every year, 8 million are predicted to occur in the developing world. Although early detection and optimal treatment have already proved to have a demonstrable effect on the decline of the cancer mortality rate in most developed countries, diagnosis of cancer in developing countries is too frequently made during the advanced stages. In countries with limited resources, cancer care can suffer from extreme limitations of human resources, physical capacity and equipment, leading to a mortality to incidence ratio about 19% higher than that in industrialized countries. This difference is associated above all with elements of access, quality and efficiency of cancer care. The burden of the disease is shifting rapidly; thus, significant planning is required to prevent, detect earlier, treat and palliate cancer in developing countries. In order to address the complex issue of cancer control, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided a framework for the development of national cancer control programmes (NCCPs). NCCPs constitute health approaches designed to tackle cancer through optimization, coordination and integration of the available resources in a systematic and comprehensive manner into evidence based strategies for

  1. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  2. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  3. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  5. External energy policy: Old fears and new dilemmas in a larger Union. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter attempts both to analyse the development of energy policy making in the EU and to discuss the energy security dilemmas that confront the member states in the short and medium term. The central issue here is how security of supply and a sustainable energy system can be achieved in a market environment, which is the main thrust of the Commissions proposals, while at the same time government intervention in international energy markets is on the rise. It is suggested that the mismatch between the level of government involvement and the market model in the international energy sector has become more pronounced lately and impacts upon the security of supply and demand policy toolset of consumer and producer countries. Arguably, the switch from an international oil and gas buyers' market to a sellers market has not only rekindled resource nationalism in producer countries but also stimulated a certain preference for bilateral energy relations over multilateral ones in some consumer countries in an attempt to secure supplies. Chinese energy diplomacy in Africa and elsewhere is a good example of bilateralism, while some member states also deem the Nordstream pipeline project to be an example of energy bilateralism on the part of Germany. The latter project was clearly a trigger for the current EU proposal on external energy relations, encouraging member states to 'speak with one voice'. However, it will be argued in this chapter that the asymmetry in import dependency among the member states, the preference of member states for a certain energy mix, the member state' competitive position in world markets and different foreign and security approaches, will make 'speaking with one voice' a lot harder to achieve than in climate change matters. This chapter first gives some facts and figures about European energy. It then discusses both past and current energy policy in the EU. The issue is raised whether the strategic energy interests of the member states are

  6. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  7. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities

  8. Exploring Supervisor-Related Job Resources as Mediators between Supervisor Conflict and Job Attitudes in Hospital Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Conflicts with supervisors are likely to reduce job resources and in turn to lower job attitudes. Work design in hospitals should, therefore, address interpersonal working conditions and conflict management in leadership development.

  9. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oussanov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  10. Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents – a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondevik Margareth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sense of coherence (SOC is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61 and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28. These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs.

  11. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--San Juan Basin Province (5022): Chapter 7 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  12. Evaluation of Historic Indo-Pak Relations, Water Resource Issues and Its impact on Contemporary Bilateral Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Sohail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Being developed countries both Pakistan and India are striving for the economic development. Pakistan and India share a 1610 km long border. They share same language, dress and culture and also six watercourses, namely the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas, along with their numerous tributaries. Pakistan, like other countries of the region depends heavily on agriculture, with the greater part of the population relying on it for livelihood. As a result, water is not only vital for everyday needs, but a critical source for economic development. Water is a resource on which there is dependency of economy and no substitute. Pakistan and India are close neighbors and lied in South East of Asia. Apart from sharing border and history both the countries have various same customs and traditions.Both countries gained independence in 1947 from British Government, from the day of independence Pakistan has been facing lots of internal and external challenges. Apart from other conflicts, water issues also exist between Pakistan and India. After the nine years negotiation with the help of World Bank, they solved this issue but after some time it started again. Some kind of historical issues including water issues has been discussed in this paper. To judge the public opinion of the both countries, an interview survey was conducted by some international expert and from the people who are directly involved in these kind of profession of Indo-Pak relation. Analyses of interview with some statistic information and on the behalf of history some conclusions and suggestions were including at the end of this study.

  13. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  14. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 3: Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Klioner, S.; Butkevich, A.; Stephenson, C.; Hernandez, J.; Lammers, U.; Bombrun, A.; Mignard, F.; Altmann, M.; Davidson, M.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Siddiqui, H.; Utrilla Molina, E.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and processing steps used for the astrometric core solution, namely, the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The inputs to this solution rely heavily on the basic observables (or astrometric elementaries) which have been pre-processed and discussed in Chapter 2, the results of which were published in Fabricius et al. (2016). The models consist of reference systems and time scales; assumed linear stellar motion and relativistic light deflection; in addition to fundamental constants and the transformation of coordinate systems. Higher level inputs such as: planetary and solar system ephemeris; Gaia tracking and orbit information; initial quasar catalogues and BAM data are all needed for the processing described here. The astrometric calibration models are outlined followed by the details processing steps which give AGIS its name. We also present a basic quality assessment and validation of the scientific results (for details, see Lindegren et al. 2018).

  15. Factors relating to readmission of term and near-term neonates in the first two weeks of life. Early Discharge Survey Group of the Health Professional Advisory Board of the Greater New York Chapter of the March of Dimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A K; Damus, K; Kim, M H; King, K; Harper, R; Campbell, D; Crowley, K A; Lakhani, M; Cohen-Addad, N; Kim, R; Harin, A

    1999-01-01

    A multisite study of term and near term infants readmitted in the first two weeks of life to 9 New York City area hospitals in 1995 was conducted to evaluate factors related to readmission, including length of newborn stay. Of the 30,884 infants born at the 9 study hospitals 391 newborns were readmitted. The major admission diagnoses were infection, 40.7%, hyperbilirubinemia, 39.1%, and feeding and/or gastrointestinal problems, 10.5%. In the first week, 65.1% of readmissions were for hyperbilirubinemia and 19.1% were for infection or suspected sepsis. In the second week, 67.8% of readmissions were for infection and 7.6% were for hyperbilirubinemia. Hyperbilirubinemia was the most frequent diagnosis for White and Asian infants, while infection was most frequent for African-American and Hispanic infants. Age at readmission was younger and the interval from discharge was shorter for infants with hyperbilirubinemia. Abnormalities which should have precluded early discharge included feeding difficulties, cyanotic congenital heart defects, hemolytic disease of the newborn, early jaundice or early high bilirubin levels. Attention to identification of infants at risk and programs such as lactation counseling and universal screening for bilirubin (with appropriate interpretation) prior to discharge could have reduced the necessity for readmission regardless of the newborn length of stay.

  16. Human resource development formulation and evaluation in an Iranian Petrochemical Company using ANP and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  18. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J. R.; Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology.

  19. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  20. Chapter 1. The structure of the company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the first chapter of this CD ROM the structure of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) in 1998 is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The history (The origin of the SE, Plc.; Main events of 1995; Main events of 1996; Main events of 1997); (2) The bodies of SE, Plc. (General Meeting of Shareholders; Supervisory Board; Board of Directors); (3) Organizational structure of the the Company (The Headquarters of SE, Plc.; SE, Plc, Transmission System)

  1. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  2. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  3. Human resource assignment and role representation mechanism with the "cascading staff-group authoring" and "relation/situation" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Y; Sasaki, Y; Kinoshita, A

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the access control mechanism and audit strategy of the "patient-doctor relation and clinical situation at the point-of-care" model with multi-axial access control matrix (ACM). This mechanism overcomes the deficit of ACM in the aspect of data accessibility but does not resolve the representation of the staff's affiliate and/or plural membership in the complex real world. Care groups inside a department or inter-department clinical team plays significant clinical role but also spend great amount of time and money in the hospital. Therefore the impact of human resource assignment and cost of such stakeholders to the hospital management is huge, so that they should be accurately treated in the hospital information system. However multi-axial ACM has problems with the representation of staff groups due to static parameters such as department/license because staffs belong to a group rather temporarily and/or a medical staff may belong to plural groups. As a solution, we have designed and implemented "cascading staff-group authoring" method with "relation and situation" model and multi-axial ACM. In this mechanism, (i) a system administrator certifies "group chief certifying person" according to the request and authorization by the department director, (ii) the "group chief certifying person" certifies "group chief(s)", (iii) the "group chief" recruits its members from the medical staffs, and at the same time the "group chief" decides the profit distribution policy of this group. This will enable medical staff to access EMR according to the role he/she plays whether it is as a department staff or as a group member. This solution has worked successfully over the past few years. It provides end-users with a flexible and time-to-time staff-group authoring environment using a simple human-interfaced tool without security breach and without system administration cost. In addition, profit and cost distribution is clarified among departments and

  4. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  5. The cascade probabilistic functions and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) with Markov's chain is shown. The CPF calculation for electrons with the energy losses taking into account are given. The calculation of the CPF on the computer was carried out. The estimation of energy losses contribution in the CPFs and radiation defects concentration are made. Besides calculation of the primarily knock-on atoms and radiation defects at electron irradiation with use of the CPF with taking into account energy losses are conducted

  6. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  7. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  8. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  9. World energy resources. International Geohydroscience and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    World Energy Resources is an explanatory energy survey of the countries and major regions of the world, their geographic and economic settings, and significant inter-relationships. This book attempts to combine several interacting energy themes that encompass a historical development, energy issues and forecasts, economic geography, environmental programs, and world energy use. The main thrust of this book -World Energy Resources - is based on principles of energy science, applied geology, geophysics, and other environmental sciences as they relate to the exploration, exploitation, and production of resources in this country and throughout the world. This work is an analysis of the United States (USA) and world oil, gas, coal, and alternative energy resources and their associated issues, forecasts, and related policy. This book could not have been attempted without a broad geological exposure and international geographic awareness. Much information is scattered among federal and state agencies, schools, and other institutions, and this book has attempted to combine some of the vast information base. This attempt can only skim the information surface at best, but its regional and topical coverage is broad in scope. Part I introduces conventional energy resources and their historical developments, and includes chapters 1 to 7. The basic concepts and supporting facts on energy sources are presented here for the general education of energy analysts, policy makers, and scientists that desire a brief review of advanced technologies and history. Part II includes chapters 8 to 14 and provides discussions of the renewable energy sources and the available alternative energy sources and technologies to oil, gas, coal, and nuclear sources. Part III includes chapters 15 to 20 and provides an analysis of United States energy markets and forecasts through the first quarter of the 21st century, while including some world energy data. Widely-used energy forecasting models are

  10. EDUCATING THE TEEN-AGER IN HUMAN RELATIONS AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES, PAPERS FROM THE ANNUAL MEETING (56TH, ATLANTIC CITY, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    THE GROWING NUMBERS OF TEENAGERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ECONOMY BOTH AS EARNERS AND SPENDERS FORCE EDUCATORS AND OTHER PROFESSIONALS TO EXAMINE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES TO THIS GROUP. HOME ECONOMISTS' CONCERN FOR PROBLEMS OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN MANAGING RESOURCES AND IN HUMAN RELATIONS LED TO PLANNING PROGRAMS IN THESE AREAS AT THEIR ANNUAL MEETING.…

  11. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  12. Assessment of the Adequacy of Instructional Resources in Business Education Programmes Relative to NCCE Standards for Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, Moses; Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the adequacy of instructional resources available for business education programmes at the colleges of education in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria in relation to the standards stipulated by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and was guided by five…

  13. Targeted Vision Function Goals and Use of Vision Resources in Ophthalmology Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry W.; Fontenot, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study characterizes self-reported functional vision goals and the use of low vision resources (for example, services and devices) in ophthalmology clinic patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods: From July 2009 to February 2013, we assessed 188 consecutive patients (age 65+;…

  14. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  15. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  16. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  17. Applying an Archetype-Based Approach to Electroencephalography/Event-Related Potential Experiments in the EEGBase Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papež, Václav; Mouček, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying openEHR (an archetype-based approach for electronic health records representation) to modeling data stored in EEGBase, a portal for experimental electroencephalography/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) data management. The study evaluates re-usage of existing openEHR archetypes and proposes a set of new archetypes together with the openEHR templates covering the domain. The main goals of the study are to (i) link existing EEGBase data/metadata and openEHR archetype structures and (ii) propose a new openEHR archetype set describing the EEG/ERP domain since this set of archetypes currently does not exist in public repositories. The main methodology is based on the determination of the concepts obtained from EEGBase experimental data and metadata that are expressible structurally by the openEHR reference model and semantically by openEHR archetypes. In addition, templates as the third openEHR resource allow us to define constraints over archetypes. Clinical Knowledge Manager (CKM), a public openEHR archetype repository, was searched for the archetypes matching the determined concepts. According to the search results, the archetypes already existing in CKM were applied and the archetypes not existing in the CKM were newly developed. openEHR archetypes support linkage to external terminologies. To increase semantic interoperability of the new archetypes, binding with the existing odML electrophysiological terminology was assured. Further, to increase structural interoperability, also other current solutions besides EEGBase were considered during the development phase. Finally, a set of templates using the selected archetypes was created to meet EEGBase requirements. A set of eleven archetypes that encompassed the domain of experimental EEG/ERP measurements were identified. Of these, six were reused without changes, one was extended, and four were newly created. All archetypes were arranged in the

  18. Trait-abundance relation in response to nutrient addition in a Tibetan alpine meadow: The importance of species trade-off in resource conservation and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Ying; Ren, Fei; Lin, Li; Zhu, Wenyan; He, Jin-Sheng; Niu, Kechang

    2017-12-01

    In competition-dominated communities, traits promoting resource conservation and competitive ability are expected to have an important influence on species relative abundance (SRA). Yet, few studies have tested the trait-abundance relations in the line of species trade-off in resource conservation versus acquisition, indicating by multiple traits coordination. We measured SRA and key functional traits involving leaf economic spectrum (SLA, specific leaf area; LDMC, leaf dry matter content; LCC, leaf carbon concentration; LNC, leaf nitrogen concentration; LPC, leaf phosphorus concentration; Hs, mature height) for ten common species in all plots subjected to addition of nitrogen fertilizer (N), phosphorus fertilizer (P), or both of them (NP) in a Tibetan alpine meadow. We test whether SRA is positively related with traits promoting plant resource conservation, while negatively correlated with traits promoting plant growth and resource acquisition. We found that species were primarily differentiated along a trade-off axis involving traits promoting nutrient acquisition and fast growth (e.g., LPC and SLA) versus traits promoting resource conservation and competition ability (e.g., large LDMC). We further found that SRA was positively correlated with plant height, LDMC, and LCC, but negatively associated with SLA and leaf nutrient concentration irrespective of fertilization. A stronger positive height-SRA was found in NP-fertilized plots than in other plots, while negative correlations between SRA and SLA and LPC were found in N or P fertilized plots. The results indicate that species trade-off in nutrient acquisition and resource conservation was a key driver of SRA in competition-dominated communities following fertilization, with the linkage between SRA and traits depending on plant competition for specific soil nutrient and/or light availability. The results highlight the importance of competitive exclusion in plant community assembly following fertilization and

  19. Research related to roads in USDA experimental forests [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz

    2014-01-01

    Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...

  20. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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